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1.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-218531

ABSTRACT

Introduction: An ideal clearing agent should remove alcohol from the tissue specimens to enable the penetration of paraffin wax which provides sturdiness to the tissue specimen. Xylene has toxic effects and is still used because of its accurate clearing property and maintaining the staining quality. Natural alternatives to xylene provide a less toxic environment for histopathological technicians. Aim: The study is to evaluate the accuracy of clarified butter as xylene substitute in routine histopathological tissue processing procedure. Materials and Methods: 40 paired soft tissue specimens were obtained from the Department of Oral pathology and microbiology and subjected to routine histopathological tissue processing with xylene and ghee as clearing agents. Post processing, the tissue specimens were immersed in paraffin wax overnight, embedded, sectioned and stained using hematoxylin and eosin. Histopathological criteria namely nuclear staining, cytoplasmic staining, artefacts and background staining were evaluated and the scores were tabulated and statistical analysis was done using SPSS version 20 by IBM. Results: Our study results showed that tissue specimens processed in xylene and ghee had similar nuclear staining. In cytoplasmic staining, tissue specimens processed in ghee had superior results than xylene processing. Artefacts were present more in xylene processing than ghee processing. Background staining was more appreciated in xylene processed tissue specimens than ghee processing. Conclusion: Substituting xylene with ghee showed better results as a clearing agent in routine histopathological tissue processing. Ghee as a clearing agent is non toxic, cost effective compared to xylene and a safer alternative.

2.
Acta Anatomica Sinica ; (6): 132-136, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1015371

ABSTRACT

Objective To look for a tissue paraffin embedding method that can replace xylene transparent agent. Methods The mixture of N-butanol and turpentine was used to replace the role of anhydrous ethanol and xylene in the process of conventional paraffin embedding. The brain, kidney, stomach, liver and duodenum of multiple cerebral infarction model rats were embedded in paraffin. Finally, the new dehydration procedure was evaluated according to the effect of paraffin section, HE staining and immunohistochemical result . Results The mixture of N-butanol and turpentine could replace not only the dehydration effect of anhydrous ethanol but also the transparency effect of xylene in the conventional paraffin embedding process. The tissue sections treated with the mixture of N-butanol and turpentine were smooth, and the tissue did not become brittle or hard; After HE staining, the nucleus and cytoplasm of the new dehydrated tissue were distinct, and the chromaticity, color and transparency of the tissue were not different from those of the conventional dehydration procedure; Immunohistochemical staining was performed on different tissues of rats, and the comparison result were no different from conventional embedded tissue immunohistochemical staining. Conclusion N-butanol combined with turpentine for tissue dehydration can not only avoid the toxic effect of xylene on human, but also reduce the tissue damage caused by excessive dehydration of anhydrous alcohol.

3.
Biomedical and Environmental Sciences ; (12): 290-298, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878361

ABSTRACT

Objective@#This study was designed to conduct a retrospective and systematic occupational health risk assessment (OHRA) of enterprises that used benzene, toluene, and xylene (BTX) in Shanghai, China.@*Methods@#All data for the study were obtained from 1,705 occupational health examination and evaluation reports from 2013 to 2017, and a semiquantitative model following Chinese OHRA guidelines (GBZ/T 298-2017) was applied for the assessment.@*Results@#The selected enterprises using BTX were mainly involved in manufacturing of products. Using the exposure level method, health risk levels associated with exposure to BTX were classified as medium, negligible, or low. However, the risk levels associated with benzene and toluene were significantly different according to job types, with gluers and inkers exhibiting greater health risks. For the same job type, the health risk levels assessed using the comprehensive index method were higher than those using the exposure level method.@*Conclusion@#Our OHRA reveals that workers who are exposed to BTX still face excessive health risk. Additionally, the risk level varied depending on job categories and exposure to specific chemicals. Therefore, additional control measures recommended by OHRA guidelines are essential to reduce worker exposure levels.


Subject(s)
Humans , Air Pollutants, Occupational/analysis , Benzene/analysis , China , Occupational Exposure/adverse effects , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Toluene/analysis , Xylenes/analysis
4.
Colomb. med ; 51(1): e3646, Jan.-Mar. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1124610

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Car painters are routinely exposed to organic solvents classified as carcinogenic and mutagenic substances. Objective: To characterize the population susceptibility and evaluate the genotoxic effects of exposure to organic solvents. Methods: A cross-sectional study comparing a group of car painters exposed to organic solvents with a non-exposed group. CYP2E1 polymorphisms and the presence of micronuclei in lymphocytes were determined. Results: One hundred twenty-two workers participated in the study: 62 who worked in car paint shops and were exposed to solvents, and 60 who were not exposed. There were statistically significant differences between the two groups regarding micronucleated cells and nucleoplasmic bridges frequencies (p=0.042 and p=0.046, respectively; exact likelihood ratio). Significant differences were found at the interaction between the CYP2E1 genotype c1c1 and occupational exposure to solvents, with higher frequencies of micronuclei (p= 0.013) and micronucleated cells (p= 0.015). However, when the frequencies of micronuclei, micronucleated cells and nucleoplasmic bridges in the exposure group were compared between the c1c1 and c2c2/c1c2 allele groups of the CYP2E1 polymorphism, statistically significant differences were found. Conclusions: This study confirms that when workers with CYP2E1 polymorphisms, specifically the c1c1 genotype, are exposed to organic solvents, they are more likely to have somatic cell mutations, a condition associated with increased susceptibility to diseases such as cancer


Resumen Introducción: Los pintores de vehículos automotores están rutinariamente expuestos a agentes como los solventes orgánicos, capaces de producir efectos mutágenos y carcinógenos. Objetivo: Caracterizar la susceptibilidad poblacional y evaluar los efectos genotóxicos debidos a la exposición a solventes orgánicos. Métodos: Estudio de corte transversal que comparó a un grupo de pintores de carros expuestos a solven tes orgánicos con un grupo de personas no expuestas. Fueron determinados tanto los polimorfismos de CYP2E1 como la presencia de micronúcleos en linfocitos. Resultados: Participaron 122 personas, 62 trabajadores de talleres de pintura de autos expuestos a solventes y 60 personas no expuestas. Con relación al cuestionario Q 16, 32% de los expuestos refirieron síntomas sugestivos de neurotoxicidad. Las frecuencias de células micronucleadas y de puentes nucleoplásmicos fueron significativamente mayores en los expuestos que en los no expuestos: p= 0.042 y p= 0.046, respectivamente, Razón de verosimilitud exacta). Fueron halladas diferencias significativas en la interacción de CYP2E1 (c1c1) y la exposición ocupacional a solventes, con mayores frecuencias de micronúcleos (p= 0.013) y de células micronucleadas (p= 0.015). Conclusiones: Este estudio reafirma que los trabajadores expuestos a solventes orgánicos con polimorfismos de CYP2E1, específicamente con genotipo c1c1, tienen mayor probabilidad de presentar mutaciones en las células somáticas, condición asociada con una mayor susceptibilidad a enfermedades como el cáncer


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Paint/toxicity , Solvents/toxicity , Carcinogens/toxicity , Occupational Exposure/adverse effects , Cytochrome P-450 CYP2E1/genetics , Polymorphism, Genetic , Automobiles , Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length , Lymphocytes/drug effects , Lymphocytes/ultrastructure , Micronucleus Tests/methods , Case-Control Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Colombia , Neurotoxicity Syndromes/diagnosis , Alleles , Personal Protective Equipment , Mutagenicity Tests
5.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-196332

ABSTRACT

Good paraffin sections are key to correct histopathological diagnosis. Xylene is hazardous to health, expensive, and difficult to dispose. Various substitutes have been tried without success. We aimed to examine if 1.7% dishwasher soap (DWS) aqueous solution and refined mineral oil (RMO) for deparaffinization can replace xylene. Fifty tissue blocks consisting of benign and malignant lesions were processed using xylene (A), 1.7% DWS (B), and RMO (C). Each section was evaluated, scored as 0 (inadequate) and 1 (adequate) by two independent pathologists who were blinded to agent used. Following criteria were considered: nuclear staining, cytoplasmic staining, clarity, crispness, and uniformity. Total score of <2 was graded as inadequate for diagnosis and 3–5 as adequate. Statistical analysis was done using the SPSS software by applying chi-square test. Among three methods, B had the best scores in adequacy for cytoplasmic staining (P = 0.001), clarity (P = 0.004), and crispness (P = 0.003). About 1.7% DWS and RMO were found to be effective methods for deparaffinization and can replace xylene.

6.
West Indian med. j ; 68(2): 129-135, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1341857

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: Despite the presence of multitude of synthetic drugs against fever and inflammation, none has been proven entirely safe. In contrast, the accepted safety of plant derived natural products is inspiring the world. Based on this fact as well as in view of the diversified activities reported from the genus Gymnosporia, the present study was designed to evaluate the antipyretic and anti-inflammatory activity of Gymnosporia royleana (G royleana). Methods: The methanolic extract of the aerial parts of G royleana was screened for in-vivo antipyretic activity using the brewer's yeast-induced pyrexia mice model and for anti-inflammatory activity using the carrageenan-induced paw oedema and xylene-induced ear oedema mice model. Results: In the antipyretic assay, G royleana extract showed considerable antipyretic activity in a dose dependent fashion. Statistically significant antipyretic effects (p < 0.05) were observed at the end of the second hour of administration for all doses of extract and remained significant until the end of the experiment. The plant extract also displayed promising anti-inflammatory activity, in a dose dependent fashion, in both models of inflammation ie carrageenan- and xylene-induced oedema models, when compared to the controls. In the carrageenan-induced oedema model, significant effects (p < 0.01) were observed for 300 and 600 mg/kg doses after 60 minutes of xylene administration (ie 55.51% and 65.88% inhibition of oedema, respectively). Conclusion: The study provided evidence supporting the antipyretic and anti-inflammatory activity of the G royleana methanolic extract.


RESUMEN Objetivo: A pesar de la presencia de multitud de fármacos sintéticos en el arsenal contra la fiebre y la inflamación, ninguno ha dado pruebas de ser completamente seguro. En contraste con ello, la seguridad aceptada de los productos naturales derivados de las plantas inspira al mundo. Sobre la base de este hecho, así como en vista de las actividades diversificadas que se reportan con respecto al género Gymnosporia, el presente estudio se diseñó con el objeto de evaluar el potencial antipirético y antiinflamatorio de Gymnosporia royleana (G royleana). Métodos: El extracto de metanol de las partes aéreas de G royleana fue tamizado en busca de actividad antipirética in vivo, utilizando el modelo de pirexia inducida por levadura de cerveza en ratones, y de actividad antiinflamatoria utilizando modelos de ratones con oedema de las patas inducido mediante carragenina, y oedema de las orejas inducido mediante xileno. Resultados: En el ensayo antipirético, el extracto de G royleana mostró una actividad antipirética considerable en forma dependiente de la dosis. Se observó un efecto antipirético estadísticamente significativo (p < 0.05) en el transcurso de la segunda hora de administración para todas las dosis de extracto y se mantuvo significativo hasta el final del experimento. El extracto de la planta también mostró una actividad antiinflamatoria prometedora, de una manera dependiente de la dosis, en ambos modelos de inflamación, es decir, modelos de oedema inducido por carragenina y xileno, en comparación con el control. En el modelo de oedema inducido por carragenina, se observó un efecto significativo (p < 0.01) para dosis de 300 y 600 mg / kg después de 60 minutos de administración de xileno (es decir, 55.51% y 65.88% de inhibición del oedema, respectivamente). Conclusión: El estudio proporcionó pruebas suficientes sobre el potencial antipirético y antiinflamatorio del extracto de G royleana.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Celastraceae/chemistry , Antipyretics/pharmacology , Fever/drug therapy , Phytotherapy , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Disease Models, Animal , Fever/chemically induced
7.
Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases ; (12): 303-307, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-804936

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To develop a method using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry to determine the urinary metabolites of benzene, toluene and xylene. The selected metabolites are S-phenylmercapturic acid (S-PMA) , trans, trans-muconic acid (t, t-MA) , 8-hydroxy-2 deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) , hippuric acid (HA) , 2-methylhippuric acid (2-MHA) , 3-methylhippuric acid (3-MHA) and 4-methylhippuric acid (4-MHA) .@*Methods@#The urine sample was pretreated using methanol to precipitate the proteins. HSS T3 chromatographic column was used to separate the metabolites. The mass spectrometric acquisition was carried out using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) after ionization with ESI source. External standard method was used for quantification.@*Results@#All the standard curves showed good linear relation, and r of the seven metabolites was all above 0.999. The detection limits and quantitative limits of the seven metabolites were 0.01-500 ng/ml and 0.02-1 000 ng/ml (based on the actual dilution ratio) , respectively. The average spiked recoveries of four loadings ranged from 85.8% to 109.9%. The intra-day and inter-day precisions were 0.2%-4.5% and 0.6%-9.5%, respectively. The samples can be kept for at least 14 days at both 4 ℃ and -20 ℃.@*Conclusion@#This method is simple, rapid and highly sensitive with low cost, and its accuracy, precision and stability can meet the daily test requirements. It can be applied for the determination of urinary S-PMA, t, t-MA, 8-OHdG, HA, 2-MHA, 3-MHA and 4-MHA for the occupational population exposed to benzene, toluene and xylene.

8.
Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases ; (12): 280-283, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-804930

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To learn about the cardiovascular health effects of workers expose to benzene-toluene-xylene and noise in painting workshop of automobile manufacturing enterprises, and to provide intervention measures and strategies for the health of workers.@*Methods@#The effects of noise exposure, benzene-toluene-xylene exposure and combined exposure on workers' blood pressure and electrocardiogram were analyzed through epidemiological investigation, workplace monitoring and occupational health examination in several automobile enterprises which had carried out occupational hazard factors monitoring and occupational health examination in our hospital from April to October 2017.@*Results@#There were differences in age, sex, working years, smoking, drinking and physical exercise among workers in different exposure groups (P<0.05) . The systolic blood pressure level of workers in benzene-toluene-xylene exposure group and combined exposure group was significantly different comparing with control group (P< 0.05) , After the factors of age and working years were adjusted. The abnormity rate of electrocardiogram in workers were not statistically significant in all groups (P>0.05) .@*Conclusion@#The benzene-toluene-xylene exposure and noise combined with benzene-toluene-xylene exposure in painting workshop of automobile manufacturing enterprises has positive influence on the systolic blood pressure of workers. Regular physical examination and health intervention measures should be strengthened to improve health.

9.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-198326

ABSTRACT

Aim: To compare the efficacy of dish wash solution, diluted lemon water, coconut oil and xylene as deparaffinizingagents for hematoxylin and eosin staining procedure.Objective: The objective is to find eco-friendly deparaffinizing agents like dish wash solution, diluted lemonwater and coconut oil as substitute to xylene and comparing the staining characteristics of each individualdeparaffinizing agent with Xylene.Materials and Methods: The study comprised of paraffin embedded 45 blocks of various tissues. Each block offour sections of 5 microns thickness was prepared. They were considered in four different groups like A, B, C andD. Tissue sections in Group A were stained with H & E method where xylene was used as deparaffinizing agent. Theother three sections were stained with H & E where dish wash solution, diluted lemon water and coconut oil wereused as deparaffinising agent’s alternative to Xylene. Staining characteristics were compared with xylene andscoring was given. The total score of 3–5 was regarded as satisfactory for diagnosis and less than that isinsufficient for diagnosis.Statitistical Analysis: Chi square test was used.Results: Adequacy of staining characteristics such as nuclear, cytoplasm, uniformity, clarity and crispiness ofstaining for diagnosis was greater with dish wash solution followed by diluted lemon water, coconut oil andxylene.Conclusion: The Eco-Friendly deparaffinizing agents such as dish wash solution, diluted lemon water, and coconutoil can be used as alternatives to xylene

10.
Malaysian Journal of Medicine and Health Sciences ; : 63-70, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-750604

ABSTRACT

@#Introduction: This study aimed to identify the exposure levels of traffic air pollutants specifically PM10, benzene, toluene, and xylene (BTX) among traffic policemen and the risks to their respiratory health. A cross-sectional comparative study was conducted among 42 traffic policemen and 42 desk-bound policemen as the exposed and comparative groups respectively. Methods: The questionnaire adapted from the American Thoracic Society for Adult Respiratory Health Disease (ATS-DLD) to obtain socio-demographic and respiratory symptoms data. A spirometer (Chestgraph Hi-105) was used to perform lung function test. A personal air sampling pump was used to measure the personal exposure level to PM10. A Ppbrae 3000 was used to measure the outdoor and indoor concentration of BTX during morning and afternoon peak hours respectively. Results: The mean personal exposure level of PM10 among the traffic policemen was 150.14 ± 130.66 µg/m3 compared to only 84.14 ± 94.11 µg/m3 in the comparative group. The short exposures to BTX at the roadsides were found to be slightly higher in the afternoons than in the mornings. Indoor offices air concentrations were only detectable for benzene while the mornings and afternoons values for toluene and xylene were below the detection limits. A median concentration of benzene documented significantly higher at the selected of sampling roadsides areas (median=0.157 ppm) than indoor office areas (median=0.071 ppm). Conclusion: The respiratory symptoms were significantly higher in the exposed group compared to the comparative group which they were 3.9, 4.1, and 3.5 times more likely to develop cough, wheezing, and breathlessness respectively.

11.
Journal of Jilin University(Medicine Edition) ; (6): 281-285, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-691564

ABSTRACT

Objective:To simulate the pollution environment of indoor decoration volatile pollutants,and to explore the influence of three main indoor decoration volatile pollutants formaldehyde,xylene and ammonia in the male mouse reproductive function.Methods:A total of 20 male ICR mice were randomly divided into experimental group(exposed to 60 mg·m-3formaldehyde,50 mg·m-3xylene and 40 mg·m-3ammonia mixed in the static type canister)and control group(put into the air-filled static type canister)(n=10).Each mouse was weighed at set times every day,exposed for 35 d continuously.The behavior changes of the mice were also observed everyday. The epididymal cauda sperms were collected to detect the sperm density and vitality.The sperm malformation rate was detected by Diff-Quick dyeing method.The apoptotic rate of epididymal cauda sperms was detected by flow cytometry(FCM).Then Western blotting method was used to determine the expression levels of Caspase-9 and Cleaved Caspase-3 proteins in testis tissue of the mice.Results:Four weeks after the exposure to pollutants,the body weight of the mice in experimental group was significantly lower than that in control group(P<0.01).The concentration and vitality of sperm malformation rate of the mice in experimental group were significantly lower than those in control group(P<0.01)35 d after exposure.Compared with control group,the apoptotic rate of sperm of the mice in experimental group was significantly increased(P< 0.01).However,the expression levels of Caspase-9 and Cleaved Caspase-3 in the testis tissue of the mice in experimental group and control group had no significant differences(P>0.05).Conclusion:The main pollutants in indoor decoration can significantly influence the quality of spermatozoa in the epididymis.

12.
Journal of Jilin University(Medicine Edition) ; (6): 281-285, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-841920

ABSTRACT

Objective: To simulate the pollution environment of indoor decoration volatile pollutants, and to explore the influence of three main indoor decoration volatile pollutants formaldehyde, xylene and ammonia in the male mouse reproductive function. Methods: A total of 20 male ICR mice were randomly divided into experimental group (exposed to 60 mg · m-1 formaldehyde, 50 mg · m-1 xylene and 40 mg · m-1 ammonia mixed in the static type canister) and control group (put into the air-filled static type canister) (n=10). Each mouse was weighed at set times every day, exposed for 35 d continuously. The behavior changes of the mice were also observed everyday. The epididymal cauda sperms were collected to detect the sperm density and vitality. The sperm malformation rate was detected by Diff-Quick dyeing method. The apoptotic rate of epididymal cauda sperms was detected by flow cytometry (FCM). Then Western blotting method was used to determine the expression levels of Caspase-9 and Cleaved Caspase-3 proteins in testis tissue of the mice. Results: Four weeks after the exposure to pollutants, the body weight of the mice in experimental group was significantly lower than that in control group (P0.05). Conclusion: The main pollutants in indoor decoration can significantly influence the quality of spermatozoa in the epididymis.

13.
Environmental Health and Toxicology ; : 2017022-2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786717

ABSTRACT

This study utilized the Community Multiscale Air Quality model to simulate the spatial distribution of benzene, toluene, and xylene (BTX) concentrations from large national industrial complexes (IC) located in the Ulsan metropolitan region (UMR). Through controlling pollutant emissions from major IC, this study performed a quantitative analysis of the influence of pollutant emissions on BTX concentrations in surrounding urban areas. The results showed that approximately 40% of the annual average BTX concentrations in nearby urban grids were directly influenced by pollutant emissions from the IC. Seasonal modeling results indicated that average BTX concentrations were high around petrochemical complexes, with higher concentrations in the surrounding urban areas during the summer (July). All three of the BTX pollutants showed similar seasonal differences. Daily contributions differed significantly throughout the modeling period, with some values reaching a maximum of 80% during July. Overall, when urban areas were located downwind of the IC, contributions rose. Moreover, this study compared the differences in BTX contributions at each measurement point within the IC and urban areas, which showed that the influence of the IC emissions decreased significantly with distance. The spatial distribution and direct influence of the IC on BTX concentrations in the UMR identified through this study could be used to provide input data in environmental epidemiological studies.


Subject(s)
Benzene , Epidemiologic Studies , Seasons , Toluene , Xylenes
14.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : 2051-2057, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-158110

ABSTRACT

To determine the relationship between the oral ingestion volume of xylene and methyl hippuric acid (MHA) in urine, we measured MHA in 11 patients whose ingested xylene volume was identified. The best-fit equation between urine MHA and ingested amount of xylene was as follows: y (ingested amount of xylene, mL/kg) = −0.052x² + 0.756x (x = MHA in urine in g/g creatinine). From this equation, we estimated the ingested xylene volume in 194 patients who had ingested pesticide of which the formulation was not available. Our results demonstrated that oxadiazole, dinitroaniline, chloroacetamide, organophosphate, and pyrethroid were xylene-containing pesticide classes, while the paraquat, glyphosate, glufosinate, synthetic auxin, fungicide, neonicotinoid, and carbamate classes were xylene-free pesticides. Sub-group univariate analysis showed a significant association between MHA levels in urine and ventilator necessity in the pyrethroid group. However, this association was not observed in the organophosphate group. Our results suggest that MHA in urine is a surrogate marker for xylene ingestion, and high urine MHA levels may be a risk factor for poor clinical outcome with some pesticide poisoning.


Subject(s)
Humans , Biomarkers , Eating , Indoleacetic Acids , Paraquat , Pesticides , Poisoning , Respiratory Insufficiency , Risk Factors , Ventilators, Mechanical , Xylenes
15.
Int. j. morphol ; 34(3): 934-938, Sept. 2016. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-828965

ABSTRACT

In this study we examined the effects histopathologic and immunohistochemical of xylene inhalation in rats by using light microscopy. Adult wistar albino rats were used in this study. Eight rats were in control group and 8 rats were in the experimental group. The experimental group was exposed to 300 ppm formaldehyde 3­5 min/day, 5 days/week for 8 weeks. The lining epithelium of respiratory mucosa showed a loss of ciliated cells with metaplasia of goblet cells, hyperplasia of squamous cells and edema, inflamation in sub epithelial area). In the group treated xylene. Disruption of cell-cell contact was observed. Weak expression of E-cadherin was observed between cells. The vascular endothelium of capillaries and venoles showed intense immunostaining for VEGF.


Se examinó el efecto histopatológico e inmunohistoquímico de la inhalación de xileno en ratas mediante el uso de microscopía de luz. Se utilizaron ratas albinas Wistar adultas. Ocho ratas formaron parte del grupo control y 8 del grupo experimental. El grupo experimental fue expuesto a 300 ppm de formaldehído, 3­5 min/día, 5 días/semana, durante 8 semanas. El epitelio de revestimiento de la mucosa respiratoria mostró una pérdida de células ciliadas con metaplasia de células caliciformes, hiperplasia de células escamosas y edema, con inflamación en la zona subepitelial. En el grupo tratado con xileno se observó una interrupción del contacto célula-célula. Se observó una débil expresión de E-cadherina entre las células. El endotelio vascular de los capilares y vénulas mostraron intensa inmunotinción de VEGF.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Respiratory Mucosa/drug effects , Respiratory Mucosa/pathology , Xylenes/administration & dosage , Cadherins/drug effects , Immunohistochemistry , Microscopy, Electron , Rats, Wistar , Respiratory Mucosa/ultrastructure , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/drug effects
16.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-174749

ABSTRACT

Background: Embalming is a process used to temporarily preserve a human cadaver to forestall decomposition and make it suitable for display at funerals; thus, are agents that prevent autolysis and putrefaction. The outbreak of maggots from a heap of inadequately embalmed bodies due to deep cuts and bodies involved in inferno, necessitated the need to re-investigate the efficacy of formalin based embalming fluid and its inability to kill maggots. Methodology: Various strength of Formaldehyde, Xylene, Kerosene, and, Lime fluid, Isopropanol, Gamalin 20, Potassium ferrocyanide, and Physiological saline as control were used in the investigation. In the present investigation, Two maggots under the same atmospheric condition were put in each of the ten selected chemical reagents/solutions, including Lime, Kerosene, and the Gamalin 20 that are naturally available were initially dispensed into ten glass universal containers. Maggot movements in each reagent solution were critically observed. Result: Maggots death occurred within the first ten minutes in test number three groups III that contains Concentrated Formalin and Xylene andMaggots died after fifteenminute of the experiment, butmaggots did not died until about eight hours after the test in two of the experiment. Discussion: Results of this investigation showed clearly thatMaggots were not killed as soon as expected by the embalmerwhen ordinary ten percent alcoholic formalin embalming fluid is used. Equal volume of concentrated formalin plus Xylene was found out to be effective at killing maggot instantly. Conclusion: It is therefore advisable to use Xylene plus Conc. Formalin when preserving cadaver infested with Maggot and this could at the same time prevent the occurrence ofMaggots Infestation and better preservation of mass of burnt mutilated corpses in our Mortuary.

17.
Restorative Dentistry & Endodontics ; : 17-23, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-202483

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the efficacy of Endosolv-R and Xylene in softening epoxy resin based sealer after 1 to 2 min exposure. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty Teflon molds (6 mm x 1.5 mm in inner diameter and depth) were equally divided into 3 groups of 20 each. AH 26 (Dentsply/De Trey), AH Plus (Dentsply/De Trey), Adseal (Meta-Biomed) were manipulated and placed in the molds allotted to each group and allowed to set at 37degrees C in 100% humidity for 2 wk. Each group was further divided into 2 subgroups according to the solvents used, i.e. Xylene (Lobachemie) and Endosolv-R (Septodont). Specimens in each subgroup were exposed to respective solvents for 1 and 2 min and the corresponding Vicker's microhardness (HV) was assessed. Data was analysed by Mauchly's test and two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with repeated measures, and one-way ANOVA. RESULTS: Initial hardness was significantly different among the three sealers with AH Plus having the greatest and Adseal having the least. After 2 min, Xylene softened AH Plus and Adseal sealer to 11% and 25% of their initial microhardness, respectively (p < 0.001), whereas AH 26 was least affected, maintaining 89.4% of its initial microhardness. After 2 min, Endosolv-R softened AH 26, AH Plus and Adseal to 12.7, 5.6 and 8.1% of their initial microhardness, respectively (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Endosolv-R was a significantly more effective short term softener for all the tested sealers after 2 min whereas Xylene was an effective short term softener against AH plus and Adseal but less effective against AH 26.


Subject(s)
Fungi , Hardness , Humidity , Polytetrafluoroethylene , Solvents , Xylenes
18.
Indian J Pathol Microbiol ; 2013 Jul-Sept 56 (3): 221-230
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-155873

ABSTRACT

Introduction and Aim: To assess the impact of new alternative solutions to formaldehyde and xylene on tissue processing, 13 different tissue processings were designed and performed on thirteen different tissues by using fi ve different fi xatives (formaldehyde, Glyo-Fixx®, FineFix®, Cell-block®, Green- Fix®) and four different clearing agents (xylene, Sub-X®, Bio-clear®, Shandon Xylene Substitute®). Materials and Methods: Hematoxylin and Eosine stained sections were compared by using qualitative histomorphological criterions. Histochemical and immunohistochemical (IHC) staining results were compared with qualitative and quantitative data obtained by a computer program, respectively. Tissue sections were tested for the availability of chromogenic in situ hybridization, deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA) extraction, and DNA quality by polymerase chain reaction. Results: The quality of sections was well for all tissue processings. All alternative solutions were suitable for histochemistry. IHC staining results showed that alternative solutions that contain glyoxal as active agent need optimization for this application. The clearance of signals with chromogenic in situ hybridization were nearly same and well for all tissue samples. Furthermore, tissue processes that do not contain formaldehyde were found to be superior on preservation of nucleic acids. Conclusion: Formaldehyde-free fi xatives and alternative clearing agents have potential in routine pathology and research to replace formaldehyde and xylene.

19.
Rev. bras. farmacogn ; 22(6): 1301-1307, Nov.-Dec. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-659040

ABSTRACT

Traditionally, the leaves of Annona muricata L., Annonaceae, are used to treat headaches, fever, toothache, cough and asthma. The decoction of the leaves has parasiticide, antirheumatic and antineuralgic effects when used internally, while the cooked leaves, applied topically, fight rheumatism and abscesses. The aim of this study was to investigate acute and chronic anti-inflammatory potential of an ethanolic leaf extract of A. muricata (AML) in animal models. The ethanolic extract of A. muricata leaf extract was prepared and administered orally to experimental animals used. The anti-inflammatory activity was determined by xylene-induced ear edema in mice and Complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA)-induced arthritis in rats. The results demonstrated that AML is effective for both acute and chronic inflammation. It also significantly attenuated both TNF-α and IL-1β levels in CFA-induced arthritis model. Thus, these results have suggested that AML possesses both anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic activities. The findings also suggest that AML presents notable anti-arthritic activity that may be mediated by suppressing pro-inflammatory cytokines.

20.
J Environ Biol ; 2011 Jan; 32(1): 35-38
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-146539

ABSTRACT

Gafrarium divaricatum were exposed to xylene (4.25 and 8.50 mg l-1), benzene (4.35 and 8.70 mg l-1) and gear oil-WSF (1 and 2%) for 30 days. Chronic exposure of clams to the pollutants resulted in loss of bubbling epithelium, reduction in cytoplasm volume and density, fusion of cell membranes and nuclei forming darkly stained area at basal part of the cells. Disintegration of basement membrane due to damaged epithelial cells, disruption of inner lining of tubule, formation of necrotic spaces, separation of epithelial cells from basement membrane, increase in internal luminar area, complete necrosis of epithelial cells as well as occurrence of cell debris in between the tissue were also observed in the clams due to chronic exposure of the toxicants.

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