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1.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(1): 195-209, feb. 2023. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1430542

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: The aim of the present in vitro study is to visualize dentin to get an in-depth knowledge of the nature of dentin that could provide useful information regarding conditioning dentinal substrate when treating dentinal lesions. Forty-nine extracted human third molars were obtained and prepared to produce artificial dentinal lesions through demineralizing with acetic acid for 7 and 14 days, or lactic acid for 7 days. The teeth were divided into groups and treated with either NaOCl, pepsin, trypsin, or phosphoric acid. To obtain information on the morphology of the treated dentinal surfaces, all samples were visualized under high resolution field emission scanning electron microscope. With high magnification reaching x50000 dentin was clearly visualized together with its constitutes. The effect of various demineralization approaches and various treatment protocols were demonstrated clearly. The relationship between the conditioning procedure steps and the subsequent bond strength was discussed. To our best knowledge, there is no previous clear highly magnified scanning electron microscope images for dentin, and dentinal components and constitutes with and without various treatments. The current in vitro study suggests the complexity nature of dentin as a substrate that should be treated carefully especially with technique sensitive procedures such as adhesive restorations.


El objetivo del presente estudio in vitro fue visualizar la dentina para obtener un conocimiento completo de la naturaleza de ella lo que podría proporcionar información útil sobre el acondicionamiento del sustrato dentinario en el tratamiento de lesiones dentinarias. Se obtuvieron 49 terceros molares humanos extraídos y se prepararon para producir lesiones dentinales artificiales mediante desmineralización con ácido acético por 7 y 14 días, o ácido láctico por 7 días. Los dientes se dividieron en grupos y se trataron con NaOCl, pepsina, tripsina o ácido fosfórico. Para obtener información sobre la morfología de las superficies dentinarias tratadas, todas las muestras se visualizaron bajo un microscopio electrónico de barrido de emisión de campo de alta resolución. Con un gran aumento que alcanzó x50000, la dentina se visualizó claramente junto con sus componentes. Se demostró el efecto de varios enfoques de desmineralización y varios protocolos de tratamiento. Se discutió la relación entre los pasos del procedimiento de acondicionamiento y la subsiguiente fuerza de unión. Hasta donde sabemos, no hay imágenes claras previas de microscopio electrónico de barrido altamente ampliadas para la dentina y los componentes y constituyentes de la dentina con y sin diferentes tratamientos. El estudio in vitro actual sugiere la naturaleza compleja de la dentina como sustrato que debe tratarse con cuidado, especialmente en los procedimientos sensibles a la técnica, tal como las restauraciones adhesivas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Tooth Demineralization/chemically induced , Dentin/drug effects , Dentin/ultrastructure , Sodium Hypochlorite , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Trypsin , Pepsin A , Acetic Acid/pharmacology , Lactic Acid/pharmacology
2.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 4402-4412, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008694

ABSTRACT

This study first optimized the processing technology for Zhangbang vinegar-processed Olibanum and investigated its in vitro anticoagulant activity. A multi-index-response surface methodology was used, with yield, powder yield, and the relative percentage of the content of six non-volatile components [11-keto-boswellic acid(KBA), 3-acetyl-11-keto-boswellic acid(AKBA), β-elemonic acid, α-boswellic acid(α-BA), β-boswellic acid(β-BA), and α-acetyl-boswellic acid(α-BA)] and three volatile components(octyl acetate, incensole, and incensole acetate) as evaluation indicators. Analytical hierarchy process(AHP) combined with coefficient of variation method was used to calculate the weight of each indicator and calculate the comprehensive score(OD). Furthermore, response surface methodology was used to investigate the effects of frying temperature(A), burning time(B), rice vinegar dosage(C), and steaming time(D) on the processing technology of vinegar-processed Olibanum. Vinegar-steamed Olibanum was prepared according to the optimal processing technology for in vitro anticoagulant experiments. The results showed that the weights of octyl acetate, incensole, incensole acetate, KBA, AKBA, β-elemonic acid, α-BA, β-BA, α-ABA, yield, and powder yield were 0.358 2, 0.104 5, 0.146 4, 0.032 9, 0.123 7, 0.044 4, 0.022 1, 0.042 2, 0.110 1, 0.012 2, and 0.0032, respectively. The optimal processing technology for Zhangbang vinegar-processed Olibanum was as follows. Olibanum(50 g) with a particle size of 1-5 mm was continuously stir-fried at a low heat of 150-180 ℃ until in a gel-like state, ignited for burning for 15 s, sprayed with 7.5 g of rice vinegar(15%), and steamed for 3 min without fire. Subsequently, the cover was removed, and the product was continuously stir-fried at 150-180 ℃ until in a soft lump shape, removed, cooled, and crushed. The results of the in vitro anticoagulant experiments showed that compared with the blank group, both Olibanum and vinegar-processed Olibanum significantly prolonged the activated partial thromboplastin time(APTT), thrombin time(TT), and prothrombin time(PT) of rat platelet-poor plasma(PPP), and the effect of vinegar-processed Olibanum was significantly better than that of Olibanum(P<0.05). The optimized processing technology for Zhangbang vinegar-processed Olibanum is stable, feasible, and beneficial for the further development and utilization of Olibanum slices. At the same time, using the content of volatile and non-volatile components, yield, and powder yield as indicators, and verifying through pharmacological experiments, the obtained results are more reasonable and credible, and have positive guiding significance for the clinical application of characteristic processed Olibanum products.


Subject(s)
Rats , Animals , Frankincense , Acetic Acid , Powders , Triterpenes , Anticoagulants/pharmacology , Technology
3.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 5003-5013, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008670

ABSTRACT

In this study, CM-5 spectrophotometer and Heracles NEO ultra-fast gas-phase electronic nose were used to analyze the changes in color and odor of vinegar-processed Cyperi Rhizoma(VPCR) pieces. Various analysis methods such as DFA and partial least squares discriminant analysis(PLS-DA) were combined to identify different processing degrees and quantify the end point of processing. The results showed that with the increase in vinegar processing, the brightness parameter L~* of VPCR pieces decreased gradua-lly, while the red-green value a~* and yellow-blue value b~* initially increased and reached their maximum at 8 min of processing, followed by a gradual decrease. A discriminant model based on the color parameters L~*, a~*, and b~* was established(with a discrimination accuracy of 98.5%), which effectively differentiated different degrees of VPCR pieces. Using the electronic nose, 26 odor components were identified from VPCR samples at different degrees of vinegar processing. DFA and PLS-DA models were established for different degrees of VPCR pieces. The results showed that the 8-min processed samples were significantly distinct from other samples. Based on variable importance in projection(VIP) value greater than 1, 10 odor components, including 3-methylfuran, 2-methylbuty-raldehyde, 2-methylpropionic acid, furfural, and α-pinene, were selected as odor markers for differentiating the degrees of vinegar processing in VPCR. By combining the changes in color and the characteristic odor components, the optimal processing time for VPCR was determined to be 8 min. This study provided a scientific basis for the standardization of vinegar processing techniques for VPCR and the improvement of its quality standards and also offered new methods and ideas for the rapid identification and quality control of the end point of processing for other traditional Chinese medicine.


Subject(s)
Acetic Acid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/analysis , Rhizome/chemistry , Quality Control , Electronics
4.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 3236-3252, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007955

ABSTRACT

Succinic acid is an important C4 platform chemical that is widely used in food, chemical, medicine sectors. The bottleneck of fermentative production of succinic acid by engineered Escherichia coli is the imbalance of intracellular cofactors, which often leads to accumulation of by-products, lower yield and low productivity. Stoichiometric analysis indicated that an efficient production of succinic acid by E. coli FMME-N-26 under micro-aeration conditions might be achieved when the TCA cycle provides enough ATP and NADH for the r-TCA pathway. In order to promote succinic acid production, a serial of metabolic engineering strategies include reducing ATP consumption, strengthening ATP synthesis, blocking NADH competitive pathway and constructing NADH complementary pathway were developed. As result, an engineered E. coli FW-17 capable of producing 139.52 g/L succinic acid and 1.40 g/L acetic acid in 5 L fermenter, which were 17.81% higher and 67.59% lower than that of the control strain, was developed. Further scale-up experiments were carried out in a 1 000 L fermenter, and the titer of succinic acid and acetic acid were 140.2 g/L and 1.38 g/L, respectively.


Subject(s)
Escherichia coli/genetics , NAD , Succinic Acid , Acetic Acid , Adenosine Triphosphate
5.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2958-2967, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981428

ABSTRACT

This study aims to optimize the parameters for stir-frying of Kansui Radix with vinegar based on the conversion of representative toxic diterpenes, which is expected to serve as a reference for the standardized production of Kansui Radix stir-fried with vinegar. To be specific, the toxic components [3-O-(2'E,4'Z-decadienoyl)-20-O-acetylingenol(3-O-EZ), kansuiphorin C(KPC)] in Kansui Radix and the products(ingenol, 20-deoxyingenol) after the stir-frying with vinegar were selected. The toxicity to intestine and water-draining activity were evaluated with NCM460(normal human colon mucosal epithelial cell line) and HT-29(a human colorectal adenocarcinoma cell line). An HPLC method was then developed to assess the conversion of toxic components. On this basis, temperature, time, and amount of vinegar for the processing of Kansui Radix were optimized with the Box-Behnken design and the content of ingenol and 20-deoxyingenol as evaluation index. The results showed that after the stir-frying of Kansui Radix with vinegar, 3-O-EZ and KPC were first converted to monoester 3-O-(2'E,4'Z-decadienoyl)ingenol(3-EZ) and 5-O-benzoyl-20-deoxyingenol(5-O-Ben) and finally to almost non-toxic ingenol and 20-deoxyingenol, respectively. Meanwhile, the water-draining activity was retained. Six compounds had a good linear relationship with the peak area in the corresponding concentration ranges(R~2≥0.999 8), and the average recovery fell in the range of 98.20%-102.3%(RSD≤2.4%). The content of representative diterpenes and intermediate products was 14.78%-24.67% lower in the Kansui Radix stir-fried with vinegar than in the Kansui Radix, while the content of the conversed products was 14.37%-71.37% higher. Among the process parameters, temperature had significant influence on the total content of products, followed by time. The optimal parameters were 210 ℃, 15 min, and 30% vinegar. The relative error between the experimental results and the predicted values was 1.68%, indicating that the process was stable and reproducible. The strategy of screening optimal parameters for stir-frying of Kansui Radix with vinegar based on the transformation of toxic components can help improve the production stability, reduce the toxicity, and ensure the efficacy of Kansui Radix stir-fried with vinegar, which can serve as a reference for the process optimization of similar toxic Chinese medicinals.


Subject(s)
Humans , Acetic Acid , Euphorbia , HT29 Cells
6.
Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion ; (12): 545-551, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-980758

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To observe the effects of electroacupuncture at "Siguan" points on behavior, colonic 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and fecal short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in rats with post-stroke depression (PSD), and explore the effect mechanism of electroacupuncture at Siguan points on PSD.@*METHODS@#Fifty SD rats were randomly divided into a sham-operation group, a stroke group, a PSD group, a drug group and an electroacupuncture group, with 10 rats in each one. The stroke model was established by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) method in the stroke group; except for the sham-operation group, the rats in the other groups were intervened with MCAO combined with solitary and chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) to establish PSD model. In the electroacupuncture group, electroacupuncture was delivered at "Hegu" (LI 4) and "Taichong" (LR 3), with disperse-dense wave, 2 Hz/10 Hz in frequency, for 30 min in each intervention, once daily, for consecutive 21 days. Simultaneously, distilled water (0.01 L•kg-1•d-1) was administrated intragastrically. Fluoxetine solution (2.33 mg•kg-1•d-1) was given by gavage , once a day and for 21 days in the drug group. The same procedure of fixation and gavage with distilled water were adopted in the sham-operation group, the stroke group and the PSD group. Separately, before stroke modeling, after PSD modeling and after 21-day intervention, the consumption of sugar water and the scores of horizontal movement and vertical movement in open-field test were observed. After 21-day intervention, the content of colonic 5-HT was detected by immunohistochemical method, and that of fecal SCFAs was determined by gas chromatography mass spectrometry.@*RESULTS@#After PSD modeling, compared with the stroke group, the sugar water consumption, the horizontal movement scores and vertical movement scores of the open-field test were all reduced in the PSD group, the drug group and the electroacupuncture group (P<0.05). After 21-day intervention, the sugar water consumption and the scores of horizontal movement and vertical movement of the open-field test were increased in the drug group and the electroacupuncture group (P<0.05) when compared with the PSD group; and the horizontal movement score in the electroacupuncture group was lower than that of the drug group (P<0.05). Compared with the sham-operation group, the contents of total fecal SCFAs and acetic acid were lower in the stroke group (P<0.05), and the contents of colonic 5-HT and total fecal SCFAs, acetic acid, propionic acid and butyric acid were reduced in the PSD group (P<0.05). In comparison with the PSD group, the contents of colonic 5-HT and total fecal SCFAs, acetic acid and propionic acid were increased in the drug group and the electroacupuncture group (P<0.05); and the content of colonic 5-HT in the electroacupuncture group was lower than that of the drug group (P<0.05). The level of colonic 5-HT was positively correlated with the contents of total fecal SCFAs and propionic acid (r=0.424, P=0.005; r=0.427, P=0.004).@*CONCLUSION@#Electroacupuncture at "Siguan" points can relieve the depression-like behavior of PSD rats, and its underlying mechanism may be related to the regulation of fecal SCFAs, which affects the release of colonic 5-HT.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Propionates , Serotonin , Depression/therapy , Electroacupuncture , Fatty Acids, Volatile , Stroke/complications , Acetic Acid , Butyric Acid , Water
7.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 649-659, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970534

ABSTRACT

Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry was employed to analyze the chemical components in Curcuma longa tuberous roots(HSYJ), C. longa tuberous roots processed with vinegar(CHSYJ), and rat serum after the administration. The active components of HSYJ and CHSYJ absorbed in serum were identified based on the secondary spectrum of database and literature. The targets of primary dysmenorrhea was screened out from database. The protein-protein interaction network analysis, gene ontology(GO) functional annotation, and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes(KEGG) pathway enrichment analysis were performed for the common targets shared by the drug active components in serum and primary dysmenorrhea, and the component-target-pathway network was constructed. AutoDock was used to conduct molecular docking between the core components and targets. A total of 44 chemical components were identified from HSYJ and CHSYJ, including 18 absorbed in serum. On the basis of network pharmacology, we identified 8 core components(including procurcumenol, isobutyl p-hydroxybenzoate, ferulic acid, and zedoarondiol) and 10 core targets \[including interleukin-6(IL-6), estrogen receptor 1(ESR1), and prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2(PTGS2)\]. The core targets were mainly distributed in the heart, liver, uterus, and smooth muscle. The molecular docking results showed that the core components were well bound to the core targets, indicating that HSYJ and CHSYJ may exert therapeutic effect on primary dysmenorrhea via estrogen, ovarian steroidogenesis, tumor necrosis factor(TNF), hypoxia-inducible factor-1(HIF-1), IL-17 and other signaling pathways. This study clarifies the HSYJ and CHSYJ components absorbed in serum, as well as the corresponding mechanism, providing a reference for further elucidating the therapeutic material basis and clinical application of HSYJ and CHSYJ.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Animals , Rats , Acetic Acid , Curcuma , Dysmenorrhea , Molecular Docking Simulation , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Cyclooxygenase 2
8.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 114-125, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970507

ABSTRACT

Galli Gigerii Endothelium Corneum(GGEC), the dried gizzard membrane of Gallus gallus domesticus is a Chinese medicinal material commonly used for digestion. However, due to the particularity of texture and composition, its active ingre-dients have not been clarified so far, and there is also a lack of quality evaluation indicators. In this study, UPLC-Q-TOF-MS was used to analyze the chemical components from the water extract of GGEC, and ten nucleosides were identified for the first time. HPLC fingerprints of the water extracts of GGEC were established and the content of seven nucleosides was determined. The fingerprint similarities of 40 batches of GGEC samples ranged from 0.765 to 0.959, indicating that there were great differences among the GGEC products processed with different methods. In addition, SPSS 22.0 and SIMCA 14.1 were used for hierarchical cluster analysis(HCA) and principal component analysis(PCA) on the 19 common peaks of the HPLC fingerprints of GGEC, and the 40 batches of samples were divided into three categories: raw GGEC, fried GGEC and vinegar-processed GGEC. Eight differential components in GGEC were marked by orthogonal partial least squares discrimination analysis(OPLS-DA), two of which were adenine and thymine. The results of content determination showed that the total content of the seven nucleosides in raw GGEC, fried GGEC and vinegar-processed GGEC were 182.5-416.8, 205.3-368.7, and 194.2-283.0 μg·g~(-1), respectively. There were significant differences in the content of hypoxanthine, thymine and thymidine among the GGEC products processed with different methods(P<0.05), which were graded in the order of fried GGEC>vinegar-processed GGEC>raw GGEC. This suggested that the content of hypoxanthine, thymine and thymidine tended to increase during the frying process, and the variation range might be related to the degree of heat exposure. The established methods in this study were simple and reproducible, and could be used for qualitative and quantitative analysis of GGEC and its processed pro-ducts. This study also provided reference for the establishment of quality standards of GGEC with chemical components as control index.


Subject(s)
Nucleosides , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/chemistry , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Acetic Acid , Thymine , Thymidine , Water , Hypoxanthines
9.
Acta cir. bras ; 37(7): e370704, 2022. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1402971

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To evaluate the ameliorative effect of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) on acetic acid colitis model via Nrf2/HO-1 pathway in rats. Methods: In this study, 30 rats were divided into three groups. Acute colitis was induced by rectal administration of 4% solution of acetic acid. MSCs were injected intraperitoneally in the treatment group. Results: Increased levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), pentraxin-3, and malondialdehyde (MDA) in colitis group were revealed biochemically. Increased level of TNF-α and decreased levels of Nrf2 and interleukin-10 (IL-10) were observed in rectum tissues. Increased fibrous tissue proliferation, vascularization and inflammatory cell infiltration were described in the colitis group. Significant improvement was observed in MSCs treated group histopathologically. Increased immunopositivity of TNF-α, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and CD68 markers was observed in the colitis group cells, and decreased level of this positivity was observed in MSCs treated group. Conclusions: Biochemical, histopathological and immunohistochemical results strongly support the ameliorative effect of MSCs against acetic induced colitis model via Nrf2/HO-1 pathway in rats.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Colitis/veterinary , Acetic Acid/adverse effects , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/physiology , NF-E2-Related Factor 2 , Mesenchymal Stem Cells
10.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1558-1566, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928084

ABSTRACT

Utilizing metabolomics technology, this study explored the change of fecal endogenous metabolites in Walker-256 rats with malignant ascites after the administration with Kansui Radix(KR) stir-fried with vinegar(VKR), sought the potential biomarkers in feces which were related to the treatment of malignant ascites by VKR and revealed the biological mechanism of water-expelling effect of VKR. Ultra-fast liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry(UFLC-Q-TOF-MS) was employed to detect the feces of rats in all groups. Principle component analysis(PCA) and partial least squares discriminant analysis(PLS-DA) were conducted to achieve pattern recognition. Combining t-test and variable importance in the projection(VIP) enabled the screening of potential biomarkers for the malignant ascites. Metabolic pathway analysis was accomplished with MetaboAnalyst. Correlation analysis was finally conducted integrating the sequencing data of gut microbiota to elucidate the mechanism underlying the water-expelling effect of VKR. The results showed that both KR and VKR could restore the abnormal metabolism of model rats to some extent, with VKR being inferior to KR in the regulation. Eleven potential biomarkers were identified to be correlated with the malignant ascites and five metabolic pathways were then enriched. Four kinds of gut microbiota were significantly related to the potential biomarkers. The water-expelling effect of VKR may be associated with the regulation of phenylalanine metabolism, biosynthesis of phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan, tryptophan metabolism, glycerophospholipid metabolism, and glycosylphosphatidylinositol(GPI)-anchor biosynthesis. This study can provide a scientific basis for comprehensive understandings of the interaction between gut microbiota and host which has relation to the water-expelling effect of VKR and guide the reasonable clinical application of VKR.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Acetic Acid , Ascites/metabolism , Euphorbia , Feces , Metabolomics
11.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1253-1261, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928050

ABSTRACT

This study aims to explore the effects of chemical ingredient groups B and C in Kansui Radix stir-fried with vinegar on the diversity of gut microbiota in the rat model of malignant ascites, identify the key differential microbial taxa, and reveal the biological mechanism of water-expelling effect of the two chemical ingredient groups. The rat model of malignant ascites induced by Walker-256 cells was established, and phenolphthalein was used as the positive drug. The rats were orally administrated with corresponding agents for consecutive 7 days. On day 6, fresh feces samples were collected from the rats, and 16 S rDNA high-throughput sequencing and GC-MS were employed to determine the composition of gut microbiota and the content of short-chain fatty acids, respectively. On day 7, serum and intestinal tissue samples were collected for the determination of related indicators. Compared with the control group, the model group showed decreased feces volume and urine volume(P<0.01), increased volume of ascites and levels of Na~+, K~+, and Cl~- in urine(P<0.01), down-regulated mRNA and protein levels of intestinal AQP8(P<0.01), lowered abundance of beneficial Lactobacillus(P<0.01) while risen abundance of potential pathogenic Lachnospiraceae and Anaeroplasma(P<0.01), and reduced content of short-chain fatty acids(P<0.01). Compared with the model group, administration with chemical ingredient groups B and C alleviated all the above indicators(P<0.01). In conclusion, chemical ingredient groups B and C in Kansui Radix stir-fried with vinegar could alleviate the disordered gut microbiota in rats with malignant ascites to expel water through increasing the abundance of beneficial Lactobacillus and reducing the abundance of harmful Lachnospiraceae and Anaeroplasma. This study can provide a reference for the reasonable clinical application of Kansui Radix stir-fried with vinegar.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Acetic Acid/chemistry , Ascites/drug therapy , Euphorbia/chemistry , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Plant Roots/chemistry
12.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1243-1252, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928049

ABSTRACT

The present study investigated the effect of Euphorbiae Pekinensis Radix(EPR) on intestinal flora structure before and after vinegar processing and explored the detoxification mechanism of vinegar-processed EPR. In this study, the extraction efficiency of casbane diterpenes from EPR with different solvents was investigated, and the optimal solvent was selected to enrich these components. After 14 days of intragastric administration of total diterpene extract of EPR and vinegar-processed EPR, 16 S rDNA sequencing technology was used to detect the structural changes of intestinal flora. The flora related to the intestinal toxicity of EPR was screened out based on the results of intestinal pathological damage by correlation analysis. The results showed that Soxhlet extraction with chloroform as extraction solvent could enrich Casbane diterpenes in EPR. As revealed by 16 S rDNA sequencing results, EPR could significantly change the structure of intestinal flora, which could be reversed by vinegar-processing EPR. Some intestinal flora candidates might be related to detoxification of vinegar processing. The correlation analysis of intestinal flora candidates and indexes related to intestinal mucosal injury showed that compared with EPR, vinegar-processed EPR could down-regulate the abundance of some pathogenic bacteria such as Mucispirillum, Bilophila, and Ruminiclostridium, and up-regulated some probiotics such as Enterorhabdus, Ruminococcaceae_UCG-014, Barnesiella, and Candidatus. The intestinal toxicity caused by EPR may be related to the disturbance of intestinal flora, and vinegar-processed EPR can improve intestinal flora disorder by up-regulating the abundance of probiotics and down-regulating the abundance of pathogenic bacteria to remodel the intestinal mucosal barrier and reduce toxicity.


Subject(s)
Acetic Acid/chemistry , Colon , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/chemistry , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Plant Roots
13.
Repert. med. cir ; 31(2): 170-172, 2022. ilus.
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1382284

ABSTRACT

Introducción: el ácido acético en bajas concentraciones se utiliza como vinagre para los alimentos, al que le da el sabor amargo y olor característico. También es un reactivo importante para la producción de otros compuestos orgánicos. Cuando está concentrado tiene usos industriales, como es el ácido acético glacial (99%) el cual se ingirió en forma accidental en este caso. Presentación del caso: paciente de 8 años de edad quien tras posterior trauma cráneo encefálico leve es manejado en casa con ácido acético glacial que ingirió accidentalmente con posterior odinofagia, emesis e intolerancia a la vía oral. Hubo lesiones iniciales en faringe y amígdalas manejadas con el respectivo antibiótico. Al no haber mejoría consulta de nuevo por aumento del compromiso faríngeo, evidenciándose quemadura y lesión esofágica por cáusticos con estenosis. El seguimiento a los 6 meses, después de realizar dilataciones por medio de esofagoduodenoscopia, el paciente tuvo buena evolución clínica.


Introduction: low concentrations of acetic acid are commonly used as table top condiment giving a bitter taste featuring a characteristic smell. It is also an important reactive to make other organic compounds. Case report: at high concentrations it has industrial uses, such as 99% glacial acetic acid which was ingested by an 8-year-old patient in this case. Patient was managed at home after a mild head trauma with glacial acetic acid which he ingested accidentally presenting with pain anddifficulty in swallowing and emesis. The initial pharyngeal and tonsil lesions were managed with the respective antibiotic therapy. He consults again for not presenting improvement and increase of the pharyngeal compromise, evidencing an esophageal burn and a corrosive injury with stenosis. At 6-month follow-up, after undergoing dilations through esophago-gastroduedenoscopy, patient presented good clinical progression.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Child , Acetic Acid , Poisoning , Caustics , Esophageal Stenosis
14.
Afr. j. reprod. health ; 26(6): 1-7, 2022. tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1390580

ABSTRACT

This study was conducted to describe the distribution of precancerous and cancerous lesions of the cervix uteri, enumerated during a mass screening in Burkina Faso. We conducted a cross-sectional study involving 577 women aged 18 to 60 years, carried out from November 23 to December 19, 2013, in the city of Bobo-Dioulasso and in the rural commune of Bama. Regarding the screening results, 89 participants (15.4%) were positive for pre-malignant cervical lesions. Chi-square testing and logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify the likelihood of cervical pre-cancer lesion in the women. Participants less than 29 years old were approximately 3 times more likely to have cervical lesions than participants >39 years. Participants who were parous (1-3 deliveries) and multiparous (four or more deliveries) were approximately 4 times more likely to present with cervical lesions than nulliparous women. Access to screening services is low in the Bobo-Dioulasso region. Further research should be conducted to understand the incidence and distribution of cervical precancerous and cancerous lesions in Burkina Faso. (Afr J Reprod Health 2022; 26[6]:97-103).


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , Acetic Acid , Precancerous Conditions , Uterine Neoplasms , Early Detection of Cancer
15.
Rev. Bras. Saúde Mater. Infant. (Online) ; 21(1): 271-280, Jan.-Mar. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1250686

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objectives: to describe life quality of women with HPV and analyze the accuracy of anal visual inspection with acetic acid and lugol compared to high-resolution anoscopy in the detection of anal intraepithelial lesions. Methods: diagnostic evaluation study conducted with adult solid-organ transplant recipients and/or diagnosed with HIV and/or with a history of anogenital neoplasia, attended at the High Resolution Anoscopy outpatient clinic between April and December 2018. To calculate the accuracy parameters, 87 women participated: 44 with lesions and 43 without them. The 44 women with lesions were also subjected to a descriptive study to assess their life quality using the SF-36 questionnaire. Results: it was observed that almost half of the women in the study practiced vaginal, anal and oral intercourse without condom. History of HPV infection and anogenital neoplasia were the most prevailing with percentages of 81% and 72.7%, respectively. In five out of the eight domains of SF-36 they did not perform well in regard to life quality. Visual inspection with acetic acid and lugol presented sensitivity of 22.7% and specificity of 100%. Conclusion: unsatisfactory life quality was evidenced. Direct visual inspection with acetic acid and lugol should not be used in trials to spot intraepithelial HPV lesions, for it presents low sensitivity.


Resumo Objetivos: descrever a qualidade de vida das mulheres com HPVe analisar aacurácia da inspeção visual anal com ácido acético e lugol comparada à anuscopia de alta resolução para detecção de lesão intraepitelial anal. Métodos: estudo de avaliação diagnostica realizado com mulheres adultas transplantadas de órgãos sólidos e/ou diagnosticadas com HIV e/ou com antecedente de neoplasia anogenital, atendidas no ambulatório de AAR entre abril e dezembro de 2018. Para cálculo dos parâmetros de acurácia, participaram 87 mulheres: 44 com lesões e 43 sem lesões. Das 44 mulheres com lesão, também foi realizado um estudo descritivo para a avaliar a qualidade de vida utilizando-seo questionário SF-36. Resultados: Observou-se que quase metade das mulheres do estudo são adeptas ao intercurso vaginal, anal e oralesem preservativo. Os antecedentes de infecção pelo HPV e neoplasia anogenital foram os mais prevalentes com valores de 81% e 72, 7% respectivamente. Cinco, dos oito domínios do SF-36, não apresentaram boa performance em relação à qualidade de vida. A inspeção visual com ácido acético e lugol apresentou sensibilidade de 22,7%o e especificidade de 100,0%o. Conclusão: evidenciou-se qualidade de vida insatisfatória. A inspeção visual anal direta com ácido acético e lugol não deve ser usada na triagem de lesões intraepiteliais por HPV, pois apresenta baixa sensibilidade.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Anus Neoplasms/diagnosis , Quality of Life , HIV Infections/diagnosis , Triage , Sickness Impact Profile , Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions/diagnostic imaging , Acetic Acid
16.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 4083-4088, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888065

ABSTRACT

Processing of Chinese medicinals with vinegar is one of the characteristic processing techniques. Vinegar is vital for the quality of vinegar-processed decoction pieces. However, there have been no specified standards for adjuvants. Through consulting relevant literature and monographs, we comprehensively reviewed the historical evolution of processing with vinegar in records, selection and application of vinegar, and summarized the relevant standards and current status of vinegar as an adjuvant in China. According to the records in literature, vinegar is effective in activating blood, moving qi, dispersing blood stasis, removing toxin, promoting appetite, and nourishing the liver. Traditionally, rice vinegar is chosen in processing. Nowadays, the vinegar made from rice under solid-state fermentation should be chosen. At present, only food standards can be taken for reference for vinegar in the processing. Integrative and specific inspection indicators are lacking, so the standards for adjuvants need to be improved urgently. In addition, the inadequacy in quality control and management is also a major problem to be solved. Through literature research, we reviewed the historical evolution and research advance in vinegar to provide a reference for the standardization and further research of vinegar used in the Chinese medicinal processing.


Subject(s)
Acetic Acid , Adjuvants, Pharmaceutic , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Oryza , Quality Control
17.
Pediatric Infectious Disease Society of the Philippines Journal ; : 93-99, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-962283

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#This study aims to determine the bactericidal activity of 4% acetic acid versus chlorine tablets against gram negative and gram-positive microorganisms based on percentage reduction of microorganisms in hospital surfaces and suggest that it may be an effective alternative disinfectant.@*Methodology@#This was an experimental study where microbiological sampling of hospital surfaces was used to determine bacterial growth. The study was conducted from November to December 2020 at National Children’s Hospital, a 200 bed capacity tertiary government hospital catering to children 0 to less than 19 years old. Non-critical hospital surfaces such as beds, bed rails and bedside tables were swabbed before and after intervention cleaning with chlorine tablets or 4% acetic acid solution. @*Result@#Pre-swabbing, hospital surfaces showed the presence of Bacillus sp., Klebsiella pneumoniae and Coagulase Negative Staphylococcus (CONS). Post-application of 4% acetic acid solution resulted to 100% reduction of Bacillus sp., 70.8% reduction of CONS, and 19.5% reduction of Klebsiella pneumoniae while post-application of chlorine tablet solution showed 100% reduction of Klebsiella pneumoniae and CONS and 95.2% reduction of Bacillus species. @*Conclusion@#The use of 4% acetic acid solution significantly reduced more gram-positive than gram-negative organisms and is a highly effective disinfectant against Bacillus sp. but is not effective against gram-negative organisms as it does not fulfil the criteria of at least 90 percent reduction in bacterial growth. Chlorine tablet solution is a more effective disinfectant against gram-negative organisms than gram-positive organisms. Acetic acid 4% solution is not an effective alternative disinfectant to chlorine tablet solution, the currently used hospital disinfectant, but maybe used as an adjunct for better reduction of hospital environmental pathogens.


Subject(s)
Acetic Acid , Disinfectants , Cross Infection , Bacteria
18.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 4293-4302, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921506

ABSTRACT

Acetic acid is a common inhibitor present in lignocellulosic hydrolysate. Development of acetic acid tolerant strains may improve the production of biofuels and bio-based chemicals using lignocellulosic biomass as raw materials. Current studies on stress tolerance of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae have mainly focused on transcription control, but the role of transfer RNA (tRNA) was rarely investigated. We found that some tRNA genes showed elevated transcription levels in a stress tolerant yeast strain. In this study, we further investigated the effects of overexpressing an arginine transfer RNA gene tR(ACG)D and a leucine transfer RNA gene tL(CAA)K on cell growth and ethanol production of S. cerevisiae BY4741 under acetic acid stress. The tL(CAA)K overexpression strain showed a better growth and a 29.41% higher ethanol productivity than that of the control strain. However, overexpression of tR(ACG)D showed negative influence on cell growth and ethanol production. Further studies revealed that the transcriptional levels of HAA1, MSN2, and MSN4, which encode transcription regulators related to stress tolerance, were up-regulated in tL(CAA)K overexpressed strain. This study provides an alternative strategy to develop robust yeast strains for cellulosic biorefinery, and also provides a basis for investigating how yeast stress tolerance is regulated by tRNA genes.


Subject(s)
Acetic Acid , DNA-Binding Proteins/metabolism , Fermentation , Leucine , RNA, Transfer/genetics , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolism , Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins/metabolism , Transcription Factors
19.
West China Journal of Stomatology ; (6): 718-723, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921397

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To investigate the clinical effect of Er:YAG laser combined with ethylenediamine tetra acetic acid (EDTA) on three-walled periodontal intrabony defects adjacent to implant sites.@*METHODS@#A total of 30 patients with three-walled periodontal intrabony defects adjacent to implant sites were treated with the combination therapy. Patients with three-walled intrabony defects were divided into two groups according to the depth of the intrabony pocket between the implant and natural teeth. Evaluation of wound healing was performed 10 days after the operation, and bone augmentation was evaluated 6 months after the operation.@*RESULTS@#Primary healing in group 1 was 92.31%, primary healing in group 2 was 82.35%. No significant difference was observed between the two groups (@*CONCLUSIONS@#The effect of bone augmentation with combination therapy was more ideal in group 2 than in group 1. Implant placement with combination therapy may be a viable technique to reconstruct three-walled intrabony defects due to the space maintenance provided by implants and bone grafts and the good root surface biocompatibility provided by the Er:YAG laser and EDTA.


Subject(s)
Humans , Acetic Acid , Alveolar Bone Loss , Dental Implants , Ethylenediamines , Follow-Up Studies , Guided Tissue Regeneration, Periodontal , Lasers, Solid-State , Periodontal Attachment Loss , Treatment Outcome
20.
Acta cir. bras ; 36(1): e360102, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1152689

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose To study the Periplaneta americana L. extract Ento-B on the treatment of chronic ulcerative colitis induced by 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene and acetic acid in rats and to explore its primary mechanism of action. Methods Using 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene combined with acetic acid to induce chronic ulcerative colitis (chronic UC) in rats. The sulfasalazine (400 mg/kg) and Ento-B (200 mg/kg, 100 mg/kg,50 mg/kg) were given by intragastric administration and the effect was evaluated according to the disease activity index (DAI) score, colon mucosal injury index (CMDI) score, histopathological score (HS) and the serum levels of Interleukin-4(IL-4), Interleukin-10(IL-10), Tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α), Malondialdehyde(MDA), Superoxide dismutase(SOD) and Inducible nitric oxide synthase(iNOS.) Results Compared with the model group, all doses of Ento-B could reduce the score of CMDI (p < 0.05), HS(p < 0.05 or p < 0.01), significantly increased the expression of IL-4, IL-10, SOD (p < 0.01) and decreased the levels of TNF-α, MDA, iNOS in serum of UC rats, significantly improving the degree of colon lesionsin UC rats. Conclusions Ento-B may play an important role in the treatment of ulcerative colitis induced byUC rats. The mechanism may be related to the increased expression of IL-4, IL-10, SOD and reduced expression of TNF-α, MDA, iNOS.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Periplaneta , Colitis, Ulcerative/chemically induced , Colitis, Ulcerative/drug therapy , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Colon , Acetic Acid , Dinitrochlorobenzene
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