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1.
J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 41(2): 138-144, June 2021. graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1286992

ABSTRACT

Abstract Due to the ethnopharmacological use of Campsiandra laurifolia (Fabaceae), popularly known as Acapurana, to treat wounds and ulcers, associated with the lack of alternative treatments for intestinal inflammations such as ulcerative colitis (UC), the present work sought to characterize its phytochemical and antioxidant activities, and to evaluate remedial action in experimental colitis with acetic acid. Phytochemical analyzes were performed through qualitative and quantitative colorimetric tests of the main secondary metabolites. In the colitismodel, 24male Wistar rats aged±60 days oldwere used, divided into 4 groups: Control (CO) control+aqueous extract of C. laurifolia 50mg/kg (CO+A50); Colitis (CL); and Colitis+aqueous extract of C. laurifolia 50 mg/kg (CL+ A50).Measurement of sphincter anal pressure and histological tests of the large intestine, lipoperoxidation (LPO), enzymeactivity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), and levels of glutathione (GSH)were performed. For statistical analysis, the oxidative stress (OS) results were expressed as means±standard error, adopting a significance level of p < 0.05. The screening indicated the presence of flavonoids, saponins and tannins in the extract, with high levels of phenolic


Resumo Devido ao uso etnofarmacológico de Campsiandra laurifolia (Fabaceae), popularmente conhecida comoAcapurana, para tratar feridas e úlceras, associado à falta dealternativas de tratamentos para as inflamações intestinais como a retocolite ulcerativa (RCU), o presente trabalho buscou caracterizar sua constituição fitoquímica, sua atividade antioxidante, e avaliar sua ação reparadora na colite experimental com ácido acético. As análises fitoquímicas foram realizadas por meio de ensaios colorimétricos qualitativos e quantitativos dos principaismetabólitos secundários.Nomodelo de colite, foramutilizados 24 ratos machos Wistar de±60 dias de idade, divididos em 4 grupos: Controle (CO), controle+ extrato aquoso de C. laurifolia 50mg/kg (CO+A50); Colite (CL); e Colite+extrato aquoso de C. laurifolia (CL+ A50). Foram realizadas aferições da pressão anal esfincteriana e avaliações histológicas do intestino grosso, lipoperoxidação (LPO), atividade da enzima superóxido dismutase (SOD) e níveis da glutationa (GSH). Para a análise estatística, resultados do estresse oxidativo (EO) foram expressos em médias±erro padrão, adotando um nível de significância de p < 0,05. O screening indicou no extrato a presença de flavonoides, saponinas e taninos com altos teores de compostos fenólicos e taninos, relacionando-os a uma elevada capacidade antioxidante. Na análise histológica, o grupo CL apresentou perda das criptas, do edema e do infiltrado inflamatório. O uso do extrato de C. laurifolia reestruturou as criptas, diminuiu o edema e aumentou a pressão anal esfincteriana, com diminuição da LPO, da SOD, e aumento da GSH. Sugere-se que o uso do extrato de C. laurifolia diminui o EO por seu poder antioxidante, conferido pelos compostos fenólicos presentes no extrato.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Colitis/chemically induced , Antioxidants , Tannins , Rats, Wistar , Oxidative Stress , Acetic Acid , Phenolic Compounds , Fabaceae
2.
Rev. Bras. Saúde Mater. Infant. (Online) ; 21(1): 271-280, Jan.-Mar. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1250686

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objectives: to describe life quality of women with HPV and analyze the accuracy of anal visual inspection with acetic acid and lugol compared to high-resolution anoscopy in the detection of anal intraepithelial lesions. Methods: diagnostic evaluation study conducted with adult solid-organ transplant recipients and/or diagnosed with HIV and/or with a history of anogenital neoplasia, attended at the High Resolution Anoscopy outpatient clinic between April and December 2018. To calculate the accuracy parameters, 87 women participated: 44 with lesions and 43 without them. The 44 women with lesions were also subjected to a descriptive study to assess their life quality using the SF-36 questionnaire. Results: it was observed that almost half of the women in the study practiced vaginal, anal and oral intercourse without condom. History of HPV infection and anogenital neoplasia were the most prevailing with percentages of 81% and 72.7%, respectively. In five out of the eight domains of SF-36 they did not perform well in regard to life quality. Visual inspection with acetic acid and lugol presented sensitivity of 22.7% and specificity of 100%. Conclusion: unsatisfactory life quality was evidenced. Direct visual inspection with acetic acid and lugol should not be used in trials to spot intraepithelial HPV lesions, for it presents low sensitivity.


Resumo Objetivos: descrever a qualidade de vida das mulheres com HPVe analisar aacurácia da inspeção visual anal com ácido acético e lugol comparada à anuscopia de alta resolução para detecção de lesão intraepitelial anal. Métodos: estudo de avaliação diagnostica realizado com mulheres adultas transplantadas de órgãos sólidos e/ou diagnosticadas com HIV e/ou com antecedente de neoplasia anogenital, atendidas no ambulatório de AAR entre abril e dezembro de 2018. Para cálculo dos parâmetros de acurácia, participaram 87 mulheres: 44 com lesões e 43 sem lesões. Das 44 mulheres com lesão, também foi realizado um estudo descritivo para a avaliar a qualidade de vida utilizando-seo questionário SF-36. Resultados: Observou-se que quase metade das mulheres do estudo são adeptas ao intercurso vaginal, anal e oralesem preservativo. Os antecedentes de infecção pelo HPV e neoplasia anogenital foram os mais prevalentes com valores de 81% e 72, 7% respectivamente. Cinco, dos oito domínios do SF-36, não apresentaram boa performance em relação à qualidade de vida. A inspeção visual com ácido acético e lugol apresentou sensibilidade de 22,7%o e especificidade de 100,0%o. Conclusão: evidenciou-se qualidade de vida insatisfatória. A inspeção visual anal direta com ácido acético e lugol não deve ser usada na triagem de lesões intraepiteliais por HPV, pois apresenta baixa sensibilidade.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Anus Neoplasms/diagnosis , Quality of Life , HIV Infections/diagnosis , Triage , Sickness Impact Profile , Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions/diagnostic imaging , Acetic Acid
3.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 64: e21190730, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285554

ABSTRACT

Abstract Pyroligneous acid (PA) was obtained by condensation of the vapors produced in the thermal decomposition of culms residues from Guadua angustifolia Kunth (G. angustifolia) cultivated in Colombia, with and without previous preservation treatment with borax salts. Chemical characterization by GC-MS showed that PA extracts has high content of phenolic compounds. Mequinol, isocreosol, 4-ethylphenol, 4-ethyl-2-methoxyphenol, 3,5-dimethoxy-4-hydroxytoluene and 2,6-dimethoxyphenol were the most abundant substances, identified. The total phenolic content (TPC) and DPPH free radical scavenging activity, were investigated. TPC showed a concentration of 1.959 mg GA g-1±0.010 and 3.844 mg GA g-1±0.027 to PAC and PAS samples. These samples also exhibited high DPPH activity of 70.975%±0.921 and, 16.667%±0.298, respectively. The chemical composition, TPC and DPPH results indicate that the PA extracts obtained from G. angustifolia may be used as a raw material in the food industry as natural preservative, in medicine as alternative to antibiotics and in agriculture as insect repellent and foliar fertilizer.


Subject(s)
Mass Spectrometry , Bambusa/chemistry , Chromatography, Gas , Acetic Acid , Antioxidants/chemistry
4.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(5): 1371-1375, oct. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134450

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Fixation is a crucial step in processing of tissue specimen for preservation of cellular architecture and composition of cells. Alcohol-based fixatives are considered some of the most promising alternatives to formalin. We evaluated the performance of alcohol-based fixatives (EthMeth and methacarn) and formalin as a comparator fixative in the research laboratory. Following 24 hours of fixation, tissue morphology and cellular details of the liver, spleen and brain (cerebral cortex) were evaluated. Morphological characteristics were evaluated by gross observations and analyzing cellular details, tissue architecture and overall staining characteristics (Hematoxylin and Eosin). EthMeth and methacarn fixation gave generally comparable and satisfactory results on the tissue morphology and subsequent identification of tissue characteristics. Particularly, tissues were well preserved and all nuclear as well as cytoplasmic details were clearly visible. However, formalin fixed tissues showed some peculiarity such as improper fixation, mild shrinkage, and alterations of tissue components. These results confirm that alcohol-based fixation is the superior alternative to formalin for preservation of tissue morphology. However, it is required to standardize the formalin-free methods and harmonize diagnosis in the laboratory worldwide.


RESUMEN: La fijación es un paso crucial en el procesamiento de muestras de tejido para preservar la arquitectura celular y la composición de las células. Los fijadores a base de alcohol se consideran algunas de las alternativas más prometedoras a la formalina. Evaluamos el rendimiento de los fijadores a base de alcohol (EthMeth y metacarn) y formalina como fijador comparativo en el laboratorio de investigación. Después de 24 horas de fijación, se observó la morfología del tejido y los detalles celulares del hígado, bazo y corteza cerebral. Se evaluaron las características morfológicas mediante observaciones generales y analizando detalles celulares, arquitectura de tejidos y características generales de tinción (hematoxilina y eosina). La fijación de EthMeth y metacarn dio resultados generalmente comparables y satisfactorios en la morfología del tejido y la posterior identificación de las características del mismo. Particularmente, los tejidos estaban bien conservados y todos los detalles nucleares y citoplasmáticos eran claramente visibles. Sin embargo, los tejidos fijados con formalina mostraron cierta peculiaridad, tal como una fijación inadecuada, la contracción leve y alteraciones de los componentes del tejido. Estos resultados confirman que la fijación a base de alcohol es la mejor alternativa a la formalina, para preservar la morfología del tejido. Sin embargo, es necesario estandarizar los métodos sin formalina y armonizar el diagnóstico en los laboratorios.


Subject(s)
Tissue Fixation/methods , Alcohols/chemistry , Fixatives , Formaldehyde/chemistry , Chloroform/chemistry , Acetic Acid/chemistry , Methanol/chemistry
5.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 47: 29-35, sept. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1253015

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Salep is obtained by grinding dried orchid tubers and used as a valuable ingredient in the food industry. Because of the glucomannan content of salep, it is thought to have prebiotic potential. However, there is little information in studies concerning the fermentation characteristics and potential prebiotic properties of salep. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of salep on bifidobacterial growth by measuring the highest optical density (OD), calculating the specific growth rates, and determining the production of lactic acid and short-chain fatty acids (acetic, propionic, and butyric acid) as a result of bacterial fermentation. RESULT: The OD and pH values obtained in this study showed that salep was utilized as a source of assimilable carbon and energy by the Bifidobacterium species (BS). All Bifidobacterium strains produced lactic, acetic, propionic, and butyric acid, indicating that salep is readily fermented by these bacteria. Salep at 1% (w/v) showed a similar effect on bifidobacterial growth as that promoted by 1% (w/v) glucose used as a traditional carbon source. CONCLUSIONS: Bifidobacterium species can develop in media containing salep as well as in glucose and exhibit the potential to be used as new sources of prebiotics.


Subject(s)
Powders/metabolism , Bifidobacterium/growth & development , Bifidobacterium/metabolism , Fatty Acids, Volatile/biosynthesis , Propionates/analysis , Propionates/metabolism , Food Industry , Acetic Acid/analysis , Acetic Acid/metabolism , Lactic Acid/analysis , Lactic Acid/metabolism , Probiotics , Butyric Acid/analysis , Butyric Acid/metabolism , Fatty Acids, Volatile/analysis , Prebiotics , Fermentation , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
6.
Rev. Eugenio Espejo ; 14(1): 53-64, 20200615.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1117189

ABSTRACT

El presente estudio fue de tipo observacional comparativo; para lo cual se analizaron 40 cepillos dentales de la marca OralDent, los que fueron usados durante un mes por los integrantes de la Cooperativa de taxis "Simón Bolívar" de la ciudad de Riobamba, Ecuador; con el propósito de comparar la eficacia del ácido acético al 5% y la clorhexidina al 0,12% como desinfectantes. El análisis microbiológico arrojó la presencia de microorganismos en los cepillos dentales usados por los individuos que voluntariamente los cedieron para el estudio, tales como: C. albicans en mayor proporción, seguida de S. viridans, S. epidermidis y S. mutans, A. tubingensis, K. pneumoniae, E. coli, E. faecalis, P. vulgaris. En las muestras con concentraciones de microorganismos de 100.000 UFC/mL, una vez generado el proceso de desinfección con clorhexidina al 0,12% existió una disminución a valores menores de 20.000 UFC/mL o su eliminación completa. El ácido acético al 5% logró una asepsia en el 100% de los cepillos dentales sin importar la edad o el género del individuo que lo utilizó.


The present study was of a comparative observational type. 40 OralDent toothbrushes were analyzed for this reserach, which were used for a month by the members of the "Simón Bolívar" Taxi Cab Company in the city of Riobamba, Ecuador. It aimed to compare the efficacy of 5% acetic acid and 0.12% chlorhexidine as disinfectants. The microbiological analysis showed the presence of microorganisms in the toothbrushes used by the individuals who voluntarily gave them up for the study, for exmaple: C. albicans in a greater proportion, followed by S. viridans, S. epidermidis and S. mutans, A. tubingensis, K. pneumoniae, E. coli, E. faecalis, P. vulgaris. Once the disinfection process with 0.12% chlorhexidine was generated in the samples with microorganism concentrations of 100,000 CFU / mL, there was a decrease to values less than 20,000 CFU / mL or its complete elimination. 5% acetic acid achieved asepsis in 100% of toothbrushes regardless of the age or gender of the individual who used it.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Chlorhexidine , Disinfection , Acetic Acid , Asepsis , Microbiological Techniques , Disinfectants
7.
Braz. J. Vet. Res. Anim. Sci. (Online) ; 57(3): e162942, 2020. tab
Article in English | ID: biblio-1122180

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to evaluate the effects of increasing levels of chitosan (CHI) on sugarcane fermentation profile and losses, chemical composition, and in situ degradation. Treatments were: 0, 1, 2, 4, and 8 g of CHI/kg of dry matter (DM). Twenty experimental silos (PVC tubing with diameter 28 cm and height 25 cm) were used. Sand (2 kg) was placed at the bottom of each silo to evaluate effluent losses, and silos were weighed 60 d after ensiling to calculate gas losses. Samples were collected from the center of the silo mass to evaluate silage chemical composition, in situdegradation, fermentation profile, and mold and yeast count. Data were analyzed as a completely randomized design, and the treatment effect was decomposed using polynomial regression. Chitosan linearly increased acetic acid and NH3-N concentration, while yeast and mold count, and ethanol concentration decreased. Intermediary levels of CHI (from 4.47 to 6.34 g/kg DM) showed the lower values of effluent, gas, and total losses. There was a quadratic effect of CHI on the content of non-fiber carbohydrates, neutral and acid detergent, and in situ DM degradation. The lowest fiber content was observed with levels between 7.01 and 7.47 g/kg DM, whereas the highest non-fiber carbohydrate content and in situ DM degradation were found with 6.30 and 7.17 g/kg DM of CHI, respectively. Chitosan linearly increased acetic acid and NH3-N concentration, whereas it linearly reduced ethanol concentration and count of yeast and mold. Thus, intermediary levels of CHI, between 4.47 and 7.47 g/kg of DM, decrease fermentation losses and improve the nutritional value of sugarcane silage.(AU)


Foram avaliados os efeitos do aumento dos níveis de quitosana (CHI) sobre o perfil e as perdas fermentativas, a composição química e degradação in situ da silagem de cana-de-açúcar. Os tratamentos foram: 0, 1, 2, 4 e 8 g de CHI / kg de matéria seca (MS). Foram utilizados vinte silos experimentais (tubos de PVC com 28 cm de diâmetro e 25 cm de altura). Areia (2 kg) foi adicionada na porção inferior de cada silo para avaliar as perdas por efluentes e os silos foram pesados 60 dias após a ensilagem para calcular as perdas por gases. Amostras foram coletadas do centro da massa do silo para avaliar a composição química, degradação in situ, perfil fermentativo e a contagem de fungos e leveduras da silagem. Os dados foram analisados como um delineamento inteiramente casualizado e o efeito do tratamento foi decomposto usando regressão polinomial. A CHI aumentou linearmente a concentração de ácido acético e N-NH3, enquanto diminuiu a contagem de leveduras e bolores e a concentração de etanol. Os níveis intermediários de CHI (de 4,47 a 6,34 g/kg MS) mostraram os menores valores de perdas por efluentes, gases e totais. Houve efeito quadrático da CHI sobre o teor de carboidratos não fibrosos, fibra em detergente neutro e ácido e sobre a degradação in situ da MS. Os menores teores de fibras foram observados com níveis de CHI entre 7,01 e 7,47 g/kg MS, enquanto que os maiores teores de carboidratos não fibrosos e degradação in situ da MS foram encontrados com 6,30 e 7,17 g/kg MS de CHI, repectivamente. A CHI aumentou linearmente as concentrações de ácido acético e N-NH3, enquanto reduziu linearmente a concentração de etanol e a contagem de fungos e leveduras. Desta forma, níveis intermediários de CHI, entre 4,47 e 7,47 g / kg de MS, diminuem as perdas fermentativas e melhoram o valor nutricional da silagem de cana-de-açúcar.(AU)


Subject(s)
Silage/analysis , Saccharum/chemistry , Chitosan/analysis , Acetic Acid/analysis , Ethanol
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828374

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to establish a rapid and accurate method for identification of raw and vinegar-processed rhizomes of Curcuma kwangsiensis, in order to predict the content of curcumin compounds for scientific evaluation. A complete set of bionics recognition mode was adopted. The digital odor signal of raw and vinegar-processed rhizomes of Curcuma kwangsiensis were obtained by e-nose, and analyzed by back propagation(BP) neural network algorithm, with the accuracy, the sensitivity and specificity in discriminant model, correlation coefficient as well as the mean square error in regression model as the evaluation indexes. The experimental results showed that the three indexes of the e-nose signal discrimination model established by the neural network algorithm were 100% in training set, correction set and prediction set, which were obviously better than the traditional decision tree, naive bayes, support vector machine, K nearest neighbor and boost classification, and could accurately differentiate the raw and vinegar products. Correlation coefficient and mean square error of the regression model in prediction set were 0.974 8 and 0.117 5 respectively, and could well predict curcumin compounds content in Curcuma kwangsiensis, and demonstrate the superiority of the simulation biometrics model in the analysis of traditional Chinese medicine. By BP neural network algorithm, e-nose odor fingerprint could quickly, conveniently and accurately realize the discrimination and regression, which suggested that more bionics information acquisition and identification patterns could be combined in the field of traditional Chinese medicine, so as to provide ideas and methods for the rapid evaluation and stan-dardization of the quality of traditional Chinese medicine.


Subject(s)
Acetic Acid , Bayes Theorem , Curcuma , Curcumin , Electronic Nose , Neural Networks, Computer , Rhizome
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-787235

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a type of inflammatory bowel disease that mainly involves the colon. Thus far, glucocorticoids and amino-salicylate have been the main treatment.METHODS: To assess drugs with fewer side effects, this study evaluated the effects of sodium cromoglycate (SCG) on acetic acid-induced UC in rats. The treatment groups included SCG receivers (50 and 100 mg/kg, intra-orally) and sulfasalazine (SSZ) receivers (100 mg/kg, intra-orally). The colonic mucosal injury was assessed by clinical, macroscopic, and histopathological examinations.RESULTS: In the treatment groups with 50 and 100 mg/kg of SCG, the clinical activity score decreased to 2.67±0.18 and 1.73±0.21 (p<0.05), respectively, compared to the UC control group (3.21±0.31), and were higher than that of the group given the standard treatment of 100 mg/kg SSZ (1.10±0.09). The treatment groups with 50 and 100 mg/kg of SCG showed a lower clinical gross lesion score than the UC control group (2.91±0.28 and 2.10±0.43, vs. 4.49±0.61, p<0.05) and were higher than the standard group (0.95±0.18). Treatment with SCG (100 mg/kg) decreased the macroscopic scores significantly compared to the UC control group (p<0.05) on the 8th day.CONCLUSIONS: SCG (100mg/kg) decreased significantly the clinical activity score, gross lesion, and percentage-affected area compared to the UC controls on the 8th day.


Subject(s)
Acetic Acid , Animals , Colitis, Ulcerative , Colon , Cromolyn Sodium , Glucocorticoids , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , Mice , Rats , Sodium , Sulfasalazine , Ulcer
10.
Vitae (Medellín) ; 26(3): 135-147, 2020. Ilustraciones
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1103784

ABSTRACT

Background:Vaccinium meridionale produces fruits with a high content of anthocyanins and polyphenols with great antioxidant capacity. Objective: produce vinegar from V. meridionale alcoholic beverages and to determine the content of bioactive antioxidant compounds, antioxidant capacity, and cytotoxic activity on colorectal cancer cells. Methods: Wine and vinegar samples were obtained by fermentation of V. meridionale berries juice, using three extractive processes: mechanical maceration (MAC), preheating to 80°C (CAL) and a combination of both (MIX). During acetic fermentation, titratable acidity and acetic acid content were evaluated. Fermentation progress was recorded and compared by measuring the antioxidant potential by DPPH, FRAP, and ORAC. Polyphenols, anthocyanins and hydroxycinnamic acids were quantified. Finally, the antiproliferative activity of vinegar was evaluated in SW480 colon cancer cells. Results: In acetic fermentation, yield and productivity were independent of extraction, indicating that they do not affect the biotransformation of alcohol into vinegar. The alcoholic beverages showed the highest antioxidant activity; after acetic fermentation, a decrease in antioxidant potential was observed in all three extractive processes evaluated. The different vinegar obtained by CAL and MIX, showed the highest values of antioxidant activity, polyphenols, and anthocyanins. The inhibition of the antiproliferative activity of vinegar was dose-dependent and showed an IC50 of 536 µg/mL. Conclusions: The vinegar prepared from V. meridionale berries presented an outstanding antioxidant and antiproliferative activity. The reason is the contents of bioactive compounds and their antioxidant power, which may contribute to chemoprevention in secondary cancer prevention.


Antecedentes: Vaccinium meridionale produce frutos con alto contenido en antocianinas y polifenoles con elevada capacidad antioxidante. Objetivo: Producir vinagre a partir de bebidas alcohólicas de V. meridionale y determinar el contenido de compuestos bioactivos antioxidantes, capacidad antioxidante y actividad citotóxica sobre células de cáncer colorrectal. Métodos: Muestras de Vino y vinagre fueron obtenidas mediante fermentación del jugo de V. meridionale, usando tres procesos extractivos: maceración mecánica (MAC), precalentamiento a 80 °C (CAL) y una combinación de ambos (MIX). En la fermentación acética fueron evaluadas la acidez titulable y el contenido de ácido acético. Se registró y comparó la evolución de la fermentación midiendo el potencial antioxidante por DPPH, FRAP y ORAC. Se cuantificaron los polifenoles, antocianinas y ácidos hidroxicinámicos. Finalmente, la actividad antiproliferativa del vinagre fue evaluada en células de cáncer de colon SW480. Resultados: En la fermentación acética, el rendimiento y la productividad fueron independientes de la extracción indicando que no afectan la biotransformación del alcohol en vinagre. Las bebidas alcohólicas mostraron la mayor actividad antioxidante, después de la fermentación acética se observó una disminución del potencial antioxidante en los tres procesos extractivos evaluados. Los vinagres obtenidos por CAL y MIX, presentaron los mayores valores de actividad antioxidante, polifenoles y antocianinas. La inhibición de la actividad antiproliferativa del vinagre fue dosis dependiente y mostró un IC50 de 536 µg/mL. Conclusiones: El vinagre preparado a partir de bayas de V. meridionale presentó una excelente actividad antioxidante y antiproliferativa debido al contenido de compuestos bioactivos y poder antioxidante que puede contribuir a la quimioprevención en la prevención secundaria del cáncer.


Subject(s)
Humans , Acetic Acid , Fruit , Vaccinium , Polyphenols , Anthocyanins
11.
Int. j. morphol ; 37(3): 1107-1110, Sept. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1012404

ABSTRACT

A small amount of acetic acid (AA), a common preservative, has been shown to increase contamination in cadaveric tissue, while larger concentrations can lead to the tissue becoming hard, especially in fresh brains. This study attempted to optimize the concentration of AA to be used in the cranial cavity in order to produce the most realistic consistency and color. Six adult cadaveric heads were preserved with descending glacial AA at concentrations of 98.5 %, 80 %, 60 %, 40 %, 20 %, and 10 %. The samples were kept at 5 °C for 14 days. The brain cortex was then dissected with a suction tube and forceps to reveal the underlying brain tissue for inspection. Color change, cortical firmness, pia mater stickiness, and participant satisfaction were evaluated. The color of the brains in all concentrations was slightly yellow. However, the temporal area of the brain preserved using 20 % AA was significantly more pink. The pia mater of the brain cortex of all samples was firm and difficult to pry apart, with the firmest consistency being in the brain tissue preserved using 98.5 % AA. The brain tissue in all samples had a liquid-like consistency. The brains preserved in AA at a concentration greater than 60 % yielded higher satisfaction scores. We conclude that acetic acid has a role in brain preservation for skull base surgery training and recommend AA concentrations higher than 60 % for maximal participants satisfaction.


Se ha demostrado que una pequeña cantidad de ácido acético (AA), un preservante común, aumenta la contaminación en el tejido del cadáver, mientras que mayores concentraciones pueden endurecer el tejido, particularmente en cerebros frescos. Este estudio intentó optimizar la concentración de AA en la cavidad craneal para producir una consistencia y coloración cerebral más cercanos a la realidad. Seis cabezas cadavéricas adultas se conservaron con AA glacial descendente en concentraciones de 98,5 %, 80 %, 60 %, 40 %, 20 % y 10 %. Las muestras se mantuvieron a 5 °C durante 14 días. Luego se diseccó la corteza cerebral con un tubo de succión y pinzas para observar e inspeccionar el tejido cerebral subyacente. Se evaluaron el color, la firmeza cortical, la viscosidad y adherencia de la piamadre y la reacción de los participantes ante esta conservación. El color de los cerebros en todas las concentraciones fue ligeramente amarillo. Sin embargo, el área temporal del cerebro, conservada con un 20 % de AA, fue significativamente más rosada. La piamadre de la corteza de todas las muestras fue de consistencia firme y difícil de separar; una mayor resistencia se observó en el tejido cerebral preservado con 98,5 % de AA. La consistencia del tejido cerebral en todas las muestras era líquida. Los cerebros conservados en AA a una concentración superior al 60 % recibieron puntuaciones de satisfacción más elevadas. Concluimos que el ácido acético desempeña un papel en la preservación del cerebro, permitiendo el entrenamiento en cirugía de base de cráneo, por lo que recomendamos concentraciones de AA superiores al 60 % para una satisfacción máxima por parte de los participantes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Organ Preservation , Surgical Procedures, Operative/education , Brain/anatomy & histology , Acetic Acid/chemistry , Cadaver
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739400

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are common cause of severe cutaneous adverse reactions (SCARs). The present study aimed to investigate the characteristics of SCARs induced by NSAIDs in the Korean SCAR registry. METHODS: A retrospective survey of NSAID-induced SCARs recorded between 2010 and 2015 at 27 university hospitals in Korea was conducted. Clinical phenotypes of SCARs were classified into Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS), toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN), SJS-TEN overlap syndrome and drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS). Causative NSAIDs were classified into 7 groups according to their chemical properties: acetaminophen, and propionic, acetic, salicylic, fenamic and enolic acids. RESULTS: A total of 170 SCARs, consisting of 85 SJS, 32 TEN, 17 SJS-TEN overlap syndrome and 36 DRESS reactions, were induced by NSAIDs: propionic acids (n=68), acetaminophen (n=38), acetic acids (n=23), salicylic acids (n=16), coxibs (n=8), fenamic acids (n=7), enolic acids (n=5) and unclassified (n=5). Acetic acids (22%) and coxibs (14%) accounted for higher portions of DRESS than other SCARs. The phenotypes of SCARs induced by both propionic and salicylic acids were similar (SJS, TEN and DRESS, in order). Acetaminophen was primarily associated with SJS (27%) and was less involved in TEN (10%). DRESS occurred more readily among subjects experiencing coxib-induced SCARs than other NSAID-induced SCARs (62.5% vs. 19.7%, P = 0.013). The mean time to symptom onset was longer in DRESS than in SJS or TEN (19.1 ± 4.1 vs. 6.8 ±1.5 vs. 12.1 ± 3.8 days). SCARs caused by propionic salicylic acids showed longer latency, whereas acetaminophen- and acetic acid-induced SCARs appeared within shorter intervals. CONCLUSIONS: The present study indicates that the phenotypes of SCARs may differ according to the chemical classifications of NSAIDs. To establish the mechanisms and incidences of NSAID-induced SCARs, further prospective studies are needed.


Subject(s)
Acetaminophen , Acetates , Acetic Acid , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal , Cicatrix , Classification , Cyclooxygenase 2 Inhibitors , Diethylpropion , Drug Hypersensitivity , Drug Hypersensitivity Syndrome , Hospitals, University , Incidence , Korea , Phenotype , Propionates , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , Salicylates , Salicylic Acid , Stevens-Johnson Syndrome
13.
Mycobiology ; : 250-255, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760534

ABSTRACT

In the present study, we aimed to determine the cause of surface film formation in three rice vinegars fermented using the traditional static fermentation method. The pH and total acidity of vinegar were 3.0–3.3 and 3.0–8.7%, respectively, and acetic acid was the predominant organic acid present. Colonies showing a clear halo on GYC medium were isolated from the surface film of all vinegars. Via 16S rDNA sequencing, all of the isolates were identified as Acetobacter pasteurianus. Furthermore, field-emission scanning electron microscopy analysis showed that the bacterial cells had a rough surface, were rod-shaped, and were ∼1 × 2 µm in size. Interestingly, cells of the isolate from one of the vinegars were surrounded with an extremely fine threadlike structure. Thus, our results suggest that formation of the surface film in rice vinegar was attributable not to external contamination, to the production of bacterial cellulose by A. pasteurianus to withstand the high concentrations of acetic acid generated during fermentation. However, because of the formation of a surface film in vinegar is undesirable from an industrial perspective, further studies should focus on devising a modified fermentation process to prevent surface film formation and consequent quality degradation.


Subject(s)
Acetic Acid , Acetobacter , Cellulose , DNA, Ribosomal , Fermentation , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Methods , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764299

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: High-fat diet is known to be implicated in the pathogenesis of various metabolic disorders related to an inflammatory response. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of high-fat diet for intestinal acetic acid and butyric acid concentrations which are related to inflammation-associated colon cancer risk. METHODS: Both male and female rats of 6, 31, 74 and 104-week of age were fed chow diet or high-fat diet for 8 weeks. Body weight and food intake were measured weekly during the feeding period. Intestinal acetic acid and butyric acid levels were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography from luminal contents of ileum and cecum. RESULTS: Male rats showed greater weight change than female rats in every age. Calorie-adjusted food intake was also higher in male rats compared to female rats. Male rats showed similar intake of food in every age while 31-week old female rats showed increased intake, which was decreased at 74-week and 104-week of age. The ileal acetic acid concentration was increased in male rats fed high-fat diet, while female rats fed high-fat diet showed no significant change in the ileal acetic acid level. On the other hand, butyric acid almost disappeared in high-fat diet fed rats regardless of sex. CONCLUSIONS: High-fat diet increases the intestinal acetic acid concentration while reducing the butyric acid concentration which may account for increased risk of inflammation-associated colon cancer.


Subject(s)
Acetic Acid , Animals , Body Weight , Butyric Acid , Cecum , Chromatography, Liquid , Colonic Neoplasms , Diet , Diet, High-Fat , Eating , Female , Hand , Humans , Ileum , Male , Phenobarbital , Rats
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764114

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Sacral nerve stimulation has been used to treat overactive bladder. This study evaluated the effects of stimulation using different pulse widths on the inhibition of bladder overactivity by sacral nerve stimulation (SNM) in pigs. METHODS: Implant-driven stimulators were used to stimulate the S3 spinal nerve in 7 pigs. Cystometry was performed by infusing normal saline (NS) or acetic acid (AA). SNM at pulse widths of 64 μsec to 624 μsec was conducted at the intensity threshold at which observable perianal and/or tail movement was induced. Multiple cystometrograms were performed to determine the effects of different pulse widths on the micturition reflex. RESULTS: AA-induced bladder overactivity reduced the bladder capacity to 46.9%±7.1% of the NS control level (P0.05). The actual intensity threshold varied from 0.7 to 8 V. The mean intensity threshold (T visual) for pulse widths of 64 μs, 204 μs, and 624 μs were 5.64±0.76 V, 3.11±0.48 V, and 2.52±0.49 V. T visual for pulse widths of 64 μsec was larger than the other two T visual for pulse widths of 204 μsec and 624 μsec (P0.05). CONCLUSIONS: This study indicated that different pulse widths could play a role in inhibiting bladder overactivity. It is not yet certain which pulse widths increased bladder capacity compared with AA levels, to minimize energy consumption and maintain patient comfort during stimulation, 204 μsec may be an appropriate pulse width for SNM.


Subject(s)
Acetic Acid , Humans , Reflex , Spinal Nerves , Swine , Tail , Urinary Bladder , Urinary Bladder, Overactive , Urination
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-774573

ABSTRACT

To study the effects of different fraction of Euphorbiae Pekinensis Radix before and after processing with vinegar on liver and gastrointestinal toxicity of zebrafish embryos,the zebrafish embryos after fertilized 12 h(12 hpf) were exposed to different concentrations of solution until 96 h(96 hpf),for observation of the toxicity response of the liver and gastrointestinal of individual zebrafish embryos. The results showed that toxicity increased in a dose-dependent manner. The liver and gastrointestinal toxicity of the zebrafish embryos in various polar fractions of Euphorbiae Pekinensis Radix before and after processing with vinegar was mainly manifested as slow liver development,smaller liver area,edema of yolk sac,delayed absorption,slowing of gastrointestinal motility,abnormal function of gastrointestinal goblet cell secretion. In addition,the toxicity of different polarity was followed by petroleum ether,dichloromethane,ethyl acetate. The above results indicated that the toxicity was reduced after processing with vinegar,and the fractions of petroleum ether and methylene chloride were the main sites responsible for liver and gastrointestinal toxicity.


Subject(s)
Acetic Acid , Animals , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Liver , Plant Roots , Zebrafish
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773232

ABSTRACT

Both raw and vinegar products of the rhizome of Curcuma phaeocaulis are common drugs for promoting blood circulation and removing blood stasis in traditional Chinese medicine,which could be reflected in the inhibition of tail thrombosis in mice. As the traditional processing theory instructs,vinegar tastes sour and bitter,but can activate blood circulation and remove stasis after being infiltrated into the rhizome of C. phaeocaulis as an excipient. In this study,under the help of the ultrafast liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-offlight mass spectrometry( UFLC-Q-TOF-MS),the spectrum-effect relationship between the inhibition of tail thrombosis in mice and the rhizome of C. phaeocaulis both before and after the vinegar processing,were established to explore the functional changes of blood circulation and stasis after vinegar process. Based on the peak area from the fingerprint of UFLC-Q-TOF-MS of the alcohol extracts from the raw and vinegar-processed rhizome of C. phaeocaulis and their efficacy for inhibiting tail thrombosis,the correlation between the chromatography of UFLC-Q-TOF-MS and the inhibition of tail thrombosis in mice were analyzed by orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis( OPLS-DA) method. The results,produced by Simca-P software,showed that effective components consisted of eight peaks 16,24( aromadendrene oxide),3,11,22( dehydro-α-curcumene),19[( R)-(-)-α-curcumene],23 and 10 from the fingerprint,making great contribution to distinguish C. phaeocaulis raw products and the corresponding vinegar processed products. Therefore,from the perspective of inhibiting the formation of tail thrombosis in mice,the marker components could be found through the spectrum-effect relationship to distinguish C.phaeocaulis raw and vinegar products. This study provided new basis to explain the difference between the raw and the processed products of traditional Chinese medicine in the functional change of promoting blood circulation and removing blood stasis.


Subject(s)
Acetic Acid , Animals , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Curcuma , Chemistry , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Mass Spectrometry , Mice , Rhizome , Chemistry , Thrombosis , Drug Therapy
18.
The Korean Journal of Pain ; : 160-167, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761702

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Pain is a complex mechanism which involves different systems, including the opioidergic and GABAergic systems. Due to the side effects of chemical analgesic agents, attention toward natural agents have been increased. Artemisinin is an herbal compound with widespread modern and traditional therapeutic indications, which its interaction with the GABAergic system and antinoniceptive effects on neuropathic pain have shown. Therefore, this study was designed to evaluate the antinociceptive effects of artemisinin during inflammatory pain and interaction with the GABAergic and opioidergic systems by using a writhing response test. METHODS: On the whole, 198 adult male albino mice were used in 4 experiments, including 9 groups (n = 6) each with three replicates, by intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of artemisinin (2.5, 5, and 10 mg/kg), naloxone (2 mg/kg), bicuculline (2 mg/kg), saclofen (2 mg/kg), indomethacin (5 mg/kg), and ethanol (10 mL/kg). Writhing test responses were induced by i.p. injection of 10 mL/kg of 0.6% acetic acid, and the percentage of writhing inhibition was recorded. RESULTS: Results showed significant dose dependent anti-nociceptive effects from artemisinin which, at a 10 mg/kg dose, was statistically similar to indomethacin. Neither saclofen nor naloxone had antinociceptive effects and did not antagonize antinociceptive effects of artemisinin, whereas bicuculline significantly inhibited the antinocicptive effect of artemisinin. CONCLUSIONS: It seems that antinocicptive effects of artemisinin are mediated by GABAA receptors.


Subject(s)
Acetic Acid , Adult , Analgesics , Analgesics, Opioid , Animals , Bicuculline , Ethanol , gamma-Aminobutyric Acid , Humans , Indomethacin , Inflammation , Male , Mice , Naloxone , Neuralgia , Receptors, GABA
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761690

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The use of aroma oils dates back to at least 3000 B.C., where it was applied to mummify corpses and treat the wounds of soldiers. Since the 1920s, the term “aromatherapy” has been used for fragrance therapy with essential oils. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the essential oil of Eucalyptus (EOE) affects pain pathways in various pain conditions and motor coordination. METHODS: Mice were subjected to inhalation or intraperitoneal injection of EOE, and its analgesic effects were assessed by conducting formalin, thermal plantar, and acetic acid tests; the effects of EOE on motor coordination were evaluated using a rotarod test. To determine the analgesic mechanism, 5′-guanidinonaltrindole (κ-opioid antagonist, 0.3 mg/kg), naltrindole (δ-opioid antagonist, 5 mg/kg), glibenclamide (δ-opioid antagonist, 2 mg/kg), and naloxone (μ-opioid antagonist, 4, 8, 12 mg/kg) were injected intraperitoneally. RESULTS: EOE showed an analgesic effect against visceral pain caused by acetic acid (EOE, 45 mg/kg); however, no analgesic effect was observed against thermal nociceptive pain. Moreover, it was demonstrated that EOE did not have an effect on motor coordination. In addition, an anti-inflammatory effect was observed during the formalin test. CONCLUSIONS: EOE, which is associated with the μ-opioid pain pathway, showed potential effects against somatic, inflammatory, and visceral pain and could be a potential therapeutic agent for pain.


Subject(s)
Acetic Acid , Analgesics , Animals , Aromatherapy , Cadaver , Eucalyptus , Formaldehyde , Glyburide , Humans , Inhalation , Injections, Intraperitoneal , Mice , Military Personnel , Naloxone , Narcotic Antagonists , Nociceptive Pain , Oils , Oils, Volatile , Pain Measurement , Rotarod Performance Test , Visceral Pain , Wounds and Injuries
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741642

ABSTRACT

The present study was conducted to investigate anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of the leaves of Ilex latifolia Thunb (I. latifolia) in in vivo and in vitro. Writhing responses induced by acetic acid and formalin- and thermal stimuli (tail flick and hot plate tests)-induced pain responses for nociception were evaluated in mice. I. latifolia (50 – 200 mg/kg, p.o.) and ibuprofen (100 mg/kg, p.o.), a positive non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), inhibited the acetic acid-induced writhing response and the second phase response (peripheral inflammatory response) in the formalin test, but did not protect against thermal nociception and the first phase response (central response) in the formalin test. These results show that I. latifolia has a significant anti-nociceptive effect that appears to be peripheral, but not central. Additionally, I. latifolia (50 and 100 µg/mL) and 3,5-di-caffeoyl quinic acid methyl ester (5 µM) isolated from I. latifolia as an active compound significantly inhibited LPS-induced NO production and mRNA expression of the pro-inflammatory mediators, iNOS and COX-2, and the pro-inflammatory cytokines, IL-6 and IL-1β, in RAW 264.7 macrophages. These results suggest that I. latifolia can produce antinociceptive effects peripherally, but not centrally, via anti-inflammatory activity and supports a possible use of I. latifolia to treat pain and inflammation.


Subject(s)
Acetic Acid , Animals , Cyclooxygenase 2 , Cytokines , Ibuprofen , Ilex , In Vitro Techniques , Inflammation , Interleukin-6 , Macrophages , Mice , Nitric Oxide , Nociception , Pain Measurement , Quinic Acid , RNA, Messenger
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