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Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 53(2): e9304, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055489


Metabolic syndrome is a multifaceted condition associated with a greater risk of various disorders (e.g., diabetes and heart disease). In a rat model of metabolic syndrome, an acute in vitro application of rosuvastatin causes relaxation of aortic rings. Since the outcome of a subchronic rosuvastatin treatment is unknown, the present study explored its effect on acetylcholine-induced vasorelaxation of aortic rings from rats with metabolic syndrome. Animals were submitted to a 16-week treatment, including a standard diet, a cafeteria-style diet (CAF-diet), or a CAF-diet with daily rosuvastatin treatment (10 mg/kg). After confirming the development of metabolic syndrome in rats, aortic segments were extracted from these animals (those treated with rosuvastatin and untreated) and the acetylcholine-induced relaxant effect on the corresponding rings was evaluated. Concentration-response curves were constructed for this effect in the presence/absence of L-NAME, ODQ, KT 5823, 4-aminopyridine (4-AP), tetraethylammonium (TEA), apamin plus charybdotoxin, glibenclamide, indomethacin, clotrimazole, and cycloheximide pretreatment. Compared to rings from control rats, acetylcholine-induced vasorelaxation decreased in rings from animals with metabolic syndrome, and was maintained at a normal level in animals with metabolic syndrome plus rosuvastatin treatment. The effect of rosuvastatin was inhibited by L-NAME, ODQ, KT 5823, TEA, apamin plus charybdotoxin, but unaffected by 4-AP, glibenclamide, indomethacin, clotrimazole, or cycloheximide. In conclusion, the subchronic administration of rosuvastatin to rats with metabolic syndrome improved the acetylcholine-induced relaxant response, involving stimulation of the NO/cGMP/PKG/Ca2+-activated K+ channel pathway.

Animals , Male , Rats , Aorta/drug effects , Vasodilation/drug effects , Endothelium, Vascular/drug effects , Acetylcholine/pharmacology , Metabolic Syndrome/physiopathology , Rosuvastatin Calcium/pharmacology , Vasodilator Agents , Endothelium, Vascular/physiopathology , Rats, Wistar , Disease Models, Animal
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 17(3): eAO4600, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011991


ABSTRACT Objective: To characterize the calcium influx pathways implicated in the sustained elevation of endothelial intracellular calcium concentration, required for the synthesis and release of relaxing factors. Methods: We evaluated the effect of the newly synthesized pyrazole derivatives, described as selective inhibitors for ORAI (BTP2/Pyr2 and Pyr6) and TRPC3 (Pyr3 and Pyr10) channels, upon endothelium- and extracellular calcium-dependent relaxations stimulated by acetylcholine and thapsigargin, in pre-constricted rat thoracic aortic rings. Results: Acetylcholine and thapsigargin responses were completely reverted by Pyr2 and Pyr6 (1 to 3μM). Pyr3 (0.3 to 3μM) caused a rapid reversal of acetylcholine (6.2±0.08mg.s−1) and thapsigargin (3.9±0.25mg.s−1) relaxations, whereas the more selective TRPC3 blocker Pyr10 (1 to 3μM) had no effect. The recently described TRPC4/5 selective blocker, ML204 (1 to 3μM), reverted completely acetylcholine relaxations, but minimally thapsigargin induced ones. Noteworthy, relaxations elicited by GSK1016790A (TRPV4 agonist) were unaffected by pyrazole compounds or ML204. After Pyr2 and Pyr6 pre-incubation, acetylcholine and thapsigargin evoked transient relaxations similar in magnitude and kinetics to those observed in the absence of extracellular calcium. Sodium nitroprusside relaxations as well as phenylephrine-induced contractions (denuded aorta) were not affected by any of pyrazole compounds (1 to 3μM). Conclusion: These observations revealed a previously unrecognized complexity in rat aorta endothelial calcium influx pathways, which result in production and release of nitric oxide. Pharmacologically distinguishable pathways mediate acetylcholine (ORAI/TRPC other than TRPC3/TRPC4 calcium-permeable channels) and thapsigargin (TRPC4 not required) induced calcium influx.

RESUMO Objetivo: Caracterizar as vias do influxo de cálcio envolvidas no aumento sustentado da concentração intracelular de cálcio na célula endotelial, essencial para a síntese e a liberação de fatores relaxantes. Métodos: Analisamos o efeito de derivados pirazólicos sintetizados recentemente, descritos como inibidores seletivos para canais ORAI (BTP2/Pyr2 e Pyr6) e TRPC3 (Pyr3 e Pyr10), nos relaxamentos dependentes de endotélio e cálcio extracelular, produzidos por acetilcolina e tapsigargina, em anéis pré-contraídos da aorta torácica de rato. Resultados: As respostas de acetilcolina e tapsigargina foram completamente revertidas por Pyr2 e Pyr6 (1 a 3μM). Pyr3 (0,3 a 3μM) produziu reversão rápida dos relaxamentos de acetilcolina (6,2±0,08mg.s−1) e tapsigargina (3,9±0,25mg.s−1), enquanto o bloqueador mais seletivo para TRPC3, Pyr10 (1 a 3μM), não apresentou efeito. ML204 (1 a 3μM), bloqueador seletivo de TRPC4, descrito há pouco tempo, reverteu os relaxamentos induzidos por acetilcolina de forma completa, mas afetou minimamente aqueles produzidos por tapsigargina. Os derivados pirazólicos ou ML204 não afetaram os relaxamentos estimulados com GSK1016790A (TRPV4-agonista). Ainda, após pré-incubação com Pyr2 e Pyr6, acetilcolina e tapsigargina provocaram relaxamentos transitórios semelhantes em magnitude e cinética àqueles observados na ausência de cálcio extracelular. Os relaxamentos do nitroprussiato de sódio e as contrações induzidas pela fenilefrina (aorta sem endotélio) não foram afetados pelos compostos pirazólicos (1 a 3μM). Conclusão: Essas observações revelaram uma complexidade desconhecida das vias de influxo de cálcio no endotélio da aorta de rato, que resultam na produção e na liberação de óxido nítrico. Vias distinguíveis farmacologicamente medeiam o influxo estimulado por acetilcolina (ORAI TRPC, diferentes de TRPC3 TRPC4) e tapsigargina (TRPC4 não requerido).

Animals , Male , Acetylcholine/pharmacology , Calcium/pharmacology , Thapsigargin/pharmacology , Endothelial Cells/drug effects , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Endothelium-Dependent Relaxing Factors/metabolism , Nitric Oxide/metabolism , Aorta, Thoracic/drug effects , Time Factors , Vasodilator Agents/pharmacology , Rats, Wistar , TRPC Cation Channels/metabolism , TRPV Cation Channels/drug effects , TRPV Cation Channels/metabolism , Calcium Release Activated Calcium Channels/metabolism
J. appl. oral sci ; 26: e20180048, 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-954519


Abstract Objective: Periodontitis is associated with endothelial dysfunction, which is clinically characterized by a reduction in endothelium-dependent relaxation. However, we have previously shown that impairment in endothelium-dependent relaxation is transient. Therefore, we evaluated which mediators are involved in endothelium-dependent relaxation recovery. Material and methods: Rats were subjected to ligature-induced experimental periodontitis. Twenty-one days after the procedure, the animals were prepared for blood pressure recording, and the responses to acetylcholine or sodium nitroprusside were obtained before and 30 minutes after injection of a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor (L-NAME), cyclooxygenase inhibitor (Indomethacin, SC-550 and NS- 398), or calcium-dependent potassium channel blockers (apamin plus TRAM- 34). The maxilla and mandible were removed for bone loss analysis. Blood and gingivae were obtained for C-reactive protein (CRP) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) measurement, respectively. Results: Experimental periodontitis induces bone loss and an increase in the gingival MPO and plasmatic CRP. Periodontitis also reduced endothelium-dependent vasodilation, a hallmark of endothelial dysfunction, 14 days after the procedure. However, the response was restored at day 21. We found that endothelium-dependent vasodilation at day 21 in ligature animals was mediated, at least in part, by the activation of endothelial calcium-activated potassium channels. Conclusions: Periodontitis induces impairment in endothelial-dependent relaxation; this impairment recovers, even in the presence of periodontitis. The recovery is mediated by the activation of endothelial calcium-activated potassium channels in ligature animals. Although important for maintenance of vascular homeostasis, this effect could mask the lack of NO, which has other beneficial properties.

Animals , Male , Periodontitis/physiopathology , Periodontitis/metabolism , Vasodilation/physiology , Potassium Channels/metabolism , Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthases/metabolism , Nitric Oxide/metabolism , Time Factors , Vasodilation/drug effects , Vasodilator Agents/pharmacology , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , Nitroprusside/pharmacology , Potassium Channels/drug effects , Acetylcholine/pharmacology , Random Allocation , Alveolar Bone Loss/physiopathology , Alveolar Bone Loss/metabolism , Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthases/drug effects , Rats, Wistar , Peroxidase/analysis , NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester/pharmacology , Potassium Channel Blockers/pharmacology , Arterial Pressure/drug effects , Arterial Pressure/physiology , Ligation
Braz. j. biol ; 77(4): 781-786, Nov. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888808


Abstract Previous studies performed in marine fish (I. conceptionis and G. laevifrons) showed that indomethacin blocked arterial contraction mediated by acetylcholine (ACh). The objective of this study was to determine if contraction induced by acetylcholine is mediated by the cyclooxygenase pathway in several arterial vessels in the Chilean frog Calyptocephalella gayi. Arteries from the pulmonary (PA), dorsal (DA), mesenteric (MA) and iliac (IA) regions were dissected from 6 adult specimens, and isometric tension studies were done using dose response curves (DRC) for ACh (10-13 to 10-3 M) in presence of a muscarinic antagonist (Atropine 10-5 M) and an unspecific inhibitor of cyclooxygenases (Indomethacin, 10-5M). All the studied arteries exhibited vasoconstriction mediated by ACh. This vasoconstriction was abolished in the presence of atropine in DA, MA and IA and attenuated in PA. Indomethacin abolished the vasoconstriction in MA and attenuated the response in PA, DA and IA. Similar to marine fish, C. gayi have an ACh-mediated vasoconstrictor pattern regulated by muscarinic receptors that activate a cyclooxygenase contraction pathway. These results suggest that the maintenance in vasoconstrictor mechanisms mediated by ACh→COX →vasoconstriction is conserved from fish to frogs.

Resumo Estudos feitos em peixes marinhos (I. conceptionis e G. laevifrons) têm demostrado que a indometacina bloqueia a contração arterial mediada por acetilcolina (ACh). O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar o efeito da via da ciclooxigenase na contração induzida por ACh em vasos arteriais da rã chilena Calyptocephalella gayi. Foram dissecadas regiões das artérias pulmonares (PA), dorsal (DA), mesentérica (MA) e ilíaca (IA) de seis espécimes adultos e realizados estudos de tensão isométrica utilizando curvas dose-resposta (CDR) de ACh (10-13 a 10-3 M) na presença de um antagonista muscarínico (atropina, 10-5 M) e um inibidor das ciclooxigenases (indometacina, 10-5 M). Todas as artérias evidenciaram uma resposta vasoconstritora mediada por ACh. Esta resposta vasoconstrictora foi suprimida na presença de atropina nas artérias DA, MA, IA e atenuada na PA. A indometacina suprimiu a vasoconstrição na artéria MA e atenuou a resposta nas artérias PA, DA e IA. Tal como os peixes marinhos, a C. gayi tem um padrão de vasoconstrição mediado por Ach que é regulado pelos receptores muscarínicos e pela ciclooxigenase. Estes resultados sugerem a conservação dos mecanismos vasoconstrictores mediados por ACh→COX em peixes e rãs.

Animals , Anura/physiology , Atropine/pharmacology , Vasoconstriction/drug effects , Indomethacin/pharmacology , Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Muscarinic Antagonists/pharmacology , Arteries/drug effects , Acetylcholine/pharmacology , Chile , Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthases/metabolism
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 108(4): 315-322, Apr. 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-838719


Abstract Background: The practice of exercise in short bouts repeated throughout the day may be an alternative strategy to lift people out of physical inactivity. Objective: to evaluate if accumulated exercise, as occurs in continuous exercise training, improve endothelial function in rat aorta. Methods: Wistar male rats were divided into three groups: continuous exercise (CEx, 1 hour on the treadmill) or accumulated exercise (AEx, 4 bouts of 15 minutes / day) for 5 days/week for 8 weeks, or sedentary (SED). During the training period, body weight gain and increase in exercise performance were recorded. On sacrifice day, aorta was dissected into rings (3-5 mm) and mounted on the organ bath. Results: Fitness was significantly greater in CEx and AEx rats as compared with SED animals. In addition, compared with the SED group, CEx animals had a lower body mass gain, and the aorta obtained from these animals had reduced contractile response to norepinephrine and greater acetylcholine-induced relaxation. These results were not observed in ACEx animals. Conclusions: Both CEx and AEx improved fitness, but only CEx led to reduced body weight gain and improved endothelial function.

Resumo Fundamento: A prática de exercícios em sessões curtas que se repetem ao longo do dia pode ser uma alternativa para tirar as pessoas da inatividade física. Objetivo: Verificar se o exercício acumulado, tal como ocorre com o treinamento com exercício contínuo, melhora a função endotelial na aorta de ratos. Métodos: Ratos Wistar machos foram divididos em 3 grupos: treinamento com exercício contínuo (ExC; 1 hora em esteira) ou com exercício acumulado (ExA; 4 sessões de 15 minutos ao longo do dia) por 5 dias/semana, durante 8 semanas, ou grupo sedentário (SED). Durante o treinamento, foram registrados o ganho de peso corporal e desempenho na esteira. No dia do sacrifício, anéis (3-5 mm) da aorta foram obtidos e montados em banho de órgãos. Resultados: Animais ExC e ExA mostraram aptidão física significativamente maior em comparação com os SED. Paralelamente, em comparação com SED, animais ExC tiveram menor ganho de massa corporal, e aortas retiradas desses animais mostraram respostas contrácteis à noradrenalina reduzidas e maior relaxamento induzido pela acetilcolina. Esses resultados não foram observados no grupo ExA. Conclusões: Tanto o ExC quanto o ExA melhoraram a aptidão física, mas somente o ExC foi capaz de reduzir o ganho de peso corporal dos animais e melhorar a função endotelial.

Animals , Male , Aorta/physiology , Physical Conditioning, Animal/methods , Endothelium, Vascular/physiology , Physical Fitness/physiology , Aorta/drug effects , Physical Conditioning, Animal/physiology , Vasoconstrictor Agents/pharmacology , Endothelium, Vascular/drug effects , Weight Loss/physiology , Acetylcholine/pharmacology , Random Allocation , Norepinephrine/pharmacology , Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances/analysis , Rats, Wistar , Models, Animal
Acta cir. bras ; 30(12): 838-843, Dec. 2015. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-769500


ABSTRACT PURPOSE: To test whether hemorrhagic shock (HS) increases the Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression in the intestine and whether this enhanced COX-2 expression mediates the intestinal dysmotility after HS. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into HS sham group and HS group. At 180 min following HS establishment, the duodenum samples were harvested to assess the motility function, protein expression of COX-2 and the downstream products of COX-2, prostaglandins. RESULTS: Examination of motility function ex vivo showed that the contractile response to acetylcholine of smooth muscle strips of rats subjected to HS was significantly suppressed. A COX-2 inhibitor, NS-398, abolished this depressed contractile response after HS. Western blotting revealed an increased protein expression of COX-2 in intestinal tissues of HS rats. Immunohistochemical examination indicated that intestine tissues of HS rats were manifested by part of villous expansion and disruption, a large amount of COX-2 positive cells appearance in lamina propria and submucosa. Furthermore, the contents of prostaglandin E2 was significantly increased in intestinal tissues of HS rats. CONCLUSION: The enhanced COX-2/ prostaglandin E2 involves in the hemorrhagic shock induced intestinal dysmotility.

Animals , Male , /metabolism , Duodenum/physiopathology , Gastrointestinal Motility/physiology , Shock, Hemorrhagic/enzymology , Acetylcholine/pharmacology , Dinoprostone/metabolism , Models, Animal , Muscle Contraction/drug effects , Nitrobenzenes/pharmacology , Random Allocation , Rats, Wistar , Shock, Hemorrhagic/physiopathology , Sulfonamides/pharmacology
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 13(3): 395-403, July-Sep. 2015. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-761966


Objective To describe and to characterize the relaxing effect of an extract of the bark of Combretum leprosum on isolated arterial rings from different animals.Methods Rings (3 to 4mm) from rabbit, rat, or porcine arteries rings were suspended in an organ bath (Krebs, 37°C, 95%O2/5%CO2) to record isometric contractions. After the stabilization period (2 to 3 hours) contractions were induced by the addition of phenylephrine (0.1 to 0.3µM) or U46619 (10 to 100nM), and Combretum leprosum extract was added on the plateau of the contractions. Experiments were performed to determine the potency, duration, reversibility, and to get insights on the potential mechanism involved in extract-induced relaxations.Results In all rings tested, Combretumleprosum extract (1.5μg/mL) was able to cause relaxations, which were strictly endothelium-dependent. In rabbit or rat thoracic aorta rings, the relaxations were reversed by vitamin B12a or L-NG-nitroarginine. In porcine right coronary arteries and rabbit abdominal aorta, extract caused both L-NG-nitroarginine-sensitive and L-NG-nitroarginine-resistant relaxations. In rabbit thoracic aorta, the extract was relatively potent (EC50=0.20µg/mL) and caused relaxations; intriguingly the endothelium continued to produce relaxing factors for a long period after removing the extract. The magnitude of extract-induced relaxations was significantly reduced in the absence of extracellular Ca2+; in addition, the TRPs channels blocker ruthenium red (10µM) was able to revert extract-induced relaxations. Phytochemical analyses indicated that the extract was rich in polyphenol-like reacting substances.ConclusionsCombretum leprosum extract contains bioactive compounds capable of promoting Ca2+-dependent stimulation of endothelial cells which results in a prolonged production of relaxing factors.

Objetivo Descrever e caracterizar os relaxamentos induzidos por um extrato das cascas de Combretum leprosum em anéis de artérias de diferentes espécies de animais.Métodos Anéis (3 a 4mm) de artérias de coelho, rato e porco foram montados em cubas para órgão isolado (Krebs, 37°C, 95%O2/5%CO2) para registro das contrações isométricas. Após um período de estabilização (2 a 3 horas), as contrações foram induzidas com fenilefrina (0,1 a 0,3µM) ou U46619 (10 a 100nM); no platô dessas contrações, adicionamos o extrato Combretum leprosum. Diferentes protocolos foram realizados para determinar potência, duração, reversibilidade e mecanismo dos relaxamentos induzidos pelo extrato.Resultados Em todas as preparações testadas, o extrato de Combretum leprosum (1,5µg/mL) provocou relaxamentos dependentes de endotélio. Em aorta torácica de coelho ou rato, os relaxamentos foram revertidos pela vitamina B12a ou L-NG-nitro-arginina. Em anéis de aorta abdominal de coelho e de artérias coronárias de porco, o extrato causou relaxamentos sensíveis e resistentes à L-NG-nitro-arginina. Em aorta torácica de coelho, o extrato foi relativamente muito potente (EC50=0,20μg/mL) e quando causou relaxamentos; intrigantemente o endotélio continuou a produzir fatores relaxantes por um longo período após remoção do extrato. A magnitude dos relaxamentos induzidos pelo extrato foi significativamente reduzida em ausência Ca2+ extracelular; ademais, o vermelho de rutênio (10μM), um bloqueador de canais TRPs, foi capaz de reverter os relaxamentos induzidos pelo extrato. Análises preliminares indicaram que o extrato continha compostos com reatividade química semelhante à polifenóis.Conclusão O extrato de Combretum leprosum contem compostos bioativos capazes de promover estimulação dependente de Ca2+ das células endoteliais a qual resulta numa produção prolongada de fatores relaxantes.

Animals , Female , Guinea Pigs , Male , Mice , Rabbits , Combretum/chemistry , Endothelium-Dependent Relaxing Factors/pharmacology , Muscle Relaxation/drug effects , Nitric Oxide/pharmacology , Acetylcholine/pharmacology , Aorta, Abdominal/drug effects , Aorta, Abdominal/physiology , Aorta, Thoracic/drug effects , Aorta, Thoracic/physiology , Carotid Artery, Common/drug effects , Carotid Artery, Common/physiology , Endothelium, Vascular/drug effects , Endothelium, Vascular/physiology , Mesenteric Artery, Superior/drug effects , Mesenteric Artery, Superior/physiology , Muscle Relaxation/physiology , Plant Bark/chemistry , Rats, Wistar , Swine , Time Factors
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 48(6): 537-544, 06/2015. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-748218


Amfepramone (diethylpropion) is an appetite-suppressant drug used for the treatment of overweight and obesity. It has been suggested that the systemic and central activity of amfepramone produces cardiovascular effects such as transient ischemic attacks and primary pulmonary hypertension. However, it is not known whether amfepramone produces immediate vascular effects when applied in vitro to rat aortic rings and, if so, what mechanisms may be involved. We analyzed the effect of amfepramone on phenylephrine-precontracted rat aortic rings with or without endothelium and the influence of inhibitors or blockers on this effect. Amfepramone produced a concentration-dependent vasorelaxation in phenylephrine-precontracted rat aortic rings that was not affected by the vehicle, atropine, 4-AP, glibenclamide, indomethacin, clotrimazole, or cycloheximide. The vasorelaxant effect of amfepramone was significantly attenuated by NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) and tetraethylammonium (TEA), and was blocked by removal of the vascular endothelium. These results suggest that amfepramone had a direct vasorelaxant effect on phenylephrine-precontracted rat aortic rings, and that inhibition of endothelial nitric oxide synthase and the opening of Ca2+-activated K+ channels were involved in this effect.

Animals , Male , Acetylcholine/pharmacology , Aorta, Thoracic/drug effects , Appetite Depressants/pharmacology , Diethylpropion/pharmacology , Vasodilator Agents/pharmacology , Aorta, Thoracic/metabolism , Calcium Channels/drug effects , Calcium Channels/metabolism , Endothelium, Vascular/drug effects , NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester/metabolism , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III/drug effects , Phenylephrine/pharmacology , Potassium Channels/drug effects , Potassium Channels/metabolism , Rats, Wistar , Tetraethylammonium/metabolism , Vasoconstrictor Agents/pharmacology , Vasodilation/drug effects
Braz. j. biol ; 75(2): 362-367, 05/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-749704


Preliminary studies showed that dorsal artery contraction mediated by acetylcholine (ACh) is blocked with indomethacin in intertidal fish (G. laevifrons). Our objective was to characterize the cholinergic pathway in several artery vessels of the I. conceptionis. Afferent and efferent branchial, dorsal and mesenteric arteries were dissected of 6 juvenile specimens, isometric tension studies were done using doses response curves (DRC) for Ach (10–13 to 10–3 M), and cholinergic pathways were obtained by blocking with atropine or indomethacin. CRC to ACh showed a pattern of high sensitivity only in efferente branchial artery and low sensibility in all vessels. Furthermore, these contractions were blocked in the presence of atropine and indomethacin in all vessels. Our results corroborate previous results observed in intertidal species that contraction induced by acetylcholine is mediated by receptors that activate a cyclooxygenase contraction pathway.

Estudos preliminares mostraram que a contração da artéria dorsal mediada por acetilcolina (ACh) é bloqueada com indometacina em peixes marinhos (G. laevifrons). Nosso objetivo foi caracterizar a via colinérgica em várias artérias de I. conceptionis. Artérias aferentes e eferentes branquiais, dorsais e mesentéricas foram dissecadas de 6 espécimes juvenis. Os estudos de tensão isométrica foram feitos utilizando-se a curva dose - resposta (CDR) para Ach (10–13 a 10–3M), e identificaram-se as vias colinérgicas, bloqueando com atropina e indometacina. CRC para ACh mostrou um padrão de alta sensibilidade na artéria eferentes branquiais e baixa sensibilidade em todos os vasos sanguineos. Essas contrações foram bloqueadas na presença de atropina e indometacina em todas as artérias avaliadas. Nossos resultados confirmam que a contração induzida por acetilcolina é mediada por receptores muscarínicos que ativam ciclo-oxigenase.

Animals , Acetylcholine/pharmacology , Arteries/drug effects , Perciformes/metabolism , Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthases/drug effects , Arteries/physiology , Atropine/pharmacology , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Indomethacin/pharmacology , Perciformes/classification , Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthases/metabolism , Signal Transduction
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 73(2): 119-124, 02/2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-741172


Neurological diseases are common in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients, but their exact prevalence is unknown. Method We prospectively evaluated the presence of neurological disorders in 121 patients with IBD [51 with Crohn's disease (CD) and 70 with ulcerative colitis (UC)] and 50 controls (gastritis and dyspepsia) over 3 years. Results Our standard neurological evaluation (that included electrodiagnostic testing) revealed that CD patients were 7.4 times more likely to develop large-fiber neuropathy than controls (p = 0.045), 7.1 times more likely to develop any type of neuromuscular condition (p = 0.001) and 5.1 times more likely to develop autonomic complaints (p = 0.027). UC patients were 5 times more likely to develop large-fiber neuropathy (p = 0.027) and 3.1 times more likely to develop any type of neuromuscular condition (p = 0.015). Conclusion In summary, this is the first study to prospectively establish that both CD and UC patients are more prone to neuromuscular diseases than patients with gastritis and dyspepsia. .

Doenças neurológicas são comuns em pacientes com doença inflamatória intestinal (DII), mas sua prevalência exata é desconhecida. Métodos Nós estudamos prospectivamente a presença de distúrbios neurológicos em 121 pacientes com DII [51 com doença de Crohn (DC) e 70 com colite ulcerativa (RCU)] e 50 controles (gastrite e dispepsia) ao longo de 3 anos. Resultados A avaliação neurológica padronizada (que incluiu testes eletrodiagnósticos) demonstrou que pacientes com DC foram 7,4 vezes mais propensos a desenvolver neuropatias de fibras grossas do que os controles (p = 0,045), 7,1 vezes mais propensos a desenvolver qualquer tipo de condição neuromuscular (p = 0,001) e 5,1 vezes mais propensos a desenvolver queixas autonômicas (p = 0,027). Pacientes com RCU foram 5 vezes mais propensos de desenvolver neuropatia de fibras grossas (p = 0,027) e 3,1 vezes mais propensos a desenvolver qualquer tipo de condição neuromuscular (p = 0,015). Conclusão Em resumo, este é o primeiro estudo prospectivo a estabelecer que os pacientes tanto com DC quanto de RCU são mais propensos a doenças neuromusculares do que os pacientes com gastrite e dispepsia. .

Animals , Female , Pregnancy , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Dexamethasone/pharmacology , Microcirculation/drug effects , Muscle, Skeletal/blood supply , Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects , Acetylcholine/pharmacology , Body Weight/drug effects , Bradykinin/pharmacology , Endothelium, Vascular/drug effects , Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Femoral Artery/drug effects , Femoral Artery/embryology , Microcirculation/embryology , NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester/pharmacology , Nitroprusside/pharmacology , Sheep , Vascular Resistance/drug effects , Vasoconstriction/drug effects , Vasodilation/drug effects , Vasodilator Agents/pharmacology
Hist. ciênc. saúde-Manguinhos ; 21(4): 1475-1486, Oct-Dec/2014. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-732506


Walter Álvarez Quispe, terapeuta kallawaya y biomédico especializado en cirugía general y ginecología, presenta la lucha de los terapeutas tradicionales y alternativos por la depenalización de estos sistemas médicos andinos realizada entre 1960 y 1990. Bolivia se torna el primer país en América Latina y el Caribe en despenalizar la medicina tradicional antes de los planteamientos de la Conferencia Internacional sobre Atención Primaria de Salud (Alma-Ata, 1978). Los datos aportados por el entrevistado aseguran que los logros alcanzados, principalmente por los kallawayas, responden a un proyecto propio y autónomo. Estas conquistas no se deben a las políticas oficiales de interculturalidad en salud, aunque busquen atribuirse para sí los logros alcanzados.

Walter Álvarez Quispe, a Kallawaya healer and biomedical practitioner specializing in general surgery and gynecology, presents the struggle of traditional and alternative healers to get their Andean medical systems depenalized between 1960 and 1990. Bolivia was the first country in Latin America and the Caribbean to decriminalize traditional medicine before the proposals of the International Conference on Primary Health Care (Alma-Ata, 1978). The data provided by the interviewee show that the successes achieved, mainly by the Kallawayas, stem from their own independent initiative. These victories are not the result of official policies of interculturality in healthcare, although the successes achieved tend to be ascribed to them.

Animals , Guinea Pigs , Male , Bronchi/innervation , Bronchoconstriction/drug effects , Bronchoconstrictor Agents/pharmacology , Citric Acid/pharmacology , Neurons, Afferent/physiology , Sulfites/pharmacology , Administration, Inhalation , Acetylcholine/pharmacology , Airway Resistance/drug effects , Autacoids/pharmacology , Bradykinin/pharmacology , Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide/metabolism , Citric Acid/administration & dosage , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Histamine/pharmacology , In Vitro Techniques , Lung Compliance/drug effects , Lung/innervation , Lung/metabolism , Neurokinin A/pharmacology , Neurons, Afferent/drug effects , Serotonin/pharmacology , Substance P/pharmacology , Sulfites/administration & dosage
Braz. j. biol ; 74(3): 739-743, 8/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-723895


Preliminary studies showed that dorsal artery contraction mediated by acetylcholine (ACh) is blocked with indomethacin in intertidal fish (Girella laevifrons). Our objective was to characterise the cholinergic pathway in several artery vessels of the G. laevifrons. Afferent and efferent branchial, dorsal and mesenteric arteries were dissected of 6 juvenile specimens, isometric tension studies were done using dose response curves (DRC) for Ach (10–13 to 10–3 M), and cholinergic pathways were obtained by blocking with atropine or indomethacin. CRC to ACh showed a pattern of high and low sensitivity. Furthermore, these contractions were blocked in the presence of atropine and indomethacin in all vessels. Our results suggest that contraction observed with acetylcholine is mediated by receptors that activate a cyclooxygenase contraction pathway.

Estudos preliminares mostraram que a contração da artéria dorsal mediada por acetilcolina (ACh) é bloqueada com indometacina em peixes marinhos Girella laevifrons. Nosso objetivo foi caracterizar a via colinérgica em várias artérias de G. laevifrons. Artérias aferentes e eferentes branquiais, dorsais e mesentéricas foram dissecadas de 6 espécimes juvenis. Os estudos de tensão isométrica foram feitos utilizando-se a curva dose - resposta (CDR) para Ach (10–13 a 10–3M), e identificaram-se as vias colinérgicas, bloqueando com atropina e indometacina. CRC para ACh mostrou um padrão de alta e baixa sensibilidade. Essas contrações foram bloqueadas na presença de atropina e indometacina em todas as artérias avaliadas. Nossos resultados sugerem que a contração observada com acetilcolina é mediada por receptores muscarínicos que ativam uma ciclo-oxigenase.

Animals , Acetylcholine/pharmacology , Arteries/drug effects , Atropine/pharmacology , Cholinergic Agonists/pharmacology , Indomethacin/pharmacology , Perciformes/physiology , Arteries/physiology , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Perciformes/classification
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 103(1): 25-32, 07/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-718104


Background: Resistance exercise effects on cardiovascular parameters are not consistent. Objectives: The effects of resistance exercise on changes in blood glucose, blood pressure and vascular reactivity were evaluated in diabetic rats. Methods: Wistar rats were divided into three groups: control group (n = 8); sedentary diabetic (n = 8); and trained diabetic (n = 8). Resistance exercise was carried out in a squat device for rats and consisted of three sets of ten repetitions with an intensity of 50%, three times per week, for eight weeks. Changes in vascular reactivity were evaluated in superior mesenteric artery rings. Results: A significant reduction in the maximum response of acetylcholine-induced relaxation was observed in the sedentary diabetic group (78.1 ± 2%) and an increase in the trained diabetic group (95 ± 3%) without changing potency. In the presence of NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, the acetylcholine-induced relaxation was significantly reduced in the control and trained diabetic groups, but not in the sedentary diabetic group. Furthermore, a significant increase (p < 0.05) in mean arterial blood pressure was observed in the sedentary diabetic group (104.9 ± 5 to 126.7 ± 5 mmHg) as compared to that in the control group. However, the trained diabetic group showed a significant decrease (p < 0.05) in the mean arterial blood pressure levels (126.7 ± 5 to 105.1 ± 4 mmHg) as compared to the sedentary diabetic group. Conclusions: Resistance exercise could restore endothelial function and prevent an increase in arterial blood pressure in type 1 diabetic rats. .

Fundamento: Os efeitos do exercício resistido sobre os parâmetros cardiovasculares não são consistentes. Objetivos: Foram avaliados os efeitos do exercício resistido sobre as alterações na glicemia, reatividade vascular e pressão arterial de ratos diabéticos. Métodos: Ratos Wistar foram divididos em três grupos: grupo controle (n = 8), diabético sedentário (n = 8) e diabético treinado (n = 8). O exercício resistido foi realizado no aparelho de agachamento para ratos e consistiu em três séries de dez repetições com uma intensidade de 50%, três vezes por semana, durante 8 semanas. As alterações na reatividade vascular foram avaliadas em anéis de artéria mesentérica superior. Resultados: Foi observada uma redução significativa da resposta máxima dos relaxamentos induzidos por acetilcolina no grupo diabético sedentário (78,1% ± 2) e um aumento do grupo diabético treinado (95 ± 3%), sem alterar a potência. Na presença de NG-nitro-L-arginina metil éster, os relaxamentos induzidos por acetilcolina foram significativamente reduzidos nos grupos controle e diabético treinado, mas não no grupo diabético sedentário. Além disso, foi observado um aumento significativo (p < 0,05) da pressão arterial média no grupo diabético sedentário de 104,9 ± 5 para 126,7 ± 5 mmHg, quando comparado ao grupo controle. Por outro lado, o grupo diabético treinado apresentou redução significativa (p < 0,05) nos níveis da pressão arterial média de 126,7 ± 5 mmHg para 105,1 ± 4 mmHg, quando comparado ao diabético sedentário. Conclusões: O exercício resistido foi capaz de restaurar a funcionalidade endotelial e impedir o aumento da pressão arterial em ratos com ...

Animals , Male , Blood Pressure/physiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/physiopathology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/physiopathology , Endothelium, Vascular/physiopathology , Physical Conditioning, Animal/physiology , Resistance Training/methods , Acetylcholine/pharmacology , Blood Glucose/drug effects , Blood Glucose/physiology , Blood Pressure/drug effects , Cholinergic Agonists/pharmacology , Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Models, Animal , Mesenteric Artery, Superior/physiopathology , NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester/pharmacology , Rats, Wistar
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 47(5): 411-418, 02/05/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-709437


Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) is a type of therapy used primarily for analgesia, but also presents changes in the cardiovascular system responses; its effects are dependent upon application parameters. Alterations to the cardiovascular system suggest that TENS may modify venous vascular response. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of TENS at different frequencies (10 and 100 Hz) on venous vascular reactivity in healthy subjects. Twenty-nine healthy male volunteers were randomized into three groups: placebo (n=10), low-frequency TENS (10 Hz, n=9) and high-frequency TENS (100 Hz, n=10). TENS was applied for 30 min in the nervous plexus trajectory from the superior member (from cervical to dorsal region of the fist) at low (10 Hz/200 μs) and high frequency (100 Hz/200 μs) with its intensity adjusted below the motor threshold and intensified every 5 min, intending to avoid accommodation. Venous vascular reactivity in response to phenylephrine, acetylcholine (endothelium-dependent) and sodium nitroprusside (endothelium-independent) was assessed by the dorsal hand vein technique. The phenylephrine effective dose to achieve 70% vasoconstriction was reduced 53% (P<0.01) using low-frequency TENS (10 Hz), while in high-frequency stimulation (100 Hz), a 47% increased dose was needed (P<0.01). The endothelium-dependent (acetylcholine) and independent (sodium nitroprusside) responses were not modified by TENS, which modifies venous responsiveness, and increases the low-frequency sensitivity of α1-adrenergic receptors and shows high-frequency opposite effects. These changes represent an important vascular effect caused by TENS with implications for hemodynamics, inflammation and analgesia.

Adult , Humans , Male , Acetylcholine/pharmacology , Cardiovascular Agents/pharmacology , Hand/blood supply , Nitroprusside/pharmacology , Phenylephrine/pharmacology , Transcutaneous Electric Nerve Stimulation/methods , Analysis of Variance , Blood Glucose , Cholesterol/blood , Erythrocyte Count , Leukocyte Count , Lipoproteins, HDL/blood , Triglycerides/blood , Urea/blood , Vasoconstriction/drug effects , Vasoconstrictor Agents/pharmacology , Vasodilation/drug effects , Vasodilator Agents/pharmacology , Veins/drug effects
Clinics ; 68(12): 1537-1542, dez. 2013. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-697707


OBJECTIVES: Estrogen has been shown to play an important protective role in non-reproductive systems, such as the cardiovascular system. Our aim was to observe gender differences in vivo with regard to the increase in macromolecular permeability and leukocyte-endothelium interaction induced by ischemia/reperfusion as well as in microvascular reactivity to vasoactive substances using the hamster cheek pouch preparation. METHODS: Thirty-six male and 36 female hamsters, 21 weeks old, were selected for this study, and their cheek pouches were prepared for intravital microscopy. An increase in the macromolecular permeability of post-capillary venules was quantified as a leakage of intravenously injected fluorescein-labeled dextran, and the leukocyte-endothelium interaction was measured as the number of fluorescent rolling leukocytes or leukocytes adherent to the venular wall, labeled with rhodamin G, during reperfusion after 30 min of local ischemia. For microvascular reactivity, the mean internal diameter of arterioles was evaluated after the topical application of different concentrations of two vasoconstrictors, phenylephrine (α1-agonist) and endothelin-1, and two vasodilators, acetylcholine (endothelial-dependent) and sodium nitroprusside (endothelial-independent). RESULTS: The increase in macromolecular permeability induced by ischemia/reperfusion was significantly lower in females compared with males [19 (17-22) leaks/cm2 vs. 124 (123-128) leaks/cm2, respectively, p<0.001), but the number of rolling or adherent leukocytes was not different between the groups. Phenylephrine-induced arteriolar constriction was significantly lower in females compared with males [77 (73-102)% vs. 64 (55-69)%, p<0.04], but there were no detectable differences in endothelin-1-dependent vasoreactivity. Additionally, arteriolar vasodilatation elicited by acetylcholine or sodium nitroprusside did not differ between the groups. CONCLUSION: The ...

Animals , Cricetinae , Female , Male , Cardiovascular System/metabolism , Estrogens/metabolism , Microcirculation/physiology , Acetylcholine/pharmacology , Capillary Permeability , Cell Adhesion/physiology , Cheek/blood supply , Endothelium, Vascular/physiology , Leukocytes/physiology , Nitroprusside/pharmacology , Phenylephrine/pharmacology , Reperfusion Injury/metabolism , Sex Factors , Time Factors
Acta cir. bras ; 28(11): 774-777, Nov. 2013.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-695957


PURPOSE: To assess the probable actions of ropivacaine, 50% enantiomeric excess bupivacaine mixture (S75-R25) and levobupivacaine on neuromuscular transmission in vitro. METHODS: Thirty rats were distributed into groups (n=5) according to the drug used: ropivacaine, bupivacaine (S75-R25) and levobupivacaine. The concentration used for the three local anesthetics (LA) was 5 µg.mL.-1The following parameters were evaluated: 1) LA effects on membrane potential (MP) and miniature end plate potential (MEPP). A chick biventer cervicis preparation was also used to evaluate LA effects on the contracture response to acetylcholine. RESULTS: LA did not alter MP values and decreased the frequency and amplitude of MEPP. In a chick biventer cervicis preparation, bupivacaine (S75-R25) and levobupivacaine decreased the contracture response to acetylcholine with statistical significance, in comparison to ropivacaine. CONCLUSIONS: In the concentrations used, levobupivacaine and bupivacaine (S75-R25) exhibited presynaptic and postsynaptic actions evidenced by alterations in miniature end plate potentials and contracture response to acetylcholine. Ropivacaine only had a presynaptic action.

Animals , Male , Rats , Amides/pharmacology , Anesthetics, Local/pharmacology , Bupivacaine/analogs & derivatives , Bupivacaine/pharmacology , Synapses/drug effects , Synaptic Transmission/drug effects , Acetylcholine/administration & dosage , Acetylcholine/pharmacology , Amides/administration & dosage , Anesthetics, Local/administration & dosage , Bupivacaine/administration & dosage , Membrane Potentials/drug effects , Rats, Wistar , Synapses/physiology , Synaptic Transmission/physiology
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 98(4): 290-299, abr. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-639415


FUNDAMENTO: Não há consenso sobre o impacto do implante de stent sobre a função endotelial no longo prazo. Há relatos de disfunção endotelial aumentada com stent com sirolimus quando comparado com o stent metálico convencional (BMS). OBJETIVO: Este estudo visa a avaliar o impacto do BMS e o efeito do sirolimus por via oral sobre a função endotelial. MÉTODOS: Quarenta e cinco pacientes foram randomizados em três grupos: BMS + altas doses de sirolimus oral (dose inicial de 15 mg, seguida de 6 mg/dia durante quatro semanas); BMS + baixa dose de sirolimus (6 mg, seguida de 2 mg por dia durante quatro semanas) e BMS sem sirolimus. Mudanças na vasoconstrição ou vasodilatação, em um segmento de 15 milímetros começando pelo extremo distal do stent em resposta a acetilcolina e nitroglicerina, foram avaliadas por angiografia quantitativa. RESULTADOS: Os grupos apresentaram características angiográficas semelhantes. A variação percentual de diâmetro em resposta a acetilcolina foi semelhante em todos os grupos, nos dois momentos (p = 0,469). Quatro horas após o implante de stent, o segmento alvo apresentou uma disfunção endotelial que se manteve após oito meses em todos os grupos. Em todos os grupos, a vasomotricidade independente de endotélio em resposta a nitroglicerina foi semelhante, às quatro horas e aos oito meses, com diâmetro do segmento alvo aumentado após a infusão de nitroglicerina (p = 0,001). CONCLUSÃO: A disfunção endotelial esteve igualmente presente no segmento distal de 15 milímetros do segmento tratado, às 4 horas e aos 8 meses após implante do stent. O sirolimus administrado por via oral durante quatro semanas para evitar a reestenose não afetou o estado de vasomotricidade endotélio dependente e independente.

BACKGROUND: There is no consensus regarding the impact of stenting on long-term endothelial function. There have been reports of increased endothelial dysfunction with sirolimus-eluting stents as compared to bare metal stenting (BMS). OBJECTIVE: This study aims to assess the impact of BMS and the effect of oral sirolimus on endothelial function. METHODS: Forty-five patients were randomized into three groups: BMS + high-dose oral sirolimus (initial dose of 15 mg, followed by 6 mg/day for four weeks); BMS + low-dose sirolimus (6 mg followed by 2 mg daily for four weeks); and BMS without sirolimus. Changes in vasoconstriction or vasodilation in a 15 mm segment starting at the distal stent end in response to acetylcholine and nitroglycerin were assessed by quantitative angiography. RESULTS: The groups had similar angiographic characteristics. The percent variation in diameter in response to acetylcholine was similar in all groups at the two time points (p = 0.469). Four hours after stenting, the target segment presented an endothelial dysfunction that was maintained after eight months in all groups. In all groups, endothelium-independent vasomotion in response to nitroglycerin was similar at four hours and eight months, with increased target segment diameter after nitroglycerin infusion (p = 0.001). CONCLUSION: The endothelial dysfunction was similarly present at the 15 mm segment distal to the treated segment, at 4 hours and 8 months after stenting. Sirolimus administered orally during 4 weeks to prevent restenosis did not affect the status of endothelium-dependent and independent vasomotion.

Adult , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Coronary Vessels/drug effects , Endothelium, Vascular/drug effects , Immunosuppressive Agents/pharmacology , Sirolimus/pharmacology , Stents/adverse effects , Vasomotor System/drug effects , Administration, Oral , Analysis of Variance , Acetylcholine/pharmacology , Acetylcholine/therapeutic use , Coronary Vessels/physiopathology , Endothelium, Vascular/physiopathology , Immunosuppressive Agents/administration & dosage , Nitroglycerin/pharmacology , Nitroglycerin/therapeutic use , Sirolimus/administration & dosage , Time Factors , Vasoconstriction/drug effects , Vasoconstriction/physiology , Vasodilation/drug effects , Vasodilation/physiology , Vasodilator Agents/pharmacology , Vasodilator Agents/therapeutic use , Vasomotor System/physiopathology
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 98(4): 321-328, abr. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-639423


FUNDAMENTO: A presença de nervos nas válvulas cardíacas foi demonstrada pela primeira vez há décadas e identificadas em subpopulações: simpáticas e parassimpáticas, e, portanto, é esperado que as válvulas sejam grandemente afetadas pelos nervos autônomos. Entretanto, poucos estudos têm se concentrado na regulação de válvulas cardíacas pelo sistema nervoso autônomo. OBJETIVO: Buscamos identificar o papel do sistema nervoso autônomo na regulação das propriedades mecânicas dos tecidos de válvulas mitrais porcinas. MÉTODOS: As propriedades mecânicas dos folhetos de válvulas mitrais porcinas foram avaliados em resposta à norepinefrina (NE) e acetilcolina (ACH), os principais neurotransmissores. Ao mesmo tempo, fentolamina (FENT), metoprolol (Metop), atropina (Atrop) e desnudamento endotelial foram adicionados ao sistema reativo. RESULTADOS: Sob condições fisiológicas, a rigidez não foi afetada pelo desnudamento endotelial (p > 0,05). A NE significantemente aumentou a rigidez valvar por aumento de 10 vezes na concentração (10-6 vs 10-7, p < 0,05; 10-5 vs 10-6, p < 0,05). Essa resposta foi amenizada por FENT, Metop ou desnudamento endotelial (p < 0,05); entretanto, manteve-se aumentada de maneira significante quando comparada aos Controles (p < 0,05). A ACH causou uma diminuição na rigidez acompanhada por um aumento em sua concentração (alteração significante na rigidez por aumento de 10 vezes na concentração de ACH, 10-6 vs Controle, p < 0,05; 10-5 vs 10-6, p < 0,05), que foi revertida pelo desnudamento endotelial e Atrop (p > 0,05 vs Controle). CONCLUSÃO: Esses achados ressaltam o papel do sistema nervoso autônomo na regulação das propriedades mecânicas das cúspides de válvula mitral porcina, o que reforça a importância do estado nervoso autônomo no funcionamento ideal da válvula.

BACKGROUND: The presence of nerves in heart valves was first depicted decades ago and identified into subpopulations: sympathetic, parasympathetic. So valves are expected to be greatly affected by the autonomic nerves. However, few studies have focused on the regulation of heart valves by the autonomic nervous system. OBJECTIVE: We sought to identify the role of the autonomic nervous system in the regulation of the mechanical properties of porcine mitral valve tissues. METHODS: Mechanical properties of porcine mitral valve leaflets were evaluated in response to norepinephrine (NE) and acetylcholine (ACH), the main neurotransmitters. At the same time, phentolamine (Phent), metoprolol (Metop), atropine (Atrop) and endothelial denudation were added to the reactive system. RESULTS: Under physiological conditions, the stiffness was not affected by endothelial denudation (p > 0.05). NE elevated the valve stiffness significantly per 10-fold increase in concentration (10-6 vs 10-7, p < 0.05; 10-5 vs 10-6, p < 0.05). This response was mitigated by Phent, Metop or endothelial denudation (p < 0.05), however, it was still increased significantly when compared to Controls (p < 0.05). ACH caused a decrease in stiffness accompanied by an increase in its concentration (significant change in stiffness per 10-fold increase in ACH concentration, 10-6 vs Control, p < 0.05; 10-5 vs 10-6, p < 0.05), which were reversed by endothelial denudation and Atrop (p > 0.05 vs Control). CONCLUSION: These findings highlight the role of the autonomic nervous system in the regulation of the mechanical properties of porcine mitral valve cusps, which underline the importance of autonomic nervous status for optimal valve function.

FUNDAMENTO: La presencia de nervios en las válvulas cardíacas quedó demostrada por primera vez hace algunas décadas e identificadas en sub-poblaciones: simpáticas y parasimpáticas y por lo tanto, lo que se espera es que las válvulas reciban una gran afectación de los nervios autónomos. Sin embargo, pocos estudios se han concentrado en la regulación de válvulas cardíacas a través del sistema nervioso autónomo. OBJETIVO: Buscamos identificar el papel del sistema nervioso autónomo en la regulación de las propiedades mecánicas de los tejidos de las válvulas mitrales porcinas. MÉTODOS: Las propiedades mecánicas de las capas de válvulas mitrales porcinas fueron evaluadas en respuesta a la norepinefrina (NE) y a la acetilcolina (ACH), los principales neurotransmisores. Igualmente, la fentolamina (FENT), el metoprolol (Metop), la atropina (Atrop) y la denudación endotelial también se añadieron al sistema reactivo. RESULTADOS: Bajo condiciones fisiológicas, la rigidez no se afectó por el denudación endotelial (p > 0,05). La NE aumentó significativamente la rigidez valvular con un aumento de 10 veces en la concentración (10-6 vs 10-7, p < 0,05; 10-5 vs 10-6, p < 0,05). Esa respuesta fue amenizada por FENT, Metop o denudación endotelial (p < 0,05); pero se mantuvo aumentada de manera significativa cuando se le comparó con los Controles (p < 0,05). La ACH causó una disminución en la rigidez acompañada por un aumento en su concentración (alteración significativa en la rigidez por el aumento en 10 veces de la concentración de ACH, 10-6 vs Control, p < 0,05; 10-5 vs 10-6, p < 0,05), que fue revertida por la denudación endotelial y Atrop (p > 0,05 vs Control). CONCLUSIÓN: Esos hallazgos destacan el rol del sistema nervioso autónomo en la regulación de las propiedades mecánicas de las cúspides de la válvula mitral porcina, lo que refuerza la importancia del estado nervioso autónomo en el funcionamiento ideal de la válvula.

Animals , Autonomic Nervous System/physiology , Mitral Valve/physiology , Analysis of Variance , Acetylcholine/pharmacology , Adrenergic alpha-1 Receptor Antagonists/pharmacology , Aortic Valve/physiopathology , Autonomic Nervous System/drug effects , Elastic Tissue/physiology , Mitral Valve/innervation , Norepinephrine/pharmacology , Phentolamine/pharmacology , Receptors, Neurotransmitter/drug effects , Receptors, Neurotransmitter/physiology , Swine , Vascular Stiffness/drug effects , Vascular Stiffness/physiology
Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2012; 25 (3): 577-582
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-144408


This study aims to evaluate the effect of Carissa carandas extract on cardiovascular function of normal rats. Intravenous bolus injection of this extract in the doses of 5 mg kg[-1]-45 mg kg[-1], produced dose dependent reduction in arterial blood pressure [p<0.001]. The 45mg/kg dose caused a 50.75% +/- 2.71 decrease in MABP which was highly significant with P value< 0.0005 when compared with its controls. Significant reduction in heart rate frequency was observed after CC injection at a dose of 45 mg kg[-1] [p<0.001]. The results were comparable with Acetylcholine 10[-4] M. The receptor activity performed for which Atropine 10[-4]M was administered I.V. and then the extract [45mg/kg] was administered. A highly Non Significant fall in Mean Arterial Blood pressure was observed 1.51% +/- 0.22 [P>0.05].It was concluded that the Carissa carandas Ethanol extract possess potent acute hypotensive effect in normal rats. It stimulates the muscarinic receptors located on the endothelial cells of the vasculature. This stimulation results in the release of endothelial-derived relaxing factors [EDRFs] or nitric oxide that diffuses to vasculature smooth muscles and causes their relaxation

Animals , Female , Male , Antihypertensive Agents/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Acetylcholine/pharmacology , Blood Pressure/drug effects , Heart Rate/drug effects , Nitric Oxide/physiology , Receptors, Muscarinic/drug effects , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
Rev. ANACEM (Impresa) ; 5(2): 87-90, dic. 2011. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-640058


INTRODUCCIÓN: El hígado graso no alcohólico puede abarcar desde una simple esteatosis hasta una cirrosis hepática. Los mecanismos fisiopatológicos que modulan el estrés oxidativo, la actividad inflamatoria y profibrótica, deberían ser cruciales en su mayor o menor agresividad hepática y vascular. Un compuesto derivado de la Cúrcuma longa L, la curcumina, poseería propiedades vasoprotectoras. OBJETIVO: Comparar en situaciones de dieta hipercolesterolémica los cambios vasculares entre ratas macho Sprague Dawley que consumen curcumina y las que no consumen. MATERIAL Y MÉTODO: Estudio analítico, experimental, longitudinal y prospectivo en ratas macho Sprague-Dawley expuestas a condiciones de hígado graso no alcohólico e hígado graso no alcohólico adicionando curcumina, durante 4 meses. Sacrificadas, se realizó protocolo de función vascular en arteria mesentérica superior aislada (respuesta a acetilcolina, N nitro-L-arginina metil éster y nitroprusiato) y medición de presión portal por punción directa. Los resultados fueron expresados en promedios junto a la desviación estándar de la media. Lasdiferencias entre los grupos fueron probadas mediante t de Studenty test de Mann-Whitney. RESULTADOS: La medición de presión portal no mostró diferencias significativas entre ambos grupos. No hubo diferencias significativas en las pruebas con Nnitro-L-arginina metil éster ni nitroprusiato; diferencia que sí existió con acetilcolina entre la dilatación de la arteria mesentérica superior de hígado graso no alcohólico y las de hígado graso no alcohólico más curcumina. DISCUSIÓN: La curcumina mejoró la respuesta vasodilatadora a acetilcolina, lo que sugiere que el posible efecto antioxidante sería mejorando la función endotelial. Se sugiere su futuro uso terapéutico.

INTRODUCTION: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease can range from simple steatosis to cirrhosis. The pathophysiological mechanisms that modulate oxidative stress, inflammatory and profibrotic activity should be crucial in the liver injury and vascular aggressiveness. Curcumin, a compound derived from Curcuma longa L, possesses vasoprotectives properties. OBJECTIVE: To compare in hypercholesterolemic diet situations the vascular changes between Sprague-Dawley male rats who consume curcumin and who do not consume. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Analytical, experimental, prospective and longitudinal study in Sprague-Dawley male rats exposed to conditions of Nonalcoholic fatty liver with and without curcumin, for four months. After the sacrifice, a vascular function protocol was performed on an isolated superior mesenteric artery (response to acetylcholine, L-NGNitroarginine Methyl Ester and nitroprusside) and measurement of portal pressure by direct puncture. The results were expressed as average and the standard deviation of the central tendency. The differences between the groups were tested using Student's t-test and Mann-Whitney test. RESULTS: The portal pressure measurement showed no significant differences between groups. There was no significant difference in the nitroprusside test, in the other hand, exist a difference with acetylcholine between arteries of nonalcoholic fatty liver group against nonalcoholic fatty liver plus curcumin group. DISCUSSION: Curcumin improved the vasodilator response in response to acetylcholine, suggesting a possible antioxidant effect which improves endothelial function. It is suggested for future therapeutic use.

Male , Animals , Rats , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal , Mesenteric Artery, Superior , Curcumin/pharmacology , Vascular Diseases/drug therapy , Fatty Liver , Acetylcholine/pharmacology , Cholesterol, Dietary , Vascular Diseases/prevention & control , Longitudinal Studies , Nitroprusside/pharmacology , Portal Pressure , Prospective Studies , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Protective Agents/pharmacology , Vasodilator Agents/pharmacology