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1.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-217213

ABSTRACT

Infectious diseases such as typhoid fever lead to the formation of free radicals which can have a detrimental effect on the body. Typhoid fever is caused by poor sanitation, lack of clean water and resistance of germs to antibiotics and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Hence an urgent needs to find alternative treatments with little or no toxicity for the treatment of this disease. Objective: This work aims to evaluate the in vivo antisalmonellal and antioxidant activity of the 95% hydroethanolic extract of the leaves of Bauhinia rufescens (Fabaceae) in rats experimentally infected with Salmonella Typhi ATCC6539, as an alternative therapy. Methods: The rats were randomly divided into twelve groups (six per sex) of animals. Thus 3 control groups: (T0) uninfected and untreated; (T-) infected and untreated; (T+) infected and treated with ciprofloxacin (14 mg/kg) and 3 test groups: T1, T2 and T3 infected and treated with different doses of the extract (40, 80 and 117.71 mg/kg respectively). The evolution of the infection and the effectiveness of the treatment were monitored by blood culture, food consumption and weight growth were assessed during the trial; at the end of which the animals were sacrificed and the different parameters were evaluated. Results: Infected animals treated with different doses of the extract showed zero bacterial loads from the twelfth day post infection in both sexes. Regardless of sex, animals treated with the extract at the dose of 117.71mg/Kg were cured by the seventh day after the start of treatment while those treated with the doses of 40 mg/Kg and 80 mg/kg were cured by the ninth day after the start of treatment. Infection induced a significant (p < 0.05) decrease in food consumption and weight growth, while treatment induced, at all doses, an increase in food consumption and weight growth. Infection also caused a significant (p < 0.05) increase in NO and MDA levels, as well as a significant decrease in catalase and peroxidase activities in animal tissue homogenates. However, treatment resulted in a significant decrease in NO and MDA levels, and a significant (p < 0.05) increase in catalase and peroxidase activities. Conclusion: These results showed that the 95% hydroethanolic extract of Bauhinia rufescens leaves has mixed antisalmonellal and antioxidant activity in vivo and could be developed for the treatment of typhoid fever.

2.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-217175

ABSTRACT

The present study aims at quantitatively assessing the risk associated with Salmonella in lettuce (Lactuca sativa) consumed in Benin (West Africa). To that end, a survey was conducted involving 550 respondents to determine the conditions under which the product is handled along the supply chain and its consumption pattern. The prevalence and concentration of Salmonella in lettuce were collected from the literature. The consumption data and the data on Salmonella concentrations in lettuce were combined to estimate the exposure to Salmonella using a probabilistic risk assessment method. The @Risk software package (Palisade USA) was used to run Monte Carlo simulations with 10,000 iterations. Three dose-response models were used to assess the risk of salmonellosis. Different scenarios were tested to identify factors that could influence the risk of salmonellosis. The results showed that lettuce is exposed to temperature abuse under inappropriate hygienic conditions. In 90% of the cases, the exposure to Salmonella was between 3 and 7 log CFU/serving. The risk of salmonellosis per serving varied from 7.7% to 95% depending on the dose-response used with the scenario taking into account the current handling conditions of the lettuce. In contrast, when considering the scenario where the cold chain is respected along the supply chain, the risk of salmonellosis varied from 0% to 3.3% depending on the dose response used. The study highlights the importance of the cold chain, good agricultural practices and good hygienic practices to reduce exposure to Salmonella through the consumption of lettuce and thus the risk of salmonellosis.

3.
Rev. venez. cir ; 75(2): 75-78, 2022. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1554056

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El absceso esplénico es una entidad inusual que se observa en pacientes inmunodeprimidos por enfermedades como diabetes mellitus (DM), enfermedades hematooncológicas, síndrome de inmunodeficiencia adquirida (SIDA) y, en menor medida, en sujetos que presentaron traumatismo o infarto esplénico. El tratamiento ideal es la esplenectomía, aunque se deben considerar las alternativas conservadoras como drenaje percutáneo y resección laparoscópica. Se presenta un caso de un paciente con diagnóstico de absceso esplénico por salmonelosis, siendo este poco frecuente. Caso clínico: Paciente masculino de 53 años de edad con DM tipo 2. Refiere dolor abdominal difuso de aparición insidiosa tipo cólico de moderada intensidad, concomitante evacuaciones líquidas y alzas térmicas 40°. Al Examen físico FC: 114 lpm FR: 28 rpm TA: 130/70mmHg. Abdomen: globoso, RsHs presentes, depresible, doloroso a palpación con signos de irritación peritoneal. En radiografía de tórax se evidencia neumoperitoneo. Se realiza laparotomía xifopúbica, encontrando 1500ml de líquido purulento, absceso esplénico roto y hepatomegalia. Se realiza Esplenectomía + lavado y drenaje de cavidad. Conclusión: Los abscesos esplénicos son una entidad rara con manifestaciones clínicas no específicas. Métodos diagnósticos, la tomografía es el estudio de elección. El neumoperitoneo puede confundir el diagnostico realizándose de forma tardía por lo cual debemos tenerlo en cuenta como diagnostico diferencial. La esplenectomía es el tratamiento definitivo, el drenaje percutáneo se realiza en pacientes seleccionados(AU)


Introduction: The splenic abscess is an unusual entity that is observed in immunosuppressed patients due to diseases such as diabetes mellitus (DM), hemato-oncological diseases, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and, to a lesser extent, in subjects who presented trauma or splenic infarction. The ideal treatment is splenectomy, although conservative alternatives such as percutaneous drainage and laparoscopic resection should be considered. We present a case of a patient with a diagnosis of splenic abscess due to salmonellosis, this being rare.Clinical case : A 53-year-old male patient with type 2 DM. Refers to diffuse abdominal pain of insidious onset of moderate intensity, colic type, concomitant liquid stools and temperature rises 40°. On physical examination HR: 114 bpm FR: 28 rpm BP: 130/70mmHg. Abdomen: globular, RsHs present, depressible, painful on palpation with signs of peritoneal irritation. The chest X-ray shows pneumoperitoneum. A xiphopubic laparotomy was performed, finding 1500ml of purulent fluid, a ruptured splenic abscess and hepatomegaly. Splenectomy + lavage and cavity drainage is performed.Conclusion : Splenic abscesses are a rare entity with non-specific clinical manifestations. Diagnostic methods, tomography is the study of choice. Pneumoperitoneum can confuse the diagnosis, being carried out late, which is why we must have it as a differential diagnosis. Splenectomy is the definitive treatment; percutaneous drainage is performed in selected patients(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Salmonella Infections , Splenosis , Signs and Symptoms , Spleen , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , Diabetes Mellitus
4.
Bol. malariol. salud ambient ; 62(4): 623-630, 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1411907

ABSTRACT

La calidad de los alimentos que consumimos se ha convertido en uno de los principales problemas de salud pública a nivel mundial, ya que son la puerta de entrada de patógenos y vectores para la trasmisión de diversas enfermedades. Se estimó que el 17,9% de las enfermedades trasmitidas por el consumo de alimentos, está relacionada con aves de corral, y el 19% de estas enfermedades, están asociadas a la contaminación por Salmonella entérica. La Salmonelosis es una enfermedad invasiva que afecta en gran medida a las poblaciones altamente vulnerables (niños, ancianos e inmunocomprometidos), causando la necesidad de hospitalización y en ocasiones la muerte. A nivel mundial se estima que anualmente hay más de 94 millones de personas afectadas por gastroenteritis causada por el consumo de aves contaminadas con Salmonella, así como más de 155.000 fallecidos. Sin embargo, los orígenes de esta cepa: Salmonella entérica y otras de mayor alcance patógeno están influenciadas muy de cerca por el control de dos cepas con poca acción en la población humana: la S. polloroum y la S. gallinarum. La casi desaparición de estos dos serovares impulsó la colonización de cepas más resistente a los antibióticos y más perjudiciales para los seres humanos(AU)


The quality of the food we consume has become one of the main public health problems worldwide, since it is the gateway for pathogens and vectors for the transmission of various diseases. It was estimated that 17.9% of diseases transmitted by food consumption are related to poultry, and 19% of these diseases are associated with contamination by Salmonella enterica. Salmonellosis is an invasive disease that greatly affects highly vulnerable populations (children, the elderly and immunocompromised), causing the need for hospitalization and sometimes death. Worldwide, it is estimated that annually there are more than 94 million people affected by gastroenteritis caused by the intake of poultry contaminated with Salmonella, as well as more than 155,000 deaths. However, the origins of this strain: Salmonella enterica and others with a greater pathogenic scope are closely influenced by the control of two strains with little action in the human population: S. polloroum and S. gallinarum. The near disappearance of these two serovars prompted the colonization of strains more resistant to antibiotics and more harmful to humans(AU)


Subject(s)
Poultry , Salmonella , Food Quality , Salmonella Infections , Public Health , Environmental Pollution , Gastroenteritis
5.
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1406890

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Salmonellosis ranks among the most frequently reported zoonosis worldwide and is often associated with foodborne outbreaks. Since the 1950s, the distribution of Salmonella serotypes in Sao Paulo State, Brazil, has been documented and periodically reported. In this study, we updated the data on the distribution of Salmonella serotypes received in our reference laboratory, isolated from human infections and nonhuman sources, from 2004 to 2020. In that period, a total of 9,014 Salmonella isolates were analyzed, of which 3,553 (39.4%) were recovered from human samples, mainly of stool (65%) and blood (25.6%), and 5,461 (60.6%) were isolated from nonhuman origins, such as animals (47.2%), food (27.7%) and animal environments (18.6%). In human isolates, a total of 104 serotypes were identified and the most frequent ones were Enteritidis, Typhimurium, S . I. 4,[5],12:i:-, Dublin and Typhi. A consistent reduction of the Enteritidis proportion was observed over the years. Among the 156 serotypes identified in isolates with nonhuman origins, Enteritidis, Mbandaka, Typhimurium, Agona and Anatum were ranked as the top five Salmonella serotypes; in more recent years, S . Heidelberg has increased in frequency. Although with different proportions, the top 10 prevalent serotypes were identified in both human and nonhuman origins, underscoring the role of animals, food products and environment as reservoirs of Salmonella with potential to cause human salmonellosis.

6.
Arq. Ciênc. Vet. Zool. UNIPAR (Online) ; 24(2, cont.): e2411, jul-dez. 2021. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1352319

ABSTRACT

Salmonellosis is the world's most common foodborne illness. In Brazil, foods contaminated by salmonella lead the statistics. Therefore, the aim of this study is, through biotechnological knowledge, to compile alternative and innovative techniques for the detection of salmonella in foods, such as fish-farming derivatives, immunological and biosensorial techniques. This is a descriptive exploratory data survey of a qualitative nature, aiming at data analysis. Research and data collection were carried out in bibliographic databases: Academic Google, Scielo, CAPES journals and institutional repositories using specific descriptors - in Portuguese and English, with words and terms separated by the Boolean operators 'AND' and 'OR'. Some innovative and alternative methods are available to identify the presence of salmonella in food. Immunological and biosensory techniques, despite being less frequent in the scientific literature than molecular methods, are techniques that present high specificity and sensitivity. These techniques have been the most developed alternative methods in fish in recent years. And, they can employ both molecular and immunological techniques in biorecognition, which is characterized as an advantage of not having a requirement for pre-enrichment of the sample. According to the literature found, the techniques covered in this study are quick to respond, which speeds up decision-making by researchers and technicians, which makes the techniques very promising for industrial application.(AU)


A salmonelose é uma enfermidade de maior ocorrência no mundo veiculada por alimentos. No Brasil, alimentos contaminados por salmonelas lideram as estatísticas. Por isso, o objetivo desse estudo é através dos conhecimentos biotecnológicos compilar técnicas alternativas e inovadoras para a detecção de salmonelas em alimentos, como os derivados da piscicultura, as técnicas imunológicas e biossensoriais. Trata-se de um estudo de levantamento de dados descritivo exploratório de de caráter qualitativo, visando à análise dos dados. As pesquisas e coletas de dados foram realizadas nas bases bibliográficas: Google Acadêmico, Scielo, periódicos da CAPES e repositórios institucionais utilizando os descritores específicos - nos idiomas português e inglês, com palavras e termos separados pelos operadores booleanos 'AND' e 'OR'. São disponibilizados alguns métodos inovadores e alternativos para identificação da presença de salmonelas em alimentos. As técnicas imunológicas e biossensoriais, apesar de serem menos frequentes na literatura científica do que os métodos moleculares são técnicas que apresentaram elevada especificidade e sensibilidade. Essas técnicas têm sido os métodos alternativos mais desenvolvidos em peixes nos últimos anos. E, podem empregar tanto técnicas moleculares como imunológicas no biorreconhecimento, o que se caracteriza como vantagem de não haver requerimento de pré-enriquecimento da amostra. Conforme a literatura encontrada, as técnicas abordadas por esse estudo apresentam rapidez de resposta o que agiliza as tomadas de decisões dos pesquisadores e técnicos, o que torna as técnicas bastante promissora para aplicação industrial.(AU)


La salmonelosis es la enfermedad transmitida por alimentos más común del mundo. En Brasil, los alimentos contaminados por salmonelas lideran las estadísticas. Por tanto, el objetivo de ese estudio fue a través de conocimientos biotecnológicos recopilar técnicas alternativas e innovadoras para la detección de salmonelas en los alimentos, como los derivados de la piscicultura, las técnicas inmunológicas y biosensoriales. Se trata de una encuesta de datos exploratorio descriptivo de carácter cualitativo, cuyo objetivo es el análisis de datos. Las investigaciones y recopilaciones de datos se realizaron en bases de datos bibliográficas: Google Académico, Scielo, revistas CAPES y repositorios institucionales utilizando descriptores específicos, en portugués e inglés, con palabras y términos separados por los operadores booleanos 'AND' y 'OR'. Se encuentran disponibles algunos métodos innovadores y alternativos para identificar la presencia de salmonela en los alimentos. Las técnicas inmunológicas y biosensoriales, a pesar de ser menos frecuentes en la literatura científica que los métodos moleculares, son técnicas de alta especificidad y sensibilidad. Esas técnicas han sido los métodos alternativos más desarrollados en peces en los últimos años. Y pueden emplear técnicas tanto moleculares como inmunológicas en el biorreconocimiento, que se caracteriza por la ventaja de no tener un requisito de preenriquecimiento de la muestra. Según la literatura encontrada, las técnicas abordadas en este estudio son de rápida respuesta, lo que agiliza la toma de decisiones por parte de investigadores y técnicos, lo que hace que las técnicas sean muy prometedoras para la aplicación industrial.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Salmonella , Salmonella Infections , Immunologic Techniques , Sensitivity and Specificity , Fisheries , Food Microbiology , Data Analysis
7.
Journal of Rural Medicine ; : 286-288, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906917

ABSTRACT

A 57-day-old boy presented with fever, watery diarrhea, and anorexia and was admitted with suspected acute gastroenteritis. His laboratory data suggested low-level inflammation and cholestasis. His stool culture was positive for Salmonella Litchfield. With suspicion of bacterial infection, the patient received intravenous ampicillin for 5 days. On the fifth day after admission, his inflammatory and cholestasis markers normalized, and he was discharged from the hospital in good condition. His family kept five Japanese pond turtles as pets for one year. As Salmonella Litchfield was isolated from a swab sample of the turtle’s body. The patient was diagnosed with turtle-associated salmonellosis. In conclusion, families, particularly those with infants, should avoid keeping turtles in their homes. Pet shop owners and public health authorities must provide appropriate information regarding Salmonella in turtles.

8.
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1347975

ABSTRACT

Salmonellosis is a foodborne disease (FBD) that affects public health and can cause death in people. Many outbreaks of Salmonellosis have been reported due to the contamination of raw milk and dairy products with the pathogen. To determine the prevalence of Salmonella spp. in milk samples from four dairy herds in the Sabana of Bogotá in 2017, 112 milk samples were taken directly from the mammary gland during milking. All milk samples were cultured and tested to isolate and identify Salmonella spp. using microbiological and molecular methods. Salmonella spp. prevalence of milk samples was found to be 20.5% (n=23). The main Salmonella serovars isolated were S. Newport (60.87%), S.Typhimurium (17.4%), S. Virchow, S. Bredeney, and S. Anatum (4.3% each one of the serovars). However, it was not possible to determine the Salmonella serotype in two isolates. The prevalence of Salmonella spp. in milk has not been studied extensively in Colombia. The 20.5% in the prevalence might be due to fact that the sample was taken directly from the mammary gland allowing a better chance of isolation by avoiding the dilutional effect of mixed milk from different cows in the buckets. This also suggests that the infection of the udder could have occurred by hematogenous dissemination or by milking machine contamination. This study highlights the need to implement measures to prevent contamination and reduce the problem in the herds, which will result in milk and dairy products with high standards of innocuity and quality and decrease the risk of foodborne illness(AU)


A salmonelose é uma doença transmitida por alimentos que afeta a saúde pública e pode causar a morte de pessoas. Muitos surtos de salmonelose têm sido relatados devido à contaminação de leite cru e produtos lácteos com o patógeno. Para determinar a prevalência de Salmonella spp. em amostras de leite de quatro rebanhos leiteiros na Sabana de Bogotá em 2017, cento e doze amostras de leite foram colhidas diretamente da glândula mamária durante a ordenha. Todas as amostras de leite foram cultivadas para isolar e identificar Salmonella spp. usando métodos microbiológicos e moleculares. A prevalência de Salmonella spp. nas amostras de leite foi de 20,5% (n = 23). Os principais sorovares de Salmonellaidentificados foram S. Newport (60,87%), S. Typhimurium (17,4%), S. Virchow, S. Bredeney e S. Anatum (4,3% cada um dos sorovares). No entanto, não foram determinados os sorovares de dois isolados. A prevalência de Salmonella spp. no leite ainda não foi extensivamente estudada na Colômbia. Os 20,5% na prevalência podem ser devidos ao fato de a amostra ter sido colhida diretamente da glândula mamária, permitindo uma melhor chance de isolamento, evitando o efeito de diluição do leite misto de diferentes vacas nos baldes, o que pode indicar infecção do úbere pela disseminação hematogênica ou por contaminação da ordenhadeira. Este estudo destaca a necessidade da implementação de medidas destinadas a prevenir a contaminação e reduzir o problema nos rebanhos, resultando em leite e produtos lácteos com altos padrões de inocuidade e qualidade, diminuindo o risco de doenças de origem alimentar.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Salmonella/isolation & purification , Cattle/microbiology , Zoonoses , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Salmonella Infections
9.
Ciênc. rural (Online) ; 51(3): e20200459, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153854

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Salmonellosis is a bacterial disease that affects several domestic animal species, and is commonly diagnosed in cattle, horses, and pigs. This study aimed to describe the epidemiological and pathological findings of eleven cases of enteric salmonellosis and two cases of salmonellosis with pulmonary involvement in cattle in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. Clinical signs included fever, yellow diarrhea, sometimes with blood streaks, and dyspnea, with a clinical course ranging from 1 to 30 days. Eight cases occurred as outbreaks, whereas five cases occurred individually. Risk factors included inadequate handling practices, such as overcrowded facilities and comorbidities, including anaplasmosis. The main gross finding of the enteric presentation was fibrinonecrotic enterocolitis, occasionally associated with button ulcers, mesenteric lymphadenomegaly, splenomegaly, cholecystitis and hepatomegaly. In addition, one steer with a chronic clinical progression presented severe segmental thickening of the ileum, associated with intestinal rupture and peritonitis. In the respiratory system, the main findings were reddened, non-collapsed lungs, with multifocal areas of atelectasis. The main microscopic findings were observed in the small and large intestines, and these were characterized by severe necrosis and mucosal ulceration, associated with marked inflammatory infiltrate of neutrophils and fibrin deposition intermixed by rod-shaped bacterial aggregates, and fibrosis, as well as interstitial pneumonia. Seven cases yielded positive bacterial cultures for Salmonella spp. and three serovars, namely Typhimurium, Dublin, and Panama were identified. All cases exhibited immunolabeling for Salmonella spp. using immunohistochemistry.


RESUMO: Salmonelose é uma doença bacteriana que afeta inúmeras espécies animais, especialmente os bovinos, os equinos e os suínos. O presente estudo teve como objetivo descrever os aspectos epidemiológicos e patológicos de onze casos de salmonelose entérica e dois de salmonelose pulmonar em bovinos no estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Os sinais clínicos incluíram febre, diarreia amarelada, por vezes com estrias de sangue, anorexia, perda de peso e dispneia, com curso clínico que variou de um a 30 dias. Em oito casos, a doença ocorreu em forma de surtos e cinco foram individuais. Identificou-se fatores de risco relacionados ao manejo inadequado com os bovinos, como alta lotação, além de comorbidades associadas, como anaplasmose. Os principais achados macroscópicos da forma entérica consistiram em enterocolite fibrinonecrótica, por vezes associada a formação de úlceras botonosas, linfonodos mesentéricos e baço aumentados, colecistite e hepatomegalia. Ainda, um bovino com quadro clínico crônico apresentou acentuado espessamento segmentar da parede do íleo associado a ruptura intestinal e peritonite. Na forma respiratória, os principais achados incluíram pulmões não colabados, avermelhados, com áreas multifocais de atelectasia. Os principais achados microscópicos foram observados no intestino delgado e grosso e foram caracterizados por acentuada necrose e ulceração da mucosa, associada a acentuado infiltrado inflamatório de neutrófilos e deposição de fibrina entremeada por agregados bacterianos cocobacilares e fibrose, além de pneumonia intersticial. Sete casos foram positivos para Salmonella sp. no cultivo bacteriano, com identificação dos sorovares Typhimurium, Dublin e Panama. Ao exame imuno-histoquímico para Salmonella sp. todos os casos apresentaram marcação positiva nos órgãos avaliados.

10.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(4): 1353-1362, July-Aug. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1131515

ABSTRACT

Objetivou-se avaliar características de virulência, perfil de resistência antimicrobiana e padrão de similaridade genética de 71 cepas de Salmonella Minnesota isoladas na cadeia produtiva de frangos de corte, entre 2009 e 2010, em duas unidades de uma empresa (A e B). Os isolados foram sorotipificados e submetidos ao teste de susceptibilidade antimicrobiana pelo teste de difusão em disco. Utilizando-se PCR, foi avaliada a presença dos genes invA, lpfA, agfA e sefA e os genes de resistência aos betalactâmicos (bla TEM , bla SHV e bla CTX-M ). A relação filogenética foi determinada por RAPD-PCR. Os maiores percentuais de resistência foram para tetraciclina e sulfonamida. Foram reconhecidos oito perfis de resistência aos antimicrobianos entre as cepas isoladas na indústria A, e 11 perfis de resistência na indústria B. Do total de cepas, 100% foram positivas para o gene invA, 98,6% para o gene agfA, 49,3% para o gene lpfA e nenhuma para o gene sefA. Três cepas foram positivas para o gene bla TEM (4,2%) e 11 (15,5%) para o gene bla CTX-M . A avaliação filogenética demonstrou a presença de sete clusters com similaridade superior a 80% e três perfis distintos. Com base no dendrograma, observou-se a disseminação de um mesmo perfil em ambas as empresas.(AU)


The aim of this study was to evaluate virulence characteristics, antimicrobial resistance profile and the pattern of genetic similarity of 71 strains of Salmonella Minnesota isolated in the production chain of broilers between 2009 and 2010, into two units of a company (A and B). Isolates were serotyped and submitted to antimicrobial susceptibility by disk diffusion test. Using PCR, the presence of genes invA, lpfA, agfA and sefA and the genes conferring resistance to beta-lactam (blaTEM, blaSHV and blaCTX-M) were evaluated. The phylogenetic relationship was determined by the RAPD-PCR method. The highest percentages of resistance were to tetracycline and sulfonamide. Eight antimicrobial resistance profiles were recognized among strains isolated in industry A, and 11 resistance profiles in industry B. Of all strains of both industries, 100% were positive for the invA gene, 98.6% to agfA gene, 49.3% for lpfA gene, and no strain showed the sefA gene. Three strains were positive for the gene blaTEM (4.2%), 11 (15.5%) for the blaCTX-M gene. Phylogenetic evaluation showed the presence of seven clusters with similarity greater than 80% and three distinct profiles. Based on the dendrogram we observed the spread with similar profiles in both companies.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Poultry , Salmonella , Salmonella Infections, Animal/epidemiology , Chickens , Virulence Factors , Virulence , Zoonoses/prevention & control , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Disease Susceptibility
11.
Bol. venez. infectol ; 31(1): 25-28, ene-jun 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1123248

ABSTRACT

Los distintos serotipos de Salmonella han sido involucrados generalmente en infecciones gastrointestinales. Las complicaciones pulmonares tanto la neumonía como el empiema son consideradas muy raras y generalmente se presentan en hospederos con alteraciones del sistema inmunológico o con enfermedades predisponentes. Se reporta el caso de una niña de 7 años de edad sin enfermedad previa y sin síntomas gastrointestinales, quien presentó fiebre, tos productiva y dificultad respiratoria progresiva. La radiografía mostró una zona de opacidad de compromiso pulmonar total derecho con desplazamiento del cardiomediastino hacia la izquierda. Se realizó toracentesis con colocación inmediata de sonda de drenaje torácico; del líquido pleural se aisló Salmonella no Typhi. Recibió tratamiento endovenoso con ceftazidima y ciprofloxacina por 12 días, seguido de 12 días más de trimetoprim/sulfametoxazol de forma ambulatoria. Este es el primer reporte para el país, del asilamiento de Salmonella no Typhi relacionado con enfermedad respiratoria severa en una paciente inmunológicamente competente.


The different serotypes of Salmonella have been generally involved in gastrointestinal infections, pulmonary complications both pneumonia and empyema are considered very rare and usually occur in hosts with alterations of the immune system or with predisposing diseases. We report the case of a 7-year-old girl without previous illness and without gastrointestinal symptoms, who presented fever, productive cough and progressive respiratory difficulty. The radiograph showed a zone of opacity of right total pulmonary involvement with displacement of the cardiomediastinum to the left. Thoracentesis was performed with immediate thoracic drainage tube replacement; of the pleural fluid was isolated Salmonella no Typhi. She received intravenous treatment with ceftazidime and ciprofloxacin for 1 days, followed by 12 days of trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole on an outpatient basis. This is the first report for the country, of the isolation of Salmonella non Typhi related to severe respiratory disease in an immunologically competent patient.

12.
Arq. Inst. Biol ; 87: e0462019, 2020. tab
Article in English | VETINDEX, LILACS | ID: biblio-1145888

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to review aspects of Salmonella spp. in free-living birds and their potential as disseminators for domestic animals, man, and the environment. Isolation of Salmonella spp. have been reported in several species of wild birds from Passeridae and Fringillidae, among other avian families, captured in countries of North America and Europe, where Salmonella ser. Typhimurium is the most frequently reported serotype. The presence of pathogens, including Salmonella, may be influenced by several factors, such as diet, environment, exposure to antibiotics, infection by pathogenic organisms and migration patterns. Researches with wild birds that live in urbanized environment are important, considering that birds may participate in the transmission of zoonotic pathogens, which are more prevalent in cities due to the human activity. Based on the information collected, this article concludes that wild birds are still important disseminators of pathogens in several geographic regions and may affect man, domestic animals, and other birds.(AU)


O objetivo deste estudo foi realizar uma revisão acerca da Salmonella spp. em aves de vida livre e o potencial delas como disseminadores para animais domésticos, homem e meio ambiente. Casos na literatura relatando Salmonella spp. têm sido descritos em diversas espécies de aves silvestres da família Passeridae e Fringilidae em países da América do Norte e Europa, sendo Salmonella ser. Typhimurium o sorotipo relatado mais frequentemente. A presença de patógenos como Salmonella spp. pode ser influenciada por fatores como dieta, ambiente onde vive, contaminação por antibióticos, infecção por organismos patogênicos e padrões de migração. Pesquisas envolvendo as aves silvestres que vivem em ambiente urbanizado são importantes, pois as aves podem possibilitar a transmissão de patógenos zoonóticos que têm maior prevalência em áreas urbanas devido a mecanismos de ação humana. Com base nas informações coletadas, conclui-se que as aves silvestres continuam sendo importantes na disseminação de patógenos em diversas regiões geográficas, podendo afetar o homem, animais domésticos e outras aves silvestres.(AU)


Subject(s)
Salmonella/pathogenicity , Salmonella Infections , Disease Transmission, Infectious , Animals, Domestic , Zoonoses , Urban Area , Communicable Diseases, Emerging , Sparrows , Environment , Serogroup
13.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 39(8): 580-586, Aug. 2019. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1040726

ABSTRACT

Salmonellosis is a known cause of enteric disorders in calves. However, cases in the septicemic form may not present enteric lesions, which may lead the veterinary practitioner to not suspect salmonellosis, compromising the diagnosis. The current study describes the epidemiological, clinical, pathological and immunohistochemical aspects of septicemic salmonellosis in calves without enteric lesions. The protocols involving bovine material submitted to the Pathology Laboratory (LAP) of the "Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia" (FAMEZ) of the "Universidade Federal do Mato Grosso do Sul" (UFMS) from January 1995 to July 2018 were studied. Cases confirmed or suggestive of septicemic salmonellosis in calves without enteric manifestations were selected. Fragments of the liver, lung, and spleen embedded in paraffin were submitted to immunohistochemistry (IHC). Only cases in which there was positive marking on the IHC or culture isolation of Salmonella were included in this study. Of a total of 5,550 cattle examined in the period, ten presented septicemic salmonellosis without enteric lesions. Clinical signs included mucosal pallor, apathy, hyperthermia, and dyspnea. Only three calves presented diarrhea, and two were found dead before clinical changes were observed. The most common necropsy findings were hepatosplenomegaly; yellow, orange or brown discolored livers; pale mucous membranes; inflated and sometimes red lungs; fibrin or fluid within body cavities; and gallbladder filled with inspissated bile. Jaundice was observed in three calves that had a concomitant infection with Anaplasma sp. Microscopically, paratyphoid hepatic nodules and interstitial pneumonia were the most frequent manifestations, followed by thrombosis and bacterial colonies in the spleen, lung, liver, and brain. A strong positive marking was observed in IHC, predominantly in the lung and to a lesser extent in the liver. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) indicated the Dublin serotype as the causative agent in the samples of the four calves submitted to this procedure. In calves, the septicemic form was the major cause of death due to salmonellosis. Septicemic salmonellosis was usually not accompanied by diarrhea. The clinical signs of septicemia are nonspecific and of little assistance in the diagnosis. IHC has been shown to be efficient in the detection of the agent, mainly in the lung and especially in situations where it is not possible to perform bacterial culture.(AU)


A salmonelose é uma causa conhecida de distúrbios entéricos em bezerros. Porém, casos na forma septicêmica podem não apresentar manifestação entérica, o que leva o médico veterinário a não suspeitar de salmonelose, comprometendo o diagnóstico. Este estudo descreve os aspectos epidemiológicos, clínicos, patológicos e imuno-histoquímicos da salmonelose septicêmica em bezerros sem lesões entéricas. O estudo foi realizado a partir dos protocolos referentes a materiais de bovinos enviados para diagnóstico ao Laboratório de Anatomia Patológica (LAP) da Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia (FAMEZ) da Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS) de janeiro de 1995 a julho de 2018. Foram selecionados os casos de bezerros confirmados ou sugestivos de salmonelose septicêmica sem lesões entéricas. Fragmentos de fígado, pulmão e baço embebidos em parafina foram submetidos ao exame de imuno-histoquímica (IHQ). Somente foram incluídos neste estudo casos em que houve marcação positiva na IHQ ou isolamento da bactéria em cultura. De um total de 5.550 bovinos examinados no período, dez apresentaram salmonelose septicêmica sem lesão entérica. Os sinais clínicos incluíram palidez de mucosas, apatia, hipertermia e dispneia. Apenas três bezerros apresentaram diarreia e dois foram encontrados mortos sem terem sido observadas alterações clínicas. Os achados mais frequentes de necropsia foram hepatoesplenomegalia, fígado amarelado, alaranjado ou acastanhado, palidez de mucosas, pulmões inflados e, por vezes, vermelhos, fibrina ou líquido nas cavidades do organismo e vesícula biliar repleta de bile grumosa. Icterícia foi observada em três bezerros que apresentavam infecção concomitante por Anaplasma sp. Microscopicamente, os nódulos paratifoides hepáticos e pneumonia intersticial foram as manifestações mais encontradas, seguidas por trombose e colônias bacterianas no baço, pulmão, fígado e encéfalo. Na IHQ, marcação fortemente positiva foi observada, predominantemente, no pulmão e, em menor intensidade, no fígado. A técnica de reação em cadeia de polimerase (PCR) tipificou o sorotipo Dublin como agente etiológico nas amostras dos quatro bezerros submetidos a este procedimento. Em bezerros, a forma septicêmica foi a principal responsável pelas mortes por salmonelose. Na maioria das vezes essa forma não estava acompanhada por diarreia. Os sinais clínicos da forma septicêmica são inespecíficos e de pouco auxílio no direcionamento do diagnóstico. A IHQ mostrou-se eficiente na detecção do agente principalmente no pulmão e especialmente nas situações em que não é possível a realização da cultura bacteriana.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Salmonella/isolation & purification , Salmonella Infections, Animal/pathology , Salmonella Infections, Animal/epidemiology , Sepsis/veterinary , Immunohistochemistry/veterinary
14.
J Environ Biol ; 2019 Jan; 40(1): 53-50
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-214615

ABSTRACT

Aim: This study was carried out to isolate and study the effectiveness of lytic phage from domestic wastewater to reduce the population of Salmonella spp. in patients suffering from diarrhea and to characterize biological phages. Methodology: The lytic phages from several domestic wastewater were identified using a transmission electron microscope to know morphological phages. After identifying the molecular weight protein by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, to know the effectiveness, the lytic phages were infected to Salmonella spp. from diarrheal disease patients and non-pathogenic Escherichia coli. Phage stability on thermal, pH, and buffer was then analyzed to determine the biological characteristics. Results: Three lytic phages (F-SB1, F-SB2, and F-SB3), successfully isolated from domestic wastewater, showed an icosahedral head with a short or long tail as their morphological characteristic. These phages were morphologically similar to the phages of family Siphoviridae, Myoviridae and Podoviridae. The three isolated lytic phages were stable at 27 °C to 37 °C, pH 4-7 in sodium magnesium buffer and effectively decreased the population of Salmonella spp., however could not lyse E. coli. Interpretation: All the isolated lytic phages in this study can contribute as cocktail phages in decreasing the population Salmonella spp

15.
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine ; (12): 474-483, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-790196

ABSTRACT

Objective: To evaluate the anti-infectious and antioxidant activities of hydroethanolic extract of Canarium schweinfurthii on broiler chickens infected by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, known to be threatening public health. Methods: Animals were divided into six groups of eight animals per group: the normal control group, negative control group, positive control group and three test groups receiving the plant extract at 5, 19 and 75 mg/kg bw, respecively. The evolution of the disease as well as the effectiveness of the treatment were monitored by stool culture from the second day post infection until the end of the treatment. In addition, the effects of treatment on growth performances and feed conversion efficiency of broilers were evaluated. For the assessment of antioxidant status, enzymatic and non-enzymatic biomarkers such as catalase, glutathione peroxidase, malondialdehyde and nitric oxide were evaluated in the serum and tissues of animals. Results: The infected chickens treated with oxytetracycline recovered on day 7 after treatment, while animals treated with 19 and 75 mg/kg of Canarium schweinfurthii extract recovered on day 9 and those with 5 mg/kg of the extract on day 10. Salmonella infection caused a decrease on catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities; the administration of various doses of Canarium schweinfurthii extract increased these enzymatic activities. Animals receiving the extract at 5 mg/kg showed a significant increase in catalase activity in serum, heart and lungs while all concentrations of the extract significantly increased glutathione peroxidase activity in the serum, liver and spleen. Concerning non-enzymatic biomarkers, Salmonella infection caused a significant increase of nitric oxide and malondialdehyde concentration in the liver and lungs. Treatment with 75 mg/kg of the extract significantly reduced nitric oxide concentration in the heart and lungs while each dose of the extract reduced and normalized the malondialdehyde level in the serum. Additionally, malondialdehyde production was significantly decreased in the liver, heart and lungs after administration of Canarium schweinfurthii extract at all doses. Conclusions: The hydroethanolic extract of Canarium schweinfurthii attenuates oxidative stress, and is effective in the treatment of avian salmonellosis.

16.
Ciênc. rural (Online) ; 49(2): 20180788, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1045292

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: The present study aimed to describe and characterize a nosocomial outbreak caused by a multidrug resistant Salmonella Typhimurium in hospitalized calves at a veterinary medical teaching hospital from Brazil. Sixty-three (96.9%) calves showed lethargy, hyperthermia and profuse diarrhea and despite treatment, 26 (41.2%) animals died. Five animals were necropsied and stool samples of six calves were collected. The isolated strains were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility test by disc-difusion method and were fingerprinted by ERIC-PCR. Macroscopic lesions suggestive of salmonellosis, such as fibrinonecrotic enteritis and hepatosplenomegaly were observed. Salmonellosis was confirmed by isolation of S. Typhimurium from stool samples and organs from seven affected animals. Six out of seven isolates of S. Typhimurium, exhibited 100% of similarity at ERIC-PCR, suggesting occurrence of nosocomial transmission of S. Typhimurium among the hospitalized calves. All but one S. Typhimurium isolated were resistant to marbofloxacin, enrofloxacin, florfenicol, oxytetracycline and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, antimicrobial agents largely used for humans and animal treatment. This is the first study of a nosocomial outbreak of multidrug resistant S. Typhimurium in a veterinary hospital in Brazil and highlighted the need for preventive measures to reduce the risks for inpatients and humans in contact with animals.


RESUMO: O objetivo do presente estudo é descrever e caracterizar um surto nosocomial provocado por S. Typhimurium multirresistente em bezerros hospitalizados em um hospital escola de medicina veteriária localizado no Brasil. Sessenta e três (96,9%) bezerros apresentaram letargia, hipertermia e diarreia profusa e, apesar do tratamento, vinte e seis animais (41,2%) morreram. Cinco animais foram necropsiados e amostras fecais de seis bezerros foram coletadas. As estirpes isoladas foram submetidas a testes de susceptibilidade a antimicrobianos pelo método de disco-difusão e foram genotipadas pelo ERIC-PCR. Lesões macroscópicas sugestivas de salmonelose, como enterite fibrinonecrótica e hepatoesplenomegalia, foram observadas. Salmonelose foi confirmada pelo isolamento de S. Typhimurium em amostras fecais e órgãos de sete animais. Dos sete isolados, seis apresentaram 100% de similaridade ao ERIC-PCR, sugerindo ocorrẽncia de transmissão nosocomial de S. Typhimurium entre os bezerros hospitalizados. Com excessão de uma estirpe, todas foram resistentes a marbofloxacina, enrofloxacina, florfenicol, oxitetraciclina e trimetoprima/sulfametoxazol, agentes antimicrobianos amplamente utilizados para o tratamento humano e animal. Esse é o primeiro estudo que demonstra um surto nosocomial de estirpes de S. Typhimurium resistentes a múltiplas drogas em um hospital veterinário no Brasil, enfatizando a necessidade de medidas preventivas que reduzam os riscos aos animais hospitalizados e a pessoas que entrarem em contato com esses animais.

17.
Ciênc. rural (Online) ; 49(8): e20190008, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1045421

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: A 10-day old foal presented with a history of acute recumbency and generalized weakness, that progressed to seizure episodes and death. Post mortem examination revealed necrotizing and purulent omphalophlebitis and fibrinopurulent meningoencephalomyelitis. Salmonella Typhimurium was isolated from the central nervous system and determined to be the cause of the meningoencephalomyelitis. Due to the lack of evidence of gastrointestinal disease, the umbilical cord was considered the most likely portal of entry of the bacteria. The isolated S. Typhimurium was resistant to ampicillin and cephalotin, and partially resistant to enrofloxacin. These drugs are commonly used in the treatment of salmonellosis. This is the first report of S. Typhimurium affecting the brain and spinal cord of a foal. Salmonellosis should be considered a differential diagnosis in foals with neurologic signs, even in the absence of enterocolitis.


RESUMO: Um potro de 10 dias de idade foi admitido com histórico de decúbito e fraqueza generalizada aguda, com progressão para episódios de convulsão e morte. A avaliação post mortem demonstrou onfalite necropurulenta e meningoencefalomielite fibrinopurulenta. Salmonella Typhimurium foi isolada do material purulento coletado do sistema nervoso central. A ausência de diarreia e lesões entéricas associadas à presença de onfalite sugerem que o umbigo foi possivelmente a porta de entrada do agente. O isolado de S. Typhimurium apresentou resistência a cefalotina e ampicilina e resistência intermediária a enrofloxacina, drogas utilizadas para o tratamento de salmonelose. Este é o primeiro relato de S. Typhimurium levando a alterações encefálicas e medulares em potro. A salmonelose deve ser considerada, portanto, como diagnóstico diferencial em potros neonatos com alterações neurológicas, mesmo na ausência de enterocolite.

18.
Journal of Veterinary Science ; : e24-2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-758914

ABSTRACT

Porcine proliferative enteropathy (PPE) caused by Lawsonia intracellularis (LI) is a global cause for substantial economic losses in the swine industry. Here, we constructed live attenuated Salmonella typhimurium (ST) mutant strains expressing and secreting 4 selected immunogenic LI antigens, namely, optA, optB, Lawsonia flagellin (LfliC), and Lawsonia hemolysin (Lhly); the resultant recombinant strains were designated Sal-optA, Sal-optB, Sal-LfliC, or Sal-Lhly, respectively. Using the BALB/c mouse model, we demonstrate that mice vaccinated once orally, either with a mixture of all 4 recombinant strains or with an individual recombinant strain, show significant (p < 0.05) production of LI-specific systemic immunoglobulin (Ig) G and mucosal IgA responses compared to the Salmonella alone group. Upon restimulation of vaccinated splenocytes with the LI-specific antigens, significant (p < 0.05) and comparable production of interferon-γ responses are found in all vaccinated groups, except the Sal-Lhly group, which shows non-significant levels. Challenge studies were performed in C57BL/6 vaccinated mice. On challenge with the LI (10(6.9) 50% tissue culture infectious dose) 14 days post-vaccination, 20% (1/5) of mice in all vaccinated groups, except Sal-Lhly group, show the presence of the LI-specific genomic DNA (gDNA) in stool samples. In contrast, 40% (2/5) and 60% (3/5) of mice vaccinated with the Sal-Lhly strain and the attenuated Salmonella alone, respectively, were found positive for the LI-specific gDNA. Furthermore, 0% mortality was observed in mice vaccinated against the ST challenge compared to the 30% mortality observed in the unvaccinated control group. In conclusion, we demonstrate that the Salmonella-based LI-vaccines induce LI-specific humoral and cell-mediated immunities, and encompass the potential to offer dual protection against PPE and salmonellosis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , DNA , Flagellin , Immunity, Cellular , Immunoglobulin A , Immunoglobulins , Lawsonia Bacteria , Mortality , Salmonella Infections , Salmonella typhimurium , Salmonella , Swine
19.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 38(11): 2037-2043, Nov. 2018. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-976392

ABSTRACT

The aim of the present study was to investigate the presence of Salmonella spp. in samples collected from beef meat at three points of the slaughter line (after skinning, washing and cooling) at three slaughterhouses in Brazil that export meat. Detection was based on ISO 6579:2002 and confirmed by PCR and qPCR. The isolates were typified using slide agglutination tests and PFGE. The antibiotic sensitivity profile was determined using the disk diffusion method. Contamination was detected in only one slaughterhouse. The overall frequency of contamination by Salmonella spp. was 6.7% of carcasses (6/90) and 2.6% of carcass surface samples (7/270). All isolates were confirmed by PCR and qPCR. The serological analysis and the PFGE showed a single profile: Typhimurium. The strains demonstrated 100% susceptibility to ampicillin, cefotaxime, ciprofloxacin, chloramphenicol, gentamicin and tetracycline. Positive carcasses after cooling pose a direct risk to consumers, since the meat is considered ready to be marketed after this process.(AU)


O objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar a presença de Salmonella spp. em amostras coletadas de carcaças de bovinos, em três pontos da linha de abate (após a esfola, lavagem e refrigeração) de três frigoríficos exportadores no Brasil. A detecção foi realizada pela ISO 6579:2002, e confirmada por PCR e qPCR. Os isolados foram tipificados por testes de soroaglutinação e PFGE e avaliado o perfil de sensibilidade aos antibióticos pelo método de difusão em disco. A contaminação foi detectada em apenas um abatedouro-frigorífico. As contaminações das carcaças (n=90) e amostras de carne (n=270) por Salmonella spp. foram 6 (6,7%) e 7 (2,6%), respectivamente. Todos os isolados foram confirmados por PCR e qPCR. A análise sorológica e o PFGE mostraram um único perfil: Typhimurium. As cepas apresentaram 100% de suscetibilidade à ampicilina, cefotaxima, ciprofloxacina, cloranfenicol, gentamicina e tetraciclina. As carcaças positivas após a refrigeração apresentam um risco direto para o consumidor, uma vez que, após este processo, a carne está pronta para ser comercializada.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Salmonella Infections , Salmonella typhimurium , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Cattle Diseases/microbiology , Cattle Diseases/epidemiology , Meat Industry , Red Meat/microbiology , Food Microbiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Abattoirs
20.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 70(2): 637-640, mar.-abr. 2018.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-910980

ABSTRACT

The maintenance of wild animals in captivity can be a source for transmission of infectious and zoonotic diseases. In February 2016, blue-fronted amazon parrots that were kept at the Centro de Reabilitação de Animais Silvestres (CRAS) of Campo Grande - MS died suddenly. The specimens were sent to the Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS), Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia (FAMEZ) to be necropsied. Anatomopathological exams were performed and organ fragments from all systems were collected for histopathological exams. Liver and spleen fragments were also collected for bacteriological exams. Histopathological exam revealed bacterial aggregates distributed through the organs. Bacteriological exam isolated Salmonella spp. from the fragments of liver and spleen. The confirmation of the genus was made by serum agglutination on slide and by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The genetic sequencing identified the sample as Salmonella Typhimurium.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Amazona/microbiology , Salmonella Infections/microbiology , Salmonella typhimurium/pathogenicity , Polymerase Chain Reaction/veterinary
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