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1.
Afr. J. Clin. Exp. Microbiol ; 25(1): 28-37, 2024. figures, tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1532983

ABSTRACT

Background: Globally, 296 million people were infected by hepatitis B in 2019, with 1.1 million deaths. Africa is one of the endemic regions. Good knowledge and awareness of hepatitis B remain pivotal to the biosafety of medical students. This study sought to determine the levels of knowledge and awareness of hepatitis B among students of Pamo University of Medical Sciences (PUMS), Port Harcourt, Nigeria, and the predicting factors associated with this knowledge and awareness. The is with the aim of providing recommendations for improving and sustaining biosafety levels for medical and other health-related students of the University. Methodology: The study was a descriptive cross-sectional design conducted amongst 528 randomly selected medical students of PUMS, Port Harcourt, Nigeria. Structured questionnaires were interviewer-administered to collect socio-demographic information and participants' responses to questions on knowledge and awareness of hepatitis B. Data were analysed using SPSS version 26.0 and relationships of socio-demographic characteristics and predictive factors with knowledge and awareness of hepatitis B were tested using binary logistic regression analysis with p value for statistical significance set at <0.05. Results: A total of 528 students participated in the study, 202 (38.3%) males and 326 (61.7%) females. Most participants (296, 56.1%) were between 15-19 years of age with mean age of 19 ±2.43 years. The mean (±SD) of participants responses with good knowledge of hepatitis B was 249±121.5 while for good awareness, it was 181±88.3. The percentage average for good knowledge and good awareness was 47.2% and 34.2% respectively, with positive correlation between knowledge and awareness of hepatitis B (r=0.720, p<0.0001). Age was significantly associated with participants percentage average knowledge (OR=0.77, 95% CI 0.70-0.84, p<0.0001) and awareness of hepatitis B (OR=0.84, 95%CI 0.78-0.90, p=0.004). No other factor was significantly associated with knowledge and awareness of hepatitis B except Ijaw tribe (OR=0.4, 95%CI 0.24-0.66, p=0.034) and attendance of Federal Government College (OR=0.4, 95% CI 0.24-0.68, p=0.046). Conclusion: The percentage average good knowledge of 47.2% and awareness of 34.2% for hepatitis B in this study are low, although most participants in the study were between the ages of 15-19 years and in their first and second year of study. This gives room for improvement in knowledge and awareness of hepatitis B with progression in age and year of training. Good knowledge and awareness of hepatitis B are central to the biosafety of medical students. It is recommended that the National Universities Commission (NUC) and the Medical and Dental Council of Nigeria (MDCN) review the current medical school curriculum to increase the teaching of medical and health-related students that will impact more on knowledge and awareness of infectious diseases and infection prevention and control.


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Schools, Medical , Awareness , Hepatitis B , Universities , Knowledge
2.
Ibom Medical Journal ; 17(2): 166-175, 2024. figures, tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1554866

ABSTRACT

Objective:This study aimed to describe the prevalence, pattern, and predictors of WPVagainst HCWs in Nigeria. Methods:Asystematic review was conducted using pre-defined keywords. The review was performed in line with the PRISMAguidelines on PubMed, Google Scholar, Scopus, and Web of Science. The population, intervention, comparator, and outcome (PICO) elements for this study were as follows: Population:Nigerian Healthcare workers; Intervention: Exposure to WPV; Comparator: Non-exposure to WPV; Outcome: Mental and Physical health outcomes of exposure to WPV. Of the 18,140 articles retrieved, 15 cross-sectional studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in the review. In all, 3,245 HCWs were included, and consisted majorly of nurses and doctors. Results:The overall prevalence of WPV(Physical > Verbal/Psychological > Sexual) against HCWs ranged between 39.1%-100%. The predictors of WPVare younger ages (AOR = 2.513, p = 0.012), working in psychiatric unit (AOR = 11.182, p = 0.006), and increased frequency of interaction with patients, and mostly perpetrated by patients and their relatives. Many health facilities lacked a formal reporting system and policies to protect HCWs from WPV. Conclusion:WPVagainst HCWs is a public health problem in Nigeria with dire implications on HCWs; the victims, and the aggressor. Administrators of health facilities should design protocols for WPVreporting, recognition, and management. Patient and 'relatives' education on the 'facilities' policy against WPVshould be undertaken, while orientation sessions on the risk factors for HCWs are scheduled.


Subject(s)
Occupational Risks , Workplace Violence , Occupational Health , Health Personnel , Systematic Review
3.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-219672

ABSTRACT

Aims: It has long been considered that specific age/gender groups, such as women and children, are predisposed to nutritional vulnerability. Thus, nutritional vulnerability among agricultural households is neglected and understudied. This study aims at an empirical assessment of nutritional vulnerability dynamics among rural households in Nigeria. Study Design: Secondary data used for this study was waves 2 and 3 of the general household survey panel data. The sampling design consisted of two stages of sampling: the selection of enumeration areas based on probability proportionate to the size of the enumeration areas and the systematic random selection of ten households from each enumeration area. There were 3370 households selected in rural areas and 1630 households selected in urban areas. 2090 rural households with the required information for this study were included in the analysis. Methodology: Descriptive statistics, nutritional vulnerability score, logit regression model, Markov model, and multinomial logit regression models were used to analyse nutritional vulnerability transitions among rural households in Nigeria. Results: Nutritionally vulnerable households in rural Nigeria include those with aged heads, little or no formal education, limited assets, and no access to land or credit. Nutritional vulnerability in rural Nigeria is primarily transient, with around two-fifths of households experiencing transient nutritional vulnerability and nearly one-third experiencing chronic nutritional vulnerability. While the age of the household head, tertiary education, and access to credit all had a substantial impact on transient nutritional vulnerability, gender, tertiary education, asset value, and access to credit all had an impact on chronic nutritional vulnerability. Conclusion: Support mechanisms such as initiatives to promote access to healthy food, credit, land, and education are critical. To successfully address the issues affecting the nutrition and health of persons facing vulnerabilities, social welfare programs with interventions based on the characteristics of each vulnerable group and the predisposing factors should be adopted.

4.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-219664

ABSTRACT

Aim: Enumeration of bacterial counts is an important index of assessing the safety and quality of food products. This study aimed to investigate the occurrence of pathogenic bacteria in white shrimp samples obtained from major markets serving consumers in Calabar. Study Design: This study was a cross sectional study conducted between April 2017 and April 2018. Methodology: One hundred and twenty (120) samples of smoked dried Nematopalaemon hastatus (white shrimp) were analyzed for the presence of bacterial pathogens. Bacterial loads and identification of isolated organisms was determined using standard microbiological methods. Results: The results showed that 66.7% of the analyzed shrimps had aerobic bacterial counts exceeding the upper permissible limit (<1.0x106Cfu/g) and 56.7% had unsatisfactory (?20Cfu/g) Vibrio counts. The study revealed the presence of different bacteria genera namely Klebsiella, Salmonella, Pseudomonas, Serratia, Vibrio, Citrobacter, Proteus, Aeromonas, Streptococcus, Escherichia, Coagulase-negative Staphylococci (CoNS), Enterobacter and Bacillus. Predominant organism was Salmonella spp (26.7%), followed by Vibrio spp (21.7%) while the least isolated organisms were Bacillus spp and Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci (1.7%) each. The occurrence of high counts of pathogens in seafood may cause food poisoning; especially in individuals who consume this seafood raw, or lightly or insufficiently cooked. Conclusion: Hence, seafood should be processed and packaged under standard hygienic conditions to reduce the risk of microbial contamination. In addition, public health awareness campaign targeted at consumers and vendors should be optimized with frequent monitoring by regulatory agencies.

5.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-222143

ABSTRACT

The prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is increasing globally and is one of the noncommunicable diseases associated with increase mortality globally in the last two decades. The prevalence of CKD in Nigeria, it is 1.6% to 12.4%. Ninety percent of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients are said to die within 3 months of commencing dialysis. Indices are even worse in resource poor countries like Nigeria where prevention and adequate intervention are usually hampered by funds. In regions like Nigeria, it will be cheaper to prevent CKD than treating its complications. Hence, it is important to identify the common etiologies of CKD in Nigeria and prevent or promptly address them before causing irreversible damage to the kidneys. The most common cause of CKD in Nigeria includes hypertension, glomerulonephritis and diabetes mellitus. Many of these etiologies are preventable/treatable and should be looked for as a major way to reduce the incidence of CKD in Nigeria. Challenges identified in Nigeria, propagating CKD include westernization, inadequate manpower, late presentation, diagnostic challenge and poorly equipped facilities. Interventions like encouraging healthy lifestyle, making available essential drugs, training of health personnel, subsidized cost of treatment, legislation and policies to curb drug abuse. Therefore, resource-poor settings should focus on creating more awareness and making legislations and/or policies focused on these preventable causes of CKD as this is more realistic and effective in these settings.

6.
Malaysian Journal of Medicine and Health Sciences ; : 328-333, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-998928

ABSTRACT

@#Introduction: The instructor-led CPR training method has been used for over 4 decades. However, nurses’ knowledge and skills are still low. Instructor-led CPR training is an extremely capital-intensive programme that requires more time, workforce, and space, thus serving as an impediment to effective learning among the prospective nurses’ trainees. Self-directed training method is suggested to improve the knowledge and skills of CPR among healthcare practitioners due to the low cost and flexibility. This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of self-directed method in improving nurses’ knowledge and skill retention from baseline to post-test, one, three-, and six months. Method: A two-arm double-blinded randomised controlled trial will be conducted in two referral hospitals. The control group training consists of a one-day session taught by AHA-certified instructors, whereas the intervention group training entails participants learning on computers in a simulation lab for seven days. A generalised estimated equation model will be used for statistical analysis. Discussion: Through the self-directed training method, participants will have significantly better knowledge and skills of CPR compared to the conversational training method across the time points. Self-directed training method is a simple, cost-effective and flexible method, which can facilitate the training of more nurses in the acquisition and retention of knowledge and skills, especially for those who prefer to learn at their own pace. Trial Registration: Registration Code: UDUTH/NHREC/30/012/2019 and NHREC/28/01/2020/AKTH/EC/2934

7.
Saúde Soc ; 32(3): e220212pt, 2023. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1515560

ABSTRACT

Resumo Estudantes de medicina possuem diferentes opções de trajetórias acadêmicas ou profissionais após a graduação. Este estudo busca determinar as preferências de carreira entre graduandos de medicina e os fatores que contribuem para tal decisão. Pesquisa descritiva e transversal foi realizada com graduandos de medicina da Afe Babalola University, localizada em Ekiti State, Nigéria. Dados foram coletados por um questionário bem estruturado e analisados usando SPSS versão 21.0. A estatística descritiva inclui tabelas de frequência, gráficos, médias e desvios padrão. Um total de 100 graduandos participaram do estudo, dos quais 29 (29,0%) homens e 71 (71,0%) mulheres, com relação homem/mulher de 0,4 para 1. A faixa etária dos participantes foi de 21 a 30 anos, com média (±SD) de 23,5 (±1,4). Do total de participantes, 72% planejavam ingressar na pós-graduação após a faculdade de medicina, a maioria no Reino Unido, sendo o mestrado em Saúde Pública a qualificação de maior interesse. Da mesma forma, 76% dos entrevistados planejavam buscar uma bolsa de pós-graduação após a faculdade, também em sua maioria no Reino Unido. A especialidade mais procurada é Obstetrícia e Ginecologia (43%), seguida por Cirurgia (40%), Medicina de Família (34%), Medicina Comunitária (33%), Pediatria (25%) e Medicina Interna (23%), enquanto a especialidade menos procurada é Patologia Química (28%), seguida por Microbiologia Médica (27%) e Anatomia Mórbida (24%). O principal fator considerado para esta escolha é o interesse pessoal pela especialidade, seguido por perspectivas financeiras, estilo de vida confortável e horário de trabalho flexível. Mestrado em Saúde Pública e especialização em Obstetrícia e Ginecologia são as carreiras mais buscadas por graduandos de medicina, escolha majoritariamente pautada em seus interesses pessoais.


Abstract Medical students have many different options of academic and professional undertakings after graduation. The aim of this study is to determine the career preferences of students in their final year of medical school and to determine the factors that contributed for such decision. This is a descriptive cross-sectional study involving the final-year medical students of Afe Babalola University, Ekiti State, Nigeria. A well-structured questionnaire was used for data collection. The data was analysed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 21.0. Descriptive statistics included frequency tables, charts, means and standard deviations. A total number of 100 final-year medical students participated in the study, out of which 29 (29.0%) were males and 71 (71.0%) were females, with a male to female ratio of 0.4 to 1. The age range of the respondents was 21 to 30 years, with a mean(±SD) of 23.5(±1.4). 72% of the respondents planned to pursue a postgraduate academic qualification after graduating from medical school, mostly in the United Kingdom, and a Master of Public Health was the most sought qualification. Similarly, 76% of the respondents planned to pursue a postgraduate medical fellowship after medical school, also mostly in the United Kingdom. The specialty most sought-after is Obstetrics and Gynaecology (43%), followed by Surgery (40%), Family Medicine (34%), Community Medicine (33%), Paediatrics (25%), and Internal Medicine (23%) while the least sought-after specialty is Chemical pathology (28%), followed by Medical Microbiology (27%) and Morbid Anatomy (24%). The most important factor considered by the respondents in choosing a particular specialty is their personal interest in that specialty, followed by financial prospects, comfortable lifestyle, and flexible working hours. Master of Public Health degree and postgraduate fellowship in Obstetrics and Gynaecology specialty are the career preferences for most of the final-year medical students in this study, and this is largely informed by their personal interest in these fields.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Career Choice , Education, Graduate , Nigeria
8.
Trends psychiatry psychother. (Impr.) ; 45: e20210348, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1424719

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction The aim of this study was to examine the effect of group cognitive-behavioral therapy (GCBT) on pathological internet use (PIU). Method The study applied a group randomized controlled trial design to assign participants to intervention and control groups. A total of 40 college students aged 18 to 30 who were pathological internet users (PIUs) participated in this study and were randomly assigned to treatment and control groups. Participants completed a self-report scale entitled the Problematic Internet Use Scale (PIUS) at three time points. The intervention lasted 8 weeks. The data collected were statistically analyzed using repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results The results showed that GCBT has significant efficacy, decreasing the symptoms of PIU among the GCBT participants compared to those in the control group and that the improvements were maintained at follow-up. We also found a significant interaction effect by time for PIU. Conclusion From the study findings, we can conclude that GCBT has significant benefit for mitigating the severity of PIU in college students. Therefore, mental health professionals are encouraged to explore the benefits of GCBT in treating symptoms associated with PIU in school settings and beyond.

9.
The Nigerian Health Journal ; 23(3): 852-861, 2023. tables, figures
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1512131

ABSTRACT

Responsiveness optimisesthe system-based approach to meeting legitimate demands by healthcare recipients. This study assessed the responsiveness of orthopaedic services at the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital (UPTH) from the perspectives of the care recipients. Methods:Descriptive cross-sectional study among 442 consecutively recruited recipients of orthopaedic services at UPTH from March to June 2020. Close-ended questionnaire with responsiveness conceptualised by five constructs: dignity, autonomy, confidentiality, quality of basic amenities and choice of care provider, each measured along 4-point response scale. The internal consistency reliability of the responsiveness scale was determined by the Cronbach's alpha coefficient. Descriptive (frequency, percentages, bar charts) and inferential (ordinal logistic regression) statistics were conducted and p-values ≤ 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results: Response rate was 97.3% and the Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the responsiveness scale was 0.83. Participants' mean age was 38.5±14.8years with more being males (55.8%), privately employed (34.9%) and completed secondary education (82.5%). Proportion of respondents who gave excellent ratings across responsiveness domains were dignity (32.8%), autonomy (34.2%), confidentiality (26.3%), amenities (25.8%) and no excellent rating for choice of provider. Marital, employment and visit status were the most consistent factors associated with feedback on autonomy, choice of providers, confidentiality domains.Conclusion: More orthopaedic patients were pleased with the level of autonomy and dignity than choice of providers and quality of basic amenities. There is the need for enhanced responsiveness of orthopedic services to meeting the unique needs of patients and achieving improved quality of care and patient outcomes


Subject(s)
Humans , Delivery of Health Care , Respect , Quality of Health Care , Cross-Sectional Studies , Confidentiality , Personal Autonomy , Hospitals, Teaching
10.
The Nigerian Health Journal ; 23(3): 819-827, 2023. tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1512111

ABSTRACT

Nigeria has one of the highest rates of cervical cancer morbidity and mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa. Both the human papillomavirus vaccine (HPV) and cervical screening are effective prevention strategies against both HPV infection and cervical cancer. Lack of awareness, limited knowledge, limited decision-making agency, lack of spousal support and stigma are barriers to uptake of these preventive measures. Cervical cancer is a deadly disease claiming the lives of many women in developing countries due to late presentation which might be influenced by a lack of knowledge of the disease and its prevention. Method: This descriptive study examined the knowledge assessment of cervical cancer among women of reproductive age (15-49), about cervical cancer, its prevention, and their utilization of Pap smear screening; using a convenience sample of 426 women in Ibadan North Local Government Area of Oyo State, Nigeria. Women voluntarily completed a structured questionnaire. Result: Results showed that women who participated in the study were aware of cervical cancer (77%; n=328) but many (62.9%; n= 268) were unaware of Pap smears as the screening tests for cervical cancer. Although 41.3% (n=176) were knowledgeable about cervical cancer, risk factors and prevention, only 9.4% (n=40) had Pap smear tests done. Conclusion: Health care professionals, need to intensify efforts to increase awareness about cervical cancer screening, and encourage women through the different clinics to use these services. The benefits of screening and early diagnosis of cervical cancer should be emphasized to enhance the utilization of cervical cancer screening services.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Women , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , Physicians, Women , Quality Assurance, Health Care , Health Personnel
11.
The Nigerian Health Journal ; 23(3): 810-818, 2023. tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1512110

ABSTRACT

Health insurance coverage in Nigeria is still very low as over 70% of health care expenditure is financed by out-of-pocket payment. Health care providers are critical participants in the private health insurance scheme, therefore, their perception and satisfaction with the scheme is fundamental in ensuring sustainability. This study assessed health providers' satisfaction with private health insurance scheme in Port Harcourt Rivers State.Method: A descriptive cross-sectional study which engaged a two-stage sampling method to recruit 60 participating health facilities and 180 responding health personnel by simple random sampling at each stage. A structured, pretested interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to collect data on the levels of satisfaction with the four major domains of satisfaction viz; billing rate, payment models, HMO administrative processes and claims management. Data was analysedusing of SPSS, version 26. Characteristics of the responding facilities were tabulated and compared. Level of satisfaction was deduced by Likert Scale according to the domains of satisfaction. Regression analysis with p-value was set at less than or equal to 0.05 was used to determine the predictors of satisfaction with participation in health insurance. The level of satisfaction with negotiated billing rates, payment models, HMO administrative processes and claims management were analyseddescriptively, and results were presented as means, standard deviation, frequencies and percentages, in tables, pie and bar charts


Subject(s)
Humans , Delivery of Health Care , Insurance, Health , Health Maintenance Organizations , Health Personnel , Job Satisfaction
12.
Ann. Health Res. (Onabanjo Univ. Teach. Hosp.) ; 9(3): 169-178, 2023. tables, figures
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1512792

ABSTRACT

Delayed detection of congenital heart diseases in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) contributes to the poor outcome of infants with cardiac anomalies. Fetal echocardiography (FE) can detect heart defects in-utero as early as the 18th gestational week (GA), giving parents and medical professionals time to prepare for the baby's delivery and appropriate treatment. University College Hospital, Nigeria, is one of the few centres in Nigeria where FE is performed. Objectives: To examine the indications for referral for FE and the diagnoses made in our first four years of performing FE. Methods: FE was performed in the antenatal clinic of the University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria, using the GE Voluson P6 machine with a 2-6-RS probe. Demographic information was obtained from the antenatal clinic records of the women who had FE using a semi-structured questionnaire. FE diagnoses were retrieved from the FE register. Results: A total of 129 women whose records were available were studied. The mean age of the women was 31.7±5.5 years. Forty-two women (32.6%) were referred because of echogenic foci, making this the most common indication for FE. Twenty-nine (22.5%) fetuses had structural heart defects, the most common being Ventricular Septal Defect. Conclusion: There is a need for Obstetricians and Paediatricians to be aware of the indications for fetal echocardiography and refer women appropriately


Subject(s)
Humans , Echocardiography , Anti-Arrhythmia Agents , Echogenic Bowel , Fetal Movement , Heart Defects, Congenital
13.
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1512885

ABSTRACT

The advent of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in controlling Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) disease has been quite effective in ensuring that infected people can enjoy healthy, long, and productive lives. Medication adherence is an essential part of patient care, especially among patients with HIV, as it greatly determines the effectiveness of treatment. Few studies have explored factors influencing medication adherence and treatment satisfaction among adults, with little focus on adolescents. Objectives: To assess medication adherence, treatment satisfaction and factors influencing adherence to ART medication among adolescents living with HIV in Lagos, Nigeria. Methods: This descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted among diagnosed and registered adolescents aged 10-19 years living with HIV and receiving treatment at eight selected antiretroviral centres in Lagos state, Nigeria. A total of 203 adolescents were recruited in stages, and data were collected using an interviewer-administered semi-structured questionnaire. Results: There was a low level of adherence as only 59/203 (29.1%) of the respondents adhered to ART. Depression, perceived stigma, being away from home, side effects of drugs, pill burden, and forgetfulness were some factors identified as barriers to adherence. The respondents were most satisfied with the effectiveness of the medication and least satisfied with the side effects. Conclusions: Medication adherence among adolescents was relatively low; the level of satisfaction with ART medication is an entity that significantly impacts adherence


Subject(s)
Humans , HIV , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active , Medication Adherence , Therapeutics , Adolescent
14.
Ghana Med. J. (Online) ; 57(3): 226-233, 2023. Coping strategies, economic burden, health facilities, Nigeria, non-communicable diseases
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1517402

ABSTRACT

Objective: To assess and compare how private and public health facilities patients cope with the economic burden of non-communicable diseases. Design: Comparative cross-sectional study. Setting: Thirty-nine private and eleven public health facilities in Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria Participants: Three hundred and forty-eight (Private:173; Public:175) patients with hypertension or diabetes, or both were recruited. Main Outcome Measures: Specific coping methods and numbers of coping strategies used by participants, as well as the perceived ability of participants to cope with the economic burden of non-communicable diseases. Results: Majority of participants paid through out-of-pocket (OOP) than through health insurance(HI) (Private:OOP:90.2% HI:9.8%; Public:OOP:94.3% HI:5.7%; p=0.152). More participants in private used instalment payments(p<0.001). However, other coping strategies showed no significant difference in both groups(p>0.05). Delayed treatment (Private:102; Public:95) was the most used strategy in both arms, and the number of strategies used by the participants showed no significant difference(p=0.061). Lower levels of education, out-of-pocket payment, increasing number of clinic visits, and hospital admission were associated with the use of higher numbers of coping strategies in both groups while being female and retired/unemployed were associated with the private arm. Conclusion: Although most patients in both groups pay out-of-pocket and use detrimental coping strategies, more patients in private arm use instalment payment, a non-detrimental method. Healthcare providers, especially public providers, should adopt policies encouraging patients to use non-detrimental coping strategies to meet their healthcare expenditures.


Subject(s)
Delivery of Health Care
15.
J. Public Health Africa (Online) ; 14(5): 1-21, 2023. figures, tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1435814

ABSTRACT

To date, malaria is still a major public health issue in the world. Africa remains the most affected continent with the highest malaria cases and deaths. Since more than one thousand Chinese citizens are living in Nigeria, examination of their knowledge, attitude, and practice compared with those of the local people may be essential towards malaria prevention. This study adopted cross-sectional research. A total of 137 Chinese people and 299 local people residing in Kano State, Nigeria constituted the study subjects. A questionnaire was used for the collection of data on socio-demography and predictors of attitudes. The Cronbach alpha statistic was used to analyze these data. Insecticide spraying, mosquito repellents, wearing protective clothing at night are the malaria preventive measures by both the local and Chinese people living in Kano state, Nigeria. However, there is a significant difference (p < 0.05) between the two groups, with a duration of stay in Nigeria, the use of mosquito, attitude, and practices playing impactful roles among the Chinese people. Hence, Chinese people demonstrated better knowledge and control of malaria transmission and prevention than the local people living in Kano state. In conclusion, attitudes and practices toward malaria diseases are the major causes of a high rate of malaria in Nigeria, particularly in Kano State.


Subject(s)
Therapeutics , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Disease Prevention , Malaria
16.
The Nigerian Health Journal ; 23(3): 819-827, 2023.
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1519000

ABSTRACT

Background: Nigeria has one of the highest rates of cervical cancer morbidity and mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa. Both the human papillomavirus vaccine (HPV) and cervical screening are effective prevention strategies against both HPV infection and cervical cancer. Lack of awareness, limited knowledge, limited decision-making agency, lack of spousal support and stigma are barriers to uptake of these preventive measures. Cervical cancer is a deadly disease claiming the lives of many women in developing countries due to late presentation which might be influenced by a lack of knowledge of the disease and its prevention. Method: This descriptive study examined the knowledge assessment of cervical cancer among women of reproductive age (15-49), about cervical cancer, its prevention, and their utilization of Pap smear screening; using a convenience sample of 426 women in Ibadan North Local Government Area of Oyo State, Nigeria. Women voluntarily completed a structured questionnaire. Result: Results showed that women who participated in the study were aware of cervical cancer (77%; n=328) but many (62.9%; n= 268) were unaware of Pap smears as the screening tests for cervical cancer. Although 41.3% (n=176) were knowledgeable about cervical cancer, risk factors and prevention, only 9.4% (n=40) had Pap smear tests done. Conclusion: Health care professionals, need to intensify efforts to increase awareness about cervical cancer screening, and encourage women through the different clinics to use these services. The benefits of screening and early diagnosis of cervical cancer should be emphasized to enhance the utilization of cervical cancer screening services.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Community Health Workers
17.
J. Public Health Africa (Online) ; 14(11): 1-11, 2023. figures, tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1530659

ABSTRACT

We investigated the perspectives of parents, health workers (HWs) and traditional medical practitioners (TMPs) on immunisation advocacy, knowledge, attitudes and immuni sation practice and ways of improving immunisation uptake in Borno State, North eastern Nigeria. A cross sectional study analysing quantitative data from the three stakeholders' categories. It was conducted across 18 local government areas of Borno State. A representative sample of 4288 stakeholders (n=1763 parents, n=1707 TMPs, and n=818 HWs aged 20 to 59years, had complete data. The sample has more males: 57.8% (Parents); 71.8% (TMPs) and 57.3% (HWs). The awareness of immunisation schedule among the stakeholders ranged from 87.2 to 93.4%. The study showed that 67.9% of the parent and 57.1% of the health workers had participated in immunisation except the TMPs (27.8%). Across the stake holders' categories, between 61.9 and 72.6% have children who had Adverse Event Following Immunisation (AEFI). The most common AEFI was fever. Safety concerns, preference for herbs and charm, culture and religions, and vaccination perception as a western culture were the major barriers to immunisation uptake. While 63.6 to 95.7% of respondents indicated that community leaders, religious and spiritual leaders and TMPs should be involved in immunisation advo cacy, 56.9 70.4% of them reported that community leaders should be involved in immunisation policy. Upscaling the critical stakeholders' involvement in advocacy, policy devel opment and implementation of immunization activities may improve acceptance, create demand and engender ownership in vulnerable communities of Borno State, Nigeria. AEFI could be detrimental to immunisation access and utilization. Consequently, health education by health workers needs strengthening to minimise vaccine hesitancy.


Subject(s)
Vaccination Coverage
18.
Ann. afr. med ; 22(4): 420-425, 2023. tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1537689

ABSTRACT

Background: Peptic ulcer disease (PUD) is common worldwide. Its incidence and prevalence have been declining in recent years in developed countries, and a similar trend has been observed in many parts of Africa including Nigeria. Aim: This study aimed to provide an endoscopic update on PUD in the Northern Savannah of Nigeria and compare with past reports from the region and recent reports from Nigeria, Africa, and the rest of the world. Methods: Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy records of consecutive patients diagnosed with PUD between January 2014 and September 2022 at an endoscopy unit of a tertiary institution in North West Nigeria were retrieved and demographic data, types of peptic ulcer, and their characteristics were extracted and analyzed. Results: Over a 9 year period, 171/1958 (8.7%) patients were diagnosed with PUD: mean age 48.8 years (range 14­85), 68.4% male, and 70% >40 years. 59.6% were gastric ulcers (GU), 31.6% duodenal ulcers (DU), and 8.8% were both. The mean age of patients with GU was slightly higher than those with DU (49.9 years vs. 46.6 years, P = 0.29); patients aged 40 years significantly more GU than DU (74.6% vs. 54.7%, P = 0.016). There were no significant gender differences between GU and DU. Conclusion: The prevalence and pattern of PUD in Northern Savannah of Nigeria have changed ­ patients were predominantly male and older, and GU predominated.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Peptic Ulcer , Duodenal Ulcer
19.
Ann. afr. med ; 22(4): 470-460, 2023. figures, tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1537705

ABSTRACT

Context and Aim: Given the challenges of microscopy, we compared its performance with SD Bioline malaria rapid diagnostic test (MRDT) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and evaluated the time it took for positive results to become negative after treatment of children with acute uncomplicated malaria. Subjects and Methods: We present the report of 485 participants with complete MRDT, microscopy, and PCR data out of 511 febrile children aged 3­59 months who participated in a cohort study over a 12 month period in rural and urban areas of Ibadan, Nigeria. MRDT positive children received antimalaria and tested at every visit over 28 days. Speciation was also carried out by PCR. Results: With microscopy as the gold standard, SD-Bioline™ had 95.2% sensitivity, 66.4% specificity, 67.5% positive predictive value (PPV), and 94.9 negative predictive value (NPV), while with PCR the findings were 84.3% sensitivity, 66.5% specificity, 72.7% PPV, and 80.1% NPV. PCR speciation of malaria parasites revealed 91.6% Plasmodium falciparum, 18.9% Plasmodium malariae, and 4.4% Plasmodium ovale. Among the 47 children with P. malariae infections, 66.0% were coinfected with P. falciparum, while 54.6% cases of P. ovale occurred as coinfections with P. falciparum. The median time to a negative MRDT was 23.2 days, while the median time to a negative malaria microscopy was 3.8 days. The two survival curves were significantly different. Conclusions: The SD BiolineTM MRDT performed well, with remarkable persistence of rapid test-positive for an average of 23 days post treatment. The prevalence of P. malaria is somewhat greater than expected.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Sensitivity and Specificity , Malaria
20.
Ann. afr. med ; 22(2): 167-175, 2023. figures, tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1538046

ABSTRACT

Context: Tuberculosis (TB) treatment support is one of the recommended strategies to enhance treatment adherence and outcomes. Treatment supporters are at risk of contracting TB and adequate knowledge of TB and good preventive practices are required for their protection. Aims: This study aimed at assessing the knowledge and preventive practices of TB treatment supporters at Directly Observed Treatment Short-course (DOTS) centers in Lagos Mainland Local Government Area of Lagos state, Nigeria. Settings and design: This cross-sectional study was conducted among 196 TB treatment supporters selected from five DOTS centers in Lagos. Methods: Data were obtained using an adapted pretested questionnaire. Statistical analysis used: Bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed to determine the factors associated with self-protection practices. A P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The mean age of the participants was 37.3 ± 12.1 years. More than half of the respondents were females (59.2%) and immediate family members (61.3%). Overall, 22.5% had good knowledge of TB, while 53.0% had positive attitudes toward TB. Only 26.0% adequately protected themselves from infection. The caregiver's level of education (P = 0.001) and their relationship to the patient (P = 0.001) were significantly associated with good preventive practices in bivariate analysis. Not being related to the patient was a predictor of adequate TB prevention practices (adjusted odds ratio = 2.852; P = 0.006; 95% confidence interval = 1.360-5.984). Conclusions: This study revealed low levels of TB knowledge and fair preventive practices, especially among caregivers who are relatives. There is, therefore, a need to improve population literacy about TB and its prevention and a more focused orientation of relatives who volunteer as treatment supporters, through health education, with periodic monitoring during clinic visits, of how they prevent TB.


Subject(s)
Tuberculosis , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Antitubercular Agents , Therapeutics , Diagnosis
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