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1.
Alerta (San Salvador) ; 7(1): 103-110, ene. 26, 2024.
Article in Spanish | BISSAL, LILACS | ID: biblio-1526797

ABSTRACT

Las enfermedades de Alzheimer y esclerosis múltiple son neurodegenerativas, con tratamientos complejos y de costos elevados, orientados a disminuir la progresión de la sintomatología. Sin embargo, a causa de la falta de terapias adecuadas y de los posibles efectos adversos ocasionados por tratamientos de primera línea, es necesario implementar mejores abordajes terapéuticos complementarios que no produzcan mayores efectos secundarios y mejoren la sintomatología de dichas patologías. La restricción calórica y el ayuno intermitente han demostrado ser estrategias novedosas y beneficiosas en enfermedades neurodegenerativas, a través de mecanismos inmunitarios, metabólicos y fisiológicos. Con el objetivo de determinar el uso del ayuno intermitente y la restricción calórica como tratamiento coadyuvante en esclerosis múltiple y enfermedad de Alzheimer, se realizó una revisión narrativa de artículos originales en revistas científicas, en idiomas inglés y español, de 2018 a 2022. El uso de la restricción calórica y ayuno intermitente han generado cambios positivos produciendo disminución de estados proinflamatorios, estrés oxidativo y envejecimiento. Se consideran abordajes que modulan la progresión de la enfermedad y mejoran la función cognitiva por vías de señalización de monofosfato de adenosina cinasa, factor de crecimiento similar a la insulina y la enzima sirtuina, generando un efecto neuroprotector.


Alzheimer's disease and multiple sclerosis are neurodegenerative disorders with expensive and complex treatments aimed at reducing the progression of symptoms. However, due to the lack of adequate therapies and the possible adverse effects caused by first-line treatments, it's necessary to implement better complementary therapeutic approaches that do not produce major side effects and improve symptoms. Caloric restriction and intermittent fasting have been shown to be novel and beneficial strategies in neurodegenerative diseases, through immune, metabolic, and physiological mechanisms. To determine the use of intermittent fasting and caloric restriction as a new treatment in multiple sclerosis and Alzheimer's disease, a narrative review of original articles in both national and international scientific journals, in English and Spanish languages with no greater obsolescence than five years. The use of caloric restriction and intermittent fasting have generated positive changes, producing a decrease in pro-inflammatory states, oxidative stress, and aging. Approaches that modulate disease progression and improve cognitive function of adenosine monophosphate kinase, insulin-like growth factor, and sirtuin enzyme pathways are considered, generating a neuroprotective effect.


Subject(s)
El Salvador
2.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 223-231, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-999180

ABSTRACT

Demyelination of the central nervous system often occurs in neurodegenerative diseases, such as multiple sclerosis (MS). The myelin sheath, a layer of myelin membrane wrapping the axon, plays a role in the rapid conduction and metabolic coupling of impulses for neurons. The exposure of the axon will lead to axonal degeneratio, and further neuronal degeneration, which is the main cause of dysfunction and even disability in patients with demyelinating neurodegenerative diseases. In addition to the demyelination of mature myelin sheath, remyelination disorder is also one of the major reasons leading to the development of the diseases. The myelin sheath is composed of oligodendrocytes (OLs) derived from oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) which are differentiated from neural stem cells (NSCs). The process of myelin regeneration, i.e., remyelination, is the differentiation of NSCs into OLs. Recent studies have shown that this process is regulated by a variety of genes. MicroRNAs, as important regulators of neurodegenerative diseases, form a complex regulatory network in the process of myelin regeneration. This review summarizes the main molecular pathways of myelin regeneration and microRNAs involved in this process and classifies the mechanisms and targets. This review is expected to provide a theoretical reference for the future research on the treatment of demyelinating diseases by targeting the regulation of microRNAs.

3.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 81(12): 1125-1133, Dec. 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1527907

ABSTRACT

Abstract Precision medicine has revolutionized the field of neuroimmunology, with innovative approaches that characterize diseases based on their biology, deeper understanding of the factors leading to heterogeneity within the same disease, development of targeted therapies, and strategies to tailor therapies to each patient. This review explores the impact of precision medicine on various neuroimmunological conditions, including multiple sclerosis (MS), neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD), myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibody-associated disease (MOGAD), optic neuritis, autoimmune encephalitis, and immune-mediated neuropathies. We discuss advances in disease subtyping, recognition of novel entities, promising biomarkers, and the development of more selective monoclonal antibodies and cutting-edge synthetic cell-based immunotherapies in neuroimmunological disorders. In addition, we analyze the challenges related to affordability and equity in the implementation of these emerging technologies, especially in situations with limited resources.


Resumo A medicina de precisão está revolucionando o campo da neuroimunologia, com uma abordagem inovadora caracterizada pela classificação de doenças com base em sua biologia, compreensão mais profunda dos fatores que levam à heterogeneidade dentro da mesma doença, desenvolvimento de terapias com alvos específicos e estratégias para adaptar as terapias a cada paciente. Esta revisão explora o impacto da medicina de precisão em várias condições neuroimunológicas, incluindo esclerose múltipla (EM), distúrbio do espectro da neuromielite óptica (NMOSD), doença associada ao anticorpo anti-glicoproteína da mielina do oligodendrócito (MOGAD), neurites ópticas, encefalites autoimunes e neuropatias imunomediadas. Discutimos avanços na subclassificação de doenças, reconhecimento de novas entidades, biomarcadores promissores e desenvolvimento de anticorpos monoclonais mais seletivos e imunoterapias de ponta baseadas em células sintéticas para as condições acima. Além disso, analisamos os desafios relacionados com acessibilidade e equidade na implementação dessas tecnologias emergentes, especialmente em ambientes com recursos limitados.

4.
Acta neurol. colomb ; 39(4)dic. 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1533512

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La alucinosis peduncular (AP) hace referencia a alucinaciones autodiscriminadas, cuyo origen son lesiones en el mesencéfalo y en el puente. Presentación del caso: Paciente 27 años, femenina, con alucinaciones visuales, auditivas autodiscriminadas por ella misma, sin antecedentes previos de importancia y con lesiones en resonancia magnética cerebral y cervical en el pedúnculo cerebeloso superior, tegmento pontino, y en columna cervical con bandas oligoclonales patrón 2, que cumplían criterios de Mc Donalds para esclerosis múltiple. Discusión: La alucinosis peduncular hace referencia a la presencia de alucinaciones visuales, criticadas por el paciente, con la consecuencia de lesiones de las vías inhibitorias por deaferentación y desinhibición mesencéfalotalámicas, y retinogenículo calcarina, descritas como manifestación de múltiples patologías neurológicas como trauma, afectación vascular, tumores y pocos casos de enfermedad desmielinizante, entre otras. Conclusión: La alucinosis peduncular es una forma atípica de presentación de lesiones pontomesencefálicas descritas en varias patologías; se debe tener en cuenta en la localización de la lesión neurológica; se han reportado pocos casos como síntoma de la enfermedad desmielinizante.


Introduction: Peduncular hallucinosis (PA) refers to self-discriminating hallucinations, these are caused by lesions in the midbrain and pons. Presentation of the case: 27-year-old right handed female patient with visual and auditory hallucinations self-discriminated by the patient, with no prior history of importance and with lesions in cerebral and cervical Magnetic Resonance in the superior cerebellar peduncle, pontine tegmentum, and in the cervical spine with pattern 2 oligo clonal bands, which met Mc Donald's criteria for multiple sclerosis. Discussion: Peduncular hallucinosis refers to the presence of visual hallucinations criticized by the patient, consequence of lesions in the inhibitory pathways with deafferentation and disinhibition of the midbrain-thalamic and retinogeniculus-calcarine pathways. Described as a manifestation of multiple neurological pathologies such as trauma, vascular, tumor and few cases of demyelinating among others. Conclusion: Peduncular hallucinosis is an atypical form of presentation of pontomesencephalic lesions described in several pathologies, it must be taken into account when locating the neurological lesion, few cases have been reported as symptom of the demyelinating disease.


Subject(s)
Demyelinating Diseases , Diencephalon , Multiple Sclerosis , Visual Perception , Brain Stem
5.
Rev. Bras. Neurol. (Online) ; 59(3): 4-9, jul.-set. 2023.
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1516915

ABSTRACT

Objective: Review the relationship between Multiple Sclerosis (MS) and the cardiovascular (CV) system, as well as the CV manifestations of the disease and the CV complications of treatment. Methods: We performed a non-systematic review of the main databases, with no time limit. Results: People with MS tend to have a different CV risk than the general population, with a higher prevalence of hypertension, hyperlipidemia, overweight, ischemic heart disease, and peripheral and cerebral artery disease. In addition, cardiac alterations can be present in any part of MS patient care. Furthermore, MS treatments are not innocuous for the CV system and require attention, especially considering fingolimod and mitoxantrone. Discussion: The findings could partially explain the higher mortality rates found in this population. Furthermore, at the onset, dysautonomia symptoms, like postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome, can be used as a clinical marker of patients at higher risk to evolve from clinically isolated syndrome to MS. Finally, MS not only progress badly when associated with CV risk factors but are also at increased risk of CV morbidity and mortality. Conclusion: Physicians addressing MS patients should be aware of their increased cardiovascular risk and the impact that adequate control of these factors can have on disease progression, patient lifespan, and global care.


Objetivo: Analisar a relação entre a esclerose múltipla (EM) e o sistema cardiovascular (CV), bem como as manifestações CV da doença e as complicações CV do tratamento. Métodos: Foi realizada uma revisão não sistemática das principais bases de dados, sem limite de tempo. Resultados: Pessoas com EM tendem a ter um risco CV diferente da população em geral, com maior prevalência de hipertensão, hiperlipidemia, sobrepeso, cardiopatia isquêmica e doença arterial periférica e cerebral. Além disso, as alterações cardíacas podem estar presentes em qualquer parte do tratamento do paciente com EM. Além disso, os tratamentos da EM não são inócuos para o sistema CV e requerem atenção, especialmente considerando o fingolimod e a mitoxantrona. Discussão: Os achados podem explicar parcialmente as taxas de mortalidade mais altas encontradas nessa população. Além disso, no início, os sintomas de disautonomia, como a síndrome de taquicardia postural ortostática, podem ser usados como um marcador clínico de pacientes com maior risco de evoluir da síndrome clinicamente isolada para a EM. Por fim, a EM não só progride mal quando associada a fatores de risco CV, mas também apresenta um risco maior de morbidade e mortalidade CV. Conclusão: Os médicos que lidam com pacientes com EM devem estar cientes de seu risco cardiovascular aumentado e do impacto que um controle adequado desses fatores pode ter na progressão da doença, no tempo de vida do paciente e nos cuidados globais.

6.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 81(9): 803-808, Sept. 2023. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1520257

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background The prevalence of pain in patients with multiple sclerosis is remarkable. Fibromyalgia has been considered as one of the forms of chronic pain encompassed in multiple sclerosis, but data are restricted to studies from Europe and North America. Objective To assess the prevalence of fibromyalgia in a series of Brazilian patients with multiple sclerosis and the characteristics of this comorbidity. Methods The present cross-sectional study included 60 consecutive adult patients with multiple sclerosis. Upon consent, participants underwent a thorough evaluation for disability, fatigue, quality of life, presence of fibromyalgia, depression, and anxiety. Results The prevalence of fibromyalgia was 11.7%, a figure similar to that observed in previous studies. Patients with the comorbidity exhibited worse scores on fatigue (median and interquartile range [IQR]: 68 [48-70] versus 39 [16.5-49]; p < 0.001), quality of life (mean ± standard deviation [SD]: 96.5 ± 35.9 versus 124.8 ± 28.8; p = 0.021), anxiety (mean ± SD: 22.7 ± 15.1 versus 13.8 ± 8.4; p = 0.021), and depression (median and IQR: 23 [6-28] versus 6 [3-12.5]; p = 0.034) indices than patients without fibromyalgia. There was a strong positive correlation between depression and anxiety scores with fatigue (r = 0.773 and r = 0.773, respectively; p < 0.001). Conversely, a moderate negative correlation appeared between the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS), fatigue, and depression scores with quality of life (r= −0.587, r= −0.551, r= −0.502, respectively; p < 0.001). Conclusion Fibromyalgia is a comorbidity of multiple sclerosis that can enhance fatigue and decrease quality of life, although depression, anxiety, and disability are factors that can potentiate the impact of the comorbidity.


Resumo Antecedentes A prevalência de dor em pacientes com esclerose múltipla é significativa. A fibromialgia é considerada uma forma de dor crônica encontrada na esclerose múltipla, mas os dados são restritos a estudos europeus e da América do Norte. Objetivo Avaliar a prevalência de fibromialgia em uma série de pacientes com esclerose múltipla e as características desta comorbidade. Métodos O presente estudo transversal incluiu consecutivamente 60 pacientes adultos com esclerose múltipla. Após o consentimento, os participantes foram submetidos à avaliação para determinação de incapacidade, fadiga, qualidade de vida, presença de fibromialgia, depressão e ansiedade. Resultados A prevalência de fibromialgia foi de 11,7%, similar ao observado em estudos prévios. Pacientes com a comorbidade apresentaram piores escores de fadiga (mediana e intervalo interquartil [IIQ]: 68 [48-70] versus 39 [16,5-49]; p < 0,001], qualidade de vida (média ± desvio padrão [DP]: 96,5 ± 35,9 versus 124,8 ± 28,8; p = 0,021), ansiedade (média ± DP: 22,7 ± 15,1 versus 13,8 ± 8,4; p = 0,021) e depressão (mediana e IIQ: 23 (6-28) versus 6 (3-12,5); p = 0,034] do que pacientes sem fibromialgia. Houve correlação positiva forte dos escores de depressão e de ansiedade com a fadiga (r = 0,773 e r = 0,773, respectivamente; p < 0,001). Concomitantemente, houve correlação negativa moderada entre os escores de escala de estado de incapacidade expandida, fadiga e depressão com a qualidade de vida (r = - 0,587, r = - 0,551, r = - 0,502, respectivamente; p < 0,001). Conclusão A fibromialgia é uma comorbidade de esclerose múltipla que pode aumentar a fadiga e diminuir a qualidade de vida, embora depressão, ansiedade e incapacidade sejam fatores potencializadores dessa morbidade associada.

7.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 43(3): 406-417, sept. 2023. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1533940

ABSTRACT

Introducción. El deterioro neurológico en la esclerosis múltiple es variable para cada paciente y su cuantificación se dificulta con el tiempo. El Multiple Sclerosis Outcome Assessment Consortium estableció medidas clínicas sensibles, costo-efectivas y reproducibles para medir los resultados de los estudios clínicos. Sin embargo, sus valores de referencia se desconocen y, en la atención habitual, su uso no está extendido por limitaciones de tiempo y entrenamiento. Objetivo. Establecer la factibilidad de la administración autónoma de las pruebas de marcha de 25 pies, símbolos y dígitos, y clavijas y nueve hoyos en individuos sanos. Materiales y métodos. Se realizó un estudio piloto descriptivo. Se incluyeron individuos sanos entre los 18 y los 80 años. Las pruebas de Timed 25-Foot Walking Test (T25-FWT) [caminata cronometrada de 25 pies], Symbol Digit Modality Test (SDMT) [símbolos y dígitos] y Nine-Hole Peg Test (9-HPT) [clavijas y nueve agujeros] fueron administradas por un médico capacitado, quien también instruyó a los sujetos sobre la administración autónoma de las pruebas. La correlación y la concordancia entre la prueba guiada y la autónoma se evaluaron con los coeficientes de Pearson y Spearman, y el análisis gráfico de Bland-Altman. Resultados. Se incluyeron 38 voluntarios sanos. La mediana de edad fue de 36 (rango: 23-55 años) y el 55,26 % eran mujeres. El coeficiente de correlación entre la prueba de administración guiada y la autónoma fue de 0,37 para la T25-FWT (p=0,01), de 0,54 para la SDMT (p<0,001) y de 0,64 y 0,65 para la 9-HPT, en las manos dominante y no dominante, respectivamente (p<0,001). Ambas formas de administración fueron concordantes para las pruebas T25-FWT (IC95%: -1,49 a 1,43), 9-HPT con la mano dominante (IC95%: -5,23 a 4,09), 9-HPT con la mano no dominante (IC95%: -7,75 a 7,14) y SDMT (IC95%: -20,94 a 24,10). Conclusiones. Los resultados de este estudio ayudan a determinar los valores de normalidad poblacional obtenidos con las pruebas T25-FWT, 9-HPT y SDMT; además, establecen la posibilidad de practicarlas de forma autónoma.


Introduction. Neurological impairment in multiple sclerosis is highly variable among patients and over time it is difficult to quantify. The Multiple Sclerosis Outcome Assessment Consortium established sensitive, cost-effective, clinically significant, and reproducible measures of different functional systems to measure outcomes in clinical trials. However, their use in clinical care routines is not widespread due to time and training constraints. Objective. To evaluate the self-administration feasibility of the timed 25-foot walking, symbol-digit-modality, and 9-peg hole tests in healthy individuals. Materials and methods. We performed a descriptive pilot study. Healthy individuals between 18 and 80 years of age were included. The Timed 25-Foot Walking Test (T25- FWT), the Symbol Digit Modality Test (SDMT), and the Nine-Hole Peg Test (9-HPT) (using the dominant and non-dominant hand) were administered by a trained physician, who also instructed the subjects about test self-administration. The correlation and agreement, between the guided and self-administered tests were assessed with Pearson and Spearman coefficients and the Bland-Altman method. Results. Thirty-eight healthy volunteers were included. The median age was 36 (range: 23-55) years old, and 55.26% were female. The correlation coefficient between guided and selfadministered tests was 0.37 for the T25-FWT (p=0.01), 0.54 for the SDMT (p<0.001), and 0.64 and 0.65 for the 9-HPT, in the dominant and non-dominant hands, respectively (p<0,001). Both forms of administration were concordant for the T25-FWT (95%CI: -1,49 to 1,43), the 9-HPT with dominant hand (95%CI: -5,23 to 4,09), the 9-HPT with non-dominant hand (95%CI: -7,75 to 7,14) and the SDMT (95% CI: -20,94 to 24,10). Conclusions. We provide a proof of concept related to the feasibility of the selfadministration of the T25-FWT, the 9-HPT, and the SDMT, as a tool to improve monitoring in routine clinical practice.


Subject(s)
Multiple Sclerosis , Reference Values , Disability Evaluation , Telemonitoring , Self-Testing
8.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 83(3): 358-365, ago. 2023. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1506689

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction : The objective was to assess the im munogenicity and effectiveness of vaccines against SARSCoV-2 in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients included in the Argentinean MS registry. Methods : A prospective cohort study between May and December 2021. The primary outcome was im munogenicity and effectiveness of vaccines during a three-month follow-up. Immunogenicity was evalua ted based on detection of total antibodies (Ab) against spike protein and neutralizing Ab in serum 4 weeks after the second vaccine dose. A positive COVID-19 case was defined according to Argentinean Ministry of Health. Results : 94 patients were included, mean age: 41.7 ± 12.1 years. Eighty (85.1%) had relapsing remitting mul tiple sclerosis (RRMS); 30 (31.9%) were under fingolimod treatment. The Sputnik V vaccine was the first dose in 33 (35.1%), and AstraZeneca in 61 (64.9%). In 60 (63.8%), the vaccine elicited a specific humoral response. Immu nological response according to the vaccination schemes showed no qualitative differences (p = 0.45). Stratified analysis according to the MS treatment showed that a significantly smaller number of subjects developed anti bodies against spike antigen among those that were on ocrelizumab compared to other groups (p ≤ 0.001), while a reduced number of patients under ocrelizumab where evaluated (n = 7). This was also observed for neutralizing antibodies in the ocrelizumab group (p < 0.001). During the three-month follow-up, two individuals were diag nosed with COVID-19. Conclusion: We found that MS patients that recei ved Sputnik V or AstraZeneca vaccines for SARS-CoV-2 developed a serological response with no differences between the vaccines used.


Resumen Introducción : El objetivo fue evaluar la inmunogeni cidad y efectividad de las vacunas contra el SARS-CoV-2 en pacientes con esclerosis múltiple (EM) incluidos en el registro argentino de EM (RelevarEM, NCT 03375177). Métodos : Estudio de cohorte prospectivo entre mayo y diciembre 2021. Se evaluó la inmunogenicidad (detec ción de anticuerpos totales (Ab) contra proteína espiga y anticuerpos neutralizantes en suero) y eficacia (nueva infección por COVID-19) durante seguimiento de tres meses. El momento de detección de anticuerpos fue 4 semanas después de segunda dosis de vacuna. Un caso positivo de COVID-19 se definió de acuerdo con la defi nición del Ministerio de Salud. Resultados : Se incluyeron 94 pacientes, edad media de 41.7 ± 12.1 años. Ochenta (85.1%) tenían EM remiten te-recurrente; 30 (31.9%) en tratamiento con fingolimod. La vacuna Sputnik V fue usada en 33 (35.1%), mientras que AstraZeneca se administró en 61 (64.9%). En 60 pa cientes (63.8 %), la vacuna provocó respuesta humoral específica. La respuesta inmunológica según esquemas de vacunación (Sputnik V, Astra Zeneca o esquemas he terólogos) no mostró diferencias cualitativas (p = 0.45). El análisis estratificado según tratamiento recibido para la EM mostró que número significativamente menor de sujetos desarrolló anticuerpos contra el antígeno espiga en los pacientes que recibieron ocrelizumab (p ≤ 0.001), aunque con un número reducido de pacientes evaluados bajo este tratamiento (n = 7). Esto también se observó para anticuerpos neutralizantes en el grupo bajo ocrelizumab (p < 0.001). Durante el seguimiento de tres meses, dos personas fueron diagnosticadas con COVID-19. Conclusión : Encontramos que los pacientes con EM que recibieron vacunas Sputnik V o AstraZeneca para el SARS-CoV-2 desarrollaron respuesta serológica sin diferencias entre las vacunas utilizadas.

9.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 81(6): 585-596, June 2023. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1447423

ABSTRACT

Abstract Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a central nervous system (CNS) disease characterized by inflammation, axonal demyelination, and neurodegeneration, which can have a strong impact on all aspects of the life of the patient. Multiple sclerosis causes motor, sensory, cerebellar, and autonomic dysfunctions, as well as cognitive and psychoemotional impairment. The most frequently compromised cognitive domains are complex attention/information processing, memory, executive and visuospatial functions. Recently, alterations have also been evidenced in complex cognitive functions, such as social cognition, moral judgment, and decision-making. Cognitive impairment is characterized by high variability and can affect work skills, social interactions, coping strategies and more generally the quality of life of patients and their families. With the use of sensitive and easy-to-administer test batteries, an increasingly accurate and early diagnosis is feasible: this allows to determine the effectiveness of possible preventive measures, to predict the future progression of the disease and to improve the quality of life of patients. There is currently limited evidence regarding the efficacy, on cognitive impairment, of disease-modifying therapies. The most promising approach, which has received strong empirical support, is cognitive rehabilitation.


Resumo A esclerose múltipla (EM) é uma doença do sistema nervoso central (SNC) caracterizada por inflamação, desmielinização axonal e neurodegeneração, que pode ter um forte impacto em todos os aspectos da vida dos pacientes. A EM causa disfunções motoras, sensoriais, cerebelares, autonômicas, comprometimento cognitivo e déficits psicoemocionais. Os domínios cognitivos mais frequentemente comprometidos são a atenção complexa/processamento da informação, memória, funções executivas e habilidades visuais-espaciais. Recentemente, também foram evidenciadas alterações em funções cognitivas complexas, como cognição social, julgamento moral e tomada de decisão. O comprometimento cognitivo é caracterizado por alta variabilidade e pode afetar as habilidades laborais, as interações sociais, as estratégias de enfrentamento e, de forma mais geral, a qualidade de vida dos pacientes e de seus familiares. Com o uso de baterias de testes sensíveis e fáceis de administrar, é viável um diagnóstico cada vez mais preciso e precoce: isso permite determinar a eficácia de possíveis medidas preventivas, prever a progressão futura da doença e melhorar a qualidade de vida dos pacientes. Atualmente, há evidências limitadas sobre a eficácia, no comprometimento cognitivo, de terapias modificadoras da doença. A abordagem mais promissora, que tem recebido forte apoio empírico, é a reabilitação cognitiva.

10.
Gac. méd. Méx ; 159(3): 184-189, may.-jun. 2023. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1448275

ABSTRACT

Resumen Antecedentes: La esclerosis múltiple es una enfermedad crónica, autoinmune y degenerativa. Las terapias blanco contra los linfocitos B han probado ser efectivas en su tratamiento; sin embargo, existen pocos estudios que evalúen su eficacia en población mexicana. Objetivo: Evaluar el impacto clínico del rituximab en pacientes con esclerosis múltiple remitente recurrente (EMRR) de reciente diagnóstico. Material y métodos: Estudio de vida real, descriptivo, en el que se evalúa rituximab como tratamiento de EMRR durante un periodo de 24 meses. Se analizaron variables clínicas pre y postratamiento; se realizó la comparación entre pacientes naïve y no naïve. Resultados: Se incluyeron 28 pacientes con EMRR. La edad media al diagnóstico fue de 30.7 años y 22 pacientes fueron naïve (78.5 %). Después de 24 meses, se observó una reducción media de 1.8 puntos en EDSS y en el número de lesiones activas por resonancia magnética. Aunque se logró establecer una diferencia significativa en ambas variables con p < 0.05, el modelo de regresión logística no mostró una relación entre las variables para alcanzar un NEDA-3. No se observaron eventos adversos graves. Conclusiones: El tratamiento con rituximab resultó en mejoría significativa clínica y radiológica en pacientes mexicanos con EMRR naïve y no-naïve.


Abstract Background: Multiple sclerosis is a chronic, autoimmune, degenerative disease. Therapies targeting B-cells have been shown to be effective in its treatment; however, there are few studies evaluating their efficacy in the Mexican population. Objective: To evaluate the clinical impact of rituximab in patients with newly-diagnosed relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). Material and methods: Real life, descriptive study, in which rituximab was evaluated as treatment for RRMS over a 24-month period. Pre- and post-treatment clinical variables were analyzed; a comparison was made between treatment-naïve and non-treatment-naïve patients. Results: Twenty-eight patients with RRMS were included. Mean age at diagnosis was 30.7 years, and 22 patients were treatment-naïve (78.5 %). After 24 months, there was a mean reduction of 1.8 points in the EDSS scale and a decrease in the number of active lesions on magnetic resonance imaging; a significant difference in both variables could be established (p < 0.05). However, the logistic regression model did not show a relationship between the variables for achieving NEDA-3 criteria. No serious adverse events were observed. Conclusions: Treatment with rituximab resulted in significant clinical and radiological improvement in treatment-naïve and non-treatment-naïve Mexican patients with RRMS.

11.
Rev. Inst. Med. Trop ; 18(1)jun. 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1449251

ABSTRACT

Introducción: la esclerosis múltiple (EM), enfermedad crónica del sistema nervioso (SNC), compromete significativamente la cognición. Su prevalencia en Paraguay es 9,2/100.000 habitantes, 72% con recaída remisión (EMRR) e incidencia de 2-3mujeres/hombre, afecta más a personas en edad productiva, con altos costos económicos y afectivos. Objetivos: caracterizar al paciente con EMRR, evaluar sus funciones ejecutivas (FEs) con BaNFE-2; establecer valores de corte ajustados al país. Metodología: con fundamento en teoría de la neurociencia cognitiva, diseño no experimental, cuantitativo, descriptivo, empírico, retrospectivo y transversal; técnica psicométrica y entrevista neuropsicológica en una muestra por conveniencia de 40 pacientes, 82,5% mujeres y edad 25-55 años (37,78±7,89). Resultados: se reportaron datos demográficos y clínicos, se caracterizaron las escalas de BaNFE-2 cuya consistencia interna resultó significativa. Se obtuvo 52,5% de alteración en la escala prefrontal y 42,5% en FEs; relaciones significativas con escolaridad, discapacidad física (DF), cantidad de brotes y deterioro cognitivo (DC); diferencias significativas por sexo, escolaridad, DF y DC. Se calcularon puntuaciones tipificadas por escolaridad, z<-1 establece el corte entre normalidad y alteración. Conclusión: las pruebas de BaNFE-2 perfilan la afectación del tiempo de ejecución, atención, memoria de trabajo y FEs. Este estudio aporta baremos ajustados al país y abre una novedosa línea de investigación aplicando BaNFE-2 en EM.


Introduction: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, neurodegenerative, inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS) that significantly compromises cognitive functions. In Paraguay, it occurs with a prevalence of 9.2/100,000 inhabitants, 72% in the clinical form of relapsing remission (RRMS) and an incidence of 2 to 3 women/men, affecting more people of productive age with high economic and emotional costs. Objectives: To characterize the Paraguayan patient with RRMS, to assess the state of their executive functions (EFs) with the BaNFE-2 battery, and to establish cut-off values adjusted to the country. Methods: Research based on the theory of cognitive neuroscience of non-experimental, quantitative and descriptive design for analytical purposes. It is empirical, retrospective and cross-sectional. The psychometric technique and neuropsychological interview were used in a convenience sample of 40 patients aged 25 to 55 (37.78 ± 7.89) and 82.5% women. Results: Demographic and clinical data of the participants were reported. The BaNFE-2 coded and normalized scales were statistically characterized, the internal consistency of which was significant. 52.5% of the alteration was obtained in the anterior prefrontal scale and 42.5% in FEs; there are significant relationships with schooling, physical disability (PD), number of outbreaks and cognitive impairment (CI); there were also significant differences by sex, education, PD and CI. Standardized scores adjusted for schooling were calculated such that z<-1 establishes the cutoff between normality and abnormality. Conclusion: BaNFE-2 battery tests profile the affectation of execution time, attention, working memory, and FEs. This study provides the adjusted scales for the country and opens a new line of research applying the BaNFE-2 battery in people with MS.

12.
Femina ; 51(6): 368-373, 20230630. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1512424

ABSTRACT

A decisão de escolha do método contraceptivo em situações clínicas especiais é desafiadora tanto para médicos quanto para pacientes. Em parte, isso se deve às contraindicações reais que alguns contraceptivos apresentam. Porém, há uma estreita relação com a falta de conhecimento e medo de muitos profissionais em prescrever métodos que, na realidade, são seguros. A má escolha do método contraceptivo para pacientes portadoras de condições específicas pode levar a diversos desfechos ruins, como piora da condição de base, ocorrência de eventos adversos indesejáveis e preveníveis e ocorrência de gravidez de alto risco indesejada. Dessa forma, foi realizada uma revisão na literatura com o objetivo de auxiliar profissionais médicos na decisão contraceptiva de pacientes portadoras de doenças reumatológicas e musculoesqueléticas, epilepsia, esclerose múltipla, transtornos alimentares, anemia falciforme e obesidade, e que já foram submetidas a cirurgia bariátrica.(AU)


The decision to choose the contraceptive method in special clinical situations is challenging for both physicians and patients. In part, this is due to the real contraindications that some contraceptives present. However, there is a close relationship with the lack of knowledge and fear of many professionals in prescribing methods that are actually safe. The poor choice of contraceptive method in patients with specific conditions can lead to several bad outcomes, such as worsening of the baseline condition, occurrence of undesirable and preventable adverse events and occurrence of an unwanted high-risk pregnancy. Thus, a literature review was carried out in order to assist medical professionals in the contraceptive decision of patients with rheumatological and musculoskeletal diseases, epilepsy, multiple sclerosis, eating disorders, sickle cell anemia, obesity and who have already undergone bariatric surgery.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Contraception/adverse effects , Contraception/methods , Rheumatic Diseases , Women's Health , Health Personnel , Epilepsy , Family Development Planning
13.
Acta neurol. colomb ; 39(2)jun. 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1533491

ABSTRACT

Introducción: En Colombia, la información sobre la frecuencia de presentación de la enfermedad por CO-VID-19 y sus desenlaces en personas con esclerosis múltiple (EM) es prácticamente inexistente. El objetivo de este estudio es describir la frecuencia, las características y los factores relacionados con la infección por COVID-19 en una muestra de pacientes con EM en Colombia. Materiales y métodos: Análisis descriptivo y retrospectivo de pacientes diagnosticados con criterios de esclerosis múltiple que acudieron a nuestro centro entre junio y octubre del año 2021. Los pacientes proporcionaron información sobre la infección por SARS-CoV-2 y su vacunación. Se analizaron los factores relacionados con la infección por COVID-19 mediante modelos de regresión logística binomial uni y multivariable. Resultados: Se analizaron 240 pacientes, de los cuales el 71 % eran mujeres, con una edad promedio de 34 años. La mayoría estaban en tratamiento con terapias modificadoras de la enfermedad y más del 80 % estaban vacunados. Sesenta y nueve pacientes declararon haber tenido COVID-19. En los modelos multivariables, la edad (OR 0,96; IC 95 % 0,93-0,99) fue el único factor asociado con una menor probabilidad de infección por COVID-19. Discusión: La infección por COVID-19 en pacientes con EM en Colombia parece ser independiente de las variables clínicas y de tratamiento y parece estar asociada con la menor edad. Conclusiones: Se requieren más estudios para evaluar el comportamiento del COVID-19 en pacientes con EM en el contexto colombiano.


Introduction: The information about the frequency of COVID-19 and its outcomes in people with Multiple Sclerosis (MS) in Colombia is practically non-existent. We aimed to describe the frequency characteristics and factors associated with of COVID-19 in a sample of patients with MS. Materials and methods: Descriptive and retrospective analysis of patients diagnosed with Multiple Sclerosis criteria who attended our center between June and October 2021. Patients provided information about SARS-CoV-2 infection and their vaccination. COVID-19 determinants were analyzed using uni-and multivariable binomial logistic regression models. Results: 240 patients were analyzed, of whom 71% were women, with a mean age of 34 years. The majority of patients were on disease-modifying therapies and over 80 % were vaccinated. 69 patients reported having had COVID-19. In multivariable models, age (OR 0.96; 95 % CI 0.93-0.99) was the only factor associated with a lower odds of COVID-19 infection. Discussion: COVID-19 infection in patients with MS in Colombia appears to be independent of clinical and treatment variables, and it appears to be associated with younger age. Conclusions: More studies are needed to assess the behavior of COVID-19 in MS patients from Colombia.


Subject(s)
SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 , Multiple Sclerosis , Immunosuppression Therapy , COVID-19 Vaccines , Breakthrough Infections
14.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 83(1): 59-64, abr. 2023. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1430773

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: Existe poca información local sobre el riesgo de infección grave por COVID-19 en pacientes con esclerosis múltiple (EM) que reciben tratamiento modificador de la enfermedad (DMT). El objetivo del estudio fue evaluar el impacto de la enfermedad por COVID-19 (gravedad y letalidad) en pacientes con EM que reciben DMT. Métodos: El estudio se realizó sobre una cohorte prospectiva de pacientes con EM. Se incluyeron 111 con EM y diagnóstico confirmado de COVID-19 tratados con DMT, seguidos hasta la resolución del COVID-19. Resultados: Un total de seis (5.4%; IC 95%: 2-11.4%) desarrollaron COVID-19 grave definido como requerimiento de internación en terapia intensiva o muerte, y tres fallecieron (tasa de letalidad cruda del 2.7%; IC 95%: 1.1-4.3%). La tasa de letalidad ajustada por edad fue del 1.5% (IC 95%: 0.6-2.4%). El factor que se asoció independientemente con COVID-19 grave fue la edad (OR 1.1; IC 1.0-1.3; p < 0.05) con una tendencia en la Escala del Estado de Incapacidad Ampliada (EDSS) ≥ 6(OR 6.2; IC 0.6-56.4; p = 0.10). Conclusión: La letalidad por COVID-19 en pacientes con EM es baja y la gravedad se asoció significativamente con la edad y mostró una tendencia con EDSS ≥ 6.


Abstract Introduction: There is limited local information on the risk of severe COVID-19 infection in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) who are receiving disease-modifying treatments (DMT). The aim of the study was to assess the impact of COVID-19 disease (severity and lethality) in MS patients receiving DMT. Methods: The study was performed on a prospective cohort with EM. We included 111 patients with MS and a confirmed di agnosis of COVID-19 treated with DMT and followed up until the resolution of COVID-19. Results: A total of six patients (5.4%; 95% CI: 2-11.4%) developed severe COVID-19 defined as requiring hospitalization in intensive care unit or death and three died (crude case fatality rate of 2.7%; 95% CI: 1.1-4.3%). The age-adjusted case fatality rate was 1.5% (95% CI: 0.6-2.4%). The factor that was independently associated with severe COVID-19 was age (OR 1.1; CI 1.0-1.3; p < 0.05) with a trend in the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) ≥ 6 (OR 6.2; CI 0.6-56.4; p = 0.10). Conclusion: The lethality due to COVID-19 in MS patients is low, and severity was significantly associated with age and showed a trend with EDSS ≥ 6.

15.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 81(4): 350-356, Apr. 2023. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1439455

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background People with multiple sclerosis (PwMS) show an increased risk of sexual dysfunction (SD), both in women and men. Objective The aim of the present study was to apply the Multiple Sclerosis Intimacy and Sexuality Questionnaire-19 (MSISQ-19) and evaluate our results by comparing them with those in in the literature, as well as to assess the ease of applying the scale and the engagement of the patients in discussing the topic of sexuality. Methods We developed and applied a web-based Google form questionnaire that the respondents completed online, which included the MSISQ-19, for the assessment of sexual function. Baseline characteristics were reported as proportions and mean ± standard deviation (SD) or median ± interquartile range (IQR) as appropriate according to data distribution. Categorical variables were stratified by sex and compared with chisquared tests. Statistical analyses were performed using STATA v. 16 (StataCorp., College Station, TX, USA). Results Of the 621 respondents, 541 were included in the analysis. Among the patients with MS, a total of 347 (64.14%) exhibited SD. When stratified by gender, the frequencies of SD were not significantly different. Conclusion There is a high incidence of sexual dysfunction among PwMS and we need to identify the reasons for this and implement strategies to treat and counsel our patients. The MSISQ-19 can be used to help clinicians to assess sexual functioning in a quick and easy way and give patients the possibility to address this topic and receive appropriate help and support.


Resumo Antecedentes Pacientes com esclerose múltipla apresentam altas taxas de disfunção sexual em diversos estudos. Objetivo Avaliar a aplicação e resultados da ferramenta para avaliação de disfunção sexual em pacientes com Esclerose Multipla, Multiple Sclerosis Intimacy and Sexuality Questionnaire-19 (MSISQ-19), bem como comparar os resultados encontrados com a literatura já existente e ter a percepção do engajamento dos pacientes sobre o tema. Métodos Realizado através de questionário on-line na plataforma Google Forms, composto por questões sobre perfil demográfico e relacionadas à doença e o questionário MSISQ-19. Os dados demográficos e sobre a doença foram descritos como proporções e média ± desvio padrão (DP) ou mediana ± intervalo interquartil (IIQ). As variáveis categóricas foram estratificadas por sexo e comparadas com testes de qui-quadrado. As análises estatísticas foram realizadas no programa STATA v. 16 (StataCorp., College Station, TX, EUA). Resultados Um total de 621 pacientes responderam ao questionário, sendo inclusos na análise 541 respostas, após a aplicação dos critérios de elegibilidade. Um total de 347 (64,14%) pacientes apresentaram disfunção sexual, sem diferença entre os gêneros. Conclusão Disfunção sexual apresenta alta prevalência no grupo estudado, sendo necessário identificar as causas e implementar estratégias de tratamento. O MSISQ-19 é uma ferramenta fácil e rápida de ser aplicada, podendo ser utilizada para facilitar a comunicação com os pacientes sobre o tema, possibilitando assim o tratamento das disfunções sexuais nessa população.

16.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 81(4): 357-368, Apr. 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1439463

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background Evidence indicates a strong link between Zika virus (ZikV) and neurological complications. Acute myelitis, optic neuritis, polyneuropathy, and encephalomyelitis that mimic inflammatory idiopathic demyelination disorders (HDD) after ZikV infection have been reported in Brazil. Objective The present study aims to investigate the possible occurrence of molecular mimicry between ZikV antigens and Multiple Sclerosis (MS) autoantigens, the most frequent HDD of the central nervous system (CNS). Methods A retrospective cohort study with 305 patients admitted due to suspected arbovirus infection in Rio de Janeiro was performed, all subjects were submitted to neurological examination, and a biological sample was collected for serologic and molecular diagnostic. Bioinformatics tools were used to analyze the peptides shared between ZikV antigens and MS autoantigens. Results Of 305 patients, twenty-six were positive for ZikV and 4 presented IDD patterns found in MS cases. Sequence homology comparisons by bioinformatics approach between NS5 ZikV and PLP MS protein revealed a homology of 5/6 consecutive amino acids (CSSVPV/CSAVPV) with 83% identity, deducing a molecular mimicry. Analysis of the 3D structures revealed a similar conformation with alpha helix presentation. Conclusions Molecular mimicry between NS5 Zika virus antigen and PLP MS autoantigens emerge as a possible mechanism for IDD spectrum in genetically susceptible individuals.


Resumo Antecedentes Evidências indicam uma forte ligação entre o vírus Zika (ZikV) e complicações neurológicas. Mielite aguda, neurite óptica, polineuropatia e encefalomielite que mimetizam distúrbios inflamatórios de desmielinização idiopáticos (DDII) após infecção por ZikV têm sido relatadas no Brasil. Obejtivo O presente estudo tem como objetivo investigar a possível ocorrência de mimetismo molecular entre antígenos do ZikV e autoantígenos da Esclerose Múltipla (EM), a DDII mais frequente do sistema nervoso central (SNC). Métodos Foi realizado um estudo de coorte retrospectivo com 305 pacientes internados por suspeita de infecção por arbovirus no Rio de Janeiro, todos os indivíduos foram submetidos a exame neurológico e coleta de amostra biológica para diagnóstico sorológico e molecular. Ferramentas de bioinformática foram usadas para analisar os peptídeos compartilhados entre antígenos do ZikV e autoantígenos da EM. Resultados Dos 305 pacientes, vinte e seis foram positivos para ZikV e 4 apresentaram padrão IDD encontrado em casos de EM. As comparações de homologia de sequência por abordagem de bioinformática entre a proteína NS5 ZikV e PLP EM revelaram uma homologia de 5/6 aminoácidos consecutivos (CSSVPV/CSAVPV) com 83% de identidade, deduzindo um mimetismo molecular. A análise das estruturas 3D revelou uma conformação semelhante com apresentação em alfa-hélice. Conclusões O mimetismo molecular entre o antígeno NS5 do vírus Zika e o autoantígeno PLP da EM surge como um possível mecanismo para o espectro IDD em indivíduos geneticamente suscetíveis.

17.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(2): 417-422, abr. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1440301

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: The corpus callosum (CC) includes the majority of fibers linking the two brain hemispheres. Several cross sectional studies showed an association between callosal atrophy and malfunction and neurodegenerative diseases, which may play a role in their pathological manifestations. As a result, the accurate quantification of the corpus callosum is important to have normative values according to sex, age and ethnicity. The purpose of this study is to determine the size of CC in patients suffering from multiple sclerosis, and compare it to CC size in healthyindividuals. Midsagittal size of CC were recorded prospectively from 404 routine MR brain examinations in normal individuals. The internal skull surface was measured to calculate CC/ internal skull surface ratio. Two groups of patients were studied: 200 (100 male /100 female) healthy individuals and 204 (101 males/103 females) with multiple sclerosis (MS). Mean surface area of CC in controls was 6.58±1.04 cm2 and there was no significant difference between males and females (P< 0.627). CC/ internal skull surface ratio was 4.44±0.77 %. MS patients showed a significant decrease in CC size compared to normal controls. Using MR imaging, we measured the mean sizes of the various portions of the CC in normal individuals, in addition to MS patients; these values may provide a useful basis to determine changes occurring in CC structures.


El cuerpo calloso (CC) incluye la mayoría de las fibras que unen los dos hemisferios cerebrales. Varios estudios transversales mostraron una asociación entre la atrofia y el mal funcionamiento calloso y las enfermedades neurodegenerativas, lo que puede desempeñar un papel en sus manifestaciones patológicas. En consecuencia, la cuantificación precisa del cuerpo calloso es importante para tener valores normativos según sexo, edad y etnia. El propósito de este estudio fue determinar el tamaño de CC en pacientes que padecen esclerosis múltiple y compararlo con el tamaño de CC en individuos sanos. El tamaño sagital medio del CC se registró prospectivamente a partir de 404 exámenes cerebrales de RM de rutina en individuos normales. Se midió la superficie interna del cráneo para calcular la relación CC/superficie interna del cráneo. Se estudiaron dos grupos de pacientes: 200 (100 hombres/100 mujeres) sanos y 204 (101 hombres/103 mujeres) con esclerosis múltiple (EM). El área superficial media de CC en los controles fue de 6,58±1,04 cm2 y no hubo diferencia significativa entre hombres y mujeres (P< 0,627). La relación CC/superficie interna del cráneo fue de 4,44±0,77 %. Los pacientes con EM mostraron una disminución significativa en el tamaño de CC en comparación con los controles normales. Usando imágenes de RM, medimos los tamaños medios de las diversas porciones del CC en individuos normales, además de pacientes con EM; estos valores pueden proporcionar una base útil para determinar los cambios que ocurren en las estructuras CC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Corpus Callosum/pathology , Corpus Callosum/diagnostic imaging , Multiple Sclerosis/pathology , Multiple Sclerosis/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Retrospective Studies
18.
J. bras. econ. saúde (Impr.) ; 15(1): 12-23, Abril/2023.
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, ECOS | ID: biblio-1437861

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Compreender o cenário da esclerose múltipla (EM) em relação aos aspectos epidemiológicos, diagnósticos, progressão, tratamento e comorbidades no sistema público brasileiro. Métodos: Trata-se de um estudo retrospectivo e observacional utilizando os sistemas de dados do Departamento de Informática do Sistema Único de Saúde (DataSUS). Os dados utilizados foram obtidos por meio da base de dados do Sistema Ambulatorial/Sistema de Procedimentos de Alta Complexidade (SIA/SUS). Nessa base, o vínculo de registros foi por meio do Cadastro Nacional de Saúde (CNS). Para a quantificação de dados epidemiológicos, foram coletados os dados do Código de Endereçamento Postal (CEP), sexo e data de nascimento, além das bases de geolocalização dos pacientes. Considerou-se como desfecho primário a descrição epidemiológica da população de pacientes em uso ou que usaram MMCD para o tratamento da EM. Como desfecho secundário, consideraram-se as características dos pacientes (gênero, idade, idade ao diagnóstico e comorbidades). Resultados: Foram incluídos na análise 45.011 pacientes. Identificou-se predominância de pacientes do gênero feminino (72,9%) e com idade entre 31 e 60 anos (61,23%) diagnosticados com CID G35 no primeiro registro. A taxa de incidência de pacientes com EM foi maior (2,7 pacientes/100 mil habitantes) na região Sudeste, seguida pela região Sul (2,2 pacientes/100 mil). A prevalência na região Sul teve a maior taxa (18 pacientes/100 mil), seguida pelo Sudeste (16,7 pacientes/100 mil). As betainterferonas e o acetato de glatirâmer foram os medicamentos mais utilizados no primeiro tratamento. O acetato de glatirâmer foi o mais utilizado para o segundo tratamento no período de 2011 até 2017. Em 2018, os MMCD mais utilizados como segundo tratamento foram fingolimode e natalizumabe. A partir de 2019, fingolimode, fumarato de dimetila e natalizumabe foram os medicamentos mais utilizados como segundo tratamento, permanecendo nessa ordem até 2021. Para o terceiro tratamento, o natalizumabe foi o medicamento mais utilizado até 2017. Após esse período, o fingolimode passou a ser mais usado. Desde 2019, com o acesso ao fumarato de dimetila, os medicamentos mais prescritos foram, em ordem decrescente, fingolimode, natalizumabe e fumarato de dimetila. Conclusão: Estabelecer uma análise epidemiológica dos pacientes que usam MMCD para o tratamento da EM no Brasil, além do padrão de tratamento, são dados essenciais para a promoção do tratamento da EM de forma adequada, bem como para a implementação de políticas públicas locais, regionais e nacionais.


Objective: To understand the multiple sclerosis (MS) setting in relation to epidemiological aspects, diagnoses, progression, treatment and comorbidities in the Brazilian public system. Methods: This is a retrospective, observational study using the Unified Health System's Informatics Department [Departamento de Informática do Sistema Único de Saúde] data systems (DataSUS). The data used were obtained by means of the outpatient system/high-complexity procedure system (SIA/SUS) database. In this database, the association of entries was via the National Health Registration [Cadastro Nacional de Saúde] (CNS). For epidemiological data quantification, Zip Code, sex and date of birth information was collected, as well as data from patient geolocation databases. The epidemiological description of the patient population using or having used DMTs for MS treatment was considered as the primary endpoint. Patient characteristics (gender, age, age at diagnosis and comorbidities) were considered as the secondary endpoint. Results: 45,011 patients were included in the analysis. A predominance of female patients (72.9%) aged between 31 and 60 years (61.23%) and diagnosed with ICD code G35 in the first entry was identified. The incidence rate of patients with MS was higher (2.7 patients/100 thousand inhabitants) in the Southeast region, followed by the South region (2.2 patients/100 thousand). Prevalence in the South region had the highest rate (18 patients/100 thousand), followed by the Southeast region (16.7 patients/100 thousand). Interferons beta and glatiramer acetate were the most used drugs in the first treatment. Glatiramer acetate was the most used drug for the second treatment within the period from 2011 to 2017. In 2018, the most common DMTs used as second treatment were fingolimod and natalizumab. From 2019, fingolimod, dimethyl fumarate and natalizumab were the most used drugs as second treatment, remaining in this order until 2021. For the third treatment, natalizumab was the most used drug until 2017. After this period, fingolimod became more widely used. Since 2019, with access to dimethyl fumarate, the most prescribed drugs were, in decreasing order, fingolimod, natalizumab and dimethyl fumarate. Conclusion: Establishing an epidemiological analysis of patients using DMTs for MS treatment in Brazil, in addition to standard of care, results in critical data for adequately promoting MS treatment, as well as for implementing local, regional and national public policies.


Subject(s)
Unified Health System , Epidemiology , Prevalence , Multiple Sclerosis
19.
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1434255

ABSTRACT

Introdução: o crescimento de pacientes com esclerose múltipla que procuram tratamento com acupuntura é baseado em relatos clínicos de melhora dos sintomas. Considerando que o comprometimento autonômico, incluindo a disfunção autonômica cardiovascular, não é incomum em pacientes com EM a neuromodulação com acupuntura pode ser uma ferramenta interessante para alterar a variabilidade da frequência cardíaca nessa população.Objetivo: avaliar a variabilidade da frequência cardíaca em pacientes com esclerose múltipla, durante a aplicação da Acupuntura, a fim de analisar o comportamento do sistema nervoso autônomo antes, durante e após a terapia e as mudanças na condição após uma intervenção longitudinal.Métodos: será realizado um ensaio clínico cruzado, randomizado, placebo-controlado, duplo-cego, com proporção de alocação de 1:1, com 40 indivíduos sem doença prévia, que constituirão o grupo controle, e 40 indivíduos com Esclerose Múltipla, que constituirão o grupo experimental. grupo, pareado por idade e sexo. Todos os participantes realizarão sessões de acupuntura ativas ou simuladas.Discussão: de acordo com os estudos encontrados, é esperada disfunção autonômica cardiovascular, com alterações na variabilidade da frequência cardíaca. Embora a neuromodulação com acupuntura possa controlar a dor e a inflamação, ainda há dificuldades em afirmar se o equilíbrio entre os sistemas simpático e parassimpático pode ser alterado pela acupuntura.


Backgroung: the growing of patients with multiple sclerosis seeking acupuncture treatment is based on clinical reports of improvements in symptoms. Considering that autonomic impairment, including cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction, is not uncommon in patients with MS, neuromodulation with acupuncture could be an interesting tool to change heart rate variability in this population.Objective: to evaluate heart rate variability in patients with multiple sclerosis, during the application of acupuncture, in order to analyze the behavior of the autonomic nervous system before, during and after therapy and changes in condition after a longitudinal intervention.Methods: a double-blinded randomized sham-controlled crossover trial with a 1:1 allocation ratio will be conducted, with 40 individuals without a previous illness, who will constitute the control group, and 40 individuals with Multiple Sclerosis, who will constitute the experimental group, paired by age and sex. All participants will undertake active or sham acupuncture sessions.Discussion: according to the studies found, cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction is expected, with alterations in heart rate variability. Although neuromodulation with acupuncture can control pain and inflammation, there are still difficulties in affirming whether the balance between the sympathetic and parasympathetic systems can be changed by acupuncture

20.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 81(3): 296-307, Mar. 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1439437

ABSTRACT

Abstract Plasma exchange (PLEX) is a therapeutic apheresis modality in which the plasma is separated from inflammatory factors such as circulating autoreactive immunoglobulins, the complement system, and cytokines, and its therapeutic effect is based on the removal of these mediators of pathological processes. Plasma exchange is well established for various neurological disorders, and it is applied successfully in central nervous system inflammatory demyelinating diseases (CNS-IDD). It mainly modulates the humoral immune system; thus, it has a greater theoretical effect in diseases with prominent humoral mechanisms, such as neuromyelitis optica (NMO). However, it also has a proven therapeutic effect in multiple sclerosis (MS) attacks. Several studies have suggested that patients with severe attacks of CNS-IDD have poor response to steroid therapy but show clinical improvement after the PLEX treatment. Currently, PLEX is generally established only as a rescue therapy for steroid unresponsive relapses. However, there are still research gaps in the literature regarding plasma volume, number of sessions, and how early the apheresis treatment needs to started. Thus, in the present article, we summarize the clinical studies and meta-analyses, especially about MS and NMO, outlining clinical data regarding the experience with therapeutic PLEX in severe attacks of CNS-IDD, the clinical improvement rates, the prognostic factors of a favorable response, and highlighting the likely role of the early apheresis treatment. Further, we have gathered this evidence and suggested a protocol for the treatment of CNS-IDD with PLEX in the routine clinical practice.


Resumo Plasmaférese (PLEX) é um procedimento em que o plasma é separado de fatores inflamatórios como imunoglobulinas autorreativas circulantes, sistema complemento e citocinas, e seu efeito terapêutico se baseia na remoção desses mediadores de processos patológicos. A PLEX está bem estabelecida no tratamento de diversos distúrbios neurológicos, e é utilizada com sucesso em surtos de doenças desmielinizantes inflamatórias do sistema nervoso central (CNS-IDD). A PLEX modula principalmente o sistema imunológico humoral; assim, tem efeito teórico maior em doenças com mecanismos patológicos humorais proeminentes, como a neuromielite óptica (NMO). No entanto tem também efeito terapêutico comprovado em surtos de esclerose múltipla (EM). Estudos sugerem que a corticoterapia é pouco eficaz em pacientes com surtos graves de CNS-IDD, e que estes apresentam melhora clínica após o tratamento com PLEX. Atualmente, a PLEX está geralmente estabelecida apenas como terapia de resgate para surtos não responsivos a corticosteroides. No entanto, há lacunas na literatura sobre a quantidade de troca de volume plasmático, o número de sessões, e o tempo de início da aférese terapêutica. Dessa forma, resumimos neste artigo estudos clínicos e metanálises, especialmente sobre EM e NMO, e delineamos os dados clínicos sobre a experiência com o uso de PLEX em surtos graves de CNS-IDD, as taxas de melhora clínica, os fatores prognósticos para uma resposta favorável, e destacamos o provável papel do tratamento precoce nestes casos. Em um segundo momento, reunimos essas evidências em uma sugestão de protocolo de tratamento de CNS-IDD com PLEX na prática clínica rotineira.

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