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Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e20656, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1403726


Abstract Phellinus mushrooms have been traditionally used for various medicinal purposes. Protocatechuic acid, which was previously reported to be a component in some Phellinus mushrooms, has some pharmacological effects. This study aimed to validate a HPLC method for the quantitative analysis of the protocatechuic acid contents in the extracts from different Phellinus mushroom species collected in Thailand. HPLC was carried out using a C18 column and the gradient mobile phases of 0.1% formic acid in water and 0.1% formic acid in acetonitrile. Method validation was performed to assure the linearity, accuracy, precision, limit of detection and limit of quantitation of the analytical method. The linearity range of protocatechuic acid was 1 - 10 µg/ml. The average recovery was 104.16%. The method was shown to be precise with the RSD of repeatability and intermediate precision at less than 3%. The protocatechuic contents in 11 Phellinus mushrooms were in the range of less than 0.0099 - 0.4121 %w/w of the extract. The developed HPLC method was reliable and suitable for the quantitative analysis of protocatechuic acid content in Phellinus mushrooms.

Thailand/ethnology , Acids/adverse effects , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Agaricales , Evaluation Studies as Topic , Phellinus/metabolism , Validation Study
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e20160, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1403723


Abstract Pharmacokinetic studies were carried out in male and female rats to quantify silymarin as silybin (A+B) after the oral administration of various silymarin formulations combined with three bioenhancers, namely, lysergol, piperine, and fulvic acid, and compared with plain silymarin formulation (control). A non-compartmental analysis, model independent analysis, was utilized, and various pharmacokinetic parameters (C max, T max, and AUC 0-t) were calculated individually for each treatment group, and the values were expressed as mean ± SEM (n = 6). Plasma samples obtained from the rats were analyzed for the concentration of silymarin through a validated RP-HPLC method and on the basis of data generated from the pharmacokinetic studies. Results indicated that the bioenhancers augmented pharmacokinetic parameters and bioavailability increased 2.4-14.5-fold in all the formulations compared with the control. The current work envisages the development of an industrially viable product that can be further subjected to clinical trials and scientifically supports the development of silymarin as a contemporary therapeutic agent with enhanced bioavailability and medicinal values.

Animals , Male , Female , Rats , Silymarin/analysis , Silymarin/agonists , Acids/adverse effects , Biological Availability , Administration, Oral , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e18747, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1374571


Abstract Phenolic compounds are widely distributed in the plant kingdom and in the microorganisms. Cinnamic acid and its hydroxylated derivative-ferulic acid, are phenolic compounds. Ferulic acid possesses antioxidant potential, as well as anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial properties. It prevents the harmful effects of radiation both as an ultraviolet absorber and as a free radical scavenger; it is not cytotoxic. Although ferulic acid has beneficial properties, it is hardly used in cosmetic preparations and has been rarely studied in the literature. Herein, we review the literature on ferulic acid, to provide information which can contribute to further research on the compound.

Phenolic Compounds , Literature , Antioxidants/analysis , Acids/administration & dosage , Laboratory and Fieldwork Analytical Methods , Free Radical Scavengers/classification , Neoplasms/diagnosis
Bol. malariol. salud ambient ; 62(3): 489-497, 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1397149


La caries dental y la placa dental se encuentran entre las enfermedades más comunes en todo el mundo y son causadas por una mezcla de microorganismos y restos de alimentos. Tipos específicos de bacterias productoras de ácido, especialmente Streptococcus mutans, colonizan la superficie dental y causan daño a la estructura dental dura en presencia de carbohidratos fermentables, por ejemplo, sacarosa y fructosa. Por otro lado, el sangrado posterior a la extracción es una complicación reconocida y frecuente en la práctica dental, que se define como la pérdida de sangre que continúa más allá de las 8 a 12 horas después de la exodoncia. Existe una amplia gama de técnicas sugeridas y sustancias para el tratamiento del sangrado post-extracción, que incluyen intervenciones dirigidas tanto a causas locales como sistémicas. El ácido tánico es una de las sustancias astringente que precipitan proteínas, pero no penetran en las células, por lo que inciden solo en la capa superficial. Su objetivo se enfoca a robustecer la superficie para acrecentar su resistencia mecánica y reducir la exudación. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la presencia de S. mutans en las biopelículas dentales y al mismo tiempo evaluar la actividad del ácido tánico como inhibidor del sangrado profuso en las extracciones dentales. S. mutans se aisló en el 92,5% de los pacientes evaluados. Los tiempos de hemostasia post-exodoncia fue significativamente menor en el grupo de pacientes a los que se les aplicó el ácido tánico en comparación a los que no se les aplicó(AU)

Tooth decay and dental plaque are among the most common diseases worldwide and are caused by a mix of microorganisms and food debris. Specific types of acid-producing bacteria, especially Streptococcus mutans, colonize the tooth surface and cause damage to hard tooth structure in the presence of fermentable carbohydrates, for example, sucrose and fructose. On the other hand, post-extraction bleeding is a recognized and frequent complication in dental practice, defined as blood loss that continues beyond 8 to 12 hours after extraction. There is a wide range of suggested techniques and substances for the treatment of post-extraction bleeding, including interventions targeting both local and systemic causes. Tannic acid is one of the astringent substances that precipitate proteins, but does not penetrate the cells, so it affects only the superficial layer. Its objective is focused on strengthening the surface to increase its mechanical resistance and reduce exudation. The objective of this study was to determine the presence of S. mutans in dental biofilms and at the same time to evaluate the activity of tannic acid as an inhibitor of profuse bleeding in dental extractions. S. mutans was isolated in 92.5% of the patients evaluated. Post-extraction hemostasis times were significantly shorter in the group of patients who received tannic acid compared to those who did not(AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Streptococcus mutans , Surgery, Oral , Cariogenic Agents , Biofilms , Bacteria , Acids , Carbohydrates , Dental Plaque , Food , Fructose
J. oral res. (Impresa) ; 10(2): 1-9, abr. 30, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1381739


Introducción: Among the broad range of symptoms of the Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS), patients can present craniofacial manifestations. Consequently, the participation of the dental surgeon in the evaluation of the stomatognathic system using a multidisciplinary approach model is very important. Objective: To identify the craniofacial and neurological manifestations of the Guillain-Barré Syndrome in patients from three hospitals in the district of Lambayeque, Peru, in 2019. Material and Methods: A descriptive, prospective, and cross-sectional study was carried out in 59 patients diagnosed with GBS by means of a clinical evaluation carried out by previously calibrated neurologists (k=0.911). Additionally, an oral evaluation of the oral hygiene index, the periodontal status, and the oral pH was carried out. Data were processed using frequency distribution tables. Results: 4 4.07% of the patients presented at least one functional alteration, such as unilateral limitation for facial expressions (25.42%), dysphagia (18.64%), alteration in phonation (11.86%), and loss of the sense of taste (6.78%), showing involvement of the corresponding cranial nerves. In addition, unfavorable conditions of oral hygiene and acid pH were observed in some cases, which proved adverse for the periodontal structures of the patients. Conclusion: The study found craniofacial manifestations of GBS, such as cases of unilateral facial palsy, dysphagia, difficulty in phonation, and loss of the sense of taste, due to the alteration of the cranial nerves that command these functions. In addition, poor oral hygiene, and the presence of acidic pH in some patients created an adverse environment for the integrity of the periodontal structures

Introducción: El Síndrome de Guillain-Barré (SGB) dentro de su amplia sintomatología puede presentar manifestaciones craneofaciales, por lo que resulta importante la participación del cirujano dentista en la evaluación del sistema estomatognático desde un modelo de abordaje multidisciplinario. Objetivo: Identificar las manifestaciones neurológicas craneofaciales del Síndrome de Guillain-Barré en pacientes de tres establecimientos de salud de Lambayeque, Perú en el año 2019. Materiales y Metodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, prospectivo y transversal, con 59 pacientes diagnosticados con SGB, mediante una evaluación clínica realizada por médicos neurólogos previamente calibrados (k=0,911). Adicionalmente se realizó una evaluación bucodental del índice de higiene oral, del estado periodontal y del pH bucal, siendo procesados los datos mediante tablas de distribución de frecuencias. Resultados: El 44,07% de pacientes presentaron por lo menos una alteración funcional, identificando limitación unilateral para expresiones faciales (25.42%), disfagia (18.64%), alteración en la fonación (11.86%) y pérdida del sentido del gusto (6.78%), evidenciando compromiso de los pares craneales correspondientes. Además se observaron condiciones desfavorables de higiene oral y de pH ácido en algunos casos, que resultaron adversas para las estructuras periodontales de los pacientes. Conclusión: Fueron encontradas manifestaciones craneofaciales del SGB, identificando casos con parálisis facial unilateral, disfagia, dificultad para la fonación y pérdida del sentido del gusto, debido a la alteración de los pares craneales que comandan esas funciones. Además las condiciones desfavorables de higiene oral y la presencia de pH ácido en algunos casos, propiciaron un ambiente adverso para la integridad de las estructuras periodontales.

Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/complications , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Peru/epidemiology , Phonation , Acids , Oral Health , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Cranial Nerves , Facial Expression , Facial Paralysis
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 57: e18031, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1339304


The purpose of the survey was to determine acute & chronic toxicity; in vivo antioxidant and anti-inflammatory actions of the different extracts of A. fraxinifolius Wight and Arn bark; along with estimation of the phenolic, flavonoidal contents and investigation of phenolic metabolites that may attribute to the activities. LD50 of the total ethanol extract (TEE) was 7.1 g/kg b. wt, the radical scavenging activity of DPPH showed 60.31% inhibition, FRAP ability and ABTS+ activity showed 55.024 and 67.217 µmol Trolox/100 g dry weight, respectively. TEE followed by ethyl acetate extract (EAE) at 100 mg/kg b.w exhibited the highest in vivo antioxidant activity (94.51% and 91.08% potency, respectively) compared with Vit E (100%). The TEE & EAE exhibited the highest anti-inflammatory activity (3.81±0.08 & 3.79±.0.04) respectively in comparison with indomethacin 3.83±0.01 measured as edema diameter after 4 hours of extract administration. The total phenolic and total flavonoid contents in the total ethanol extract (TEE) estimated as gallic acid and catechin equivalents were 61.06± 0.08 µg eq GA/g, 40.33± 0.20 µg CE/g extract respectively. EAE revealed five phenolic acids and eight flavonoid compounds isolated for the first time from the plant

Toxicity Tests, Chronic/analysis , Fabaceae/toxicity , Antioxidants/analysis , Acids/adverse effects , Ethanol , Lethal Dose 50 , Acetates/administration & dosage
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1180870


ABSTRACT Objective: To compare the effect of Maleic acid and Irritrol (combination of Chlorhexidine & Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid) irrigation on the sealing ability of Biodentine when used as root-end filling material. Material and Methods: Thirty single-rooted human premolars were subjected to standardized root canal instrumentation and were irrigated with 2.5% Sodium Hypochlorite (NaOCl) after each instrument change. Apical root resections were done by removing 3 mm of the apex at a 90° angle to the long axis of the root with a diamond bur. The root end cavity preparation was done using ultrasonic tips at a low power setting under water coolant. They were randomly divided into 3 groups (n=10). Group 1 was irrigated with 7% Maleic acid, Group 2 was irrigated with Irritrol, and Group 3 was irrigated with 0.9% Saline (Control). Then, the root end cavities of all the samples were restored with Biodentine and were subjected to leakage analysis using a glucose filtration test. The mean values for each group were calculated and the obtained data was statistically analysed using ANOVA with post-hoc Tukey's test, ANOVA with post-hoc Games-Howell test and repeated measures ANOVA with post-hoc Bonferroni test. Results: The specimens irrigated with Irritrol showed least microleakage as compared to 7% Maleic acid and 0.9% Saline. Conclusion: A regimen involving irrigation of the root-end cavity with Irritrol followed by root-end filling with Biodentine can improve the apical seal.

Humans , Acids , Root Canal Preparation/instrumentation , Dental Materials , Dental Pulp Cavity , Bicuspid , Radiography, Dental/instrumentation , Analysis of Variance , India
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1697-1720, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878662


Tetracarbon organic acids are important platform chemicals that are widely used in the food, chemical, medicine, material industries and agriculture. Compared with the traditional petrochemical process, the production of tetracarbon organic acids by microbial fermentation is more promising due to milder reaction conditions, greener process and better environmental compatibility. This review summarizes the biosynthetic pathways and metabolic mechanisms for the production of tetracarbon organic acids, and illustrates recent advances, challenges, and future perspectives in the production of tetracarbon organic acids by naturally selected or purposefully engineered strains.

Acids , Biosynthetic Pathways , Fermentation , Metabolic Engineering , Organic Chemicals
Arq. Asma, Alerg. Imunol ; 4(1): 121-128, jan.mar.2020. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1381795


Introduction: Allergen proteins found in dust mite extracts, such as Dermatophagoides farinae (DF), Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (DP) and Tyrophagus putrescentiae (TP), are relevant for scientific studies in the allergy and immunotherapy fields. The precipitation/concentration of protein extracts may favor the aggregation of the allergens in homogenates. Objective and method: This paper investigates the precipitation process by submitting crude mite extracts to compounds such as ammonium sulfate (NH4)2SO4, trichloroacetic acid (TCA) and acetone. Results: The best results were obtained by fractionation with (NH4)2SO4 at 80% (w/v) saturation (~0° C), observing the protein markings on the electrophoresis gel. Major allergens were identified by immunoblot at 25 kDa (cysteine protease) for Der f and Der p; and 25 kDa, 30 kDa (tropomyosin) and Try p 3, near 26 kDa. For this percentage the total protein contents were 12.83 mg mL-1 for Der f, 24.78 mg mL-1 for Der p and 27.35 mg mL-1 for Try. Conclusion: An advantage of precipitation with (NH4)2SO4 over precipitation with acetone was the possibility of gradually obtaining protein fractions, which does not happen when using the latter. The addition of 80% (v/v) acetone to the mite extracts favored total protein precipitation in the concentrations 16.42 mg mL-1, 28.47 mg mL-1 and 13.41 mg mL-1. The use of TCA in concentrations above 20% (w/v) forms peptides that are not retained in the gel under the established experimental conditions, and dilute solutions of this acid are more efficient.

Introdução: As proteínas alergênicas presentes nos extratos dos ácaros de poeira, tais como Dermatofagoides farinae (DF), Dermatofagoides pteronyssinus (DP) e Tyrophagus putrescentiae (TP) são relevantes para estudos científicos na área de alergias e aplicação em imunoterapias. A precipitação/concentração desses extratos proteicos pode favorecer a agregação de alérgenos nos homogenatos. Objetivo e método: O trabalho investiga o processo de precipitação, submetendo os extratos brutos de ácaros de poeira a compostos como sulfato de amônio (NH4)2SO4, ácido tricloroacético (ATC) e acetona. Resultados: Os melhores resultados foram obtidos por fracionamento com (NH4)2SO4 em 80% (m/v) de saturação (~ 0°C), observando as marcações proteicas no gel de eletroforese. Os alérgenos principais foram identificados por immunoblot em 25 kDa (cisteína protease) para Der f 1 e Der p 1; e 25 kDa, 33 kDa (tropomyosin), 11 kDa para Tyr. Para esse percentual, os teores de proteína total foram de 12.83 mg mL-1 para DF; 24,78 mg mL-1 para DP; e 27,35 mg mL-1 para TP. Conclusão: A vantagem da precipitação com (NH4)2SO4 frente à precipitação com acetona foi a possibilidade de gradativamente se obter frações proteicas, o que não acontece quando utilizado esse solvente. A adição de 80% (v/v) de acetona aos extratos de ácaros favoreceu a precipitação total de proteína nas concentrações 16,42 mg mL-1; 28,47 mg mL-1; e 13,41 mg mL-1. O uso de ATC em concentrações acima de 20% (m/v) forma peptídeos que não são retidos no gel nas condições experimentais estabelecidas, sendo eficiente soluções mais diluídas desse ácido.

Humans , Tropomyosin , Dermatophagoides farinae , Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus , Cysteine Proteases , Ammonium Sulfate , Mites , Acetone , Peptide Hydrolases , Solvents , Acids , Allergens , Proteins , Dust , Hypersensitivity
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 44: 14-18, Mar. 2020. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1087629


BACKGROUND: Although bioactive metabolites capable of causing oxidative photo-necrosis in plant tissues have been identified in fungi, little is known about this type of mechanism in bacteria. These metabolites act as photosensitizers that generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) capable of causing damage to cells. In addition, these metabolites can pass into an energetically excited state when they receive some luminous stimulus, a condition in which they interact with other molecules present in the environment, such as molecular oxygen (O2), also known as triplet oxygen (3 O2), generating ROS. RESULTS: The suspension of the bacterial culture of Pseudomonas cedrina was shown to produce foliar necrosis in papaya leaves (Carica papaya L.) only in the presence of sunlight, which is evidence of photosensitizing mechanisms that generate singlet oxygen (1 O2). From the chemical study of extracts obtained from this bacteria, 3-(4-(2-carboxipropyl) phenyl) but-2-enoic acid (1) was isolated. This compound, in the presence of light and triplet oxygen (3 O2), was able to oxidize ergosterol to its peroxide, since it acted as a photosensitizer producing 1 O2, with which it was corroborated that a photosensitization reaction occurs, mechanism by which this bacterium could prove to cause oxidative foliar photo-necrosis. CONCLUSIONS: P. cedrina was able to induce oxidative foliar photo-necrosis because of its potential ability to produce photosensitizing metabolites that generate singlet oxygen in the plants it colonizes. Based on the above, it can be proposed that some bacteria can cause oxidative foliar photo-necrosis as an important mechanism in the pathogenesis of host species.

Plant Diseases/microbiology , Pseudomonas/physiology , Carica/microbiology , Singlet Oxygen/metabolism , Pseudomonas/metabolism , Acids , Reactive Oxygen Species , Plant Leaves/microbiology , Photooxidation , Light , Necrosis
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 56: e18502, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249161


Considering the importance of an adequate composition of the formulation in the development of stable, safe and effective cosmetic products, experimental design techniques are tools that can optimize the formulation development process. The objective of this study was to develop topical formulations using the Box-Behnken design with response surface methodology and evaluate its physical, sensory and moisturizing properties. The experimental design used in the first step allowed to identify and to quantify the influence of raw materials, as well as the interaction between them. In the second step, the analysis identified the influence of soy lecithin, the phytantriol and capric acid triglyceride and caprylic on the consistency index, stickiness and greasiness and skin hydration. Cetearyl alcohol, dicetyl phosphate and cetyl phosphate 10EO and acrylates/C10-30 alkylacrylate crosspolymer showed effects in rheological parameters. The addition of soy lecithin had significant effects in terms of consistency index, stickiness, oiliness and immediate moisturizing effects. Phytantriol showed effects on increasing consistency index and oiliness sensation. Thus, the experimental design was shown to be an effective tool for research and development of cosmetics, since it allowed the assessment of the individual and interaction effects of raw materials in the responses: rheological parameters, sensory and clinical efficacy.

Skin , Chemistry, Pharmaceutical/instrumentation , Emulsions/analysis , Cosmetic Technology , Process Optimization/methods , Research Design , Acids/administration & dosage , Acrylates/adverse effects , Treatment Outcome , Cosmetics/analysis , Cosmetic Stability , Methods
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 56: e18536, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132058


Ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) is used in various medical applications. The aim of this study is to investigate the antitumor efficacy of EDTA alone or with cisplatin (Cis). Fifty male albino mice were used to assess the median lethal dose (LD50) of EDTA via intraperitoneal (i.p) injection. To determine the antitumor activity, fifty female albino mice were divided into five groups as the following; Group 1 (Gp1) was negative control; (Gp2-5) inoculated i.p with 2×106 Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma (EAC) cells/mouse. After one day, Gp3, Gp4 and Gp5 injected with Cis (2 mg/kg), EDTA (25 mg/kg) and Cis (2 mg/kg)/EDTA (25 mg/kg) for six days, respectively. At day 14, all groups were sacrificed to assess the tumor profile, liver enzymes (alanine transaminases and aspartate transaminases), kidney function (urea and creatinine) and electrolytes (Na+, K+ and Ca2+). The results showed that the i.p LD50 of EDTA was 250 mg/kg. Treatment with EDTA alone did not show any antitumor activity and did not interfere with the antitumor efficacy of Cis. Biochemical findings revealed that EDTA had mild toxicity on liver and kidneys functions. In summary, EDTA had no antitumor effect and did not alter the Cis efficacy.

Animals , Female , Mice , Carcinoma/pathology , Efficacy/classification , Edetic Acid/analysis , Liver/abnormalities , Neoplasms/classification , Acids , Dosage/analysis
Braz. j. oral sci ; 19: e200181, jan.-dez. 2020. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1152205


Aim: To evaluate the behavior of experimental dental adhesives with hydroxyapatite (HAp), alpha-tricalcium phosphate (α-TCP) or octacalcium phosphate (OCP) after storing them in three different media: dry storage, distilled water, or lactic acid. Methods: An experimental adhesive resin was formulated with bisphenol A glycol dimethacrylate, 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate, and photoiniciator/co-initiator system. HAp(GHAp), α-TCP (Gα-TCP), or OCP (GOCP) were added to the adhesive resin at 2 wt.%, and one group remained without calcium phosphates to be used as a control (GCtrl). The adhesives were evaluated for surface roughness, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and ultimate tensile strength (UTS) after storing in distilled water (pH=5.8), lactic acid (pH=4) or dry medium. Results: The initial surface roughness was not different among groups (p>0.05). GHAp showed increased values after immersion in water (p<0.05) or lactic acid (p<0.05). SEM analysis showed a surface variation of the filled adhesives, mainly for Gα-TCP and GHAp. GHApshowed the highest UTS in dry medium (p<0.05), and its value decreased after lactic acid storage (p<0.05). Conclusions: The findings of this study showed that HAp, OCP, and α-TCP affected the physical behavior of the experimental adhesive resins in different ways. HAp was the calcium phosphate that most adversely affected the surface roughness and the mechanical property of the material, mainly when exposed to an acid medium

Polymers , Tensile Strength , Acids , Calcium Phosphates , Dentin-Bonding Agents
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828450


This paper aimed to establish efficacy systems of tanshinones and salvianolic acids, two representative substances in Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma by using literature mining and biological network construction, based on systematic traditional Chinese medicine theory. The systematic study on the efficacy of traditional Chinese medicine was carried out from the basic unit, the structure and relationship between the basic units, the boundary of the research object and the function of the system, so as to explain the overall efficacy of the two kinds of components at the molecular level. Firstly, we collected the elements of the efficacy systems of these two kinds of components by literature mining, and defined their boundaries based on biological processes. After that, the structure of the efficacy systems was clarified according to the relationship in the KEGG database. Finally, the function of the efficacy systems was analyzed from the level of pharmacology, pharmacodynamics, and efficacy, revealing the scientific connotation of traditional Chinese medicine efficacy system. The results showed that there were 201 targets(elements), 12 target sets(boundary), and 12 pathway networks(structure) in salvianolic acids' efficacy system. Meanwhile, there were 189 targets(elements), 11 target sets(boundary), and 11 pathway networks(structure) in tanshinones' efficacy system. The results suggested that the functions of salvia-nolic acids' and tanshinones' efficacy systems were different in pharmacology and pharmacodynamics from aspects of elements, boundary, relationship and structure, but they were same in functional level as both of them could promote blood circulation, remove blood stasis, clear away heart-fire, relieve restlessness, and soothe the nerves. Based on systematic traditional Chinese medicine, we constructed the efficacy system of two representative components in Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma in this paper, elucidated the overall efficacy and builded the bridge between reductionism and holism in traditional Chinese medicine.

Acids , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Plant Roots , Rhizome , Salvia miltiorrhiza
Arq. Ciênc. Vet. Zool. UNIPAR (Online) ; 22(4): 147-156, out-dez. 2019.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1052864


Conservar alimentos na forma de silagem possui grande valia em regiões que ocorre estacionalidade climática, onde o excedente de forragem produzido no período das águas poderá ser utilizado posteriormente na época de estiagem. Para se produzir silagem de qualidade é preciso atentar-se para vários fatores inerentes ao método como também a planta forrageira a ser utilizada. Assim, conhecer os princípios básicos para produção de silagem são de grande valia para se produzir volumoso conservado de qualidade. Objetivou-se apresentar nesta revisão abordar os conceitos sobre a produção de silagem, como também as alterações que ocorrem durante o processo fermentativo. As principais características químicas avaliadas na silagem são: composição química, pH, capacidade tampão, as concentrações de ácidos orgânicos (ácidos láctico, acético, propiônico e butírico) e o nitrogênio amoniacal sob o percentual de nitrogênio total. Conhecer adequadamente as etapas para a produção de silagem são de grande valia para entender como funciona o processo fermentativo e como pode ser maximizado, resultando em silagem de qualidade e consequentemente satisfatório desempenho animal. Logo, com as informações expostas sobre o processo de conservação de forragens na forma de silagem consegue-se adequar a cultura forrageira à técnica, obtendo-se silagens de qualidade.(AU)

Preserving food in the form of silage has great value in regions presenting climatic seasonality, where the surplus of forage produced in the rainy season can be used later in the dry season. In order to produce quality silage, several factors inherent to the method must be considered, as well as the forage plant being used. Thus, knowing the basic principles for silage production is of great value to produce quality bulky preserves. The purpose of this review was to discuss concepts regarding the production of silage as well as the changes that occur during the fermentation process. The main chemical characteristics evaluated in the silage are chemical composition, pH, buffer capacity, organic acid concentrations (lactic, acetic, propionic and butyric acids), and ammoniacal nitrogen under the percentage of total nitrogen. Knowledge of the proper steps for silage production is of great value in understanding how the fermentation process takes place and how to maximize it, resulting in quality silage and consequently satisfactory animal performance. Thus, with the information presented on the process of forage preservation in silage form it is possible to adapt the forage culture to the specific technique, getting it quality silage.(AU)

Conservar alimentos en forma de ensilaje tiene gran valor en regiones que ocurre estacionalidad climática, donde el excedente de forraje producido en el período de las aguas podrá ser utilizado posteriormente en la época de sequía. Para producir ensilaje de calidad es necesario atentarse para varios factores inherentes al método, como también a la planta forrajera a ser utilizada. Así, conocer los principios básicos para la producción de ensilaje es de gran valor para producir abultado conservado de calidad. Se pretendió presentar en esta revisión los conceptos sobre la producción de ensilaje, así como las alteraciones que ocurren durante el proceso fermentativo. Las principales características químicas evaluadas en el ensilaje son: composición química, pH, capacidad tampón, las concentraciones de ácidos orgánicos (ácidos láctico, acético, propiónico y butírico) y el nitrógeno amoniacal bajo el porcentaje de nitrógeno total. Conocer las etapas adecuadamente para la producción de ensilaje es de gran valor para entender cómo funciona el proceso fermentativo y cómo puede ser maximizado, resultando en ensilaje de calidad y consecuentemente satisfactorio desempeño animal. Por lo tanto, con las informaciones expuestas sobre el proceso de conservación de forrajes en la forma de ensilaje, es posible adaptar el cultivo de forrajera a la técnica, conseguirlo ensilajes de calidad.(AU)

Silage/analysis , Fermentation , Acids/chemical synthesis
Araçatuba; s.n; 2019. 28 p. ilus, tab.
Thesis in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1381559


Introdução: O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a eficácia de diferentes protocolos de Irrigação Ultrassônica Passiva (PUI) por meio de microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV). Métodos: Seis cavidades foram confeccionadas ao longo da seção vestibular de 20 canais radiculares de pré-molares inferiores humanos e preenchidas com detritos. 10 grupos foram criados de acordo com o protocolo final de irrigação: Grupo 1- controle positivo (sem detritos); Grupo 2- controle negativo (com detritos); Grupo 3 - irrigação convencional com hipoclorito de sódio a 2,5% (NaOCl); Grupo 4 - irrigação convencional com 17% de ácido etilenodiaminotetracético (EDTA) seguido de NaOCl; Grupo 5- PUI com 3 ciclos de 20 segundos (NaOCl-NaOCl-NaOCl); Grupo 6- PUI com 3 ciclos de 20 segundos (NaOCl-EDTA-NaOCl); Grupo 7- PUI com um ciclo de 60 segundos (NaOCl); Grupo 8 - PUI com ciclo de 180 segundos (NaOCl); Grupo 9 - PUI com 2 ciclos de 60 segundos (EDTA-NaOCl); Grupo 10 - PUI com 2 ciclos de 60 segundos (NaOCl-EDTA). Os espécimes foram observados em MEV para a análise da remoção dos detritos (scores 1 a 5) e exposição dos túbulos dentinários (score 1 ou 2) dentro das cavidades. O teste de Kruskal-Wallis foi realizado para a análise estatística, com significância de 5%. Resultados: Os grupos PUI apresentaram melhores resultados na limpeza de detritos do que os grupos de irrigação convencionais nas cavidades 1, 2 e 3. As cavidades 4, 5 e 6 foram limpas em todos os grupos experimentais. Em relação à exposição dos túbulos dentinários, os grupos PUI foram capazes de alcançar um resultado melhor do que os grupos de irrigação convencional. Conclusões: A PUI mostrou-se mais eficaz na remoção de detritos do que a irrigação convencional nas cavidades localizadas na região apical do canal radicular, e os grupos PUI promoveram maior exposição dos túbulos dentinários independentemente do uso de EDTA como agente quelante para tecidos inorgânicos(AU)

Introduction: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of different Passive Ultrasonic Irrigation (PUI) protocols by means of scanning electron microscopy. Methods: Six hemispherical cavities were made along the buccal section of 20 root canals of human lower premolars and filled with debris. 10 groups was created according to the final irrigation protocol: Group 1- positive control (no debris); Group 2- negative control (with debris); Group 3- conventional irrigation with 2.5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl); Group 4- conventional irrigation with 17% ethylenediamine tetracetic acid (EDTA) followed by NaOCl; Group 5- PUI with 3 cycles of 20 seconds (NaOCl-NaOCl-NaOCl); Group 6- PUI with 3 cycles of 20 seconds (NaOCl-EDTANaOCl); Group 7- PUI with a 60 seconds cycle (NaOCl); Group 8- PUI with a 180 seconds cycle (NaOCl); Group 9- PUI with 2 cycles of 60 seconds (EDTA-NaOCl); Group 10- PUI with 2 cycles of 60 seconds (NaOCl-EDTA). Scores were given for the analysis of debris removal in SEM, as well as for the exposure of dentinal tubules within the cavities. Kruskal-Wallis test was performed for statistical analysis. Results: The PUI groups presented better results in cleaning of debris than the conventional irrigation groups in cavities 1, 2 and 3. Cavities 4, 5 and 6 were well cleansed in all experimental groups. Regarding the exposure of the dentinal tubules, the PUI groups were able to achieve a better result than the conventional irrigation groups. Conclusions: Passive ultrasonic irrigation proved to be more effective in the removal of debris than conventional irrigation in the cavities located in the apical region of the root canal, and the PUI groups promoted greater exposure of the dentinal tubules independently of the use of EDTA as a chelating agent for inorganic tissues(AU)

Root Canal Irrigants , Root Canal Preparation , Sodium Hypochlorite , Ultrasonic Therapy , Acids , Bicuspid , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Edetic Acid
J. appl. oral sci ; 27: e20180593, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1019973


Abstract There is growing evidence that C. albicans is associated with dental caries, but its role on caries development needs to be better clarified. Objective: To evaluate at the hard tissue level the effect of C. albicans on the cariogenic potential of S. mutans biofilms focusing on the mineral profile of induced carious lesions. This study also aimed to evaluate the effect of C. albicans on the acidogenic potential of S. mutans biofilms. Methodology: Dual-species (CA+SM) and single-species biofilms (CA or SM) were grown on the surface of enamel slabs in the presence of glucose/sucrose supplemented culture medium for 24, 48 and 72 hours. Demineralization was evaluated through percentage of surface microhardness change (%SMC) and transversal microradiography analysis (ILM and LD) and pH of the spent medium was recorded daily. Data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA followed by Bonferroni correction. Results: %SMC was statistically different among the biofilms at each time point being the highest for SM biofilms and the lowest for CA biofilms which also differed from CA+SM biofilms [SM (24 h: 47.0±7.3; 48 h: 66.3±8.3; 72 h: 75.4±3.9); CA (24 h: 7.3±3.3; 48 h: 7.1±6.4; 72 h: 6.6±3.6); CA+SM (24 h: 35.9±7.39.1; 48 h: 47.2±9.5; 72 h: 47.6±9.5)]. pH of spent medium was statistically lower for SM biofilms compared to the other biofilms at each time point and remained constant over time while pH values increased from 24 to 72 h for both CA and CA+SM biofilms [SM (24 h: 4.4±0.1; 48 h: 4.4±0.1; 72 h: 4.5±0.1); CA (24 h: 6.9±0.3; 48 h: 7.2±0.2; 72 h: 7.5±0.2); CA+MS (24 h: 4.7±0.2; 48 h: 5.1±0.1; 72 h: 6.1±0.6)]. IML and LD for SM biofilms increased over time while no difference was observed from 24 to 72 h for the other biofilms. Conclusions: The present data suggest that C. albicans has low enamel demineralization potential and the presence of C. albicans can reduce both the cariogenic and acidogenic potentials of S. mutans biofilms.

Animals , Cattle , Streptococcus mutans/metabolism , Candida albicans/physiology , Tooth Demineralization/microbiology , Biofilms/growth & development , Dental Enamel/microbiology , Reference Values , Surface Properties , Time Factors , Acids/metabolism , Microradiography/methods , Colony Count, Microbial , Dental Enamel/chemistry , Hardness Tests , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 116(6): 409-414, dic. 2018. ilus, tab
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-973685


Antecedentes. La ingesta de sustancias cáusticas en pediatría constituye una causa frecuente de atención médica en Urgencias. El uso indiscriminado de limpiadores químicos y la facilidad de adquisición son factores determinantes para estas lesiones. Población y métodos. Estudio descriptivo analítico. Se incluyeron niños < 16 años, entre enero de 1998 y diciembre de 2017. Se identificó el agente químico cáustico ingerido por el niño como ácido o alcalino. Se realizó una endoscopía digestiva para tipificar el grado de quemadura. Se comparó el grado de quemadura con el tipo de cáustico; por medio de la prueba de chi² o exacta de Fisher, se consideró significativo el valor de P < 0,05. Resultados. Ingresaron 133 niños en Urgencias por ingesta de cáusticos. El agente cáustico fue ácido en el 41 % y alcalino en el 59 %. El agente ácido más frecuente fue el ácido muriático (36,8 %), mientras que el alcalino fue la sosa (soda) cáustica (41,4 %). La quemadura del esófago fue más frecuente en la ingesta de sosa en comparación con otros cáusticos (p= 0,001), mientras que la quemadura del estómago (p= 0,001) y del duodeno (p= 0,002) fue estadísticamente significativa en la ingesta de ácido muriático. El grupo de edad que más frecuentemente ingirió algún cáustico (93,2 %) fueron los menores de 5 años. Conclusiones. El cáustico ingerido con mayor frecuencia fue un agente alcalino, que provocó quemadura esofágica, mientras que un agente ácido provocó quemaduras en el estómago y el duodeno evidenciadas por endoscopía.

Background. Caustic ingestion in pediatrics is a common cause of visits to the Emergency Department. An indiscriminate use of cleaning chemicals and an easy access to them are determining factors for these injuries. Population and methods. Descriptive, analytical study. Children aged < 16 years hospitalized between January 1998 and December 2017 were included. The ingested caustic substance was identified as acid or alkaline. A gastrointestinal endoscopy was done to establish the burn grade. The grade of the burn was compared to the type of caustic substance using the χ² test or the Fisher's exact test; a P value < 0.05 was considered significant. Results. A total of 133 children were admitted to the Emergency Department due to caustic ingestion. The caustic agent was acid in 41 % of cases and alkaline, in 59 %. The most common acid caustic substance was muriatic acid (36.8 %) and the most common alkaline caustic agent was caustic soda (41.4 %). An esophageal burn was the most common consequence of caustic soda ingestion compared to other caustic agents (p = 0.001), whereas muriatic acid ingestion was the most statistically significant cause of stomach burn (p = 0.001) and duodenal burn (p = 0.002). The age group that most commonly ingested some caustic agent (93.2 %) corresponded to children younger than 5 years. Conclusions. The most common type of ingested caustic agent was alkaline, which caused esophageal burn; whereas, the ingestion of an acid caustic substance caused stomach and duodenal burns, as evidenced by endoscopy.

Humans , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Burns, Chemical/diagnosis , Caustics/poisoning , Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal/methods , Gastrointestinal Tract/injuries , Stomach/injuries , Acids/poisoning , Burns, Chemical/etiology , Burns, Chemical/epidemiology , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Age Factors , Duodenum/injuries , Alkalies/poisoning , Emergency Service, Hospital , Esophagus/injuries
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 31: 67-54, Jan. 2018. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1022118


Background: Pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass is essential for using it as a raw material for chemical and biofuel production. This study evaluates the effects of variables in the chemical pretreatment of the Arundo biomass on the glucose and xylose concentrations in the final enzymatic hydrolysate. Three pretreatments were tested: acid pretreatment, acid pretreatment followed by alkaline pretreatment, and alkaline pretreatment. Results: The amounts of glucose and xylose released by the enzymatic hydrolysis of the Arundo biomass obtained from acid pretreatment ranged from 6.2 to 19.1 g/L and 1.8 to 3.1 g/L, respectively. The addition of alkaline pretreatment led to a higher yield from the enzymatic hydrolysis, with the average glucose concentration 3.5 times that obtained after biomass hydrolysis with an acid pretreatment exclusively. The use of an alkaline pretreatment alone resulted in glucose and xylose concentrations similar to those obtained in the two-step pretreatment: acid pretreatment followed by alkaline pretreatment. There was no significant difference in 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, furfural, or acetic acid concentrations among the pretreatments. Conclusion: Alkaline pretreatment was essential for obtaining high concentrations of glucose and xylose. The application of an alkaline pretreatment alone resulted in high glucose and xylose concentrations. This result is very significant as it allows a cost reduction by eliminating one step.

Ethanol/metabolism , Poaceae/chemistry , Acids/chemistry , Xylose/analysis , Cellulose/chemistry , Biomass , Biofuels , Glucose/analysis , Hydrolysis , Lignin