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Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 56-64, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010110


BACKGROUND@#With the rise of multicolor flow cytometry, flow cytometry has become an important means to detect the immune microenvironment of lung cancer, but most of them are used to detect the proportion of cell subsets or the function of major cell subsets, and they cannot be detected at the same time. Therefore, a reliable 21-color flow cytometry protocol was established to detect the immune cell subsets in human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) tumor tissues.@*METHODS@#Cell membrane surface antibodies cluster of differentiation (CD)45, CD3, CD19, CD4, CD8, programmed cell death 1 (PD-1), CD39, CD103, CD25, CD127, chemokine receptor 8 (CCR8), CD56, CD11c, human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DR, CD38, CD27, CD69, CD62L, CD45RA, CCR7 and nucleic acid dye L/D were used to develop the protocol. Firstly, antibody titration experiments, voltage optimization, subtraction of one color staining and single color staining experiments were carried out for each antibody, and after the experimental conditions and detection schemes were determined, the feasibility of the scheme was verified by using peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) specimens of six healthy adult volunteers. Tumor tissue samples from 6 NSCLC patients were tested and analyzed.@*RESULTS@#The established 21-color flow cytometry protocol was used to detect the tumor tissue samples of 6 NSCLC patients, and the proportion of each cell subset in lung cancer tissue, as well as the immunophenotype and differentiation of the main cell population, were analyzed.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The successfully established 21-color flow cytometry protocol is suitable for the detection of PBMCs and NSCLC tissue samples, which provides an effective new idea for monitoring the immune microenvironment status in lung cancer.

Adult , Humans , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/pathology , Lung Neoplasms/pathology , Flow Cytometry , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/pathology , Lung/pathology , Tumor Microenvironment
Chinese Journal of Laboratory Medicine ; (12): 483-492, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-995754


Objective:To analyze the clinical and laboratory characteristics of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients with NPM1 mutation, and to explore the prognostic factors.Methods:A total of 77 AML patients with NPM1 gene mutation admitted to Hebei Yanda Ludaopei Hospital from May 1st 2012 to December 31st 2021 were enrolled in the study, including 34 male and 43 female patients. The median age was 40 (3, 68) years old. Patients were selected and divided into 4 groups according to the morphological FAB classification. There were 29 cases (37.7%) of M1 type, 13 cases (16.9%) of M2 type, 23 cases (29.9%) of M4 type, and 12 cases (15.5%) of M5 type. The clinical characteristics, bone marrow/peripheral blood cell morphology, immunophenotype, cytogenetics, molecular biology and overall survival of different groups were retrospectively analyzed, and the risk factors affecting the prognosis of AML were also explored. Cox multivariate regression was used to analyze the clinical influencing factors of survival and prognosis.Results:The white blood cell counts were highest in M4 and M5 patients and lowest in M2 patients, while no significant difference in the red blood cell, hemoglobin, and platelet counts( P>0.05). Morphologically, there were significant differences in the percentage of blasts and blasts with cup-like nuclei on bone marrow (BM) and peripheral blood (PB). The proportion of blasts in BM and PB was the highest in M1 and the lowest in M2 ( P<0.001). The positive rate of blasts with cup-like nuclei was the highest in M1 and the lowest in M5 of BM ( P<0.001), while the highest in M2 and the lowest in M5 of PB ( P=0.006). The scores of myeloperoxidase and chloroacetate esterase were all the highest in M1 and the lowest in M5 ( P<0.001, 0.001, respectively). In terms of molecular biology, the occurence rate of blasts combined with DNMT3A mutation was the highest in M4 and the lowest in M2 ( P=0.044), while those combined with FLT3-ITD mutation was the highest in M4 and the lowest in M5 ( P=0.002). In immunophenotype, there were significant differences in the expression positivities of seven antigens including HLA-DR, CD56, CD11c, CD15, CD14, CD96 and cMPO ( P<0.05). Multivariate COX regression analysis showed that no recurrence after treatment ( P<0.001), complete remission after treatment ( P=0.015) and transplantation ( P<0.001) were correlated with overall survival (OS). No recurrence after treatment ( P=0.033), transplantation ( P=0.027), no mutation of FLT3-ITD ( P=0.040), and hemoglobin concentration ( P=0.023) were associated with relapse-free survival (RFS). Survival analysis by Kaplan-Meier curve showed that there was no significant difference in survival time between the M1, M2, M4 and M5 groups in OS and RFS. Conclusion:There were significant differences in the white blood count, the percentage of blasts and blasts with cup-like nuclear morphology, cytochemical staining (MPO integration, CE integration and percentage of NAS-DCE), gene mutation (DNMT3A and FLT3-ITD) and immunophenotypes (HLA-DR, CD56, CD11c, CD15, CD14, CD96 and cMPO) between the four groups. The multivariate analysis revealed that no recurrence after treatment and transplantation were independent prognostic factors in NPM1 mut AML patients. On the other hand, FLT3-ITD mutation and hemoglobin concentration were associated with RFS and complete remission after treatment was associated with OS in the entire NPM1 mut cohort.

Clinical Medicine of China ; (12): 246-250, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-992498


Primary pulmonary mucinous adenocarcinoma is a rare subtype of lung adenocarcinoma. It differs from non-mucinous adenocarcinoma in etiology, pathogenesis, clinical, imaging, histological, immunophenotypic and genotypic features, prognosis and treatment. pulmonary mucinous adenocarcinoma mainly originates from bronchial basal cells and mucous cells. Tumor cells show a goblet and/or columnar cell morphology with abundant intracytoplasmic mucin and basally oriented nuclei, with a typical lepidic-predominant growth, the commonest molecular alterations are KRAS mutations.

Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 1639-1646, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010017


OBJECTIVE@#To analyze the flow immunophenotype and clinical characteristics of leukemia patients with positive SET-CAN fusion gene.@*METHODS@#A total of 7 newly diagnosed acute leukemia patients with SET-CAN fusion gene admitted to Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College of Huazhong University of Science and Technology from February 2016 to February 2020 were collected. Multiplex reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to detect the expression of SET-CAN fusion gene. The immunophenotype was detected by four-color flow cytometry. The case information of 17 literatures published at home and abroad was extracted for statistical analysis.@*RESULTS@#Among the 7 patients, 2 cases were diagnosed as mixed phenotype acute leukemia (MPAL), 2 cases as acute myeloid leukemia (AML), and 3 cases as T-acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL)/lymphoblastic lymphoma (LBL). Leukemia cells in bone marrow specimens of all cases expressed or partially expressed CD34, CD33 and CD7. CD5 and cytoplasmic CD3 were expressed in 5 patients except 2 patients diagnosed with AML. Bone marrow and lymph node specimens were both detected in 2 patients, and the immunophenotypes of the two specimens were not completely consistent, with differences in lineage or maturity related markers. Two patients with MPAL showed differentiated response to treatment. One AML patient gave up treatment, and another AML patient with FLT3-ITD gene mutation had a poor prognosis. All three T-ALL/LBL patients maintained a long duration of remission after induced remission, and one case underwent allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.@*CONCLUSIONS@#There are common characteristics of immunophenotype in patients with positive SET-CAN fusion gene. Differential expression of immunophenotype in samples from different parts is observed in some cases. The prognosis of these diseases varies.

Humans , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/pathology , Bone Marrow/pathology , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/genetics , Antigens, CD34 , Precursor T-Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma , Immunophenotyping
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 1327-1332, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009989


OBJECTIVE@#To analyze the immunological phenotype of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), and explore its characteristics and significance.@*METHODS@#The immunophenotypes of 40 CML children and 40 controls were analyzed by multicolor flow cytometry. CD45/SSC, as the basic gate, was used to delineate neutrophils. Then, the distribution of cluster differentiation (CD) molecules on the surface of granulocytes was analyzed in three ranges (≥1%, ≥5%, and ≥20%), and the expression rates of CD molecules (≥1% included in the statistical analysis) and the mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) were compared between the two groups.@*RESULTS@#The proportion of granulocytes in the CML group was (82.1±6.4)%, which was significantly higher than (57.8±11.8)% in the control group (P <0.001). The expression rates of CD15/CD11b/CD33/CD13 in CML and control groups were high, and both distributed in the range of ≥20%. The differentiation trajectory of CD33/CD13 was normal and there were no significant differences in the expression rate and MFI between the two groups. However, both the expression rate of CD11b and CD15 MFI in the CML group were significantly lower than those in the control group (P <0.001). There were no significant differences in the expression rate and MFI of CD10 between the two groups, and the expression levels of CD10 between the two groups were consistent in different distributions. In the CML group, there was a large number of cases with abnormal high expression of CD56, 52.5% of the cases had a CD56 expression rate of ≥5%, and 42.5% had a CD56 expression rate of ≥20%, while the control group did not express CD56 (<1%). The expression distribution of CD117 was different between the two groups. In the range of expression rate ≥5%, there were 35.0% cases in the CML group, while only 2.5% in the control group. The expression rate of CD117 in the CML group was higher than that in the control group (P <0.001), though there was no significant difference in MFI.@*CONCLUSION@#The immunophenotyping of CML is characterized by increased proportion of mature neutrophils, decreased CD15 MFI, decreased proportion of CD11b and abnormal high expression of CD56 and CD117. Flow cytometric analysis of immunophenotype can effectively distinguish normal granulocytes from chronic granulocytes, and help in the diagnosis of CML.

Child , Humans , Flow Cytometry , Leukemia, Myeloid , Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive/genetics , Granulocytes , Neutrophils , Immunophenotyping
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-225669


Cutaneous T cell lymphomas are mature lymphomas of T lymphocyte presenting with skin lesions and/or systemic manifestations. Majority of these cases show CD4+ phenotype and are classified as Mycosis Fungoides (MF)/Sezary syndrome (SS) spectrum.Here we present a case of 74-year-old male patient, having no known comorbid, presented in Dr. Ziauddin Hospital, Karachi OPD with complains of generalized skin lesions, itching for 2 years, generalized weakness for 4 months and no lymphadenopathy or visceromegaly. CBC showed absolute lymphocytosis and absolute eosinophilia. Some lymphocytes exhibited cerebriform nuclei. CT scan neck, chest and abdomen showed bilateral enlarged superficial inguinal lymph nodes and multiple enlarged bilateral axillary lymph nodes. Skin biopsy was inconclusive. Immunophenotyping of peripheral blood was then performed which showed an aberrant T cell population showing positivity for CD3, CD8, CD2, CD25 and negative for CD4, CD45, CD5, CD30, CD56 with variable expression of CD7. Case was finalized as CD8+ Mycosis Fungoides with peripheral blood involvement.These findings are very rare and highlight the importance of integrated approach to clinical course, morphological findings and other ancillary tests to be used in correlation with each other. These findings also highlight the diversity present in T cell malignancies in terms of immunophenotype.

Rev. cuba. hematol. inmunol. hemoter ; 38(2): e1646, abr.-jun. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1408460


Introducción: Los cambios en el inmunofenotipo de los linfocitos en los pacientes con linfoma no Hodgkin están asociados con el pronóstico y las respuestas terapéuticas. Sin embargo, no se ha establecido sistemáticamente la asociación con la enfermedad y por tanto su contribución al diagnóstico. Objetivo: Evaluar la asociación del inmunofenotipo linfocitario en sangre periférica con la presencia del linfoma no Hodgkin. Métodos: Se analizaron 31 muestras de sangre periférica de pacientes con diagnóstico confirmado de linfoma no Hodgkin y de 68 individuos sanos como controles, durante el período de 2018 a 2020. Se empleó la citometría de flujo multiparamétrica para el inmunofenotipado. Se calculó el área bajo la curva y el índice de Youden para establecer puntos de corte en los porcentajes linfocitarios. La asociación de los cambios inmunofenotípicos con el linfoma no Hodgkin, se realizó mediante cálculos de Odd ratio. Resultados: El aumento de linfocitos TCD8+ y NKCD56opaco se asoció significativamente con la presencia de linfoma no Hodgkin (OR= 3,4 y 2,9; respectivamente). Por el contrario, la disminución de linfocitos TCD4+, T doble positivo, T doble negativo y NKCD56brillante también se asoció con la existencia de linfoma no Hodgkin (OR= 23,0; 10,7; 6,9 y 15,8; respectivamente). Además, la disminución del índice CD4/CD8 también fue asociada con la enfermedad. Conclusiones: Los cambios encontrados en los inmunofenotipos linfocitarios se asociaron de forma significativa con la presencia del linfoma no Hodgkin, lo cual representa una expresión sistémica de la enfermedad y sugiere su valor diagnóstico(AU)

Introduction: Lymphocyte immunophenotype changes in non-Hodgkin lymphoma patients are associated with prognosis and therapeutic responses. However, its association with the disease has not been systematically established. Therefor its contribution to the diagnosis process. Objective: To assess the association of lymphocyte immunophenotype in peripheral blood with the presence of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Methods: 31 peripheral blood samples were analyzed from patients with a confirmed diagnosis of non-Hodgkin lymphoma and from 68 healthy individuals as controls, during the period 2018 to 2020. Multiparametric flow cytometry was used for immunophenotyping. The area under the curve and the Youden index were calculated to establish cut-off points in lymphocyte percentages. The association of immunophenotypic changes with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma was made using Odd ratio calculations. Results: The increase in TCD8+ and NKCD56dim lymphocytes from peripheral blood was significantly associated with the presence of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (OR= 3.4 and 2.9, respectively). Oppositely, the decrease in TCD4+, double positive T, double negative T and NKCD56bright lymphocytes was associated with the existence of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (OR= 23.0, 10.7, 6.9 and 15.8, respectively). Therefore, the decrease in the CD4/CD8 rate was also associated with the disease. Conclusion: The changes found in these lymphocytic immunophenotypes were significantly associated with the presence of non-Hodgkin lymphoma, which represents a systemic expression of the disease and suggests its diagnostic value(AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin , CD4 Antigens , Immunophenotyping/methods , CD8 Antigens , Flow Cytometry/methods
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-225687


A systematic approach is required to diagnose acute leukemia. Most of the cases are satisfactorily diagnosed and categorized into subtypes. However, a few cases pose diagnostic dilemma secondary to immunophenotypic aberrancies which are defined as antigens that are normally restricted to a different lineage and expressed by a neoplastic population while absent from its normal non neoplastic counterpart. We report a rare case of Early T-cell PrecursorLymphoblastic Leukemia with aberrant expression of CD19. A 7-year-old boy referred to our hospital with his cervical lymph node biopsy reported as lymphoproliferative disorder. The patient was COVID-19 positive. Chest X-ray showed mild right sided pleuraleffusion with huge mediastinal mass. Flow cytometry on peripheral blood used to establish the diagnosis. The case is reported to improve knowledge regarding aberrant expression of markers. Hematopathology teams should be aware of this phenomenon so that appropriate workup can be done to reach correct diagnosis.

Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 341-345, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928717


OBJECTIVE@#To establish 10-color fluorescent antibody combination panels for the detection of minimal residual disease (MRD) of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in our laboratory and discuss the value of clinical application.@*METHODS@#According to the antigen expression characteristics of leukemia cells of incipient AML patients, MRD in bone marrow were detected by multiparameter flow cytometry, and the test results were compared with both bone marrow cell morphology and PCR results, then 10-color fluorescent antibody combination panels in our lab for MRD detection was determined.@*RESULTS@#The immunophenotypic characteristics of 392 incipient patients with AML in the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University were analyzed, among them 357 (91.07%) cases showed abnormal immunophenotypes, which mainly included cross-lineage expression, cross-stage expression, deficiency of antigen expression or abnormal antigen intensity and other abnormal expression. The 10-color fluorescent antibody combination panels established according to abnormal immunophenotypic characteristics of leukemia cells were applied for detecting MRD in 156 patients with AML, the positive rate (43.6%) was higher than 26.8% of morphology, and the results were highly consistent with PCR detection results (96.49%), moreover, the recurrence rate of MRD positive patients (86.96%) was significantly higher than 5.75% of MRD negative patients. Therefore, this method could truly reflect the load of leukemia cells and prompt change of disease condition.@*CONCLUSION@#Multiparameter flow cytometry can detect various abnormal immunophenotypes of AML. The 10-color fluorescent antibody combination panels in our lab based on the characteristics of antigens expression in leukemia cells can well detect MRD of leukemia cells, so as to predict relapse and provide basis for clinical treatment.

Humans , Bone Marrow , Flow Cytometry/methods , Immunophenotyping , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/diagnosis , Neoplasm, Residual/diagnosis
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 56-60, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928670


OBJECTIVE@#To explain the clinicobiological heterogeneity of NPM1 mutated (NPM1mut) acute myeloid leukemia (AML) by analyzing the association between next-generation sequencing (NGS) profiles and MICM characteristics in patients with this AML subtype.@*METHODS@#Data of 238 NPM1mut patients with available NGS information on 112 genes related to blood disease was collected, and χ2 test and nonparametric test were used to analyze the distribution association between NGS-detecting mutations and conventional MICM parameters.@*RESULTS@#In entire NPM1mut cohort, totaling 240 NPM1 mutation events were identified, of whom 10 (10/240, 4.2%) were missense mutations, which did not involve any W288 or W290 locus and were found exclusively in NPM1mut/FLT3-ITD- group. All but one of these missense mutations (9/10, 90%) were accompanied by AML subtype-defining recurrent cytogenetic or molecular abnormalities, of which 7 cases were in the low risk and 2 in the high risk. NPM1mut occurred solely as an insertion/deletion (indel) type in the NPM1mut/FLT3-ITD+ group. The incidence of favorable plus unfavorable karyotypes in NPM1mut/FLT3-ITD- group was higher than in NPM1mut/FLT3-ITD+ group (6.4% vs. 0, P=0.031). The positive rates of CD34 and CD7 in NPM1mut/FLT3-ITD+ group were significantly higher than in NPM1mut/FLT3-ITD- group (CD34: 47.9% vs. 20.6%, P<0.001; CD7: 61.5% vs. 29.9%, P<0.001). Logistic analysis showed that FLT3-ITD independently predicted for CD34+ and CD7+ [odds ratio (OR)=5.29, 95%CI: 2.64-10.60, P<0.001; OR=3.47, 95%CI: 1.79-6.73, P<0.001; respectively]. Ras-pathway mutations independently predicted for HLA-DR+ (OR=4.05, 95%CI: 1.70-9.63, P=0.002), and KRAS mutation for MPO- (OR=0.18, 95%CI: 0.05-0.62, P=0.007). TET2/IDH1 mutations independently predicted for CD34- and CD7- (OR=0.26, 95%CI: 0.11-0.62, P=0.002; OR=0.30, 95%CI: 0.14-0.62, P=0.001; respectively), and MPO+ (OR=3.52, 95%CI: 1.48-8.38, P=0.004). DNMT3A-R882 independently predicted for CD7+ and HLA-DR+ (OR=3.59, 95%CI: 1.80-7.16, P<0.001; OR=13.41, 95%CI: 4.56-39.45, P<0.001; respectively), and DNMT3A mutation for MPO-(OR=0.35, 95%CI: 1.48-8.38, P=0.004).@*CONCLUSION@#Co-existing FLT3-ITD in NPM1mut AML independently predicts for CD34+ and CD7+, co-existing Ras-pathway mutation for HLA-DR+ and MPO-, co-existing TET2/IDH1 mutation for CD34-, CD7-, and MPO+, and co-existing DNMT3A mutation for HLA-DR+, CD7+, and MPO-, thereby providing a new mechanism explanation for the immunophenotypic heterogeneity of these AML patients.

Humans , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/genetics , Mutation , Nuclear Proteins/genetics , Nucleophosmin , Prognosis , fms-Like Tyrosine Kinase 3/genetics
Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae ; (6): 42-46, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878696


Objective To investigate the clinicopathological features,immunohistochemical characteristics,diagnosis,treatment and prognosis of intrathyroid thymic carcinoma.Methods Clinical data of 7 patients with intrathyroid thymic carcinoma were retrospectively reviewed.Histological examination and immunohistochemical staining were performed on the surgically resected tumors.The infection of Epstein-Barr virus(EBV)was detected by EBER in situ hybridization.Results The 7 patients included 5 males and 2 females.The age ranged from 40 to 71 years,with a median of 54 years.The tumors were located in the thyroid gland,with the maximum diameter ranging from 2.2 cm to 6.0 cm and the average maximum diameter of(4.0±1.2)cm.All the patients underwent thyroid gland resection and local lymph node dissection.After operation,all the cases were treated with radiotherapy and five of them additionally received chemotherapy.Six patients were followed up for 10-163 months,all of whom were still alive,including 2 patients with recurrence in situ,1 patient with homolateral cervical lymph node metastasis and the rest with no recurrence or metastasis.CK-pan,P63,CD5 and CD117 were expressed in all the cases,while TTF-1,TG,CT and PAX8 were negative.One case of them expressed SYN and CgA.Ki-67 proliferation index ranged from 10% to 90%.EBER in situ hybridization showed negative results in all 7 cases.Conclusions Intrathyroid thymic carcinoma is a relatively low-grade malignant tumor.The combination of immunohistochemical CD5,CD117 and monoclonal PAX8 is helpful in the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of intrathyroid thymic carcinoma.EBV may not be involved in the development of intrathyroid thymic carcinoma.Thyroid gland resection plus central lymph node dissection is an important treatment measure for intrathyroid thymic carcinoma.For patients with regional lymph node metastasis and obvious peripheral tissue invasion,postoperative radiotherapy with/without chemotherapy can effectively delay the disease progression.

Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Male , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections , Herpesvirus 4, Human , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local , Retrospective Studies , Thymoma , Thymus Neoplasms/therapy
Rev. cuba. hematol. inmunol. hemoter ; 36(4): e1244, oct.-dic. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1289418


Introducción: La citometría de flujo es una técnica de avanzada, objetiva y altamente sensible que permite el análisis y la cuantificación simultánea de múltiples parámetros celulares, muy utilizada en el estudio de la leucemia linfoide crónica, entidad caracterizada como un trastorno proliferativo maligno de linfocitos de aspecto maduro e incompetentes. Objetivo: Describir la estrategia de diagnóstico del inmunofenotipaje por citometría de flujo de la leucemia linfoide crónica. Métodos: Se analizó una muestra de médula ósea para la citometría de flujo de un paciente con sospecha clínica y morfológica de la leucemia linfoide crónica. El inmunofenotipaje celular se realizó con el empleo de anticuerpos monoclonales dirigidos contra los antígenos de diferenciación linfoides B y T. Se procedió a la lectura de la muestra en un citómetro GALLIOS, Beckman Coulter y los datos obtenidos se analizaron con el empleo del programa informático Kaluza. Resultados: Los antígenos con expresión positiva fueron el CD19 (99,94 por ciento), CD20 (81,56 por ciento), CD5 (80,25 por ciento), así como la coexpresión de CD5+/CD19+ (96,56 por ciento), CD5+/CD20+ (80,56 por ciento), CD19+/CD20+ (84,86 por ciento), CD23 (62,65 por ciento), CD49d (65,18 por ciento), CD38 (52,17 por ciento). Se encontró monoclonalidad de la cadena ligera k en un 44,27 por ciento. La expresión de los antígenos CD3, CD4, CD8y CD25 resultó negativa. Conclusiones: La estrategia diagnóstica propuesta permitió identificar los antígenos más frecuentemente expresados en pacientes con leucemia linfoide crónica, así como la coexpresión de los mismos y la monoclonalidad de la cadena k, los cuales son marcadores celulares que permiten realizar el diagnóstico inmunofenotípico de la leucemia linfoide crónica, por citometría de flujo(AU)

Introduction: Flow cytometry is an advanced, objective, highly sensitive technique for the simultaneous analysis and quantification of multiple cellular parameters. This technique is very common in the study of chronic lymphocytic leukemia, a condition defined as a malignant proliferative disorder of mature, incompetent lymphocytes. Objective: Describe the diagnostic strategy for flow cytometry immunophenotyping of chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Methods: Flow cytometry testing was performed of a bone marrow sample taken from a patient with clinical and morphological suspicion of chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Cell immunophenotyping was based on monoclonal antibodies targeted against lymphoid differentiation antigens B and T. The sample was read in a GALLIOS Beckman Coulter cytometer, and the data obtained were analyzed with the software Kaluza. Results: Antigens with a positive expression were CD19 (99.94 percent), CD20 (81.56 percent), CD5 (80.25 percent), as well as the co-expression of CD5+/CD19+ (96.56 percent), CD5+/CD20+ (80.56 percent), CD19+/CD20+ (84.86 percent), CD23 (62.65 percent), CD49d (65.18 percent), CD38 (52.17 percent). Monoclonality of the k light chain was present in 44.27 percent. Expression of antigens CD3, CD4, CD8 and CD25 was found to be negative. Conclusions: The diagnostic strategy proposed made it possible to identify the antigens most frequently expressed in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia, as well as their co-expression and the monoclonality of the k chain, all of which are cell markers allowing flow cytometry-based immunophenotypical diagnosis of chronic lymphocytic leukemia(AU)

Humans , Flow Cytometry/methods , Lymphoma/diagnosis
Hematol., Transfus. Cell Ther. (Impr.) ; 42(4): 320-325, Oct.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142974


ABSTRACT Background and objective T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) in children represents a high-risk disease. There is a lack of studies assessing the outcome of T-ALL in Hispanic populations, in which it is a rare malignancy. We report the characteristics and results of treatment for childhood T-cell ALL in children over 14 years at a Latin American reference center. Material and methods From January 2005 to December 2018, there occurred the analysis of twenty patients ≤ 16 years of age from a low-income open population diagnosed at a university hospital in Northeast Mexico. Clinical and laboratory characteristics, treatment regimens and outcomes were assessed by scrutinizing clinical records and electronic databases. Diagnosis was confirmed by flow cytometry, including positivity for CD-2, 5, 7 and surface/cytoplasmic CD3. Survival rates were assessed by the Kaplan-Meier method. Results There was a male preponderance (70 %), with a 2.3 male-to-female ratio (p= .074), the median age being 9.5 years. Leucocytes at diagnosis were ≥ 50 × 109/L in 13 (65 %) children, with CNS infiltration in 6 (30 %) and organomegaly in 10 (50 %). The five-year overall survival (OS) was 44.3 % (95 % CI 41.96-46.62), significantly lower in girls, at 20.8 % (95 % CI 17.32-24.51) vs. 53.1 % (95 % CI 50.30-55.82), (p= .035) in boys; there was no sex difference in the event-free survival (EFS) (p= .215). The survival was significantly higher after 2010 (p= .034). Conclusion The T-cell ALL was more frequent in boys, had a higher mortality in girls and the survival has increased over the last decade with improved chemotherapy and supportive care.

Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Sex Distribution , Precursor T-Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/therapy , Child
Rev. cuba. hematol. inmunol. hemoter ; 36(3): e1151, jul.-set. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1156441


Introducción: La citometría de flujo permite la cuantificación de las subpoblaciones de linfocitos con una elevada sensibilidad, especificidad y objetividad. Estas ventajas solo se logran con un proceso laborioso de diseño individualizado y controlado para cada experimento. Objetivo: Diseñar un protocolo de un solo tubo policromático de citometría flujo para inmunofenotipo linfocitario periférico. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio experimental in vitro con muestras de sangre periférica obtenidas de tres voluntarios sanos, en el Centro Nacional de Genética Médica, en marzo de 2019. El tubo se compuso de seis marcadores de linaje para identificar linfocitos B, T, natural killer y natural killer T. Se desarrolló un protocolo de lisis de hematíes sin lavado. Se emplearon anticuerpos monoclonales conjugados con fluorocromos. El punto óptimo de concentración correspondió al mayor índice de tinción y conservación de los porcentajes de positividad de cada población. Se realizó la construcción progresiva del tubo y se propuso una estrategia lógica de secuencia de ventanas para el análisis de datos. Resultados: Los marcadores seleccionados permitieron realizar correctamente el inmunofenotipo linfocitario periférico. En los cinco puntos de titulación se observaron buenas discriminaciones entre las señales positivas y negativas, excepto para el anti-CD56 que presentó una tendencia decreciente del índice de tinción. El volumen total de conjugados requeridos para la determinación de los 6 antígenos fue de 3,75 μL por tubo. Conclusiones: Se obtuvo un tubo policromático que permite el inmunofenotipo periférico de forma rápida y precisa por seis antígenos linfocitarios simultáneamente, con el empleo de pequeños volúmenes de conjugado y sangre(AU)

Introduction: Flow cytometry allows quantification of lymphocyte subpopulations with high sensitivity, specificity and objectivity. These advantages are only achieved through the hardworking process of individualized and controlled design for each experiment. Objective: To design a flow cytometry protocol of a single polychromatic tube for peripheral lymphocyte immunophenotype. Methods: An experimental in vitro study was carried out, in March 2019, with peripheral blood samples obtained from three healthy volunteers, at the National Center for Medical Genetics. The tube was made up of six lineage markers for identifying natural B and T lymphocytes, natural killers and natural killer T cells. A protocol was developed for red blood cell lysis without washing. Fluorochrome-conjugated monoclonal antibodies were used. The optimal point of concentration corresponded to the highest staining index and preservation of the positivity percentages of each population. Progressive tube construction was performed and a logical window sequence strategy was proposed for data analysis. Results: The chosen markers allowed to carry out correct peripheral lymphocyte immunophenotype. Good discriminations between positive and negative signals were observed at the five titration points, except for anti-CD56, which presented a decreasing trend in the staining index. The total volume of conjugates required for determination of the six antigens was 3.75 μL per tube. Conclusions: A polychromatic tube was obtained that allows to carry out peripheral immunophenotype quickly and precisely by six lymphocyte antigens simultaneously, with the use of small volumes of conjugate and blood(AU)

Humans , Process Optimization , Flow Cytometry/methods , Genetics, Medical , Construction Industry
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(3): 787-793, May-June, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1129177


The immunophenotype is regarded as an independent prognostic factor in high-grade lymphomas, seeing that lymphomas of T-cell origin are associated with shorter survival time. Although a number of studies have evaluated the immunophenotypical profile of lymphoma in the USA and Europe, Brazilian research on the matter remains scarce. Exact characterization of the histopathological type is crucial to establish proper treatment and prognosis. This study evaluated the database of immunohistochemistry laboratories that perform immunophenotyping of canine lymphoma in Brazil. A total of 203 cases of multicentric lymphoma were classified according to the WHO classification. Immunophenotyping was able to identify 71.4% lymphomas of B-cell line, 27.1% of T-cell line and 1.5% of non-B cells and non-T cell lines. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma was the most common with 59.1% of the cases. Among T-cell lymphomas, lymphoblastic was the most common (11.33% of the cases). Even though canine lymphomas tend to be high-grade, indolent lymphomas comprised 11.82% of the cases and T-zone lymphoma was the most prevalent (8.86%). The immunophenotype of multicentric lymphoma in Brazil is similar to those in other parts of the world, which suggests similar etiologic factors to the development of this disease.(AU)

O imunofenótipo é considerado um fator prognóstico independente em linfomas de alto grau, visto que os linfomas de origem de células T estão associados a menor tempo de sobrevida. Apesar de vários estudos terem avaliado o perfil imunofenotípico do linfoma nos EUA e na Europa, a pesquisa brasileira sobre o assunto ainda é escassa. A caracterização exata do tipo histopatológico é crucial para estabelecer o tratamento e o prognóstico adequados. Este estudo avaliou a base de dados de laboratórios de imuno-histoquímica que realizam imunofenotipagem do linfoma canino no Brasil. Um total de 203 casos de linfoma multicêntrico foi classificado de acordo com a classificação da OMS. A imunofenotipagem foi capaz de identificar 71,4% dos linfomas da linhagem de células B, 27,1% da linhagem de células T e 1,5% das linhagens de células não B e não T. O linfoma difuso de grandes células B foi o mais comum em 59,1% dos casos. Entre os linfomas de células T, o linfoblástico foi o mais comum (11, 33% dos casos). Embora os linfomas caninos tendam a ser de alto grau, os linfomas indolentes representaram 11,82% dos casos e o linfoma da zona T foi o mais prevalente (8,86%). O imunofenótipo do linfoma multicêntrico no Brasil é semelhante ao de outras partes do mundo, o que sugere fatores etiológicos semelhantes ao desenvolvimento dessa doença.(AU)

Animals , Dogs , Immunophenotyping/veterinary , Lymphoma, B-Cell/classification , Lymphoma, T-Cell/classification , Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse/classification , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/classification , Brazil
Rev. cuba. hematol. inmunol. hemoter ; 36(1): e1137, ene.-mar. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1126539


Introducción: La citometría de flujo es una técnica de avanzada, objetiva y altamente sensible que permite el análisis y la cuantificación simultánea de múltiples parámetros celulares; es muy utilizada en el estudio de las hemopatías malignas. En los últimos años, ha demostrado ser de gran utilidad en la identificación y la caracterización inmunofenotípica de los síndromes linfoproliferativos crónicos. Estos constituyen un grupo heterogéneo de enfermedades caracterizadas por la expansión monoclonal de células linfoides de aspecto maduro. Objetivos: Analizar los aspectos generales de la aplicación de la técnica de citometría de flujo al estudio y clasificación inmunofenotípica de los síndromes linfoproliferativos crónicos. Métodos: Se realizó una investigación bibliográfica-documental acerca del tema. Se consultaron las bases de datos de SciELO y Pubmed. Análisis y síntesis de la información: Se describen los aspectos técnicos de la citometría de flujo, desde la obtención y procesamiento de las muestras hasta la generación del informe por el citómetro; así como la aplicación de la técnica a la caracterización inmunofenotípica de los síndromes linfoproliferativos crónicos. La citometría de flujo multiparamétrica se ha convertido en uno más de los métodos diagnósticos de este síndrome. Uno de los principales objetivos del estudio inmunofenotípico por citometría de flujo consiste en descartar si esa población de células B es clonal o no. Conclusiones: La citometría de flujo permite el análisis, la interpretación y la clasificación inmunofenotípica de los síndromes linfoproliferativos crónicos. Es una herramienta útil en las que se apoya el diagnóstico y el seguimiento de estos pacientes(AU)

Introduction: Flow cytometry is an advanced, objective and highly sensitive technique that allows simultaneous quantification and analysis of multiple cellular parameters. It is widely used in the study of malignant hemopathies. In recent years, it has proved very useful in the identification and immunophenotypic characterization of chronic lymphoproliferative syndromes. These conditions belong to a heterogeneous group of diseases characterized by monoclonal expansion of mature lymphoid cells. Objectives: To analyze the general aspects of flow cytometry application to the study and immunophenotypic classification of chronic lymphoproliferative syndromes. Methods: A bibliographic-documentary research about the topic was carried out. We consulted the SciELO and Pubmed databases. Information analysis and synthesis: The technical aspects of the flow cytometry are described, from obtaining and processing the samples to the cytometer's generating the report; as well as the technique's application to the immunophenotypic characterization of chronic lymphoproliferative syndromes. Multiparametric flow cytometry has become one of the diagnostic methods for this syndrome. One of the main objectives of the immunophenotypic study by flow cytometry is to rule out whether this population of B cells is clonal or not. Conclusions: Flow cytometry allows the analysis, interpretation and immunophenotypic classification of chronic lymphoproliferative syndromes. It is a useful tool that supports the diagnosis and monitoring of these patients(AU)

Humans , Immunophenotyping/methods , Flow Cytometry/methods , Lymphoproliferative Disorders/diagnostic imaging
Rev. cuba. hematol. inmunol. hemoter ; 35(3): e1068, jul.-set. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | CUMED, LILACS | ID: biblio-1093281


Introducción: Los linfomas no-Hodgkin pueden infiltrar el sistema nervioso central y producir síntomas neurológicos, lo cual incrementa la mortalidad. El diagnóstico de esta infiltración se puede realizar mediante el estudio del líquido cefalorraquídeo por la técnica de citometría de flujo, con una mayor sensibilidad que la citología convencional. Objetivo: Estimar la supervivencia global de pacientes con Linfoma no-Hodgkin y síntomas neurológicos según el inmunofenotipo celular del líquido cefalorraquídeo. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio analítico y prospectivo en 15 pacientes con diagnóstico confirmado de linfoma no-Hodgkin y síntomas neurológicos, con citología negativa del líquido cefalorraquídeo, tratados en el servicio de oncología del Instituto Nacional de Oncología y Radiobiología, durante los años 2017 y 2018. El inmunofenotipo fue caracterizado mediante citometría de flujo multiparamétrica. Resultados: El 60,0 por ciento de los pacientes fue del sexo femenino y el 53,4 por ciento mayor de 60 años. Hubo una mortalidad del 26,7 por ciento. Se realizaron 17 inmunofenotipos, el 58,9 por ciento fue normal, el 23,4 por ciento reactivo y el 17,7 por ciento sospechoso de malignidad. La supervivencia global fue mayor en pacientes con líquido cefalorraquídeo con inmunofenotipo normal (HR. 0.04). Conclusiones: La citometría de flujo pudo discriminar células sospechosas de malignidad, en pacientes cuyas citologías fueron negativas. La presencia en el líquido cefalorraquídeo de células atípicas, de pleocitosis y de un índice de linfocito-monocito alto se asoció con una supervivencia global menor(AU)

Introduction: When non-Hodgkin lymphomas infiltrate the central nervous system increases mortality. The diagnosis of this infiltration can be made by the study of cerebrospinal fluid using flow cytometry, with a higher sensitivity than conventional cytology. Objective: To estimate the relationship between the cellular immunophenotype of the cerebrospinal fluid and the overall survival of patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma and neurological symptoms. Methods: An analytical and prospective study was conducted in 15 patients with confirmed diagnosis of non-Hodgkin lymphoma and neurological symptoms, with negative cytology of the cerebrospinal fluid. Patients cared at Oncology Department of the National Institute of Oncology and Radiobiology, during the years 2017-2018. The immunophenotype was characterized by multiparametric flow cytometry. Results: 60.0 percent of the patients was female and 53.4 percent older than 60 years. There was an overall mortality of 26.7 percent 17 immunophenotypes were found, 58.9 percent of them was normal, 23.4 percent reactive and 17.7 percent suspected of malignancy. Overall survival advantage was obtained in patients with cerebrospinal fluid with normal immunophenotype (HR 0.04). Conclusions: Flow cytometry could discriminate cells suspected of malignancy, in patients whose cytologies were negative. The presence in the cerebrospinal fluid of atypical cells, pleocytosis and a high lymphocyte-monocyte index were associated with a lower overall survival(AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin/diagnosis , Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin/cerebrospinal fluid , Immunophenotyping/methods , Flow Cytometry/methods , Survival Analysis , Laboratory and Fieldwork Analytical Methods/methods , Nervous System Diseases/complications
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-202453


Introduction: Chronic lymphoproliferative disorderrepresent clonal proliferation of morphologically andimmunophenotypically mature B or T cells characterized by alow proliferation rate and prolonged cell survival. Study aimedto assess the correlation between bone marrow morphologyand immunophenotypic findings in patients of ChronicLymphoproliferative Disorders (CLPD’s) and to assess therole of flowcytometric immunophenotyping in diagnosis andsubclassification of CLPD’s.Material and Methods: 48 newly diagnosed cases ofCLPD were included. After complete clinical evaluation theyunderwent marrow aspiration, biopsy and immunophenotypingby flowcytometry with selected panel of monoclonalantibodies.Results: On morphology 47.9% cases were CLL. In 52.1%non CLL cases , 4.2% were PLL , 2% case as LPL and45.8% cases were CLPD-unclassifiable. Commonest patternof marrow infiltration noted on trephine biopsy was diffuse inCLL, HCL-V, B-PLL and T-CLPD. On immunophenotyping95.8% cases were B-CLPD and 4.25% T-CLPD. CD5, CD22,CD23, FMC7 and SmIg were used as first line markersfollowed by CD 10, CD 25, CD103, CD38, CD138 andCyclin D1 (on biopsy sections) as second line markers. Finalimmunophenotypic diagnosis was CLL (54.2%), B-CLPDunclassified (29.2%), 4.1% each of LPL, MCL, T-CLPD and2% each of B-PLLand HCL-V.Conclusion: Concordance rate between morphologicaldiagnosis and immunophenotypic diagnosis was 79.17%.Hence, Flowcytometry is necessary for confirmationof diagnosis and to classify the CLPD cases which areunclassifiable by morphology

Pesqui. vet. bras ; 39(7): 492-498, July 2019. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1040704


Lymphoma is a neoplasm that originates from solid hematopoietic tissues and is one of the most common tumors in dogs. The goal of the present study was to perform a retrospective study of canine lymphomas diagnosed at the "Laboratório Regional de Diagnóstico", at the "Faculdade de Veterinária" of the "Universidade Federal de Pelotas" (LRD-UFPel) from 2000 to 2017, to determine the epidemiology and anatomical distribution, and to evaluate the histopathological and immunohistochemical aspects of each case according to the adapted Kiel classification. The protocols for necropsies and biopsies in the laboratory were reviewed. Lymphoma was diagnosed in 77 dogs. Approximately 37.7% (29/77) of affected dogs had no defined breed, while dogs with defined breeds accounted for 58.4% (45/77) of the diagnoses. The occurrence in males (40/77) was slightly higher than that in females (36/77), and the mean age was 8.1 years (1.4-17 years). The most affected age group was between six and 10 years of age with 31 cases (40.2%). Regarding the anatomical classification, the multicentric form was the most prevalent, accounting for 71.4% (55/77) of the diagnoses. In 40 cases that immunophenotyping was performed, B-cell lymphomas represented 62.5% of the diagnoses (25/40), while T-cell lymphomas corresponded to 37.5% of the diagnoses (15/40). The degree of malignancy according to the modified Kiel classification was low in 35% of lymphomas (14/40) and high in 65% of cases (26/40). The multicentric form was more frequent in the region of influence of the LRD-UFPel. Identification of the immunophenotype can improve the quality of life and survival in affected dogs since it allows the most appropriate treatment for each patient.(AU)

O linfoma é uma neoplasia com origem nos tecidos hematopoiéticos sólidos e é um dos tumores mais frequentes em cães. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi efetuar um estudo retrospectivo dos linfomas caninos recebidos no Laboratório Regional de Diagnóstico, da Faculdade de Veterinária da Universidade Federal de Pelotas (LRD-UFPel) de 2000 a 2017, determinando a epidemiologia e a distribuição anatômica, bem como os aspectos histopatológicos e imuno-histoquímicos de cada caso de acordo com a classificação de Kiel adaptada. Foram revisados os protocolos de necropsias e biópsias recebidos no laboratório identificando-se 77 casos de cães com diagnóstico de linfoma. A doença afetou cães sem raça definida em 37,7% (29/77) dos casos, enquanto os cães com raças definidas tiveram 58,4% (45/77) dos diagnósticos. A ocorrência em machos (40/77) foi discretamente maior do que em fêmeas (36/77) e a idade média foi de 8,1 anos (1,4-17 anos). A faixa etária mais acometida foi entre seis e 10 anos de idade com 31 casos (40,2%). Quanto à classificação anatômica a forma multicêntrica foi a mais prevalente atingindo 71,4% (55/77) dos diagnósticos. Em 40 casos em que a imunofenotipagem foi realizada, os linfomas de células B representaram 62,5% dos casos (25/40), enquanto os linfomas de células T equivaleram a 37,5% dos diagnósticos (15/40). O grau de malignidade de acordo com a classificação de Kiel modificada foi baixo em 35% dos linfomas (14/40) e alto em 65% dos casos (26/40). Conclui-se que a forma multicêntrica é mais frequente na região de influência do LRD-UFPel e que a identificação do imunofenótipo pode melhorar a qualidade de vida e dar maior sobrevida aos cães afetados uma vez que permite o tratamento mais adequado para cada caso.(AU)

Animals , Dogs , Immunophenotyping/veterinary , Lymphoma/veterinary , Brazil , Lymphoma/epidemiology
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-215678


Intravascular large B-cell lymphoma (IVLBCL) is a rare variant of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, characterized by its unique morphology. Modern-day diagnostic methods like flow cytometry have limitations in accurate diagnosis of the disease making morphology the mainstay for its diagnosis and adequate management. Here, we present a case of IVLBCL with emphasis on diagnostic aids and adjuncts. A 63-year-old female presented with fever of unknown origin, seizers, hepatosplenomegaly, and peripheral cytopenias. Bone marrow aspirate shows a small number of atypical lymphoid cells. Flow cytometry done on the aspirate yielded 7% abnormal lymphoid cells; however, further, subclassification of this non-Hodgkin lymphoma was not aided by it. Bone marrow biopsy revealed the intrasinusoidal localization of the tumor cells, which were positive for CD20, BCL2, and Mum1 and along with flow cytometric expression of CD5 and lambda restriction of tumor cells; a diagnosis of IVLBCL was made. IVLBCL is a rare entity with protean clinical presentation which frequently leads to a delay in diagnosis. Modern diagnostic modalities like flow cytometry help in picking up even a small number of tumor cells; however, it is limited by failure to subcategorize the entity making morphology and immunohistochemistry as the backbone of its diagnostic workup.