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1.
Med. infant ; 30(2): 96-101, Junio 2023. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UNISALUD, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1443406

ABSTRACT

La pesquisa neonatal de hiperplasia suprarrenal congénita se realiza mediante la determinación de 17 hidroxiprogesterona (17OHP) en gotas de sangre seca en papel de filtro. Los bebés prematuros presentan valores más elevados que los bebés de término, siendo de utilidad contar con límites de corte apropiados. Nuestro objetivo fue actualizar los valores de corte de 17OHP ajustados por edad gestacional para la metodología en uso a nivel nacional por las jurisdicciones asistidas por el "Programa Nacional de Fortalecimiento de la Detección Precoz de Enfermedades Congénitas". La 17OHP se determinó utilizando el kit comercial de enzimo-inmunoanálisis (ELISA competitivo), Elizen Neonatal 17OHP Screening (Zentech, Bélgica). Se obtuvieron límites de corte utilizando percentiles de la distribución de los valores de 17OHP para cada edad gestacional. La sensibilidad obtenida fue 100%, especificidad 98,76 %, tasa de falsos positivos 1,24 % y el valor predictivo positivo 1,12 %. Destacamos la importancia de disponer de límites de corte adecuados a la población. La armonización de los mismos permitirá resultados comparables entre los programas regionales de pesquisa neonatal (AU)


Newborn screening for congenital adrenal hyperplasia is performed by the measurement of 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17OHP) in dried blood spots on filter paper. Premature infants have higher values than full-term infants, and appropriate cutoff values are useful. Our aim was to update the cut-off values of 17OHP adjusted for gestational age for the methodology used at a national level in regions assisted by the "National Program for Strengthening the Early Detection of Congenital Diseases". 17OHP was determined using the commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (competitive ELISA) kit, Elizen Newborn 17OHP Screening (Zentech, Belgium). Cut-off values were obtained using percentiles of the distribution of 17OHP values for each gestational age. Sensitivity was 100%, specificity 98.76%, false positive rate 1.24%, and positive predictive value 1.12%. It is important to have cut-off values that are adjusted to the population. Harmonization will allow for the comparison of results among regional newborn screening programs (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Predictive Value of Tests , Gestational Age , Neonatal Screening/methods , Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital/diagnosis , Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital/blood , 17-alpha-Hydroxyprogesterone/blood
2.
Rev. méd. Minas Gerais ; 32: 32209, 2022.
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1418948

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Descrever o diagnóstico e manejo clínico da deficiência da 21-hidroxilase (D-21OH), no contexto atual de inclusão da doença nos programas de triagem neonatal, bem como características genéticas, fisiopatológicas e manifestações na infância e adolescência. Fonte de Dados: Revisão integrativa realizada nas bases de dados MEDLINE (PubMed), LILACS (BVS), Scopus, Web of Science nos últimos vinte anos, em língua inglesa e portuguesa; população-alvo: crianças da primeira infância à adolescência; com o uso dos termos "triagem neonatal", "hiperplasia adrenal congênita", "deficiência da 21-hidroxilase", "glucocorticoide" e "polimorfismos do gene NR3C1". Síntese de Dados: A hiperplasia adrenal congênita (HAC) constitui um grupo de doenças caracterizadas por deficiências enzimáticas na esteroidogênese do córtex adrenal. A D-21OH é responsável por 95% dos casos e, se não tratada precocemente, pode levar ao óbito no período neonatal em sua forma clássica. A triagem neonatal para a HAC consiste na dosagem do precursor 17-hidroxiprogesterona (17OHP) no sangue de recém-nascidos, permitindo rápida confirmação diagnóstica e instituição da terapêutica. A implantação da triagem neonatal constitui um avanço, mas o controle dos pacientes pediátricos com D-21OH é complexo e deve ser sempre individualizado. Conclusão: A instituição dos programas de triagem neonatal para HAC tem trazido benefícios para o prognóstico das crianças com D-21OH. Seu manejo é multiprofissional, individualizado e ainda um desafio mesmo para o especialista. Ampla divulgação do conhecimento sobre a doença é desejável para permitir melhor condução dessas crianças, especialmente de meninas com a doença que apresentam genitália atípica.


Objective: To describe the diagnosis and clinical management of 21-hydroxylase deficiency (21OH-D), in the current context of including the disease in neonatal screening programs, as well as genetic, pathophysiological characteristics, and manifestations in childhood and adolescence. Data Source: Integrative review performed in MEDLINE (PubMed), LILACS (BVS), Scopus, Web of Science databases in the last twenty years, in English and Portuguese; target population: children from early childhood to adolescence; with the use of the terms "neonatal screening"; "congenital adrenal hyperplasia"; "21-hydroxylase deficiency"; "glucocorticoid"; "polymorphisms of the NR3C1 gene". Data Synthesis: Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is a group of diseases characterized by enzyme deficiencies in adrenal cortex steroidogenesis. 21OH-D is responsible for 95% of cases and, if not treated early, can lead to death in the neonatal period in its classic form. Neonatal screening for CAH consists of measuring the precursor 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17OHP) in the blood of newborns, allowing rapid diagnostic confirmation and institution of therapy. The implementation of neonatal screening is an advance, but the control of pediatric patients with 21OH-D is complex and must always be individualized. Conclusion: The institution of newborn screening programs for CAH has benefits for the prognosis of children with 21OH-D. Its management is multi-professional, individualized and still a challenge even for the specialist. Wide dissemination of knowledge about the disease is desirable to allow better management of these children, especially girls with the disease who have atypical genitalia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Steroid 21-Hydroxylase/metabolism , Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital/therapy , Polymorphism, Genetic/genetics , Neonatal Screening , Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital/diagnosis , 17-alpha-Hydroxyprogesterone/metabolism
3.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 80(3): 197-202, jun. 2020. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1125070

ABSTRACT

Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is an autosomal recessive disorder due to a deficiency of enzymes involved in cortisol biosynthesis. In more than 90% of cases, CAH is secondary to deleterious mutations in the CYP21A2 gene leading to 21-hydroxilase deficiency (21OHD). The CYP21A2 gene is located on the short arm of chromosome 6 (6p21·3) and encodes the cytochrome P450C21 enzyme. Neonatal screening programs detect the classic forms of CAH-21OHD quantifying 17OH-progesterone in dried blood spots (DBS). This test is very sensitive, but it has a low specificity, requiring a second sample to confirm the result. In these cases, a second-tier test in the same sample may be useful. Our aim was to evaluate a DNA extraction method from DBS and assess the performance of such DNA in the molecular analysis of the CYP21A2 gene mutations. Twelve individuals, who presumably had CAH based on the initial neonatal screening results, were analyzed using DNA extracted from freshly collected blood on EDTA and DBS. The CYP21A2 gene was analyzed by automated sequencing of all exons and intron boundaries and MLPA analysis in DBS. Molecular analysis results from both extraction methods were compared. In this study, we show that DNA extracted from neonatal screening DBS is a useful tool to define CYP21A2 gene mutations in 21-OHD diagnostic confirmation for the newborn screening program and that its results are comparable to traditional genotyping.


La hiperplasia suprarrenal congénita (HSC) es un desorden autosómico recesivo producido por la deficiencia de alguna de las enzimas involucradas en la biosíntesis de cortisol. Más del 90% se debe a mutaciones en el gen CYP21A2 que genera deficiencia de 21 hidroxilasa (21OHD). Este gen se encuentra en el brazo corto del cromosoma 6 (6p21·3) y codifica para la enzima citocromo P450C21. Los programas de pesquisa neonatal detectan la forma clásica de la HSC-21OHD cuantificando 17OH-progesterona en gota de sangre en papel de filtro (GSPF). Este test es muy sensible, pero tiene baja especificidad , por lo que se utiliza una segunda muestra para confirmar el resultado. En estos casos, una segunda determinación en la misma muestra podría ser de utilidad. Nuestro objetivo fue evaluar el método de extracción de ADN y posterior análisis molecular del gen CYP21A2 en muestras de GSPF. Analizamos doce individuos presumiblemente afectados por HSC en la pesquisa neonatal usando ADN extraído de sangre fresca recolectada sobre EDTA y de GSPF. Realizamos el análisis del gen CYP21A2 mediante secuenciación automática de todos los exones y regiones intrónicas flanqueantes y MLPA en GSPF, y comparamos los resultados con ambos métodos de extracción. En este estudio demostramos que el ADN extraído de GSPF es una herramienta muy útil para analizar las mutaciones del gen CYP21A2 en la confirmación diagnóstica de 21-OHD para los programas de pesquisa neonatal y que los resultados son comparables con la genotipificación tradicional.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Steroid 21-Hydroxylase/genetics , Neonatal Screening/methods , Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital/diagnosis , Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital/genetics , Dried Blood Spot Testing/methods , Mutation , Reference Values , Spectrophotometry , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Reproducibility of Results , Gestational Age , 17-alpha-Hydroxyprogesterone/analysis , Alleles
4.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 64(1): 4-10, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1088773

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective The aim of this study was to investigate polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and to explore the relationship between body fat percentage and metabolic markers. Subjects and methods Sedentary women were assigned to PCOS (N = 60) and CONTROL (N = 60) groups. Each group was subdivided into three subgroups according to body fat percentage (22-27%, 27-32% and 32-37%). The protocol consisted of assessments of glucose, insulin, androgens, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP), leptin, adiponectin, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). Results The PCOS subgroups showed higher concentrations of androgens, LH and 17-OHP. Leptin showed direct relationship with increased body fat percentage, whereas adiponectin showed the inverse effect. However, both were unaffected by PCOS. TNF-α and IL-6 were higher in PCOS women and showed a direct relationship with increased body fat percentage. Glucose showed direct relationship with body fat percentage, whereas insulin presented higher values in PCOS women and direct relationship with increased body fat percentage. Conclusions Our findings indicate that PCOS and body fat percentage directly influence concentrations of insulin, TNF-α and IL-6, whereas leptin and adiponectin are influenced only by the increase in body fat percentage in these women. Arch Endocrinol Metab. 2020;64(1):4-10


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Biomarkers/blood , Adipose Tissue/anatomy & histology , Metabolic Diseases/blood , Insulin Resistance , Luteinizing Hormone/blood , Body Mass Index , Case-Control Studies , Interleukin-6/blood , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/blood , 17-alpha-Hydroxyprogesterone/blood , Leptin/blood , Adiponectin/blood , Follicle Stimulating Hormone/blood , Glucose/analysis , Androgens/blood , Insulin/blood
5.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 95(3): 282-290, May-June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1012607

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To describe the results obtained in a neonatal screening program after its implementation and to assess the clinical and molecular profiles of confirmed and suspicious congenital adrenal hyperplasia cases. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted. Newborns with suspected disease due to high 17-hydroxyprogesterone levels and adjusted for birth weight were selected. Classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia (salt-wasting and simple virilizing forms) was diagnosed by an increase in 17-hydroxyprogesterone levels as confirmed in the retest, clinical evaluation, and genotype determined by SNaPshot and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification. Results: After 24 months, 15 classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia cases were diagnosed in a total of 217,965 newborns, with an estimated incidence of 1:14,531. From 132 patients, seven non-classical and 14 heterozygous patients were screened for CYP21A2 mutations, and 96 patients presented false positives with wild type CYP21A2. On retest, increased 17-hydroxyprogesterone levels were found in classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia patients and showed significant correlation with genotype-related classical genital adrenal hyperplasia. The most frequent mutations were IVS2-13A/C>G followed by gene deletion or rearrangement events in the classical form. In non-classical and heterozygous diseases, p.Val282Leu was the most common mutation. Conclusions: The results underscore the effectiveness of congenital adrenal hyperplasia neonatal screening in the public health system and indicate that the adopted strategy was appropriate. The second sample collection along with genotyping of suspected cases helped to properly diagnose both severe and milder cases and delineate them from false positive patients.


Resumo Objetivo: Descrever os resultados obtidos em um programa de triagem neonatal após sua implementação e avaliar os perfis clínicos e moleculares de casos confirmados e suspeitos de hiperplasia adrenal congênita. Métodos: Foi feito um estudo transversal. Recém-nascidos com suspeita da doença devido aos altos níveis de 17-alfa-hidroxiprogesterona e ajustados pelo peso ao nascer foram selecionados. A hiperplasia adrenal congênita clássica (forma perdedora de sal e forma virilizante simples) foi diagnosticada por um aumento nos níveis de 17-alfa-hidroxiprogesterona confirmado no reteste, avaliação clínica e genótipo determinado com o uso do ensaio SNaPshot e amplificação multiplex de sondas dependente de ligação. Resultados: Após 24 meses, 15 casos clássicos de hiperplasia adrenal congênita foram diagnosticados em 217.965 recém-nascidos, com uma incidência estimada de 1:14.531. De 132 pacientes, sete não clássicos e 14 heterozigotos foram submetidos à triagem para mutações no gene CYP21A2 e 96 pacientes apresentaram resultados falso-positivos com CYP21A2 do tipo selvagem. No reteste, níveis aumentados de 17-alfa-hidroxiprogesterona foram encontrados em pacientes com hiperplasia adrenal congênita clássica e mostraram correlação significativa com HAC clássica relacionada ao genótipo. As mutações mais frequentes foram IVS2-13A/C>G, seguidas de deleção gênica ou eventos de rearranjo na forma clássica. Em casos de doenças não clássicas e heterozigose, a mutação p.Val282Leu foi a mais comum. Conclusões: Os resultados ressaltam a eficácia da triagem neonatal para a hiperplasia adrenal congênita no sistema público de saúde e indicam que a estratégia adotada foi adequada. A segunda coleta de amostras, juntamente com a genotipagem dos casos suspeitos, ajudou a diagnosticar adequadamente os casos graves e mais leves e diferenciá-los de pacientes com resultado falso-positivo.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Steroid 21-Hydroxylase/blood , Neonatal Screening/methods , Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital/diagnosis , 17-alpha-Hydroxyprogesterone/blood , Phenotype , Brazil/epidemiology , Biomarkers/blood , Incidence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital/genetics , Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital/epidemiology , Genotype , Mutation
7.
Neonatal Medicine ; : 41-47, 2019.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741665

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: 17-Hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP) screening results are difficult to interpret owing to the many influencing factors, and confirming the test results takes time. In this study, we examined the factors that affected the 17-OHP level in premature infants. We also evaluated the correlation between 17-OHP level and the clinical parameters related to adrenal cortical function. METHODS: From January 2012 to April 2017, 358 very-low-birth-weight infants (VLBWI) born with birth weights of < 1,500 g were included in the study. Their 17-OHP levels were measured in the neonatal screening test after birth and analyzed by considering various factors that may have influenced the values. RESULTS: The 17-OHP levels negatively correlated with gestational age and birth weight. The values of the parameters that affected the 17-OHP levels were significantly higher in the infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). In relation to the clinical parameters, blood pressure measured within 24 hours, 72 hours, and 1 week after birth negatively correlated with the 17-OHP level. Serum sodium and 17-OHP levels 24 hours after birth were found to be positively correlated. Urine outputs in 1 and 3 days after birth showed significant positive correlations with the 17-OHP level. CONCLUSION: The 17-OHP levels of the VLBWIs were higher when gestational age and birth weight were lower, and were influenced by RDS in the VLBWI. In addition, hypotension and urine output values may be useful in the neonatal intensive care unit as a predictor of early adrenal insufficiency.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , 17-alpha-Hydroxyprogesterone , Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital , Adrenal Insufficiency , Birth Weight , Blood Pressure , Gestational Age , Hypotension , Infant, Premature , Infant, Very Low Birth Weight , Intensive Care, Neonatal , Mass Screening , Neonatal Screening , Parturition , Sodium
8.
Rev. chil. endocrinol. diabetes ; 12(1): 11-15, 2019. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-982011

ABSTRACT

Clinical case: a girl of 7 ½ years who consulted for early pubarche without thelark, with a percentile size of 75 for a genetic target size in the 10th percentile, overweight with a 90th percentile BMI, and normal blood pressure. The biochemical study showed high levels of androgens: testosterone: 7.2 ng/dL, androstenedione of 5.1 ng / ml, 17OHP: 15 ng / dL with low normal DHEAS (0.26 ug/ml), Plasma Renin Activity normal low: 0.22 ng/mL/h. Initial imaging study showed a bone age of 10 years 6 months and normal abdominal and pelvic ultrasound. Molecular study showed no pathogenic variants in the CYP21A2 gene (21 Hydroxylase). With a probable diagnosis of non-classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia (HSRNC) and no known mutation, he started treatment with hydrocortisone (12 mg/m2). At 8.7 years, pubertal development begins and braking begins with LHRH analogues, which are administered for 18 months. Despite the treatment, signs of virilization and elevation of androgens (testosterone up to 130 ng/ml) are progressively accentuated, which do not diminish when trying different corticosteroid schemes. MRI of the abdomen and pelvis shows the normal adrenal glands and a solid nodular image of 2.1 x 1.6 cm in the right ovary (Figure 2), later demonstrated with pelvic ultrasound (Figure 2). Right laparoscopic oophorectomy was performed, whose biopsy demonstrated a Leydig cell tumor. One month after surgery, all androgenic levels were normalized, so the gradual suspension of corticosteroids began. Conclusion: Although HSRNC is the most frequent pathological cause of early pubarche, when it is associated with progressive clinical and biochemical hyperandrogenism despite adequate treatment and without pathogenic variants in the CYP21A2 gene, even with high levels of 17OHP, other causes should be considered, specifically, androgen producing tumors.


Caso clínico: niña de 7½ años que consulta por pubarquia precoz sin telarquia, con talla en percentil 75 para una talla objetivo genético en percentil 10, sobrepeso con IMC percentil 90 y presión arterial normal. El estudio bioquímico mostró niveles elevados de andrógenos: testosterona: 7,2 ng/dL, androstenediona de 5,1 ng/ml, 17OHP: 15 ng/dL con DHEAS normal baja (0,26 ug/ml), Actividad de Renina Plasmática normal baja: 0.22 ng/ mL/h. Estudio de imágenes inicial mostró una edad ósea de 10 años 6 meses y ecografía abdominal y pelviana normales. Estudio molecular no mostró variantes patogénicas en el gen CYP21A2 (21 Hidroxilasa). Con diagnosticó probable de hiperplasia suprarrenal congénita no clásica (HSRNC) y sin mutación conocida,inició el tratamiento con hidrocortisona (12 mg/m2). A los 8.7 años comienza desarrollo puberal y se inicia frenación con análogos de LHRH, los cuales se administran por 18 meses. A pesar del tratamiento se acentúan progresivamente los signos de virilización y hayelevación de los andrógenos (testosterona hasta 130 ng/ml), que no disminuyen intentando diferentes esquemas de corticoides. Se realiza RM de abdomen y pelvis que muestra las glándulas suprarrenales normales y una imagen nodular sólida de 2.1 x 1.6 cm en el ovario derecho (Figura 2), demostrada posteriormente con Ecografía pelviana (Figura 2). Se realiza ooforectomía derecha por vía laparoscópica, cuya biopsia demostró un tumor de células de Leydig. Un mes después de la cirugía, se normalizan todos los niveles androgénicos por lo que se inició la suspensión gradual de los corticoides. Conclusión: Aunque la HSRNC es la causa patológica más frecuente de la pubarquia precoz, cuando se asocia con un hiperandrogenismo clínico y bioquímico progresivo a pesar de un tratamiento adecuado y sin variantes patógenicas en el gen CYP21A2, incluso con niveles elevados de 17OHP, otras causas deben ser consideradas, específicamente tumores productores de andrógenos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Child , Ovarian Neoplasms/complications , Ovarian Neoplasms/diagnosis , Puberty, Precocious/etiology , Leydig Cell Tumor/complications , Leydig Cell Tumor/diagnosis , Testosterone/analysis , Hyperandrogenism/etiology , Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital/diagnosis , 17-alpha-Hydroxyprogesterone/analysis , Hirsutism/etiology , Androgens/analysis , Androstenedione/analysis
9.
Annals of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism ; : 158-161, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-716846

ABSTRACT

We present a family with 2 members who received long-term steroid treatment for presumed classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency, until molecular testing revealed nonclassic CAH, not necessarily requiring treatment. A 17-year-old male presented to our clinic on glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid treatment for classic CAH. He was diagnosed at 4 years of age based on mild-moderate elevations of 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP) and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), but without evidence of precocious adrenarche/puberty. Due to his diagnosis, his clinically asymptomatic 3-year-old sister was tested and also found to have elevated ACTH and 17-OHP levels and was started on glucocorticoids for classic CAH. Family history revealed a healthy sibling who had no biochemical evidence of CAH and consanguineous healthy parents. We questioned the diagnosis of classic CAH and performed an ACTH1-24 stimulation test, which showed a level of 17-OHP in the borderline range between classic and nonclassic CAH. Molecular testing, using sequencing and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification analysis of CYP21A2, revealed that both affected siblings were compound heterozygotes for a whole-gene deletion and a, likely pathogenic (nonclassical), sequence variant, p.R124C. The asymptomatic father had the same genotype, while the mother showed one deleted copy and 2 active copies, making her an asymptomatic carrier. Our report demonstrates the importance of molecular testing in atypical cases of CAH, as well as the importance of both sequencing and deletion analysis. The results of molecular testing should be interpreted in clinical context, and treatment should be prescribed according to guidelines when available.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Child, Preschool , Humans , Male , 17-alpha-Hydroxyprogesterone , Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital , Adrenocorticotropic Hormone , Diagnosis , Fathers , Gene Deletion , Genetic Testing , Genotype , Glucocorticoids , Heterozygote , Mothers , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction , Parents , Siblings , Steroid 21-Hydroxylase
10.
Annals of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism ; : 210-214, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719221

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Premature adrenarche (PA) often leads to polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Higher anti-mullerian hormone (AMH) levels are reported in PCOS. We studied the androgen profile and AMH profiles in Hispanic girls with PA (aged 5–8 years) and age and body mass index (BMI) matched controls. METHODS: Retrospective review of electronic medical records of girls who met the inclusion criteria for premature adrenarche were done. RESULTS: PA girls (n=76) were matched to control girls (n=12) for age (mean±standard deviation) (6.7±1 years vs. 6.2±1.3 years) and BMI (20±10 kg/m2 vs. 17.8±2.7 kg/m2). Dehydroepiandrostenedione sulfate (63.3±51.3 μg/dL vs. 29.8±17.3 μg/dL, P < 0.001) and testosterone levels (11.4±4.8 ng/dL vs. 8.2±2.9 ng/dL, P=0.001) were significantly higher in the PA group than controls. AMH values ( < 14 years: reference range, 0.49–3.15 ng/mL) were 3.2±2.2 ng/mL vs. 4.6± 3.2 ng/mL respectively in the PA and control groups and were not different (P=0.4). AMH did not show a correlation with bone age (P=0.1), and testosterone (P=0.9) in the PA group. 17-hydroxyprogesterone levels (17-OHP ng/dL) were 39.5±30.5 ng/dL vs. 36.8±19.8 ng/dL in PA versus control girls. The concentration of 17-OHP was not statistically different between the control and PA groups. CONCLUSIONS: Higher AMH was not observed in PA girls and no correlation with BA and androgen levels was observed.


Subject(s)
Child , Female , Humans , 17-alpha-Hydroxyprogesterone , Adrenarche , Anti-Mullerian Hormone , Body Mass Index , Cohort Studies , Electronic Health Records , Hispanic or Latino , Polycystic Ovary Syndrome , Reference Values , Retrospective Studies , Testosterone
11.
Journal of the ASEAN Federation of Endocrine Societies ; : 199-201, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-961519

ABSTRACT

@#An apparently well 27-year-old phenotypically male adult was seen at the endocrine clinic for gender assignment. Patient had been raised as a male and identifies as such. Abdominal CT scan showed a unilateral left adrenal mass and karyotyping revealed 46 XX female karyotype. She was diagnosed to have simple virilizing CAH and needed thorough counselling with subsequent management by a multidisciplinary team


Subject(s)
17-alpha-Hydroxyprogesterone
12.
Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine [The]. 2018; 71 (4): 2932-2943
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-192549

ABSTRACT

Background: Preterm birth: defined as any live birth occurring through the end of the last day of the 37th week [259th day] following the onset of the last menstrual period. Low-dose aspirin [LDA] has been noted to reduce the preterm birth [PTB] rate in multiple meta-analyses of the preeclampsia [PreE] prevention trials. It is unclear if this effect of LDA is entirely due to a reduction in indicated PTB versus reductions in preterm premature rupture of membranes [PPROM] or spontaneous PTB. In the Maternal-Fetal Medicine Unit [MFMU] high-risk aspirin [HRA] study, a near significant decrease in PTB was found despite no effect on preeclampsia. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of LDA on indicated PTB, spontaneous PTB, and PPROM PTB in the MFMU HRA study population


Aim of the work: This study aim to assess the efficacy of 17 alpha hydroxyl progesterone and low dose aspirin in reducing the rate of preterm birth in pregnant women at this risk


Patients and Methods: Study type: A double blinded randomized placebo controlled clinical trial


Study settings: This study conducted at outpatient clinic of Ain Shams University Maternity Hospital


Time of the study: The study was held from August 2016 to November 2017


Results: Data was analyzed according to the intention-to-treat principle. In a total 400 women whom recruited in the study, 160 were excluded. So we ended in to 240 women whom randomized and allocated in to 2 groups to intervention. Primary outcome measure was preterm birth. The most important secondary outcome is a composite of poor neonatal outcome [including bronchopulmonary dysplasia [BPD], periventricular leucomalacia, intraventricular hemorrhage, necrotizing enterocolitis, retinopathy of prematurity [ROP], sepsis and perinatal death].There was no statistically significant difference between both groups as regarding to age, gravidity, parity, body mass index, mean cervical length, and number of previous preterm labor. There was no significant difference between two groups as regard preterm premature rupture of membranes [P.PROM].There was no significant difference between two groups as regard time of delivery there was no significant difference between both groups in Need for NICU admission, neonatal birth weight, APGAR score, fetal complications [RDS, jaundice, BPD, HIE, NEC, bleeding, sepsis or even neonatal death].Long term neurodevelopmental complications was not conducted at this study as it needs more time.In maternal complications there was no significant difference between both groups


Conclusion: Further randomized controlled trials with larger sample size should be done to demonstrate the efficacy of low dose Aspirin in prevention of preterm labor and its complications


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Aspirin/therapeutic use , 17-alpha-Hydroxyprogesterone/therapeutic use , Pregnancy/drug effects , Pregnant Women , Double-Blind Method
13.
Colomb. med ; 48(4): 161-166, Oct.-Dec. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-890874

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: In preterm newborn, problems with the interpretation of 17-OHP may occur. Objective: Evaluate 17-OHP values in healthy preterm newborns until they reach the corrected gestational age. Methods: Longitudinal study of 36 preterm infants with 17-OHP evaluation using ELISA from heel blood from 3 to 5 days and thereafter every 2 weeks until the corrected gestational age. Values adjusting multiple variables such as gestational age, birth weight and sex, among others were compared. The results were analyzed against 82 healthy full-term infants. Results: In the first week of life, early term infants born within less than 34 months of gestational age show 17-OHP values that are much higher than the full term neonates. After a week, the values decrease and stabilize, but are still higher than those of full term neonates and remain so even at the corrected gestational age. (average difference of 63.0%, CI 95%: 11.8%-115.5%). 33.6% (41 samples) of a total of 122 samples taken from preterm infants were higher than 30 ng/mL. Conclusions: 17-OHP values in early term infants are higher than those in full term neonates and can be related to postnatal adaptive processes. It is suggested that a second screening at the 37th week of corrected age be performed.


Resumen Introducción: En recién nacidos pretérmino se presentan problemas para interpretar la 17-OHP. Objetivo: Evaluar los valores de 17-OHP en recién nacidos sanos pretérmino hasta cuando alcanzan el término de edad gestacional corregida. Métodos: Estudio longitudinal de 36 prematuros con evaluación de la 17-OHP por ELISA en sangre de talón desde los 3-5 días de vida y luego cada dos semanas hasta la edad gestacional de término corregida. Se comparó los valores ajustando múltiples variables como edad gestacional, peso al nacer y sexo, entre otras. Se analizaron los resultados frente a los de 82 recién nacidos a término sanos. Resultados: En la primera semana de vida, los prematuros menores de 34 semanas de edad gestacional tienen valores de 17-OHP muy superiores a los neonatos de término. Al alcanzar la semana 34 de edad gestacional corregida, los valores descienden y se mantienen estables, siempre mayores a los de término, incluso al llegar a edad a término corregida (diferencia promedio de 63.0%, IC 95%: 11.8%-115.5%). El 33.6% (41 muestras) de un total de 122 muestras hechas en los prematuros eran mayores de 30 ng/mL. Conclusiones: Los valores de 17-OHP en recién nacidos pretérmino son más altos que en neonatos a término, pudiendo ser relacionado con los procesos adaptativos postnatales. Se sugiere realizar un segundo tamizaje al llegar a la semana 37 de edad corregida.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Male , Infant, Premature , Neonatal Screening/methods , Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital/diagnosis , 17-alpha-Hydroxyprogesterone/blood , Birth Weight , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Cohort Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Longitudinal Studies , Gestational Age
14.
Journal of Veterinary Science ; : 105-109, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-122303

ABSTRACT

Diagnosis of an adrenal tumor without typical clinical signs related to hyperadrenocorticism and elevated alkaline phosphatase is challenging. This report describes a sex hormone-secreting adrenal tumor in a 10-year-old castrated male Shih Tzu evaluated through repetitive ultrasonographic examination. An adrenocorticotropic hormone stimulation test revealed elevated concentrations of androstenedione and 17-hydroxyprogesterone but a normal cortisol concentration. A mass was surgically excised and adenoma was diagnosed histopathologically. In the present case, adrenal tumor was strongly suspected based on a gradual increase in adrenal size and a change from peanut shape to an irregular mass on repetitive ultrasonography. Repetitive ultrasonographic examination of the adrenal gland is recommended when an abnormal ultrasonographic appearance of adrenal gland is identified, even in an asymptomatic dog.


Subject(s)
Animals , Child , Dogs , Humans , Male , 17-alpha-Hydroxyprogesterone , Adenoma , Adrenal Gland Neoplasms , Adrenal Glands , Adrenocortical Hyperfunction , Adrenocorticotropic Hormone , Alkaline Phosphatase , Androstenedione , Arachis , Diagnosis , Diagnostic Imaging , Hydrocortisone , Ultrasonography
15.
Journal of the Korean Medical Association ; : 319-325, 2016.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-42165

ABSTRACT

Preterm birth (PTB) is defined as birth before 37 completed weeks of gestation, which occurs in approximately 10% of all pregnancies. Prior PTB history and short cervical length (CL) are the most significant predictors of PTB. Prior PTB history can increase the risk of recurrence of PTB more than two-fold in the next pregnancy. A short CL of less than 25 mm as measured by ultrasound between 16 and 24 weeks of gestation has been shown to be the most reliable predictor of an increased risk of PTB. Progesterone is one of the few proven effective methods of preventing PTB in women with a previous history of spontaneous PTB and women with a short CL. Progestins are available in natural micronized or synthetic formulations for intramuscular or vaginal (tablet or gel) administration. Several studies have reported that 17 hydroxyprogesterone caproate injection can prevent recurrent PTB in women with a previous history of PTB. Vaginal micronized natural progesterone has also been shown to be effective in preventing PTB in women with previous PTB history or with a short CL. At present, we are performing a multi-center, randomized trial in Korea (a multicenter, randomized, open-label, investigator-initiated trial of vaginal compared with intramuscular progesterone for the prevention of PTB in high-risk pregnant women: VICTORIA protocol) to compare the efficacy between vaginal progesterone and intramuscular injection of progesterone in women with a previous preterm history or short CL. This study will provide important information to both obstetricians and patients on whether a vaginal or intramuscular regimen is better for prevention of a recurrent PTB.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Pregnancy , 17-alpha-Hydroxyprogesterone , Injections, Intramuscular , Korea , Parturition , Pregnant Women , Premature Birth , Progesterone , Progestins , Recurrence , Ultrasonography , Victoria
16.
Acta bioquím. clín. latinoam ; 48(2): 223-228, jun. 2014. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-734230

ABSTRACT

El presente estudio investiga la utilidad de determinar puntos de corte ajustados según la edad gestacional y el peso al nacer de neonatos (2-100 días) en la cuantificación de 17-hidroxiprogesterona en muestras de sangre seca en papel de filtro. Se analizaron los resultados de 6.266 determinaciones realizadas en el marco del Programa Nacional de Fortalecimiento de la Detección Precoz de Enfermedades Congénitas. Los datos se dividieron en cuatro grupos; Grupo 1: recién nacido pretérmino con bajo peso; Grupo 2: recién nacido pretérmino con peso normal; Grupo 3: recién nacido a término con bajo peso y Grupo 4: recién nacido a término con peso normal. Se establecieron puntos de corte diferentes a partir del cálculo del percentilo 99 de la distribución de frecuencias. Basado en este análisis se realizó la comparación de la tasa de resultados falsos positivos que se obtuvieron según el punto de corte establecido por el fabricante y los obtenidos en el estudio. Los nuevos puntos de corte obtenidos fueron: 217,72 nmol/L, 102,14 nmol/L, 61,62 nmol/L y 82,38 nmol/L para los grupos 1, 2, 3 y 4 respectivamente. Se evidenció una tasa total de falsos positivos del 1% con los nuevos puntos de corte, significativamente menor a la tasa del 6,2% obtenida al utilizar el punto de corte del fabricante. Esto puso en evidencia que el uso de puntos de corte adecuadamente establecidos para la población en estudio reduce significativamente las complicaciones derivadas de las repeticiones de análisis y eventualmente la tasa de recitaciones, lo cual es una importante contribución a la Salud Pública.


The present work studies the usefulness of determining adjusted cut-offs for the quantification of 17-hydroxyprogesterone in dried blood samples on filter paper, taking into account the gestational age and weight of the neonates. The results of 6266 determinations made within the framework of the National Program of Strengthening Early Detection of Congenital Disease were analysed. Data were divided into groups, Group 1: early established from the calculation of the 99 percentiles of the frequency distribution. New cutoff points were: 217.72 nmol/L, 102.14 nmol/L, 61.62 nmol/L and 82.38 nmol/L for groups 1, 2, 3 and 4 respectively. It showed a total rate of 1% false positives with the new cut-off points, which was significantly lower than the rate of 6.2% obtained using the manufacturer's cutoff. This revealed that the use of properly established cut-offs for the study of population reduces significantly the complications derived fromn analysis repetitions and eventually the recitation rate, which is an important contribution to Public Health.


O presente estudo investiga a utilidade de determinar pontos de corte estabelecidos conforme a idade gestacional e o peso ao nascer de neonatos (2-100 dias) na quantificação da 17-hidroxiprogesterona em amostras de sangue seco em papel filtro. Foram analisados os resultados de 6.266 determinações feitas no âmbito do Programa Nacional de Fortalecimento da Detecção Precoce de Doenças Congênitas. Os dados foram divididos em quatro grupos; Grupo 1: recém-nascido pré-termo com baixo peso, Grupo 2: recém-nascido pré-termo com peso normal, Grupo 3: recém-nascido a termo com baixo peso e Grupo 4: recém-nascido a termo com peso normal e foram estabelecidos pontos de corte diferentes a partir do cálculo do percentil 99 da distribuição de frequências. Com base nesta análise foi realizada a comparação da taxa de resultados falsos positivos obtidos conforme o ponto de corte estabelecido pelo fabricante e os obtidos no estudo. Os novos pontos de corte obtidos foram: 217,72 nmol/L, 102,14 nmol/L, 61,62 nmol/L e 82,38 nmol/L para os grupos 1, 2, 3 e 4, respectivamente. Tornou-se evidente uma taxa total de 1% de falsos positivos, com os novos pontos de corte significativamente menor do que a taxa de 6,2% obtida utilizando o ponto de corte do fabricante. Isto revelou que o uso de pontos de corte de forma adequada estabelecidos para a população em estudo reduz significativamente as complicações decorrentes das repetições de análises e eventualmente a taxa de repetição de novos encontros, o que é uma importante contribuição para a saúde pública.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , 17-alpha-Hydroxyprogesterone/analysis , 17-alpha-Hydroxyprogesterone/blood , Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital , Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital/blood , Congenital, Hereditary, and Neonatal Diseases and Abnormalities , Genetic Diseases, Inborn , Hydroxyprogesterones
17.
Chinese Journal of Pediatrics ; (12): 948-951, 2014.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-293884

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>3β- hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase deficiency (3βHSD), a rare form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) resulted from mutations in the HSD3B2 gene that impair steroidogenesis in both adrenals and gonads. We report clinical features and the results of HSD3B2 gene analysis of a Chinese pubertal girl with salt wasting 3βHSD deficiency.</p><p><b>METHOD</b>We retrospectively reviewed clinical presentations and steroid profiles of the patient diagnosed in Guangzhou Women and Children's Medical Center in 2013. PCR and direct sequencing were used to identify any mutation in the HSD3B2 gene.</p><p><b>RESULT</b>A 13-year-old girl was diagnosed as CAH after birth because of salt-wasting with mild clitorimegaly and then was treated with glucocorticoid replacement. Breast and pubic hair development were normal, and menarche occurred at 12 yr, followed by menstrual bleeding about every 45 days. In the last one year laparoscopic operation and ovariocentesis were performed one after another for recurrent ovary cysts. Under corticoid acetate therapy, ACTH 17.10 pmol/L (normal 0-10.12), testosterone 1.31 nmol/L (normal <0.7), dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate 13.30 µmol/L (normal 0.95 - 11.67), cortisol 720 nmol/L (normal 130-772.8), androstenedione, 17-hydroxyprogesterone and progesterone were normal. Estradiol 461 pmol/L, follicle-stimulating hormone 3.04 IU/L, luteinizing hormone 8.52 IU/L in follicular phase. A pelvic ultrasound showed lateral ovaries cysts (58 mm × 50 mm × 35 mm) and a midcycle-type endometrium. A novel nonsense mutation c.73G >T (p.E25X) was identified in HSD3B2 gene. The girl was homozygous and her mother was heterozygous, while her father was not identified with this mutation.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>A classic 3βHSD deficiency is characterized by salt wasting and mild virilization in female. Ovary cysts may be the one of features of gonad phenotype indicating ovary 3βHSD deficiency. A novel homozygous mutation c.73G >T(p.E25X) was related to the classical phenotype.</p>


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Female , Humans , 17-alpha-Hydroxyprogesterone , Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital , Diagnosis , Genetics , Androstenedione , China , Codon, Nonsense , Delayed Diagnosis , Follicle Stimulating Hormone , Homozygote , Hydrocortisone , Luteinizing Hormone , Mutation , Genetics , Ovarian Cysts , Genetics , Progesterone Reductase , Genetics , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies
18.
Chinese Journal of Pediatrics ; (12): 706-709, 2014.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-345712

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the correlation of gestational age and birth weight with 17α-hydroxyprogesterone (17α-OHP) levels, and with results of adrenal hyperplasia newborn screening.</p><p><b>METHOD</b>Using time-resolved fluorescence immunoassay, the authors measured concentrations of heel blood 17α-OHP by newborn dried blood spots on filter paper which included 29 hospitals newborns of Wujiang, Taicang, Zhangjiagang, Kunshan, and Suzhou, where there were 118 050 infants in total who had accurate gestational age and birth weight (62 490 males, 55 560 females). According to the classification by gestational age, there were 4 693 premature infants, 113 300 term infants and 57 overdue infants. According to the classification by birth weight, there were 4 172 infants with weight < 2 500 g, and 113 878 infants weight ≥ 2 500 g. And, in all premature infants, gestational age of 189 infants was < 32 weeks, 2 277 infants less than 36 weeks but ≥ 32 weeks, and 2 227 infants less than 37 weeks but not less than 36 weeks. Neonatal heel blood concentration of 17α-OHP was measured by dissociation enhanced lanthanide fluorescence immunoassay (DELFIA), and the correlation between 17α-OHP and gestational age or birth weight was retrospectively analyzed by using Spearman test.</p><p><b>RESULT</b>The distribution of 17α-OHP levels was skew. The 17α-OHP levels decreased significantly from very preterm births, moderately preterm, later period preterm to term infants [19.21 (8.07, 24.00), 12.35 (6.81, 18.00), 8.58 (5.66, 13.80), 5.60 (3.57, 8.51) , 3.34 (2.58, 5.23) nmol/L; 479.42, 62.25, 36.24, 23.30, 13.73 nmol/L;P all = 0.000]. The 17α-OHP levels decreases from very low birth weight (VLBW), extremely low birth weight (ELBW), low birth weight (LBW), normal birth weight to macrosomia [5.24 (3.24, 8.96) , 11.30 (6.84, 22.95) , 8.50 (5.28, 14.90) , 5.66 (3.61, 8.62) , 5.38 (3.40, 8.11) nmol/L; 485.26, 125.18, 39.50, 23.80, 22.15 nmol/L; P = 0.000 for all comparison]. Neonatal 17α-OHP levels and gestational age, body weight was significantly negatively correlated respectively -16.40 and -10.10 (P both = 0.000) by using Spearman test. Neonatal 17α-OHP levels and gestational age, body weight were binomially distributed, and the formulae were y = 0.105 5x²-2.457 6x + 17.689, R² = 0.980 3 and y = 0.411x²-3.988x+14.75, R² = 0.983. Little preterm infants, preterm infants and term infants in low birth weight infants 17α-OHP levels were significantly higher than non-low birth weight infants [11.20 (6.01, 18.90) vs 9.05 (5.85, 14.90) nmol/L, 9.76 (4.32, 10.35) vs 5.59 (3.56, 8.48) nmol/L, P all = 0.000].</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Neonatal 17α-OHP levels and gestational age, body weight was significantly negatively correlated; in order to improve the accuracy and sensitivity, cut-off value of neonatal 17α-OHP should be adjusted according to gestational age and weight.</p>


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Male , 17-alpha-Hydroxyprogesterone , Blood , Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital , Blood , Diagnosis , Birth Weight , Fluoroimmunoassay , Gestational Age , Infant, Premature , Blood , Infant, Very Low Birth Weight , Blood , Neonatal Screening , Retrospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity
19.
Journal of Laboratory Medicine and Quality Assurance ; : 64-70, 2014.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-65817

ABSTRACT

Two trials of external quality assessment (EQA) of conventional newborn screening tests for phenylketonuria, galactosaemia, congenital adrenal hyperplasia, maple syrup urine disease, homocystinuria, and congenital hypothyroidism, as well as of newborn screening tests using tandem mass spectrometry were performed in 2013. A total of 32 specimens in the form of dried blood spots were distributed to 16 laboratories and the response rate of these laboratories was 100%. Total T4, free T4, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, leucine, isoleucine, galactose, methionine, alanine, C8/C2, C8/C10, and C5-OH did not meet the accepted performance criteria. The mean, standard deviation, coefficient of variation, median, and cut-offs were evaluated for each analyte in the newborn screening tests. Two trials of EQA for the analyses of methylmalonic acid, vanillylmandelic acid, very long fatty acids, organic acids, and amino acids were also performed. A well-designed EQA program and continuous education would improve the performance of biochemical genetic tests.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , 17-alpha-Hydroxyprogesterone , Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital , Alanine , Amino Acids , Congenital Hypothyroidism , Education , Fatty Acids , Galactose , Homocystinuria , Isoleucine , Korea , Leucine , Maple Syrup Urine Disease , Mass Screening , Methionine , Methylmalonic Acid , Molecular Biology , Phenylketonurias , Tandem Mass Spectrometry , Vanilmandelic Acid
20.
Annals of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism ; : 40-43, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-216018

ABSTRACT

Congenital lipoid adrenal hyperplasia (CLAH) is the most severe form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia which is caused by mutations in the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR). The mutations in StAR gene resulted in failure of the transport cholesterol into mitochondria for steroidogenesis in the adrenal gland. Twin sisters (A, B) with normal 46, XX were born at 36+2 gestational week, premature to nonrelated parents. They had symptoms as hyperpigmentation, slightly elevated potassium level and low level of sodium. Laboratory finding revealed normal 17-hydroxyprogesterone level, elevated adrenocorticotropin hormone (A, 4,379.2 pg/mL; B, 11,616.1 pg/mL), and high plasma renin activity (A, 49.02 ng/mL/hr; B, 52.7 ng mL/hr). However, the level of plasma cortisol before treatment was low (1.5 microg/dL) in patient B but normal (8.71 microg/dL) in patient A. Among them, only patient A was presented with adrenal insufficiency symptoms which was suggestive of CLAH and prompted us to order a gene analysis in both twin. The results of gene analysis of StAR in twin revealed same heterozygous conditions for c.544C>T (Arg182Cys) in exon 5 and c.722C>T (Gln258*) in exon 7. We report the first case on the mutation of p.R182C in exon 5 of the StAR gene in Korea.


Subject(s)
Humans , 17-alpha-Hydroxyprogesterone , Disorder of Sex Development, 46,XY , Adrenal Glands , Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital , Adrenal Insufficiency , Adrenocorticotropic Hormone , Cholesterol , Exons , Genes, vif , Hydrocortisone , Hyperpigmentation , Hyperplasia , Korea , Mitochondria , Parents , Phosphoproteins , Plasma , Potassium , Renin , Siblings , Sodium , Twins
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