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1.
China Pharmacy ; (12): 280-286, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913084

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE To establish H PLC fingerprint of Rheum palmatum before and after steaming with wine ,and to determine the contents of 3 differential components. METHODS HPLC method was used to establish the fingerprints of 15 batches of R. palmatum (before wine-steaming )and prepared rhubarb (after wine-steaming )and the similarity evaluation was conducted. The chemical pattern recognition analysis was carried out by principal component analysis ,cluster analysis ,partial least squares- discriminant analysis and orthogonal partial least squares-discriminant analysis. The contents of gallic acid ,resveratrol-4′-O- glucoside and resveratrol- 4′-O-(6″-galloyl)-glucoside in 30 batches of samples were determined. RESULTS In the fingerprint study,48 common peaks were demarcated for R. palmatum and 47 for prepared rhubarb as well as 17 common peaks were identified by reference substance. Cluster analysis and principal component analysis showed that R. palmatum derived from Qinghai before and after steaming with wine could be distinguished from those from Sichuan and Gansu. The results of content determination showed that the contents of 3 differential components in R. palmatum derived from Qinghai before and after steaming with wine were higher than those from other two production areas ;the contents of gallic acid in prepared rhubarb derived from those production areas were higher than R. palmatum ;the contents of resveratrol- 4′-O-glucoside and resveratrol- 4′-O- (6″-galloyl)-glucoside in R. palmatum derived from those production areas were higher than prepared rhubarb. CONCLUSIONS Fingerprint and content determination method established in this study can quickly ,scientifically and accurately evaluate the quality of R. palmatum from different producing areas before and after wine steaming ,which provide a basis for the processing specification and quality control of R. palmatum .

2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-907630

ABSTRACT

Objective:To study the regulative effect of Rhubarb dispensing granule on autophagy and gastrointestinal motility of Cajal interstitial cells in rats with chronic transit constipation (STC).Methods:A total of 75 rats were randomly divided into control group, model group, low, medium and high dose groups with 15 rats in each group. Except for the control group, the STC rat models were established by intragastric administration of compound diphenoxylate suspension. Rats in low, medium and high dose groups were given Rhubarb dispensing granule of 1, 2 and 4 g/kg by gavage respectively, while rats in control group and model group were given normal saline with the same volume by gavage, once a day for 14 consecutive days. Fecal moisture content and intestinal propulsion rate were measured. The serum levels of substance P (SP), vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), NO and NOS were detected by ELISA. The pathological changes of colon tissue were observed by HE staining. The c-kit level in colon tissue was detected by immunohistochemistry. The mRNA and protein levels of c-kit and Beclin1 in colon tissue were detected by PCR and Western blot.Results:Compared with the model group, the fecal moisture content, the carbon pushing distance and the intestinal pushing rate of the low, medium and high dose groups were significantly increased ( P<0.05), the serum SP level was increased ( P<0.05), the serum VIP, NO and NOS levels of the low, medium and high dose groups were decreased ( P<0.05), and the average expression score of c-kit in colon tissue of the low, medium and high dose groups was significantly increased ( P<0.05). The levels of c-kit mRNA (2.33 ± 0.35, 3.04 ± 0.17, 3.83 ± 0.23 vs. 0.61 ± 0.07) and protein (0.42 ± 0.06, 0.60 ± 0.07, 0.79 ± 0.08 vs. 0.22 ± 0.04)in colon tissue of rats in low, medium and high dose groups were increased ( P<0.05), and Beclin1 mRNA (4.17 ± 0.37, 3.35 ± 0.44, 1.05 ± 0.28 vs. 6.04 ± 0.31) and protein (0.76 ± 0.11, 0.57 ± 0.08, 0.43 ± 0.05 vs. 0.91 ± 0.06) were decreased ( P<0.05). Conclusion:Rhubarb dispensing granule could significantly increase the fecal moisture, intestinal motility rate, serum SP level and colonic tissue c-kit level, decrease serum VIP, NO, NOS level and colonic tissue Beclin1 level in rats with chronic transit constipation, and then inhibit autophagy of Cajal interstitial cells and regulate gastrointestinal motility in rats with chronic transit constipation.

3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-909609

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE Senna and rhubarb are classified as stimulative laxatives, and known to have similar effec?tive constituents, the anthraquinones. Being protected by theβ-glucoside bond, the anthraquinones can reach the intes?tines where they are degraded into complex metabolites by enzymes secreted from the intestinal microbiome. It is these complex metabolites that produce the laxative effects. Then the similarities and differences of action between the anthra?quinones require further elucidation. METHODS Here, we studied metabolites of senna anthraquinones (SAQ), rhubarb anthraquinones (RAQ) and their chemical marker, sennoside A (SA), in a rat diarrhea model. In the in vitro biotransfor?mation experiments, SAQ, RAQ and SA were incubated with rat fecal flora solution and the metabolites produced were analyzed using HPLC. In the in vivo studies, the same compounds were investigated for purgation induction, with mea?surement of histopathology and multiple aquaporins (Aqps) gene expression in six organs. RESULTS SAQ and RAQ had similar principal constituents but could be degraded into different metabolites. A similar profile of Aqps down-regula?tion for all compounds was seen in the colon, suggesting a similar mechanism of action for purgation. However, in the kidneys and livers of the diarrhea-rats, down-regulation of Aqps was found in the RAQ-rats whereas up-regulation of Aqps was seen in the SAQ-rats. Furthermore, the RAQ-rats showed lower aquaporin 2 (Aqp2) protein expression in the kidneys, whilst the SA-rats and SAQ-rats had higher Aqp2 protein expression in the kidneys. This may have implications for side effects of SAQ or RAQ in patients with chronic kidney or liver diseases. CONCLUSION SAQ and RAQ showed similar laxative actions with a similar mechanism, they could display different actions in rat kidneys and livers. We suggest that the clinical usage of senna or rhubarb products should be clarified for patients having chronic kidney or liver diseases.

4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-846424

ABSTRACT

Objective: The effects of different decoction time and different decoction temperature on its chemical constituents of anthraquinones, anthrone, and tannins were revealed by pseudo-targeted metabolomics, which provided the basis for clinical use of rhubarb. Methods: Using LTQ-Orbitrap-MSn to accurately excavate the characteristic ions of various chemical components of rhubarb, the ion pairs of chemical components were determined as much as possible by characteristic ions to obtain the peak area of various components by using the MRM mode of QQQ-MS. The effects of different decoction methods on the chemical components of rhubarb was compared by multivariate statistical analysis combined with paired t test. Results: Both decoction time and decoction temperature have impacts on the chemical components of rhubarb decoction. Short-term decocting for 15 min was beneficial to the dissolution of dianthrone glycosides and anthraquinone glycosides, while long-term decocting for 60 min was beneficial to the dissolution of tannins; Compared with boiling water maceration, boiling water decoction was more favorable for the dissolution of anthraquinones and tannins. Conclusion: This paper adopts the method of pseudo-targeted metabolomics, and clearly points out that short-term decocting or maceration is conducive to exerting the laxative effect of rhubarb, and long-time boiling decocting is conducive to exerting clearing heat and detoxifying efficacy, which provides a reference for the clinical application of rhubarb.

5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-846183

ABSTRACT

Objective: A method was established to obtain fingerprint and determination of ninecomponents in rhubarb based on ultra-performance liquid chromatography photodiode array detection (UPLC-PDA), and 17 batches of rhubarb from different regions, different varieties and different growth years were analyzed. Methods: A ThermoSyncronis C18 column (100 mm × 2.1 mm, 1.7μm) was used with a gradient of acetonitrile (A)-0.1% formic acid (B) as a mobile phase. Fingerprint data was imported intoSIMCA-P 14.1 software for cluster analysis and principal component analysis. At the same time, a total of ninecomponents including sennoside B, rhein-8-O-β-D-glucoside, sennoside A, emodin-8-O-β-D-glucoside, aloe-emodin, rhein, emodin, chrysophanol, physcion were quantitatively analyzed. Results: 20 common peaks were found in the fingerprints of 17 batches of rhubarb, and 9 peaks were identified by standard compounds. Cluster analysis and principal component analysis showed that Rheum tanguticumwas similar to Rheum officinaleand could be distinguished with Rheum palmatumwell. Fouryears and fiveyears of R. tanguticum could not be distinguished, oneyear and twoyears of R.palmatumcould not be distinguished neither. The determination of the indicator components showed thatR. tanguticum was higher than the other two kinds of rhubarb; Fouryears of R. tanguticum was better than five years, and twoyears of R.palmatumwas better than oneyear. Conclusion: This method established rhubarb fingerprint combined with multi-component determination based on UPLC-PDA technology could quickly, scientifically and accurately distinguish rhubarb of different origins. The preliminary evaluation of the rhubarb in different years and a basis for distinguishing the source of rhubarb was also provided.

6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-846040

ABSTRACT

Objective: To study the relationship between the quantitative color value of the powder and the known component content of rhubarb charcoal, and lay the foundation for the establishment of the rhubarb charcoal processing process control and endpoint judgment based on the color quantitative value. Methods: Rhubarb charcoal samples were prepared at different temperatures and time. Based on the empirical judgment of the rhubarb charcoal processing, the visual analyzer and UV-Vis were used to quantify the color of the pieces and powder of rhubarb charcoal under different processing conditions. At the same time, the HPLC fingerprint method was used to evaluate the dynamic changes of chemical components during the processing of rhubarb charcoal, and the quantitative value of the color of the sample during the processing of rhubarb charcoal was correlated with the characteristic components of the HPLC fingerprint using the multivariate statistical method. Results: During the processing of rhubarb charcoal, as the degree of carbonization increased, the apparent color of the sample changed from light yellowish brown to burnt black. There was a high correlation between the lightness value (L*), red-green value (a*) of the sample pieces and powder and the yellow and blue values (b*). The area of the 26 characteristic peaks had varying degrees of correlation with the chromaticity value. Among the 14 known components, five bound anthraquinones (aloe-emodin-8-O-β-D-glucoside, rhein-8-O-β-D-glucoside, chrysophanol-8-O-β-D- glucoside, emodin-8-O-β-D-glucoside, physcion-8-O-β-D-glucoside), and two sennosides (sennoside A, sennoside B) had a linear positive correlation with the chromaticity value. The content of five free anthraquinones (aloe-emodin, rhein, chrysophanol, emodin, and physcion), gallic acid and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF), whose contents increased first and then decreased, showed a quadratic correlation with the chromaticity value. Conclusion: The subjective judgment of rhubarb charcoal in the processing process is consistent with the quantitative color value analysis. The quantitative color value has a clear correlation with the content of 14 active chemical components. It is preliminarily inferred that the color quantitative value can be used as the quality of the rhubarb charcoal processing process control and end-point determination indicators to achieve efficient and rapid identification of the processing quality of rhubarb charcoal, which can provide new ideas for the monitoring and quality control of the rhubarb charcoal processing process.

7.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 2141-2148, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-780352

ABSTRACT

To explore the application of an effect-constituents index (ECI) for the quality evaluation of rhubarb, we carried out the simultaneous determination of 12 chemical components by ultra-performance liquid chromatography and used the ICR mouse constipation model to determine the diarrhea biopotency of these 12 components. With the diarrhea biopotency of sennoside A as a reference, the diarrhea biopotency weight coefficient of each chemical component was obtained. A multi-component chemical quantitative analysis combined with the biopotency weight coefficients for rhubarb was developed, named the diarrhea ECI. Animal experiment ethics requirements were approved by the Animal Experimental Ethics Committee of the 302 Hospital of the People's Liberation Army (Grant Number: IACUC-2015-012). The results showed that there were significant differences in the content of the 12 chemical components in different batches of processed products of rhubarb. Especially worthy of attention was the content of aloe-emodin-8-O-β-D-glucoside in sample Rh03, nearly 40-fold higher than that in Rh07 (4.79 vs 0.12 mg·g-1), and the content of rhein-8-O-β-D-glucoside in sample Rh03, nearly 45 times higher than that in Rh07 (3.56 vs 0.08 mg·g-1). The actual measured diarrhea biopotencies of the 12 chemical components ranged from 61.65 ± 4.28 to 233.84 ± 5.58 U·mg-1. The calculated diarrhea effect-constituents indices of 16 rhubarb samples ranged from 1.07 (Rh15) to 19.38 (Rh03), and the actual measured diarrhea biopotencies of 16 rhubarb samples based the ICR mouse constipation model ranged from 23.84 U·g-1 (Rh16) to 310.94 U·g-1 (Rh05). The correlation between the diarrhea ECIs and the actual measured diarrhea biopotencies of 16 rhubarb samples was good (r = 0.969 5), suggesting that the diarrhea effect-constituents indices may be the most suitable for evaluating the quality of different rhubarbs with regard to diarrhea.

8.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 2162-2168, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-780350

ABSTRACT

Consistency in quality of traditional Chinese medicine granules is an important factor to ensure reproducible clinical efficacy. In this study rhubarb dispensing granules were utilized to construct an efficacious near-infrared spectroscopy (eNIRS) assay by combining NIRS and biopotency. A NIR method for assaying rhubarb dispensing particles was established, and information on different batches was collected. The diarrhea-inducing biopotency of rhubarb dispensing granules was determined based on a constipation model induced by diphenoxylate in mice. The animal protocol was approved by the Animal Ethic Committee​ of 302 Hospital of Chinese PLA People's Liberation Army (ID: IACUC-2019-0010). Ten anthraquinones were determined in rhubarb dispensing granules by UPLC. The correlation between NIR and biopotency was analyzed and five characteristic bands that correlated highly with bioactivity were identified, including 4 011-4 390, 4 859-5 461, 7 012-7 493, 10 992-11 312 and 11 871-12 489 cm-1. There were some differences in the main bands of different chemical constituents. In summary, five active bands based on NIRS were identified and found to be able to achieve rapid on-line detection of rhubarb dispensing granule quality. This research model may also provide reference for quality control of other Chinese medicine dispensing granules.

9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773117

ABSTRACT

The dose-toxicity-effect relationship between licorice combined with rhubarb in purgation was studied. A total of 108 ICR mice were divided into control group,model group,positive group,low,medium and high-dose rhubarb groups,and low,medium and high-dose rhubarb-liquorice decoction group. After 6 days of continuous administration of loperamide hydrochloride,the constipation model of mice was replicated,and each group was given lactulose,different doses of rhubarb and rhubarb-liquorice decoction for 14 days. After administration,the defecation characteristics,blood biochemistry,liver,kidney and colon pathological changes in each group were compared. Based on the objective weight given by factor analysis,the dose-toxicity-effect relationship was comprehensively analyzed by multi-index scoring method. Two common factors were extracted by factor analysis,representing effect and toxicity respectively. The results showed that rhubarb could exert a diarrhea effect at the dosage of 1/2,2 and 8 times of the high limit set forth in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia,increase the defecation volume and the intestinal tract propulsion rate,reduce the time of anal and the oral transmission,and increase the water content of feces. The combination with licorice could alleviate its diarrhea effect,especially at the dosage of 1/2 times of the high limit set forth in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia. However,rhubarb showed obvious hepatic and colon toxicities at the dosage of 2 and 8 times of the high limit set forth in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia,and the combination with licorice could significantly reduce its toxicity. It shows that licorice has a " mediating" effect on rhubarb by alleviating the purgation property and reducing the toxicity.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cathartics , Pharmacology , Colon , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Glycyrrhiza , Chemistry , Kidney , Liver , Mice , Mice, Inbred ICR , Plant Extracts , Pharmacology , Rheum , Chemistry , Toxicity Tests
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-802210

ABSTRACT

Objective:To elucidate the characteristics of bidirectional regulation of raw and steamed products of Rhei Radix et Rhizoma and their active components, in order to provide scientific basis for clinical rational use of this decoction pieces. Method:Mice were randomly divided into the blank group(distilled water, 10 mL·kg-1), raw rhubarb group(1.62 g·kg-1), steamed rhubarb group(0.972 g·kg-1), raw rhubarb anthraquinone group(0.22 g·kg-1), steamed rhubarb anthraquinone group(0.19 g·kg-1), raw rhubarb tannin group(0.17 g·kg-1) and steamed rhubarb tannin group(0.027 g·kg-1). Each group was divided into 3 batches of 10 mice. Mice in each group were given the corresponding dose by continuous gavage for 7 days, the diarrhea index(EI) of mice in each group was recorded every day. The serum levels of motilin(MTL), vasoactive intestinal peptide(VIP) and epinephrine(EPI) were measured on day 1,3,7. Result:Compared with the blank group, EI of the rhubarb group increased significantly on the 3rd day(Pth day of administration(Prd day(Pth day(Pst day of administration, on the 3rd day of administration, the MTL level in the steamed rhubarb anthraquinone group increased significantly(PPPth day of administration, the MTL levels of the raw and steamed rhubarb tannin groups increased to the level in the blank group, the VIP level of the raw rhubarb anthraquinone group increased significantly(PPConclusion:The combined anthraquinone and hydrolyzable tannin in rhubarb can promote gastrointestinal motility and diarrhea. The effect of astringent intestines is caused by the monomer tannin produced by digestion and decomposition of condensed tannin, which may be one of the mechanisms of bidirectional regulation of rhubarb decoction pieces.

11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-743480

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the effect of Rhubarb on bronchopulmonary dysplasia(BPD) and its potential mechanism.Methods Neonatal Sprague-Dawley rats (postnatal day 4) were exposed to 600 mL/L 02 to induce BPD.The experimental rats were randomly divided into 4 groups with 16 in each group:air + saline group,air +Rhubarb (600 mg/kg)group,and hyperoxia + saline group,and hyperoxia + Rhubarb group.The rats were sacrificed and lung tissues were obtained on day 14 and 21 after birth.Hematoxylin-easin staining was used to detect the pathomorphology of the lungs.Apoptosis of the lung tissue was detected by means of TdT-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL).The expression of Fas was detected by adopting Western blot.The activity of Caspase-8 and Caspase-3was detected by using spectrophotometer.Results The lung structure of rats was markedly abnormal (decreased,enlarged and simplified alveoli) after being exposed to hyperoxia at any time point.The apoptosis indexes (39.91 ± 1.91vs.10.11 ± 1.64,48.80 ± 4.51 vs.12.90 ± 3.18),the expression levels of Fas (0.47 ± 0.02 vs.0.21 ± 0.01,0.55 ±0.02 vs.0.22 ±0.01) and the activities of Caspase-8 (52.59 ± 1.23 vs.40.74 ± 1.08,60.20 ± 3.48 vs.40.39 ±2.47) and Caspsase 3 (57.17 ± 1.88 vs.42.00 ± 1.19,64.57 ± 2.79 vs.41.54 ± 1.27) were all increased in the hyperoxia + saline group compared with those in the air + saline group on day 14 and 21,and the differences were statistically significant(all P < 0.001).However,compared with the hyperoxia + saline group,Rhubarb administration dramatically decreased pulmonary apoptosis index (26.49 ± 2.65 vs.22.97 ± 3.66),Fas protein level (0.27 ± 0.03 vs.0.31 ± 0.01) and the activity of Caspase-8 (32.70 ± 2.69 vs.30.66 ± 4.48) and Caspase-3 (44.94 ± 1.60 vs.44.59 ± 1.66),and the differences were statistically significant (all P < 0.001).Meanwhile,lung damage after hyperoxia was significantly attenuated in the hyperoxia + Rhubarb group.Conclusion Rhubarb can reduce the hyperoxic lung injury of BPD by reducing the apoptosis of newborn rat lung tissue cells,and the mechanism may involve the apoptosis pathway of Fas.

12.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1188-1193, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-796448

ABSTRACT

Background:@#It is important to modulate the expression of glucocorticoids receptor (GR) in tress and maintain the immunity homeostasis in sepsis process. Rhubarb have been shown to have potential effects on anti-inflammatory and immune modulation. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of rhubarb on the expression of GR and cellular immunity in burn-induced septic rats.@*Methods:@#Sixty-six healthy male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were randomized into sepsis group (n = 24), rhubarb group (n = 24), and control group (n = 18); each group were further randomized into 12, 24, and 72 h subgroups according to different time points. During onset of the sepsis model, the rats in the rhubarb group were infused with 50 mg/kg rhubarb powder dissolved into 1 mL saline through gastric tube, while sepsis and control groups were treated with saline. The binding activity of GR in liver cytosol and binding capacity of GR in peripheral blood leucocyte were analyzed by radiation ligands binding assay. The percentages of CD4+, CD8+,CD4+CD25+T cells, CD19+B cells as well as natural killer (NK) cells in the lymphocytes in peripheral blood were detected by flow cytometer. For assessing the differences among groups, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with Scheffe multi-comparison techniques were employed. Comparisons between time-based measurements within each group were performed with ANOVA repeated measurement.@*Results:@#The binding activity of GR in liver cytosol and binding capacity of GR in peripheral blood leucocyte were significantly decreased in a time-dependent manner in sepsis group (t = 23.045, P < 0.01; t = 24.395, P < 0.05, respectively), which were increased in a time-dependent manner after rhubarb administration (t = 19.965, P < 0.05; t = 17.140, P < 0.05, respectively). Twelve hours after sepsis, the percentages of CD4+ T cells, CD4+/CD25+ T cell ratio, and CD19+ B cells in the peripheral blood were significantly increased in the sepsis group (t = -3.395, P < 0.01; t = 2.568, P < 0.05; t = 2.993, P < 0.05, vs. control mice, respectively). However, the percentage of NK cells in the peripheral blood were significantly decreased in the sepsis group (t = -2.022, P < 0.05, vs. control mice). Twelve hours after sepsis, the percentage of CD8+ T cells were significantly decreased in the peripheral blood in the sepsis group (t = -2.191, P < 0.05, vs. control mice) and were significantly increased in the rhubarb group (t = 2.953, P < 0.05, vs. sepsis mice). Seventy-two hours after sepsis, the ratio of CD4+/CD25+ T cell in peripheral blood were significantly increased in the sepsis group (t = 2.508, P < 0.05, vs. control mice) while were significantly decreased in the rhubarb group (t = 3.378, P < 0.05, vs. control mice). Furthermore, the percentages of CD19+ B cell in peripheral blood were significantly decreased at 72 h in the rhubarb group (t = 2.041, P < 0.05 vs. sepsis group).@*Conclusions:@#Rhubarb might play potential anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory roles in the sepsis processes.

13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-851330

ABSTRACT

Objective: To optimize the processing technology of honeyed wine rhubarb by Box-behnken design response surface methodology. Methods: Taking the content measurement combined with the sensory score as the index, the factors of particle size, steaming time, storage temperature, and moisture content were investigated by single factor tests. On the basis of the results of single factor experiments, the free and total anthraquinones contents and the extract content in honeyed wine rhubarb were determined by HPLC method and hot-dip method, respectively. Three factors (steaming time, storage temperature, and the moisture content) were investigated further by response surface, the processing technology of honeyed wine rhubarb was optimized by response surface methodology. Results: The optimal parameters of processing technology were as follows: particle size was the powder through 100 mesh sieves, steaming time was 3.5 h, storage temperature was 33 ℃, and moisture content was 43%. Conclusion: The optimized processing technology is simple and feasible, which can provide a reference for the processing of honeyed wine rhubarb.

14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-851298

ABSTRACT

Objective To establish a more comprehensive quality evaluation method for rhubarb pieces. Methods Fingerprints of 35 batches of rhubarb pieces were determined by HPLC, the control fingerprint was established, the common peaks were calibrated and the similarity was evaluated. Components of common peaks were identified by Q-TOF/MS and the content of 13 anthraquinones confirmed by reference substance was determined. Results There were 45 common peaks in the fingerprint of rhubarb pieces, including 17 anthraquinones (among them, eight bound anthraquinones of aloe-emodin-8-O-glucoside, rhein-8-O-glucoside, emodin-1-O-glucoside, chrysophanol-1-O-glucoside, chrysophanol-8-O-glucoside, aloe-emodin-3-hydroxymethyl-O-glucoside, emodin-8-O- glucoside, physcion-8-O-glucoside and five free anthraquinones of aloe-emodin, rhein, emodin, chrysophanol, physcion were confirmed by reference substance), two anthrones (sennoside B and sennoside A, confirmed by reference substances), 17 tannins (among them, gallic acid, catechin, epigallocatechin gallate, epicatechin and epicatechin gallate were confirmed by reference substance), two stilbenes [resveratrol 4′-O-glucoside and resveratrol 4′-O-β-D-(6″-O-galloyl)-glucoside, confirmed by reference substances], four butyrophenone [among them, 4-(4′-hydroxyphenyl)-2-butanone 4′-O-β-D-(2″-O-galloyl-6″-O-p-hydroxy-cinnamyl) glucoside, confirmed by reference substances], two chromones and one naphthalenes. The content of 13 anthraquinones in 35 batches of rhubarb pieces was quite different. Conclusion The established method can be used to evaluate the quality of rhubarb pieces.

15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-850851

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the effect of different processed products of rhubarb combined with atorvastatin (ATS) on the efficacy-enhancing and toxicity-reducing. Methods: L02 cells were used to investigate the hepatoprotective effects of raw rhubarb, wine-fried rhubarb and wine-steamed rhubarb in clinical application combined with ATS, and the extracts of the processed products with the best liver protection were screened out. The effective lipid-lowering dose range of the extract of the processed product was determined by HepG2 cell experiments; Finally, based on the model of hyperlipidemia in SD rats, the lipid-lowering and hepatoprotective effects of the optimal extract and ATS were generally evaluated by measuring the blood lipid and transaminase levels and related oxidative stress parameters, detecting the histopathological section of the liver. Results: The alcohol extract of wine-fried rhubarb in the three processed artillery products significantly improved the survival rate of L02 cells, and had the best protection effect on L02 cells induced by ATS. At the same time, the wine-fried rhubarb ethanol extract also effectively reduced the content of TC and TG in HepG2 hepatic steatosis cells. The liver-protection ratio and lipid-lowering ratio (mass ratio) of ATS to wine-fried rhubarb ethanol extract were 1:6.7-1:9.0 and 1:35.8-1:71.6. The wine-fried rhubarb ethanol extract and ATS reduced the blood lipid level and lipid content in the liver of hyperlipidemia rats; The serum levels of ALT and AST were significantly decreased, the SOD activity in the liver was significantly enhanced, and the MDA content was significantly reduced; And high-dose wine-fried rhubarb ethanol extract and ATS combination group significantly inhibited inflammatory cell infiltration and bile duct hyperplasia. Conclusion: The combination of wine-fried rhubarb ethanol extract and ATS can significantly improve the liver function damage caused by ATS, enhance the effect of lipid-lowering therapy on hyperlipidemic rats, and play a role in reducing toxicity and increasing efficiency.

16.
China Occupational Medicine ; (6): 331-334, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-881800

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the protective effects of rhubarb and licorice( Rhubarb licorice root decoction) on liver and kidney injury in rats exposed to cadmium. METHODS: Healthy male specific pathogen-free grade SD rats were randomly divided into control group,model group,licorice group and Rhubarb licorice root decoction group by random number table. Except the control group,the other 3 groups were intraperitoneally injected with 1. 00 g/L cadmium chloride solution at the dose of 1 mg/kg body mass,once every other day for 6 times. After 7 days,the rats in the licorice group and the Rhubarb licorice root decoction were given licorice soup and Rhubarb licorice root decoction,respectively. The dose was 50 mg/kg body mass,once per day for 30 days. At 24 hours after the last gavage,rats were secrificed and the liver and kidney were isolated. Liver and kidney organ coefficients were calculated and the pathologic changes in liver and kidney tissues were observed. The fully automatic biochemical analyser was conducted to detect the activity of aspartate aminotransferase( AST) and alanine aminotransferase( ALT) in liver tissue and the activity of superoxide dismutase( SOD) and level of malondialdehyde( MDA) in liver and kidney tissues. RESULTS: Large area of necrosis were found in the liver and kidney in the model group. In the ticorice group and Rhubarb licorice root decoction group,the necrosis in the liver and kidney decreased,and Rhubarb licorice root decoction group improved more obviously than ticorice group.The coefficient of liver and kidney,the activity of AST and ALT in liver tissue,and MDA level in liver and kidney tissues of the model group increased( P < 0. 05),meanwhile the activity of SOD in liver and kidney tissues decreased( P < 0. 05)when compared with the control group. The above indexes in licorice group and Rhubarb licorice root decoction group had improvement than that of model group( P < 0. 05). The improvement of above indexes in the Rhubarb licorice root decoction group was better than that in the licorice group( P < 0. 05). CONCLUSION: Rhubarb licorice root decoction has protective effect on liver and kidney damage caused by cadmium exposure.

17.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 55: e17110, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011643

ABSTRACT

Rhubarb is commonly used as a cathartic in Asian countries. However, researchers have devotedextensive concerns to the quality control and safety of rhubarb and traditional Chinese preparations composed of rhubarb due to the instable purgative effect and potential nephrotoxicity of anthraquinones. In this study, we aimed to prepare rhubarb total free anthraquinones (RTFA) oral colon-specific drug delivery granules (RTFA-OCDD-GN) to delivery anthraquinones to colon to produce purgative effect. RTFA-OCDD-GN were prepared using chitosan and Eudragit S100 through a double-layer coating process and the formulation was optimized. Continuous release studies were performed in a simulated gastric fluid (pH 1.2), followed by a small-intestinal fluid (pH 6.8) and a colonic fluid (pH 7.4, containing rat cecal contents). The purgative effect test was performed in rats. The dissolution profile of RTFA-OCDD-GN showed that the accumulative dissolution rate of RTFA was about 83.0% in the simulated colonic fluid containing rat cecal contents and only about 9.0% in the simulated gastrointestinal fluids. And the RTFA-OCDD-GN could produce the comparative purgative activity as rhubarb, suggesting it could deliver the free AQs to the colon. The RTFA-OCDD-GN was a useful media to enhance the purgative activity of free anthraquinones after administered orally.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Rats , Rheum/adverse effects , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Anthraquinones/adverse effects , Colon , Projects , Cathartics/analysis
18.
Chinese Pharmaceutical Journal ; (24): 1846-1852, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-857851

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To study the law of compatibility and detoxification of rhubarb and aconite decoction based on the CYP450 enzyme-mediated metabolic interaction. METHODS: The activities of CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 enzymes were determined by incubating the "Cocktail" probe drugs in vitro. The total content of CYP450 enzyme in liver microsomes was determined by carbon monoxide differential method. And the expression of CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 mRNA was detected by RT-PCR method. RESULTS: Rhubarb group, aconite root combined with rhubarb group and rhubarb combined with asarum group showed significant induction effects on CYP1A2 enzyme activity. CYP1A2 enzyme activity was significantly inhibited in the aconite root combined with asarum group. CYP3A4 enzyme activity was significantly inhibited in the asarum group and the aconite root combined with asarum group. Rhubarb group, rhubarb combined with asarum group and rhubarb and aconite decoction had significant induction effects on CYP3A4 enzyme activity. Rhubarb group significantly induced the total content of CYP450 enzyme, asarum group and aconitum root combined with asarum group inhibited the total content of CYP450 enzyme, rhubarb and aconite decoction had slight induction effects on the total content of CYP450, but there was no significant difference. Rhubarb group, rhubarb combined with asarum group and rhubarb and aconite decoction group could up-regulate the mRNA expression of CYP1A2. In addition, rhubarb and aconite decoction and rhubarb group could up-regulate the mRNA expression of CYP3A4. And asarum group and aconite combined with asarum group could down-regulate the mRNA expression of CYP3A4. CONCLUSION: The drug combination weakened the strong induction of CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 enzymes by rhubarb alone, reflecting the holism concept of compound traditional Chinese medicine. The effects of rhubarb and aconite decoction on CYP3A4 enzyme activity are likely to be regulated by the mRNA levels of CYP3A4 enzyme. Whether there is correlation between the cold-heat compatibility based on the pharmacological theory and the induction or inhibition of CYP450 enzyme needs further study.

19.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 1139-1147, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-779982

ABSTRACT

Focusing on the TCM-related adverse drug reactions, especially those conventionally non-toxic TCM induced hepatotoxicity, this paper has proposed and established the disease-syndrome-based toxicology evaluation pattern and approach for TCM, not only the normal rats, but the hepatic fibrosis model rat were studied hepatotoxic or hepatoprotective effects of rhubarb, meanwhile liver histopathology changes by histological tests such as HE and TUNEL staining. The metabolomics analysis method will be employed to screen the key metabolites and possible metabolic pathway of the dual effects of rhubarb in rats. The results showed that rhubarb could result in significant liver injury in normal rats, indicated by the elevation of plasma serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities (P L-arginine, creatine, L-valine, retinyl ester, and prostaglandin F2α were confirmed by multivariate statistical analysis and metabolic pathways enrichment analysis linked to six metabolic pathways, including taurine and hypotaurine metabolism, primary bile acid biosynthesis, arginine and proline metabolism, arachidonic acid metabolism, retinol metabolism and valine, leucine and isoleucine biosynthesis. In summary, the results suggested the dual effects of rhubarb screened by taurine and hypotaurine metabolism, primary bile acid biosynthesis and arginine and proline metabolism may be the key metabolic pathway related to You Gu Wu Yun phenomenon of rhubarb. This study will provide new vision and illustration of scientific evidences for the hepatotoxicity assessment and rational use of those drugs containing anthraquinones.

20.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 561-566, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-779908

ABSTRACT

Study on the integrated pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics (PK/PD) model of rhubarb in rats with yang-deficiency constipation based on the principle of traditional Chinese medicine system. The rat model of yang-deficiency constipation was established using vinegar and ice water containing activated carbon. The blood samples with 0.5 mL were collected from orbital venous plexus at 0, 5, 10, 15, 30, 60, 120, 240, 480, 720, 1 440 min time points after oral administration of rhubarb decoction, and the dosage is equivalent to crude drug 2.5 g·kg-1. The concentration of aloe-emodin, rhein, emodin and chrysophanol in rat plasma were determined by HPLC, and ELISA method was used to detect the activities of motilin (MTL), gastrin (GT), endothelin (ET) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) at different time points in serum. SPSS 21.0 software was used for analysis of component correlation and principal component, and WinNonlin 6.30 software was used to fit PK/PD model. Compared with the pharmacokinetic parameters of normal rats, in addition to emodin in the model rats showed characteristics of good absorption and slow to elimination; the content of MTL in model rats was significantly lower than that in normal rats. The composite values of the concentration and effect obtained by principal component analysis were connected by Sigmoid-Emax model. We established the integrated PK/PD model of rhubarb in treating yang-deficiency constipation to provide a new research direction for the material basis and mechanism of rhubarb treatment of yang deficiency constipation.

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