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1.
Medisur ; 22(1)feb. 2024.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1558541

ABSTRACT

Fundamento: la insuficiencia placentaria es la causa más común del retardo del crecimiento intrauterino, que puede provocar alteraciones cardiovasculares. Recientemente, se han desarrollado terapias con eritropoyetina que protegen los tejidos cardiacos con hipoxia. Objetivo: evaluar la influencia de la eritropoyetina recombinante humana con bajo contenido de ácido siálico (NeuroEPO) en el corazón fetal en un modelo de insuficiencia placentaria en ratas. Métodos: se utilizaron 14 ratas Wistar gestadas con ligadura unilateral de la arteria uterina derecha en el día 16 de la gestación. Ese mismo día, a siete ratas se le administró NeuroEPO (0,5 mg/kg/día subcutáneo por tres días) y al resto placebo. En el día 20 de la gestación los fetos se dividieron en cuatro grupos: un grupo control, un grupo con retardo del crecimiento intrauterino, un grupo control NeuroEPO y un grupo con retardo del crecimiento intrauterino y NeuroEPO. En los fetos se obtuvo el peso placentario, peso fetal y la eficacia placentaria. En el estudio histológico se cuantificó el número de cardiomiocitos, número de vasos sanguíneos y cantidad de las fibras de colágenos. Resultados: el grupo con retardo del crecimiento intrauterino presentó una disminución del peso fetal, del número de cardiomiocitos, del número de vasos sanguíneos y un aumento en la cantidad de fibras colágenas (p<0.05). Al tratar con NeuroEPO a los fetos con retardo en el crecimiento intrauterino, aumentó el peso fetal, aunque el peso no fue similar al control. El resto de las variables se comportaron semejantes al control. Conclusiones: la administración de esta molécula mejoró el peso fetal y permitió un equilibrio adecuado en el desarrollo del corazón fetal, quizás, debido a los efectos citoprotectores de esta molécula.


Foundation: placental insufficiency is the most common cause of intrauterine growth retardation, which can cause cardiovascular alterations. Recently, erythropoietin therapies have been developed that protect hypoxic cardiac tissues. Objective: To evaluate the influence of human recombinant erythropoietin with low sialic acid content (NeuroEPO) on the fetal heart in a rat model of placental insufficiency. Methods: 14 Wistar rats gestated with unilateral ligation of the right uterine artery on day 16 of gestation were used. That same day, seven rats were administered NeuroEPO (0.5 mg/kg/day subcutaneously for three days) and the rest received placebo. On day 20 of gestation, the fetuses were divided into four groups: a control group, a group with intrauterine growth retardation, a NeuroEPO control group, and a group with intrauterine growth retardation and NeuroEPO. In the fetuses, placental weight, fetal weight and placental efficiency were obtained. In the histological study, the number of cardiomyocytes, number of blood vessels and quantity of collagen fibers were quantified. Results: the group with intrauterine growth retardation presented a decrease in fetal weight, the number of cardiomyocytes, the number of blood vessels and an increase in the amount of collagen fibers (p<0.05). When fetuses with intrauterine growth retardation were treated with NeuroEPO, fetal weight increased, although the weight was not similar to the control. The rest of the variables behaved similar to the control. Conclusions: the administration of this molecule improved fetal weight and allowed an adequate balance in the development of the fetal heart, perhaps due to the cytoprotective effects of this molecule.

2.
Medisur ; 22(1)feb. 2024.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1558554

ABSTRACT

La obesidad se ha convertido en una importante causa de comorbilidades, por lo cual es importante reconocer de forma temprana las enfermedades asociadas a esta afección, así como su tratamiento. El síndrome de hipoventilación del obeso o también llamado síndrome de Pickwick se ha definido por la triada de obesidad, hipoventilación diurna y respiración alterada durante el sueño, en ausencia de otra enfermedad que explique las alteraciones respiratorias. Se presenta el caso de un paciente de 53 años de edad, de color de piel blanca, masculino, de procedencia urbana, con antecedentes patológicos personales de hipertensión arterial, artritis gotosa, obesidad mórbida, angina de pecho inestable, episodios previos de fibrilación auricular y síndrome de Pickwick sin tratamiento para ello. El día 12 de febrero del 2023 fue traído por sus familiares al Hospital Dr. Gustavo Aldereguía Lima de la provincia Cienfuegos, por presentar, desde hacía siete días atrás, dificultad para respirar, fiebre de 39 ºC, y el día anterior había comenzado a expectorar con sangre. Se describen los procedimientos realizados y tratamientos ante cada complicación, hasta su fallecimiento. Por la importancia que tiene el diagnóstico, control y seguimiento a estos pacientes obesos con comorbilidades, para evitar desenlaces fatales, se decidió la presentación del caso.


Obesity has become an important cause of comorbidities, it is important to recognize the diseases associated with this condition early, as well as its treatment. Obese hypoventilation syndrome, also called Pickwick syndrome, has been defined by the triad of obesity, daytime hypoventilation and altered breathing during sleep, in the absence of another disease that explains the respiratory alterations. The case of a 53-years-old patient, white skin color, male, from urban origin, with a personal pathological history of high blood pressure, gouty arthritis, morbid obesity, unstable angina pectoris, previous episodes of atrial fibrillation and Pickwick syndrome without treatment for it, it is presented. On February the 12th, 2023, he was brought by his family to the Dr. Gustavo Aldereguía Lima Hospital in the Cienfuegos province, because he had had difficulty breathing, a fever of 39ºC, for seven days, and the day before he had begun to expectorate blood. The performed procedures and treatments for each complication are described, until his death. Due to the importance of diagnosis, control and follow-up of these obese patients with comorbidities, to avoid fatal outcomes, it was decided to present the case.

3.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS, BNUY | ID: biblio-1556983

ABSTRACT

La hipoxia isquemia perinatal y su complicación más temida, la encefalopatía hipóxica isquémica, continúa siendo uno de los principales motivos de ingreso a las unidades de cuidados neonatales. En la actualidad la hipotermia controlada es el tratamiento recomendado para los pacientes con encefalopatía moderada a severa, dado su carácter de neuroprotección ante la injuria cerebral hipóxico isquémica. Si bien los criterios de inclusión en esta terapia han sido bien establecidos, aún hay dificultades tanto en la identificación precoz de aquellos que pueden verse beneficiados, como en la toma de decisiones ante situaciones de controversia entre la evidencia disponible y la que se está gestando en estudios en curso. Este artículo pretende aportar herramientas al clínico para abordar diferentes escenarios que surgen de la práctica diaria.


Summary: Perinatal hypoxic ischemia and its most feared complication, hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy, remain one of the main reasons for admission to neonatal care. Controlled hypothermia is currently the recommended treatment for patients with moderate to severe encephalopathy, given its neuroprotective nature against hypoxic-ischemic brain injury. Although the inclusion criteria for this therapy have been well established, there are still difficulties both in the early identification of those who may benefit, and in making decisions regarding situations of controversy between the available evidence and that being developing in ongoing studies. This paper aims at providing tools so that clinicians can address different scenarios that arise during their daily practice.


A hipóxia isquêmica perinatal e sua complicação mais temida, a encefalopatia hipóxico-isquêmica, continuam sendo um dos principais motivos de internação em unidades de cuidados neonatais. A hipotermia controlada é atualmente o tratamento recomendado para pacientes com encefalopatia moderada a grave, dada a sua natureza neuroprotetora contra lesão cerebral hipóxico-isquêmica. Embora os critérios de inclusão dessa terapia estejam bem estabelecidos, ainda há dificuldades tanto na identificação precoce daqueles que podem se beneficiar, quanto na tomada de decisões em situações de controvérsia entre as evidências disponíveis e aquelas que estão se desenvolvendo em estudos em andamento. Este paper tem como objetivo fornecer ferramentas aos clínicos para abordar diferentes cenários que surgem da prática diária.

4.
Rev. bras. med. esporte ; 30: e2021_0499, 2024. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1515071

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: Traditional intermittent hypoxia training improves sport performance after short periods of exposure, but acute exposure to intermittent hypoxia leads to decreased training intensity and technical quality. The solution to overcome these negative effects may be to perform efforts in normoxia and the intervals between efforts in hypoxia, maintaining the quality of training and the benefits of hypoxia. Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the acute physiological responses to hypoxia exposure during recovery between high intensity efforts. Materials and methods: Randomized, one-blind, placebo-controlled study. Sixteen men performed a graded exercise test to determine their maximal intensity and two sessions of high-intensity interval training. The training intervals could be in hypoxia (HRT), FIO2: 0.136 or normoxia (NRT), FIO2: 0.209. During the two-minute interval between the ten one-minute efforts, peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2), heart rate (HR), blood lactate ([La]), blood glucose ([Glu]) were constantly measured. Results: There were differences in HR (TRN = 120 ± 14 bpm; TRH = 129 ± 13 bpm, p < 0.01) and SpO2 (TRN = 96.9 ± 1.0%; TRH = 86.2 ± 3.5%, p < 0.01). No differences in [La] and [Glu] TRN (4.4 ± 1.7 mmol.l-1; 3.9 ± 0.5 mmol.l-1) and TRH (5.2 ± 2.0 mmol.l-1; 4.0 ± 0.8 mmol.l-1, p = 0.17). Conclusion: The possibility of including hypoxia only in the recovery intervals as an additional stimulus to the training, without decreasing the quality of the training, was evidenced. Level of Evidence II; Randomized Clinical Trial of Minor Quality.


RESUMEN Introducción: El entrenamiento tradicional en hipoxia intermitente mejora el rendimiento deportivo tras cortos periodos de exposición, sin embargo, la exposición aguda a la hipoxia intermitente conduce a una disminución de la intensidad del entrenamiento y de la calidad técnica. La solución para superar estos efectos negativos puede ser realizar los esfuerzos en normoxia y los intervalos entre esfuerzos en hipoxia, manteniendo la calidad del entrenamiento y los beneficios de la hipoxia. Objetivo: Este estudio pretendía evaluar las respuestas fisiológicas agudas a la exposición a la hipoxia durante la recuperación entre esfuerzos de alta intensidad. Materiales y métodos: Estudio aleatorizado, a ciegas y controlado con placebo. Dieciséis hombres realizaron una prueba de ejercicio graduado para determinar su intensidad máxima y dos sesiones de entrenamiento por intervalos de alta intensidad. Los intervalos de entrenamiento podían ser en hipoxia (HRT), FIO2: 0,136 o normoxia (NRT), FIO2: 0,209. Durante el intervalo de dos minutos entre los diez esfuerzos de un minuto, se midieron constantemente la saturación periférica de oxígeno (SpO2), la frecuencia cardiaca (FC), el lactato en sangre ([La]) y la glucemia ([Glu]). Resultados: Hubo diferencias en la FC (TRN = 120 ± 14 lpm; TRH = 129 ± 13 lpm, p < 0,01) y la SpO2 (TRN = 96,9 ± 1,0%; TRH = 86,2 ± 3,5%, p < 0,01). No hubo diferencias en [La] y [Glu] TRN (4,4 ± 1,7 mmol.l-1; 3,9 ± 0,5 mmol.l-1) y TRH (5,2 ± 2,0 mmol.l-1; 4,0 ± 0,8 mmol.l-1, p = 0,17). Conclusión: Se evidenció la posibilidad de incluir hipoxia sólo en los intervalos de recuperación como estímulo adicional al entrenamiento sin disminuir la calidad del mismo. Nivel de Evidencia II; Ensayo Clínico Aleatorizado de Baja Calidad.


RESUMO Introdução: O treinamento de hipóxia intermitente tradicional melhora o desempenho esportivo após curtos períodos de exposição, porém a exposição aguda à hipóxia intermitente leva à diminuição da intensidade do treinamento e da qualidade técnica. A solução para superar esses efeitos negativos pode ser realizar esforços em normóxia e os intervalos entre os esforços em hipóxia, mantendo a qualidade do treinamento e os benefícios da hipóxia. Objetivo: Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar as respostas fisiológicas agudas à exposição de hipóxia durante a recuperação entre esforços de alta intensidade. Materiais e métodos: Estudo aleatório e one-blinded, com efeito placebo controlado. Dezesseis homens realizaram um teste de exercício graduado para determinar sua intensidade máxima e duas sessões de treinamento intervalado de alta intensidade. Os intervalos de treinamento podem ser em hipóxia (TRH), FIO2: 0,136 ou normóxia (TRN), FIO2: 0,209. Durante os dois minutos de intervalo entre os dez esforços de um minuto, foram medidos constantemente a saturação periférica de oxigênio (SpO2), frequência cardíaca (FC), lactato sanguíneo ([La]), glicemia ([Glu]). Resultados: Houve diferenças na FC (TRN = 120 ± 14 bpm; TRH = 129 ± 13 bpm, p <0,01) e SpO2 (TRN = 96,9 ± 1,0%; TRH = 86,2 ± 3,5%, p <0,01). Sem diferenças em [La] e [Glu] TRN (4,4 ± 1,7 mmol.l-1; 3,9 ± 0,5 mmol.l-1) e TRH (5,2 ± 2,0 mmol.l-1; 4,0 ± 0,8 mmol.l-1, p = 0,17). Conclusão: Evidenciou-se a possibilidade de incluir a hipóxia apenas nos intervalos de recuperação como um estímulo adicional ao treinamento, sem diminuir a qualidade do treinamento. Nível de Evidência II; Estudo Clínico Randomizado de Menor Qualidade.

5.
Med. clín. soc ; 7(3)dic. 2023.
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1528993

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The prehospital phase of the management of pediatric severe traumatic brain injury may have a direct influence on the results. Objective: To evaluate the influence of prehospital variables on intracranial pressure and the results in pediatric patients with severe TBI. Method: A descriptive study of 41 pediatric patients who were admitted to the medical emergency department and later admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit due to severe head trauma was carried out between January 2003 and December 2018. Results: children aged 5-17 years predominate, and the highest number of cases were received between 0-3h at the neurotrauma center. Of the 41 cases, 27 arrived with a non-expedited airway and hypoxia was verified upon arrival by pulse oximetry. A correlation was observed between arterial hypotension on admission and elevated intracranial pressure in 9 of 15 children (60%) and in the deceased (40%). Discussion: Clinical conditions, oxygenation, arterial hypotension, and treatment in the prehospital phase may influence the state of intracranial pressure and other intracranial variables in pediatric patients with severe head injury.


Introducción: La fase prehospitalaria del manejo del traumatismo craneoencefálico grave pediátrico puede tener una influencia directa en los resultados. Objetivo: Evaluar la influencia de variables prehospitalarias sobre la presión intracraneal y los resultados en pacientes pediátricos con TCE grave. Metodología: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo de 41 pacientes pediátricos que ingresaron al servicio de urgencias médicas y posteriormente ingresaron a la unidad de cuidados intensivos pediátricos por traumatismo craneoencefálico severo entre enero de 2003 y diciembre de 2018. Resultados: predominan los niños de 5 a 17 años, y el mayor número de casos se recibieron entre las 0-3h en el centro de neurotrauma. De los 41 casos, 27 llegaron con vía aérea no acelerada y se verificó hipoxia al llegar mediante oximetría de pulso. Se observó correlación entre hipotensión arterial al ingreso y presión intracraneal elevada en 9 de 15 niños (60%) y en los fallecidos (40%). Discusión: Las condiciones clínicas, la oxigenación, la hipotensión arterial y el tratamiento en la fase prehospitalaria pueden influir en el estado de la presión intracraneal y otras variables intracraneales en pacientes pediátricos con traumatismo craneoencefálico grave.

6.
Rev. colomb. neumol ; 35(2): 17-27, 05/12/2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1551143

ABSTRACT

El Coronavirus 2 es un betacoronavirus de ARN responsable de la enfermedad por coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19). Fue detectado por primera vez en Wuhan, China y se propagó rápidamente a nivel mundial, llevando a la OMS a declarar una pandemia en marzo de 2020. Para julio de 2021, se habían registrado casi 196 millones de casos confirmados de COVID-19, siendo responsable de más de cuatro millones de muertes en todo el mundo. En la mayoría de los casos, los pacientes presentan síntomas respiratorios que van desde leves hasta graves, pudiendo desencadenar lesiones pulmonares agudas y disfunción multiorgánica; incluso se han reportado casos de hipoxemia refractaria, lo que implica una elevada morbimortalidad. Las posibles causas incluyen infecciones secundarias, enfermedad tromboembólica pulmonar, fibrosis pulmonar y reinfección por SARS-CoV-2. En pacientes con COVID-19 se ha observado la neumonía de organización como una complicación en la fase subaguda y tardía de la enfermedad, desencadenando un deterioro clínico y radiológico significativo. El tratamiento con glucocorticoides ha mostrado una respuesta favorable en estos casos. Presentamos un caso de neumonía de organización relacionado con la infección por SARS-CoV-2 que, aunque no contó con confirmación histológica, la integración de la presentación clínica, la evolución y los hallazgos radiológicos permitieron realizar la aproximación diagnóstica, destacando la importancia del manejo adecuado con glucocorticoides en estos casos. Sin embargo, se necesitan más estudios para evaluar el desarrollo de esta complicación en una población más amplia.


Coronavirus 2 is an RNA beta coronavirus responsible for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). It was first detected in Wuhan, China, and spread rapidly globally, leading the WHO to declare a pandemic in March 2020. By July 2021, there had been nearly 196 million confirmed cases, being responsible for more than four million deaths worldwide. In most cases, patients present with respiratory symptoms ranging from mild to severe, which can lead to acute lung lesions and multi-organ dysfunction; cases of refractory hypoxemia have even been reported, which implies high morbidity and mortality. Possible causes include secondary infections, pulmonary thromboembolic disease, pulmonary fibrosis, and SARS-CoV-2 reinfection. Most COVID-19 patients exhibit respiratory symptoms, ranging from mild to severe, with the potential for acute lung injuries and multiorgan dysfunction leading to high mortality. Cases of refractory hypoxemia in COVID-19 patients have been reported, indicating significant morbidity and mortality. Possible causes include secondary infections, pulmonary thromboembolism, pulmonary fibrosis, and reinfection by SARS-CoV-2. In patients with COVID-19, organization pneumonia has been observed as a complication in the subacute and late phase of the disease, triggering significant clinical and radiological deterioration. Treatment with glucocorticoids has shown a favorable response in these cases. We present a case of organizing pneumonia in relation SARS-CoV-2 infection that, although it did not have histological confirmation, the clinical presentation, evolution and radiological findings allowed a diagnostic approach, highlighting the importance of proper management with glucocorticoids in these cases. However, more studies are needed to evaluate the development of this complication in a larger population.


Subject(s)
Humans
7.
Horiz. med. (Impresa) ; 23(4)oct. 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1528669

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Clasificar los síntomas de la infección aguda y crónica de la COVID-19 en síndromes clínicos, en un grupo poblacional que vive en altura, durante la primera y segunda ola. Materiales y métodos: Estudio prospectivo y longitudinal. Se aplicó un cuestionario virtual a personas infectadas por el SARS-CoV-2 durante la primera y segunda ola, en el periodo marzo del 2020 a diciembre del 2021. Las medidas de tendencia central se expresaron en promedios y porcentajes, con un intervalo de confianza del 95 %. La prueba de ji al cuadrado asoció variables y consideró un valor p ≤ 0,05. Se utilizó el paquete estadístico SPSS 22. Resultados: Participaron 87 mujeres y 63 varones, con una edad promedio de 44,12 (±14,56) años. El 48,70 % se contagiaron en la primera ola y 51,30 %, en la segunda. Los 59 síntomas identificados se agruparon en 19 síndromes correspondientes a la fase aguda y 18 correspondientes a la fase crónica. Los síndromes más frecuentes en la fase aguda fueron el tóxico-infeccioso agudo incompleto, con 79,30 %; el de disfunción del gusto y olfato, con 60,70 %, y el ansioso-depresivo, con 56,79 %. La fase crónica se denominó síndrome pos-COVID-19 y fue subdividida en tres fases, la posaguda, la crónica y la de transportador prolongado. En las fases posaguda y crónica aparecen el síndrome de agotamiento muscular y el doloroso, que persisten hasta la fase de transportador prolongado, en donde los síntomas residuales se consideran secuelas. El síndrome pos-COVID-19 se presentó en 64,55 % de los participantes. Conclusiones: Este estudio ha demostrado una frecuencia mayor de síntomas dependientes de la invasión del virus al sistema nervioso central y periférico tanto en la fase aguda como en el síndrome pos-COVID-19. Es posible que la hipoxia hipobárica al prolongar la inflamación y estimular el estrés oxidativo determine un síndrome pos-COVID-19 más prolongado, y que este tenga mayor repercusión en el sistema nervioso.


Objective: To classify into clinical syndromes the symptoms of acute and chronic COVID-19 infection among a highaltitude population during the first and second waves. Materials and methods: A prospective and longitudinal study. An online questionnaire was administered to people infected with SARS-CoV-2 during the first and second waves from March 2020 to December 2021. The measures of central tendency were expressed as means and percentages with a 95 % confidence interval. The chi-square test associated the variables and considered a p value ≤ 0.05. IBM SPSS Statistics statistical software V22 was used. Results: A total of 87 women and 63 men with an average age of 44.12 (± 14.56) years participated in the research, out of whom 48.70 % and 51.30 % were infected in the first and second waves, respectively. The 59 reported symptoms were grouped into 19 syndromes for the acute phase and 18 for the chronic phase. The most frequent syndromes in the acute phase were incomplete acute toxic infectious disorders (79.30 %), taste and smell disorders (60.70 %) and anxiety and depressive disorders (56.79 %). Chronic COVID was called post-COVID-19 syndrome and was subdivided into three phases: post-acute, chronic and long-haul. In the post-acute and chronic phases, muscle fatigue and weakness as well as pain and aches appeared, persisting until the long-haul phase, where lingering symptoms were considered sequelae. Post-COVID-19 syndrome occurred in 64.55 % of the participants. Conclusions: This study has shown an increased frequency of symptoms affecting the central and peripheral nervous system in both the acute phase and post-COVID-19 syndrome. It is possible that hypobaric hypoxia, by prolonging inflammation and stimulating oxidative stress, may lead to a longer post-COVID-19 syndrome, with a greater impact on the nervous system.

8.
Horiz. med. (Impresa) ; 23(4)oct. 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1528678

ABSTRACT

El oxígeno y dióxido de carbono son vitales en la respiración, sus variaciones fuera del rango fisiológico son una amenaza para la supervivencia de las células. La hipoxia es una condición común en la mayoría de los tumores malignos, la cual promueve angiogénesis y vascularización disfuncional, mayor proliferación celular y la adquisición de un fenotipo de transición epitelial a mesenquimatoso, que contribuye con la metástasis; asimismo, altera el metabolismo de las células cancerosas y genera resistencia a la terapia, ya que induce a la inactividad celular. Por tanto, la hipoxia es un factor negativo, asociado a resultados adversos en la mayoría de los tratamientos de los distintos tipos de cáncer. El factor inducible por hipoxia (HIF) es el factor de transcripción relacionado con la hipoxia en cáncer, que produce la activación de más de una centena de genes reguladores de la actividad celular, que generan funciones cruciales para el desarrollo del cáncer. El objetivo principal de la presente revisión es puntualizar la importancia de la hipoxia en la génesis del cáncer, conocer las principales moléculas que interactúan en la expresión del HIF, explicar los mecanismos moleculares de las vías involucradas en la inducción del HIF, las consecuencias celulares por su alteración y las potenciales terapias dirigidas contra este factor. Se consultaron PubMed, Scopus y SciELO, del año 1990 hasta el año 2022, y se buscaron las referencias bibliográficas en relación con las palabras clave asociadas al factor inducible por hipoxia y cáncer. En conclusión, la sobreexpresión de HIF-1α en biopsias tumorales se asocia con una mayor mortalidad de pacientes en cánceres humanos. Los posibles genes diana regulados por HIF-1α que pueden desempeñar un papel en la progresión tumoral están empezando a descubrirse. A pesar de que se han estudiado cientos de compuestos en relación con el HIF en cáncer, en la actualidad existen pocos inhibidores del HIF aprobados en el mercado mundial; asimismo, muchos estudios clínicos, en sus distintas fases en desarrollo, no muestran resultados alentadores. Probablemente, en el futuro, cuando se tenga una mejor comprensión de la estructura, funcionamiento molecular y biológico de este factor, se desarrollarán fármacos más específicos para la inhibición del HIF.


Oxygen and carbon dioxide are essential for breathing; variations in these gases outside of the normal range are a threat to cell survival. Hypoxia is a common condition that occurs in most malignant tumors, increases angiogenesis and defective vascularization, promotes cell proliferation and acquires an epithelial-mesenchymal transition phenotype, which causes metastasis. It also affects cancer cell metabolism and makes patients resistant to treatment by causing cell quiescence. As a result, hypoxia is a detrimental component that is linked to unfavorable outcomes in most cancer treatments. Through the activation of more than a hundred genes that control cell activity, which produce key functions for cancer development, the transcription factor known as hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) is linked to hypoxia in cancer. This review's main goals are to highlight the role of hypoxia in the development of cancer, identify the key molecules that interact to promote HIF expression, explain the molecular mechanisms of the pathways that lead to HIF induction, describe the cellular effects of HIF alteration, and discuss potential HIF-targeted therapies. Articles from 1990 to 2022 were reviewed in PubMed, Scopus and SciELO databases. Keywords related to cancer and HIF were searched in bibliographical references. In conclusion, HIF-1α overexpression in tumor biopsies is associated with increased patient mortality in human cancers. Potential HIF-1α-regulated target genes that may play a role in tumor progression are starting to be identified. Although hundreds of chemicals have been studied in relation to HIF in cancer, there are currently few approved HIF inhibitors available on the global market; moreover, many clinical trials, in their various stages of development, do not show encouraging results. It is likely that in the future, when there is a better understanding of the structure, molecular and biological functioning of this factor, more specific drugs for HIF inhibition will be developed.

9.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 83(supl.4): 25-30, oct. 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1521198

ABSTRACT

Resumen La encefalopatía hipóxica isquémica del neonato (EIH) es un tipo de injuria causada por la falta de oxí geno en el cerebro durante el periodo neonatal. Es un síndrome clínico claramente reconocible en recién na cidos a término y prematuros debido a asfixia fetal en el momento del nacimiento. Se estima que EHI ocurre a una frecuencia de1 a 3 por cada 1000 nacimientos vivos al año en países desarrollados. En países de bajo o mediano ingreso, la incidencia es hasta 10-20 veces más alta, equivalente a 1-8 nacidos vivos por cada 1000. El impacto social y económico ha sido estimado en cerca de 50.2 millones de dólares por año de vida ajustados a discapacidad. Así mismo, se estima que 7 es el número necesario de pacientes a tratar con hipotermia corporal terapéutica (HCT) para evitar un caso de muerte o minusvalía severa. La etiología es multifactorial e incluye factores prenatales, perinatales o post natales. El diagnóstico se basa en la incapacidad para respirar en el momento del nacimiento requirien do ventilación asistida, Apgar menos de 5 a los 5 y 10 minutos, alteración del estado normal de conciencia, reflejos neonatales y de tono muscular. Este artículo revisa los avances y estrategias terapéuticas estableci das y emergentes basadas en las fases pato-fisiológicas de este proceso.


Abstract Neonatal hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) is a type of injury caused by lack of oxygen in the brain during the neonatal period. It is a clinical syndrome clearly rec ognizable in term and premature newborns secondary to asphyxia at the time of delivery. HIE is estimated to occur at a frequency of 1-3 for each 1000 alive newborns per year in developed countries. In countries of low or medium income, the incidence is up to 10-20 times higher, equivalent to 1-8 alive newborns per each 1000. The social and economic impact has been estimated near US$ 50.2 million per year of life adjusted to disability. At the same time, it is estimated in 7, the number of patients needed to treat with corporal cooling therapy (CCT) to prevent one case of death or se vere disability. The etiology is multifactorial and includes prenatal, perinatal and postnatal factors. The diagnosis is based in the inability to support spontaneous breath at the time of delivery requiring assisted ventilation, Apgar less than 5 at 5 and 10 minutes, altered level of consciousness, neonatal reflexes and muscle tone. This article is a review of the stablished and emergent therapeutic strategies based on the pathophysiological disease process.

10.
Acta neurol. colomb ; 39(3)sept. 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1533504

ABSTRACT

Introducción: la necrosis laminar cortical es un término radiológico que describe la presencia de lesiones hiperdensas de localización cerebral, las cuales siguen una distribución giriforme y se observan con mayor sensibilidad en los estudios de resonancia magnética cerebral (RM). Esta condición patológica, que afecta a la corteza del cerebro, suele ser secundaria a una depleción de sus fuentes energéticas como consecuencia de hipoxia cerebral, alteraciones metabólicas, hipoglicemia, falla renal o hepática, intoxicaciones o infecciones. Presentación del caso: se reporta el caso de un hombre de 23 años, con antecedente de consumo crónico de alcohol, quien ingresó al servicio de urgencias de nuestra institución con un estado epiléptico. El estudio de resonancia magnética cerebral demostró la presencia de una necrosis laminar cortical con posterior déficit neurocognitivo y funcional. Conclusión: si se consideran las secuelas neurológicas potenciales asociadas a un estado epiléptico, relacionadas con necrosis laminar cortical cerebral, es necesario hacer un diagnóstico etiológico precoz, así como una atención terapéutica temprana a los pacientes.


Introduction: Cortical laminar necrosis (CLN) is radiologically defined as high-intensity cortical lesions on T1-weighted MRI images that follow a gyral distribution in the brain. Histopathologically, this pathological condition is characterized by necrosis of the cortex involving neurons, glial cells, and blood vessels. It is usually triggered by hypoxia, metabolic alterations, drugs, intoxications, or infections. Case description: We report the case of a 23-year-old man with a history of chronic alcohol abuse who was admitted to our institution with status epilepticus. The brain magnetic resonance imaging performed on this patient showed cortical laminar necrosis associated with subsequent neurocognitive deficits. Conclusion: Due to the potential neurological sequelae secondary to status epilepticus in relation to cortical laminar necrosis as permanent brain damage, it is necessary to provide early diagnosis and treatment for these patients.


Subject(s)
Status Epilepticus , Hypoxia, Brain , Cerebral Cortex , Neuroimaging
11.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(4): 1152-1157, ago. 2023.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1514346

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: To investigate changes of MMP-9 in the rat spleen and hypoxia-induced microvascular basement membrane under high altitude hypoxia. Thirty male specific pathogen-free Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into control and hypoxia groups, with 15 rats in each group. The rats in the control group were placed in Dingxi City, Gansu Province (2080 m above sea level) for 30 days. Rats in the hypoxia group were raised in a hypoxic environment in Maduo County, Qinghai Province (4300 m above sea level), for 30 days to establish a hypoxic rat model. Routine blood tests, MMP-9 mRNA, MMP-9 protein, and the spleen microvascular basement membrane were detected. (1) Compared with the control group, the red blood cell count, hemoglobin, and hematocrit levels of the rats in the hypoxia group were all increased; thus, a hypoxia model was successfully established. (2) Compared with the control group, the expression of MMP-9 mRNA and protein was significantly higher in the spleen of rats in the hypoxic group, and the difference was statistically significant (P <0.05). (3) Compared with the control group, the blood vessel basement membrane in the spleen of the hypoxia group was degraded. Under natural low air pressure and high altitude conditions, the expression of MMP-9 in rat spleen tissue increases and participates in the degradation of the microvascular basement membrane.


El objetivo de este trabajo fue investigar los cambios de la MMP-9 en el bazo de la rata y la membrana basal microvascular inducida bajo hipoxia a gran altura. Treinta ratas macho Sprague Dawley, libres de patógenos específicos, se dividieron aleatoriamente en dos grupos de 15 ratas cada uno, un grupo control y un grupo hipoxia. Durante 30 días las ratas del grupo control estuvieron en la ciudad de Dingxi, provincia de Gansu (2080 m sobre el nivel del mar). Las ratas del grupo de hipoxia se criaron en un entorno hipóxico en el condado de Maduo, provincia de Qinghai (4300 m sobre el nivel del mar), durante 30 días para establecer un modelo de rata hipóxica. Se realizaron análisis de sangre de rutina, ARNm de MMP-9, proteína MMP-9 y de la membrana basal microvascular del bazo. En comparación con el grupo control, el recuento de glóbulos rojos, la hemoglobina y los niveles de hematocrito de las ratas del grupo de hipoxia aumentaron; por lo tanto, se estableció con éxito un modelo de hipoxia. En comparación con el grupo control, la expresión de ARNm y proteína de MMP-9 fue significativamente mayor en el bazo de las ratas del grupo hipóxico, siendo la diferencia estadísticamente significativa (P <0,05). En comparación con el grupo control, la membrana basal de los vasos sanguíneos estaba degradada en el bazo del grupo hipoxia. En condiciones naturales de baja presión atmosférica y gran altitud, la expresión de MMP-9 en el tejido del bazo de la rata aumenta y participa en la degradación de la membrana basal microvascular.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Spleen/pathology , Basement Membrane/pathology , Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 , Altitude Sickness , Blotting, Western , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , Disease Models, Animal
12.
Respirar (Ciudad Autón. B. Aires) ; 15(2): [128-133], jun2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1437565

ABSTRACT

Introducción: la mayoría de los pacientes que se someten a cirugía torácica pueden ser clasificados en el grupo de alto riesgo para hipoxia, especialmente cuando se decide por una ventilación unipulmonar, debido al desequilibrio V/Q; por lo tanto, se han desa-rrollado nuevas estrategias ventilatorias y maniobras de rescate para hipoxia. Curso clínico: presentamos una paciente de 85 años de edad sin comorbilidades programada para toracotomía abierta y manejada con ventilación unipulmonar. Durante el mane-jo anestésico, se presenta hipoxia secundaria a desequilibrio V/Q y choque hipovolémi-co hemorrágico, con respuesta positiva a las maniobras de rescate para hipoxia. Con-clusión: es importante prevenir en la medida de lo posible la hipoxia en la ventilación unipulmonar, siguiendo las nuevas estrategias ventilatorias. Sin embargo, cuando se presenta una crisis, no debemos retrasar las maniobras de rescate de forma moderna. (AU)


Introduction: most of the patients undergoing thoracic surgery fit in the high risk group for hypoxia, especially when deciding to use one-lung ventilation due to the V/Q mis-match; therefore, new ventilation strategies and hypoxia rescue manoeuvres have been developed. Clinical course: we present an 85-year old female with no major co-morbidities scheduled for open thoracotomy and managed with one-lung ventilation. During the course of the anaesthetic management, hypoxia presents secondary to V/Q mismatch and haemorrhagic hypovolemic shock, with a positive response to hypoxia rescue manoeuvres. Conclusion: it is important to prevent as much as we can the hy-poxia in a one-lung ventilation following the new ventilation strategies. Although when facing a crisis, proper hypoxia management with a modern approach should not be de-layed. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Aged, 80 and over , Abscess/surgery , One-Lung Ventilation/instrumentation , Mediastinitis/pathology , Hypoxia/surgery , Thoracotomy , Oxygenation , Anesthesia
13.
Acta neurol. colomb ; 39(1): 57-68, ene.-mar. 2023. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1429575

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Los sobrevivientes de la reanimación cardiopulmonar posterior a un paro cardiaco pueden tener un amplio rango de desenlaces y van desde recuperación neurológica completa, estado de vigilia sin respuesta, compromiso cognoscitivo diverso o la muerte. La lesión del tejido cerebral se presenta inmediatamente después del paro cardíaco, durante la reanimación y al retornar la circulación espontánea. La severidad y duración de la noxa isquémica determinarán el devenir neurológico. El examen clínico es el punto de partida en el abordaje multimodal del neuropronóstico. Se debe complementar con electroencefalograma, potenciales evocados somatosensoriales, neuroimágenes y biomar-cadores séricos. Entre un 10 a 15% de los pacientes con lesión cerebral posterior al paro cardiaco evolucionan hacia muerte por criterios neurológicos y son potenciales candidatos a la donación de órganos. Un retiro temprano de las terapias de sostenimiento de vida puede malograr la posibilidad de un potencial donante de órganos. Se puede estimar de manera temprana qué pacientes tienen mayor riesgo de evolucionar a muerte por criterios neurológicos. El neurólogo tiene un papel protagónico en el manejo de pacientes con lesión cerebral post paro cardiaco y sus decisiones tienen implicaciones éticas y legales.


ABSTRACT People who survive cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) after cardiac arrest, have a wide range of outcomes including complete neurological recovery, coma, compromised cognitive function and death. Injury of the brain parenchyma starts immediately after a cardiac arrest, during CPR and return of spontaneous circulation. The severity of the ischemic injury will define the neurological outcome. The first step needed to determine a neurological prognosis is the clinical exam, with the help of electroencephalography, somatosensory evoked potentials, neuroimaging, and serum biomarkers. Between 10 and 15% of patients with brain injury after a cardiac arrest, develop brain death and become potential candidates for organ donation. A premature withdrawal of vital support can hamper the possibility of organ donation. The patients with higher risk of developing brain death can be identified early based on neurological criteria. The neurologist has a major role in the approach of patients with brain injury after cardiac arrest and the decision making with legal and ethical consequences.


Subject(s)
Brain Death , Hypoxia, Brain , Heart Arrest , Prognosis , Ethics
14.
Rev. mex. anestesiol ; 46(1): 46-55, ene.-mar. 2023. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1450135

ABSTRACT

Resumen: El fenómeno de la deuda de oxígeno (dO2) descrito hace varias décadas en el contexto del ejercicio físico se ha incorporado progresivamente al terreno de la medicina. En particular se ha utilizado durante los cambios hemodinámicos producidos por la cirugía y la anestesia en los pacientes de alto riesgo. La dO2 se definió como el aumento en la cantidad de oxígeno consumida por el organismo inmediatamente después de realizar un ejercicio físico hasta que el consumo se normaliza nuevamente. En el perioperatorio se llega a producir cuando se presenta un desbalance entre la oferta (DO2) y la demanda de oxígeno (VO2) que lleva a hipoxia tisular. El grado de la dO2 tisular se ha relacionado directamente con la falla de órganos múltiples y morbimortalidad perioperatoria. A pesar de los avances en la medicina, aún no es posible prevenir o disminuir la dO2 con la administración de líquidos o con el uso de agentes vasoactivos. Por lo que un retardo o manejo inadecuado de la hemodinámica perioperatoria producirá hipoperfusión e hipoxia tisular afectando los resultados de la cirugía. El conocimiento y la valoración de la dO2 es esencial durante la anestesia del paciente de alto riesgo. Para lograr este objetivo se requiere del uso de índices adecuados que permitan detectar y cuantificar la hipoperfusión tisular y el desbalance entre la DO2 y la VO2. En esta revisión se presentan los conceptos fundamentales de la dO2, su mecanismo, detección y cuantificación; además de las intervenciones para evitarla o disminuirla y las recomendaciones para los anestesiólogos con el fin de asegurar mejores resultados en los pacientes quirúrgicos de alto riesgo.


Abstract: The phenomenon of oxygen debt (dO2) described several decades ago in the context of physical exercise has been incorporated into medicine, particularly during the hemodynamic changes produced by surgery and anesthesia in high-risk patients. dO2 is defined as the increase in the amount of oxygen consumed by the body immediately after physical exercise until O2 consumption returns to normal. In the perioperative period, an imbalance between oxygen supply (DO2) and demand (VO2) could generate dO2. The degree of tissue dO2 has been directly related to multiple organ failure and perioperative morbimortality. Despite advances in medicine, it is not yet possible to prevent or lower the dO2 with fluid administration or vasoactive agents. Delay or inadequate management of hemodynamics could produce tissue hypoperfusion and hypoxia, affecting surgery outcomes. Knowledge and assessing dO2 during perioperative are essential during anesthesia for high-risk patients. Adequate indices are required to detect and quantify tissue hypoperfusion and the imbalance between DO2 and VO2 during anesthesia. This review presents the mechanism, detection, and quantification of dO2. In addition to interventions to avoid or reduce dO2 and recommendations for anesthesiologists to ensure better results in high-risk surgical patients.

15.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(1): 59-64, feb. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1430527

ABSTRACT

El periodo postnatal temprano se caracteriza por rápido crecimiento cerebral, posiblemente relacionado con variaciones del oxígeno tisular. Esto ha motivado el estudio de protocolos que suministran diferentes concentraciones de oxígeno intermitentes, para observar sus efectos morfológicos y cerebrales. Se utilizaron 52 crías de ratas Sprague Dawley, distribuidas en igual número a cuatro grupos experimentales, Control (C, 21 %O2), Hipoxia Intermitente (HI, 11 %O2), Hiperoxia Intermitente (HOI, 30 %O2) e Hipoxia Hiperoxia Intermitente (HHI, 11 % -30 %O2). Los protocolos consideraron 5 ciclos de 5 minutos de dosificación, durante 50 minutos diarios. Se realizó en una cámara semihermética entre los días 5 al 11 postnatales. Las evaluaciones de crecimiento corporal y cuantificación neuronal, se realizaron en las crías macho, en el día 28 postnatal. El peso corporal en el grupo hipoxia intermitente mostró diferencias significativas respecto al grupo hiperoxia intermitente (HI vs HOI, p<0,01) y al grupo hipoxia-hiperoxia Intermitente (HI vs HHI, p< 0,001). La talla corporal disminuyó en el grupo hipoxia-hiperoxia intermitente con diferencias significativas respecto del grupo control (C vs HHI, p<0,05) y respecto del grupo hipoxia intermitente (HHI vs HI, p< 0,01). El conteo neuronal en el área CA1 del hipocampo aumentó en el grupo hipoxia intermitente con diferencias significativas respecto a los grupos control (C vs HI; p<0,05), al grupo hiperoxia intermitente (HI vs HOI; p<0,001) y al grupo hipoxia-hiperoxia intermitente (HI vs HHI; p<0,001). Finalmente, el grupo hipoxia- hiperoxia Intermitente disminuyó significativamente en la cantidad de neuronas en comparación al grupo hiperoxia intermitente (HHI vs HOI; p<0,001). La hipoxia intermitente mostró resultados beneficiosos en el crecimiento corporal y cantidad de neuronas en el área CA1 del hipocampo, en contraste, la hipoxia hiperoxia intermitente experimentó resultados adversos con disminución de estas variables, en el periodo postnatal temprano de la rata.


SUMMARY: The early postnatal period is characterized by rapid brain growth, possibly related to variations in tissue oxygen. This has motivated the study of protocols that supply different intermittent oxygen concentrations, to observe their morphological and cerebral effects. Fifty-two pups Sprague-Dawley rats were distributed in equal numbers into four experimental groups, Control (C, 21 %O), Intermittent Hypoxia (HI, 11 %O), Intermittent Hyperoxia (HOI, 30 %O2) and Intermittent Hypoxia Hyperoxia (HHI, 11 % - 30 %O2). The protocols considered 5 cycles of 5 min of dosing, for 50 min diary. It was performed in a semi- hermetic chamber between 5 to 11postnatal days. The evaluations of body growth and neuronal quantification were analyzed in male pups, on postnatal day 28. Body weight in the intermittent hypoxia group showed significant differences compared to the intermittent hyperoxia group (HI vs HOI, p<0.01) and the intermittent hypoxia- hyperoxia group (HI vs HHI, p<0.001). Body size decreased in the Intermittent hypoxia-hyperoxia group with significant differences compared to the control group (C vs HHI, p<0.05) and with respect to the intermittent hypoxia group (HHI vs HI, p<0.01). The neuronal count in the area CA1 of the hippocampus increased in the intermittent hypoxia group with significant differences compared to the control groups (C vs HI; p<0.05), to the intermittent hyperoxia group (HI vs HOI; p< 0.001) and the intermittent hypoxia-hyperoxia group (HI vs HHI; p<0.001). Finally, the intermittent hypoxia- hyperoxia group decreased significantly in the number of neurons compared with the intermittent hyperoxia group (HHI vs HOI; p<0.001). Intermittent hypoxia showed beneficial results in body growth and the number of neurons in the CA1 area of the hippocampus, in contrast, intermittent hypoxia-hyperoxia experienced adverse results with a decrease in these variables, in the early postnatal period of the rat.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Rats , Oxygen/administration & dosage , CA1 Region, Hippocampal/growth & development , Hypoxia , Time Factors , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Hyperoxia
16.
ABCS health sci ; 48: e023301, 14 fev. 2023. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1414637

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Experimental evidence, as well as improved clinical studies of the reduction of brain injury and, improves the neurological outcome, in newborns with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) occurring in therapeutic hypothermia (TH). OBJECTIVE: To verify the potential of hypothermic hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) therapy in neonatal asphyxia, based on literature data, comparing the benefits between selective head cooling (SHC) and whole-body cooling (WBC), see that the use of TH as a standard treatment in newborns with moderate or severe HIE has been adopted. METHODS: A search was performed in the PubMed and SciELO databases of human studies, using the keywords "Therapeutic Hypothermia", "Induced Hypothermia", and "Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy", "Selective cooling of the head", "Total body cooling" and its variables. RESULTS: Eleven articles were selected to compose the review, after detailed reading. There is a consensus, that the reduction of the risk of death or disability at 18 months of life in neonates with moderate to severe HIE, occurs to TH through the techniques of WBC or SHC. It was found in the studies that there is no difference in terms of adverse effects between the two methods. As for radiological changes, such as hypoxic-ischemic injuries and the incidence of seizures after cooling, they are more frequent with SHC. CONCLUSION: Both WBC and SHC demonstrated neuroprotective properties, although WBC provides a broader area of brain protection. However, no significant differences were found between the methods in terms of adverse effects and beneficial short or long-term results.


INTRODUÇÃO: Evidências experimentais, assim como estudos clínicos, sugerem a redução da lesão cerebral e melhora do desfecho neurológico, em recém-nascidos com encefalopatia isquêmica hipóxica (EHI) submetidos à hipotermia terapêutica (HT). OBJETIVO: Verificar a potencialidade da terapia hipotérmica de encefalopatia hipóxico-isquêmica (EHI) na asfixia neonatal, com base em dados da literatura, comparando os benefícios entre o resfriamento seletivo da cabeça (RSC) e o resfriamento de corpo inteiro (RCI), visto que o uso de hipotermia terapêutica (HT) como tratamento padrão em recém-nascidos com EHI moderada ou grave tem sido amplamente adotada. MÉTODOS: Foi realizada uma busca nas bases de dados PubMed e SciELO de estudos em humanos, utilizando-se as palavras-chave "Therapeutic Hypothermia", "Induced Hypothermia", "Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy", "selective head cooling", "whole body cooling" e suas respectivas variáveis. RESULTADOS: Foram selecionados 11 artigos para compor a revisão, após leitura detalhada. É consenso, a redução do risco de morte ou incapacidade aos 18 meses de vida nos neonatos com EHI moderado a grave, submetidos à HT através das técnicas de RCI ou RSC. Constatou-se diante dos estudos que não há diferença em termos de efeitos adversos entre os dois métodos. Quanto às alterações radiológicas, as lesões hipóxico-isquêmicas e incidência de convulsões após o resfriamento são mais frequentes com o RSC. CONCLUSÃO: Tanto RCI quanto o RSC demonstraram propriedades neuroprotetoras, embora o RCI proporcione uma área de proteção cerebral mais ampla. No entanto, não foram constatadas diferenças significativas entre os métodos quanto a efeitos adversos e a resultados benéficos em curto e longo prazo.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Asphyxia Neonatorum , Hypoxia-Ischemia, Brain/therapy , Hypothermia, Induced , Hypoxia-Ischemia, Brain/complications , Multiple Organ Failure
17.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e245330, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339394

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background The brain is an organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals. Aim The study examined the expression of Neuroglobin (Ngb) and Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (Hif-1α) in adult and young yak brain tissues, and provided researchers with meaningful insight into the anatomy, physiology, and biochemistry of this mammal. Method The study employed immunohistochemistry (IHC), quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), and Western blot (WB) to obtain the results. Results Ngb and Hif-1α were significantly (P<0.05) expressed in the cerebellar cortex, piriform lobe, medulla, and corpus callosum of the adult yak while in the young yak brain tissues, the protein expressions were significantly found in the white matter of the cerebellum, pineal gland, corpus callosum, and cerebellar cortex. The Ngb and Hif-1α expression showed similarities and differences. This may have resulted from similar animal species, source of nutrition, age factors, brain size, emotional activities, and communication. The findings documented that Ngb and Hif-1α are commonly expressed in various adult and young yak brain tissues. Multiple roles in the brain tissues of the adult and young yaks are involved in the expression and distribution and are proposed to play a significant role in the adaptation of the yak to the high altitude environment. Conclusion This study provides meaningful data to understand the adaptive mechanism to hypoxia and recommended researchers to expand on the adaptive mechanism and brain tissues that are not recorded.


Resumo Contexto O cérebro é um órgão que funciona como o centro do sistema nervoso em todos os animais vertebrados e na maioria dos invertebrados. Objetivo O estudo examinou a expressão de neuroglobina (Ngb) e fator-1α indutível por hipóxia (Hif-1α) em tecidos cerebrais de iaques adultos e jovens e forneceu aos pesquisadores uma visão significativa da anatomia, fisiologia e bioquímica desse mamífero. Método O estudo utilizou imuno-histoquímica (IHC), PCR quantitativo em tempo real (qRT-PCR) e western blot (WB) para a obtenção dos resultados. Resultados Ngb e Hif-1α foram significativamente (P < 0,05) expressos no córtex cerebelar, lobo piriforme, medula e corpo caloso do iaque adulto, enquanto nos tecidos cerebrais do iaque jovem as expressões proteicas foram encontradas significativamente na substância branca do cerebelo, glândula pineal, corpo caloso e córtex cerebelar. A expressão de Ngb e Hif-1α apresentou semelhanças e diferenças. Isso pode ter resultado de espécies animais semelhantes, fonte de nutrição, fatores de idade, tamanho do cérebro, atividades emocionais e comunicação. Os resultados documentaram que o Ngb e o Hif-1α são comumente expressos em vários tecidos cerebrais de iaques adultos e jovens. Múltiplos papéis nos tecidos cerebrais de iaques adultos e jovens estão envolvidos na expressão e distribuição e são propostos para desempenhar um papel significativo na adaptação do iaque ao ambiente de alta altitude. Conclusão Este estudo fornece dados significativos para compreender o mecanismo adaptativo à hipóxia e recomendou que os pesquisadores expandissem o mecanismo adaptativo e os tecidos cerebrais que não foram registrados.


Subject(s)
Animals , Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit/genetics , Hypoxia , Brain , RNA, Messenger , Cattle , Neuroglobin
18.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e249424, 2023. graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345538

ABSTRACT

Abstract Hypoxia is a prominent feature of head and neck cancer. However, the oxygen element characteristics of proteins and how they adapt to hypoxia microenvironments of head and neck cancer are still unknown. Human genome sequences and proteins expressed data of head and neck cancer were retrieved from pathology atlas of Human Protein Atlas project. Then compared the oxygen and carbon element contents between proteomes of head and neck cancer and normal oral mucosa-squamous epithelial cells, genome locations, pathways, and functional dissection associated with head and neck cancer were also studied. A total of 902 differentially expressed proteins were observed where the average oxygen content is higher than that of the lowly expressed proteins in head and neck cancer proteins. Further, the average oxygen content of the up regulated proteins was 2.54% higher than other. None of their coding genes were distributed on the Y chromosome. The up regulated proteins were enriched in endocytosis, apoptosis and regulation of actin cytoskeleton. The increased oxygen contents of the highly expressed and the up regulated proteins might be caused by frequent activity of cytoskeleton and adapted to the rapid growth and fast division of the head and neck cancer cells. The oxygen usage bias and key proteins may help us to understand the mechanisms behind head and neck cancer in targeted therapy, which lays a foundation for the application of stoichioproteomics in targeted therapy and provides promise for potential treatments for head and neck cancer.


Resumo A hipóxia é uma característica proeminente do câncer de cabeça e pescoço. No entanto, as características do elemento oxigênio das proteínas e como elas se adaptam aos microambientes de hipóxia do câncer de cabeça e pescoço ainda são desconhecidas. Sequências do genoma humano e dados expressos de proteínas de câncer de cabeça e pescoço foram recuperados do atlas de patologia do projeto Human Protein Atlas. Em seguida, comparou o conteúdo do elemento de oxigênio e carbono entre proteomas de câncer de cabeça e pescoço, e células epiteliais escamosas da mucosa oral normal, localizações do genoma, vias e dissecção funcional associada ao câncer de cabeça e pescoço também foram estudadas. Um total de 902 proteínas expressas diferencialmente foi observado onde o conteúdo médio de oxigênio é maior do que as proteínas expressas de forma humilde em proteínas de câncer de cabeça e pescoço. Além disso, o conteúdo médio de oxigênio das proteínas reguladas positivamente foi 2,54% maior do que das outras. Nenhum de seus genes codificadores foi distribuído no cromossomo Y. As proteínas reguladas positivamente foram enriquecidas em endocitose, apoptose e regulação do citoesqueleto de actina. O conteúdo aumentado de oxigênio das proteínas altamente expressas e reguladas pode ser causado pela atividade frequente do citoesqueleto e adaptado ao rápido crescimento e divisão das células cancerosas de cabeça e pescoço. O viés do uso de oxigênio e as proteínas-chave podem nos ajudar a entender os mecanismos por trás do câncer de cabeça e pescoço na terapia direcionada, o que estabelece uma base para a aplicação da estequioproteômica na terapia direcionada e oferece uma promessa para potenciais tratamentos para o câncer de cabeça e pescoço.


Subject(s)
Humans , Head and Neck Neoplasms/genetics , Oxygen , Carbon , Proteome/genetics , Tumor Microenvironment
19.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: 1-15, 2023. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1468904

ABSTRACT

Background: The brain is an organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals. Aim: The study examined the expression of Neuroglobin (Ngb) and Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (Hif-1α) in adult and young yak brain tissues, and provided researchers with meaningful insight into the anatomy, physiology, and biochemistry of this mammal. Method: The study employed immunohistochemistry (IHC), quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), and Western blot (WB) to obtain the results. Results: Ngb and Hif-1α were significantly (P<0.05) expressed in the cerebellar cortex, piriform lobe, medulla, and corpus callosum of the adult yak while in the young yak brain tissues, the protein expressions were significantly found in the white matter of the cerebellum, pineal gland, corpus callosum, and cerebellar cortex. The Ngb and Hif-1α expression showed similarities and differences. This may have resulted from similar animal species, source of nutrition, age factors, brain size, emotional activities, and communication. The findings documented that Ngb and Hif-1α are commonly expressed in various adult and young yak brain tissues. Multiple roles in the brain tissues of the adult and young yaks are involved in the expression and distribution and are proposed to play a significant role in the adaptation of the yak to the high altitude environment. Conclusion: This study provides meaningful data to understand the adaptive mechanism to hypoxia and recommended researchers to expand on the adaptive mechanism and brain tissues that are not recorded.


Contexto: O cérebro é um órgão que funciona como o centro do sistema nervoso em todos os animais vertebrados e na maioria dos invertebrados. Objetivo: O estudo examinou a expressão de neuroglobina (Ngb) e fator-1α indutível por hipóxia (Hif-1α) em tecidos cerebrais de iaques adultos e jovens e forneceu aos pesquisadores uma visão significativa da anatomia, fisiologia e bioquímica desse mamífero. Método: O estudo utilizou imuno-histoquímica (IHC), PCR quantitativo em tempo real (qRT-PCR) e western blot (WB) para a obtenção dos resultados. Resultados: Ngb e Hif-1α foram significativamente (P < 0,05) expressos no córtex cerebelar, lobo piriforme, medula e corpo caloso do iaque adulto, enquanto nos tecidos cerebrais do iaque jovem as expressões proteicas foram encontradas significativamente na substância branca do cerebelo, glândula pineal, corpo caloso e córtex cerebelar. A expressão de Ngb e Hif-1α apresentou semelhanças e diferenças. Isso pode ter resultado de espécies animais semelhantes, fonte de nutrição, fatores de idade, tamanho do cérebro, atividades emocionais e comunicação. Os resultados documentaram que o Ngb e o Hif-1α são comumente expressos em vários tecidos cerebrais de iaques adultos e jovens. Múltiplos papéis nos tecidos cerebrais de iaques adultos e jovens estão envolvidos na expressão e distribuição e são propostos para desempenhar um papel significativo na adaptação do iaque ao ambiente de alta altitude. Conclusão: Este estudo fornece dados significativos para compreender o mecanismo adaptativo à hipóxia e recomendou que os pesquisadores expandissem o mecanismo adaptativo e os tecidos cerebrais que não foram registrados.


Subject(s)
Animals , Young Adult , Adult , Cattle , Cattle , Cerebrum/anatomy & histology , Cerebrum/physiology , Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1/analysis , Biochemical Phenomena , Neuroglobin/analysis
20.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: 1-11, 2023. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1468977

ABSTRACT

Hypoxia is a prominent feature of head and neck cancer. However, the oxygen element characteristics of proteins and how they adapt to hypoxia microenvironments of head and neck cancer are still unknown. Human genome sequences and proteins expressed data of head and neck cancer were retrieved from pathology atlas of Human Protein Atlas project. Then compared the oxygen and carbon element contents between proteomes of head and neck cancer and normal oral mucosa-squamous epithelial cells, genome locations, pathways, and functional dissection associated with head and neck cancer were also studied. A total of 902 differentially expressed proteins were observed where the average oxygen content is higher than that of the lowly expressed proteins in head and neck cancer proteins. Further, the average oxygen content of the up regulated proteins was 2.54% higher than other. None of their coding genes were distributed on the Y chromosome. The up regulated proteins were enriched in endocytosis, apoptosis and regulation of actin cytoskeleton. The increased oxygen contents of the highly expressed and the up regulated proteins might be caused by frequent activity of cytoskeleton and adapted to the rapid growth and fast division of the head and neck cancer cells. The oxygen usage bias and key proteins may help us to understand the mechanisms behind head and neck cancer in targeted therapy, which lays a foundation for the application of stoichioproteomics in targeted therapy and provides promise for potential treatments for head and neck cancer.


A hipóxia é uma característica proeminente do câncer de cabeça e pescoço. No entanto, as características do elemento oxigênio das proteínas e como elas se adaptam aos microambientes de hipóxia do câncer de cabeça e pescoço ainda são desconhecidas. Sequências do genoma humano e dados expressos de proteínas de câncer de cabeça e pescoço foram recuperados do atlas de patologia do projeto Human Protein Atlas. Em seguida, comparou o conteúdo do elemento de oxigênio e carbono entre proteomas de câncer de cabeça e pescoço, e células epiteliais escamosas da mucosa oral normal, localizações do genoma, vias e dissecção funcional associada ao câncer de cabeça e pescoço também foram estudadas. Um total de 902 proteínas expressas diferencialmente foi observado onde o conteúdo médio de oxigênio é maior do que as proteínas expressas de forma humilde em proteínas de câncer de cabeça e pescoço. Além disso, o conteúdo médio de oxigênio das proteínas reguladas positivamente foi 2,54% maior do que das outras. Nenhum de seus genes codificadores foi distribuído no cromossomo Y. As proteínas reguladas positivamente foram enriquecidas em endocitose, apoptose e regulação do citoesqueleto de actina. O conteúdo aumentado de oxigênio das proteínas altamente expressas e reguladas pode ser causado pela atividade frequente do citoesqueleto e adaptado ao rápido crescimento e divisão das células cancerosas de cabeça e pescoço. O viés do uso de oxigênio e as proteínas-chave podem nos ajudar a entender os mecanismos por trás do câncer de cabeça e pescoço na terapia direcionada, o que estabelece uma base para a aplicação da estequioproteômica na terapia direcionada e oferece uma promessa para potenciais tratamentos para o câncer de cabeça e pescoço.


Subject(s)
Humans , Hypoxia , Head and Neck Neoplasms/genetics
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