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1.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(4): 1191-1197, ago. 2023. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1514363

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: The toxic effects of thioacetamide (TAA) and carbon tetrachloride on the human body are well recognized. In this study, we examined whether TAA intoxication can induce kidney leukocyte infiltration (measured as leukocyte common antigen CD45) associated with the augmentation of the reactive oxygen species (ROS)/tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) axis, as well as biomarkers of kidney injury with and without metformin treatment. Rats were either injected with TAA (200 mg/kg; twice a week for 8 weeks) before being sacrificed after 10 weeks (experimental group) or were pre-treated with metformin (200 mg/kg) daily for two weeks prior to TAA injections and continued receiving both agents until the end of the experiment, at week 10 (protective group). Using basic histology staining, immunohistochemistry methods, and blood chemistry analysis, we observed profound kidney tissue injury such as glomerular and tubular damage in the experimental group, which were substantially ameliorated by metformin. Metformin also significantly (p0.05) increase in kidney expression of CD45 positive immunostaining cells. In conclusion, we found that TAA induces kidney injury in association with the augmentation of ROS/TNF-α axis, independent of leukocyte infiltration, which is protected by metformin.


Son bien conocidosos los efectos tóxicos de la tioacetamida (TAA) y el tetracloruro de carbono en el cuerpo humano. En este estudio, examinamos si la intoxicación por TAA puede inducir la infiltración de leucocitos renales (medida como antígeno leucocitario común CD45) asociada con el aumento de las especies reactivas de oxígeno (ROS)/factor de necrosis tumoral-alfa (TNF-α), así como biomarcadores de daño renal con y sin tratamiento con metformina. A las ratas se les inyectó TAA (200 mg/kg; dos veces por semana durante 8 semanas) antes de sacrificarlas a las 10 semanas (grupo experimental) o se les pretrató con metformina (200 mg/kg) diariamente durante dos semanas antes de las inyecciones de TAA y continuaron recibiendo ambos agentes hasta el final del experimento, en la semana 10 (grupo protector). Usando tinción histológica básica, métodos de inmunohistoquímica y análisis químico de la sangre, observamos una lesión profunda del tejido renal, como daño glomerular y tubular en el grupo experimental, que mejoraron sustancialmente con la metformina. La metformina también inhibió significativamente (p0,05) en la expresión renal de células de inmunotinción positivas para CD45. En conclusión, encontramos que el TAA induce la lesión renal en asociación con el aumento del eje ROS/TNF-α, independientemente de la infiltración de leucocitos, que está protegida por metformina.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Thioacetamide/toxicity , Acute Kidney Injury/drug therapy , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Metformin/therapeutic use , Immunohistochemistry , Biomarkers , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Reactive Oxygen Species , Leukocyte Common Antigens , Acute Kidney Injury/chemically induced , Inflammation
2.
Biomedical and Environmental Sciences ; (12): 397-405, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981068

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#This study aimed to evaluate the clinical benefits of a vancomycin dosage strategy based on a serum trough concentration model in elderly patients.@*METHODS@#This prospective single-center, open-label, randomized controlled trial categorized 66 elderly patients with severe pneumonia into study and control groups. The control group received vancomycin using a regimen decided by the attending physician. Meanwhile, the study group received individualized vancomycin therapy with a dosing strategy based on a serum trough concentration model. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients with serum trough concentrations reaching the target values. The secondary endpoints were clinical response, vancomycin treatment duration, and vancomycin-associated acute kidney injury (VA-AKI) occurrence.@*RESULTS@#All patients were at least 60 years old (median age = 81 years). The proportion of patients with target trough concentration achievement (≥ 15 mg/L) with the initial vancomycin regimen was significantly higher in the study group compared to the control group (75.8% vs. 42.4%, P = 0.006). Forty-five patients (68.2%) achieved clinical success, the median duration of vancomycin therapy was 10.0 days, and VA-AKI occurred in eight patients (12.1%). However, there were no significant differences in these parameters between the two groups. The model for predicting vancomycin trough concentrations was upgraded to: serum trough concentration (mg/L) = 17.194 - 0.104 × creatinine clearance rate (mL/min) + 0.313 × vancomycin daily dose [(mg/(kg∙d)].@*CONCLUSION@#A vancomycin dosage strategy based on a serum trough concentration model can improve the proportion of patients achieving target trough concentrations in elderly patients with severe pneumonia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Middle Aged , Vancomycin/therapeutic use , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , Acute Kidney Injury/drug therapy , Pneumonia/drug therapy
3.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 26(3): 1398-1411, set-dez. 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1414511

ABSTRACT

Pelas características anatômicas e fisiológicas dos rins, a lesão renal aguda tem sua origem nefrotóxica pela alta circulação local, o que favorece a alta concentração de substâncias tóxicas e seus metabólitos no tecido. A lesão renal aguda é uma complicação comum em internações hospitalares e principalmente em internações em unidades de terapia intensiva. A ciclofosfamida, um quimioterápico utilizado no tratamento de doenças autoimunes e neoplasias sólidas, pode causar nefrotoxicidade com disfunção glomerular e tubular. O uso de plantas medicinais, pelas suas potentes ações antioxidantes, tem sido usado para prevenção ou tratamento de lesões celulares induzidas pelo desequilíbrio entre enzimas antioxidantes e oxidantes. Por esse motivo, o objetivo do experimento foi avaliar o potencial efeito protetor da Echinodorus grandiflorus na prevenção da nefrotoxidade induzida pela ciclofosfamida. Para isso, foi realizado o experimento com a utilização de 35 ratos machos, Wistar, divididos em seis grupos experimentais, sendo administrado a ciclofosfamida na dose de 150mg/kg nos grupos G2 a G6 e diferentes doses da Echinodorus grandiflorus, com posterior análise de parâmetros sanguíneos e histológicos. A administração de ciclofosfamida na dose de 150mg/kg de massa corporal, em dose única, foi capaz de induzir a nefrotoxicidade aguda em todos os ratos. O extrato bruto de Echinodorus grandiflorus apresentou potencial efeito renoprotetor ao uso da ciclofosfamida, na dose de 300mg/kg de massa corporal, sendo possível observar redução dos efeitos nefrotóxicos do quimioterápico, pela redução dos danos tubulares e pela diminuição dos espaços capsulas, nitidamente encontradas alterados no grupo que recebeu apenas ciclofosfamida, denotando resultados promissores para utilização desta planta medicinal na prevenção da nefrotoxicidade induzida pelo fármaco. Contudo, novos estudos dos efeitos renoprotetor do chapéu de couro, poderão elucidar os mecanismos envolvidos na ação do extrato bruto do chapéu de couro. A utilização de extrato bruto de plantas medicinais torna-se um adjuvante aos tratamentos pelo baixo custo e pela facilidade de acesso das diferentes populações as plantas desde que devidamente orientados pelos profissionais habilitados.


Due to the anatomical and physiological characteristics of the kidneys, acute kidney injury has its nephrotoxic origin due to the high local circulation, which favors the high concentration of toxic substances and their metabolites in the tissue. Acute kidney injury is a common complication in hospital admissions and especially in intensive care unit admissions. Cyclophosphamide, a chemotherapy drug used in the treatment of autoimmune diseases and solid neoplasms, can cause nephrotoxicity with glomerular and tubular dysfunction. The use of medicinal plants, due to their potent antioxidant actions, has been used for the prevention or treatment of cellular injuries induced by the imbalance between antioxidant and oxidant enzymes. For this reason, the aim of the experiment was to evaluate the potential protective effect of Echinodorus grandiflorus in preventing cyclophosphamide-induced nephrotoxicity. For this, the experiment was carried out with the use of 35 male Wistar rats, divided into six experimental groups, being administered cyclophosphamide at a dose of 150mg/kg in groups G2 to G6 and different doses of Echinodorus grandiflorus, with subsequent analysis of parameters blood and histology. The administration of cyclophosphamide at a dose of 150mg/kg of body weight, in a single dose, was able to induce acute nephrotoxicity in all rats. The crude extract of Echinodorus grandiflorus showed a potential renoprotective effect with the use of cyclophosphamide, at a dose of 300mg/kg of body mass, and it was possible to observe a reduction in the nephrotoxic effects of the chemotherapy, due to the reduction of tubular damage and the reduction of capsule spaces, clearly found altered in the group that received only cyclophosphamide, showing promising results for the use of this medicinal plant in the prevention of drug-induced nephrotoxicity. However, further studies of the renoprotective effects of the leather hat may elucidate the mechanisms involved in the action of the crude extract of the leather hat. The use of raw extract of medicinal plants becomes an adjuvant to treatments due to the low cost and ease of access of different populations to plants, provided that they are properly guided by qualified professionals.


Debido a las características anatómicas y fisiológicas de los riñones, la lesión renal aguda tiene su origen nefrotóxico por la elevada circulación local, que favorece la alta concentración de sustancias tóxicas y sus metabolitos en el tejido. La lesión renal aguda es una complicación frecuente en los ingresos hospitalarios y principalmente en las unidades de cuidados intensivos. La ciclofosfamida, un quimioterápico utilizado en el tratamiento de enfermedades autoinmunes y neoplasias sólidas, puede causar nefrotoxicidad con disfunción glomerular y tubular. El uso de plantas medicinales, debido a sus potentes acciones antioxidantes, se ha utilizado para la prevención o el tratamiento de lesiones celulares inducidas por el desequilibrio entre enzimas antioxidantes y oxidantes. Por este motivo, el objetivo del experimento era evaluar el posible efecto protector del Echinodorus grandiflorus en la prevención de la nefrotoxicidad inducida por la ciclofosfamida. Para ello, se realizó el experimento utilizando 35 ratas Wistar macho, divididas en seis grupos experimentales, administrándoseles ciclofosfamida a una dosis de 150mg/kg en los grupos G2 a G6 y diferentes dosis de Echinodorus grandiflorus, con posterior análisis de sangre y parámetros histológicos. La administración de ciclofosfamida a una dosis de 150mg/kg de masa corporal, en dosis única, fue capaz de inducir nefrotoxicidad aguda en todas las ratas. El extracto crudo de Echinodorus grandiflorus presentó un potencial efecto renoprotector al uso de ciclofosfamida, a una dosis de 300mg/kg de masa corporal, siendo posible observar una reducción de los efectos nefrotóxicos de la quimioterapia, por la reducción del daño tubular y por la disminución de los espacios capsulares, encontrándose claramente alterados en el grupo que recibió solamente ciclofosfamida, denotando resultados promisorios para el uso de esta planta medicinal en la prevención de la nefrotoxicidad inducida por el fármaco. Sin embargo, nuevos estudios sobre los efectos renoprotectores del sombrero de cuero podrían dilucidar los mecanismos implicados en la acción del extracto crudo de sombrero de cuero. El uso de extractos crudos de plantas medicinales se convierte en un coadyuvante de los tratamientos por su bajo coste y la facilidad de acceso de las diferentes poblaciones a las plantas desde que son guiadas adecuadamente por profesionales cualificados.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Cyclophosphamide/analysis , Alismataceae/toxicity , Acute Kidney Injury/drug therapy , Plants, Medicinal/drug effects , Body Weight/drug effects , Pharmaceutical Preparations/analysis , Mesna/toxicity , Rats, Wistar
4.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 757-766, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927566

ABSTRACT

Acute kidney injury (AKI), characterized by acute renal dysfunction, is an increasingly common clinical problem and an important risk factor in the subsequent development of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Regardless of the initial insults, the progression of CKD after AKI involves multiple types of cells, including renal resident cells and immune cells such as macrophages. Recently, the involvements of macrophages in AKI-to-CKD transition have garnered significant attention. Furthermore, substantial progress has also been made in elucidating the pathophysiological functions of macrophages from the acute kidney to repair or fibrosis. In this review, we highlight current knowledge regarding the roles and mechanisms of macrophage activation and phenotypic polarization, and transdifferentiation in the development of AKI-to-CKD transition. In addition, the potential of macrophage-based therapy for preventing AKI-to-CKD transition is also discussed.


Subject(s)
Humans , Acute Kidney Injury/drug therapy , Disease Progression , Kidney , Macrophages , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic
6.
Int. j. morphol ; 39(2): 469-476, abr. 2021. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385371

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Renal ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI)is an unavoidable consequence in renal transplantation and multiple clinical settings. A debate has been raised about the particular role of hypoxia-inducible factor (HF-1α) in the renal injury pathogenesis and the renal cortex ultrastructural alterations. Also, we investigated the antioxidant/anti-inflammatory effect of thymoquinone and its modulatory role on HIF-1α in protection against renal IRI.Adult male Wister albino rats were assigned into 3 groups (n=16); 1) Sham-operated, 2) IRI model and 3) renal IRI pre-treated with thymoquinone 10 mg.kg-1.day-1 (TQ-IRI) for 10 days and at the reperfusion onset. Following the operation, 8 rats from each group were euthanized after 3 hours and the remaining 8 rats at 24 hours. Renal injury was assessed by the increased blood urea nitrogen, creatinine level, and the EGTI histological injury scoreat both 3 and 24h. HIF-1α was upregulated (p<0.01) and was correlated with renal tissue reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and total oxidant capacity (TAC) consumption. Elevated inflammatory markers (NFkB, MCP-1 and VCAM-1) were associated with renal IRI.Thymoquinone treatment inhibited the accumulation of HIF-1α (p<0.01), reduced renal oxidation/inflammation process and markedly diminished renal injury.


RESUMEN: La lesión por isquemia-reperfusión renal (IRR) es una consecuencia inevitable en el trasplante renal como también en múltiples contextos clínicos. Se ha suscitado una discusión referente a la relación particular del factor inducible por hipoxia (HF- 1α) en la patogénesis de la lesión renal y las alteraciones ultraestructurales de la corteza renal. Además, investigamos el efecto antioxidante / antiinflamatorio de la timoquinona y su papel modulador sobre HIF-1α en la protección contra IRR. Se utilizaron ratas albinas Wister macho adultas divididas en 3 grupos (n = 16); 1) Intervención simulada, 2) modelo IRR y 3) IRR pretratado con timoquinona 10 mg/kg-1. día-1 (TQ-IRR) durante 10 días y al inicio de la reperfusión. Posterior a la operación, 8 ratas de cada grupo fueron sacrificadas después de 3 horas y las 8 ratas restantes a las 24 horas. La lesión renal se evaluó por el aumento de nitrógeno ureico en sangre, el nivel de creatinina y la puntuación de lesión histológica EGTI tanto a las 3 como a las 24 horas. HIF-1α se incrementó (p <0,01) y se correlacionó con la producción de especies de oxígeno reactivo (ROS) del tejido renal y el consumo de capacidad oxidante total. Los marcadores inflamatorios elevados (NFkB, MCP-1 y VCAM-1) se asociaron con IRR. El tratamiento con timoquinona inhibió la acumulación de HIF-1α (p <0,01), redujo el proceso de oxidación / inflamación renal y disminuyó notablemente la lesión renal.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Reperfusion Injury/drug therapy , Benzoquinones/therapeutic use , Acute Kidney Injury/drug therapy , Rats, Wistar , Oxidative Stress , Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1/antagonists & inhibitors , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Antioxidants/therapeutic use
7.
Acta cir. bras ; 36(4): e360405, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1248548

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose Shen-fu injection (SFI) was used to intervene in the resuscitation of porcine hemorrhagic shock (HS) model to study its protective effects on acute kidney injury. Methods After 60 min of HS, 28 animals were randomly assigned into four groups. The groups were as follows: hemorrhagic shock group (HS); HS resuscitation with shed-blood group (HSR); HS resuscitation with shed-blood and SFI (1 mL·kg-1) group (HSR-SFI); and the sham operation group (Sham). The bloods were analyzed for serum creatinine (sCr), cystatin C (CysC) and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL). BAX, Bcl-2, and caspase-3 protein expressions by Western blot analysis and immunohistochemical staining. The renal tissues were removed and pathologic changes were observed. Results Mean aortic pressure (MAP) in HSR-SFI groups were higher than that in HSR groups after shock. At the 6th hour after shock, the urine volume per hour in the HSR-SFI groups was more than that in the HSR groups. The sCr, NGAL, CysC and cytokine levels of HSR-SFI groups were lower. The Bcl-2 expression was increased in the HSR-SFI groups. The BAX and caspase-3 expressions were reduced. The histopathologic score in the HSR-SFI was lower. Conclusions SFI may reduce the risk of acute kidney injury (AKI) following hemorrhagic shock by attenuating systemic inflammatory responses, and regulating the expression of apoptosis-related proteins.


Subject(s)
Animals , Shock, Hemorrhagic/drug therapy , Acute Kidney Injury/prevention & control , Acute Kidney Injury/drug therapy , Swine , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Cytokines , Apoptosis
8.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 118(1): S50-S58, 2020-02-00. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1096514

ABSTRACT

La lesión renal aguda constituye un factor de riesgo independiente de la morbimortalidad en el recién nacido. Dentro de este grupo etario, presentan aún más susceptibilidad los recién nacidos prematuros en los cuales la nefrogénesis no se ha completado y los recién nacidos de bajo peso que presentan menor masa nefronal. Todo esto hace que el recién nacido deba ser evaluado y manejado de modo diferente al paciente pediátrico. En el presente consenso, se presentan las nuevas definiciones de lesión renal aguda y se revisan las diferentes etiologías, los métodos de diagnóstico y los tratamientos recomendados.


Acute kidney Injury is recognized as an independent risk factor of morbidity and mortality in neonates. Additionally, in this age group, there are other aggravating factors, such as incomplete nephrogenesis in premature infants and lower nephron mass in low birth weight neonates. All this means that the newborn must be evaluated and managed differently from the pediatric patient. In the present consensus, we review the new definitions of acute kidney injury, etiologies, diagnostic methods and recommended treatments.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Acute Kidney Injury/diagnosis , Acute Kidney Injury/embryology , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Acute Kidney Injury/physiopathology , Acute Kidney Injury/drug therapy , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy
10.
Int. j. morphol ; 37(4): 1335-1341, Dec. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040134

ABSTRACT

Food additives and flavour enhancers used in the food industry are potential health risks. We tested the hypothesis that the food additive and flavour enhancer, monosodium glutamate (MSG), which is the sodium salt of glutamic acid can induce ultrastructural alterations to the kidney, and the antioxidant vitamin E can protect against acute kidney injuries induced by a toxic dose of MSG in a rat model of the disease. The model group of rats received a daily dose of MSG (4 gm/kg) for 7 days, whereas the protective groups were either received a 100 mg/kg vitamin E plus MSG or 300 mg/kg vitamin E plus MSG for 7 days. Rats were then sacrificed on day 8. Transmission and light microscopy images revealed substantial kidney damage induced by MSG in the model group as demonstrated by degenerated epithelial cells with Pyknotic nuclei, swollen mitochondria, damaged brush margins, dilated tubules, and widening of Bowman's space with shrinkage and deformity of some glomeruli. Treatment of the model group with vitamin E showed a substantial protection of kidney tissue and renal ultrastructure by 300 mg/kg vitamin E compared to a partial protection by 100 mg/kg vitamin E. In addition, MSG significantly (p<0.05) increased serum levels of urea and creatinine, which were significantly (p<0.05) decreased with vitamin E. However, for serum creatinine, high doses of vitamin E (300 mg/kg) were more effective than lower doses (100 mg/kg) of vitamin E. These results indicate that vitamin E at 300 mg/kg effectively protects against MSG-induced acute kidney injury in rats.


Los aditivos alimentarios y los potenciadores del sabor utilizados en la industria alimentaria son riesgos potenciales para la salud. Probamos la hipótesis de que el aditivo alimentario y el potenciador del sabor, glutamato monosódico (MSG), la sal sódica del ácido glutámico, puede inducir alteraciones ultraestructurales del riñón, y que las propiedades antioxidantes de la vitamina E, pueden proteger contra las lesiones renales inducidas por una dosis tóxica de MSG en un modelo de rata. El grupo modelo de ratas recibió una dosis diaria de MSG (4 g / kg) durante 7 días, mientras que los grupos protectores recibieron una dosis de 100 mg / kg de vitamina E más MSG o 300 mg / kg de vitamina E más MSG durante 7 días. Las ratas se sacrificaron el día 8. Las imágenes de microscopía óptica y de transmisión revelaron un daño renal sustancial inducido por el MSG en el grupo modelo, como lo demuestran las células epiteliales degeneradas con núcleos picnóticos, mitocondrias hinchadas, bordes dañados, túbulos dilatados y ensanchamiento del espacio de Bowman, además de la deformidad de algunos glomérulos. El tratamiento del grupo modelo con vitamina E mostró una protección sustancial del tejido renal y la ultraestructura renal de 300 mg / kg de vitamina E en comparación con una protección parcial de 100 mg / kg de vitamina E. Además, el MSG aumentó significativamente (p <0,05) en el suero los niveles de urea y creatinina, disminuyeron significativamente (p <0,05) con la vitamina E. Sin embargo, para la creatinina sérica, las dosis altas de vitamina E (300 mg / kg) fueron más efectivas que las dosis más bajas (100 mg / kg) de vitamina E. Estos resultados indican que la vitamina E a 300 mg / kg protege eficazmente contra la lesión renal aguda inducida por MSG en ratas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Sodium Glutamate/toxicity , Vitamin E/therapeutic use , Acute Kidney Injury/drug therapy , Vitamin E/pharmacology , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , Disease Models, Animal , Acute Kidney Injury/chemically induced , Acute Kidney Injury/pathology , Kidney/pathology , Kidney/ultrastructure
11.
Int. j. morphol ; 37(4): 1422-1428, Dec. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040148

ABSTRACT

Paracetamol (also called acetaminophen, or APAP) overdose causes acute damage to the liver and kidneys in both humans and experimental animal models via the induction of the oxidative stress pathway. We sought to determine whether the combined antioxidants and anti-inflammatory compounds, resveratrol (RES) and quercetin (QUR) can protect against kidney injury induced by a toxic dose of APAP in a rat model of APAP-induced acute kidney injury. Rats were either received a single dose of APAP (2 g/kg) before being sacrificed after 24 hours or were pre-treated for 7 days with combined doses of RES (30 mg/kg) and QUR (50 mg/kg) before being given a single dose of APAP and then sacrificed 24 hours post APAP ingestion. Harvested kidney tissues were prepared for light microscopy staining, and tissue samples were assayed for (i) biomarkers of oxidative stress and antioxidant, malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD); and (ii) biomarkers of inflammation, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stained images showed that APAP overdose induced acute kidney injury as demonstrated by widening of glomeruli space (Bowman space), tubular dilatation, numerous cellular debris in the renal tubules with tubular epithelial degeneration, and vacuolization, which were effectively protected by RES+QUR except a partial protection of the glomeruli space was observed. In addition, APAP significantly (p<0.05) modulated tissue levels of MDA, SOD, TNF-α, and IL-6, which were protected by RES+QUR. Furthermore, a significant (p<0.0001) positive correlation was observed between glomeruli space and TNF-α, (r=0.8899), IL-6 (r=0.8986), and MDA (r=0.8552), whereas glomeruli space scoring versus SOD showed negative correlation (r= - 0.7870). We conclude that resveratrol plus quercetin substantially protects against APAP-induced acute kidney injury in rats, possibly via the augmentation of antioxidants and inhibition of oxidative stress and inflammation.


La sobredosis de paracetamol (también llamado acetaminofen o APAP) causa un daño agudo en el hígado y los riñones, tanto en humanos como en modelos animales experimentales, a través de la inducción de la vía del estrés oxidativo. Intentamos determinar si los antioxidantes y los compuestos antiinflamatorios combinados, el resveratrol (RES) y la quercetina (QUR) pueden proteger contra la lesión renal inducida por una dosis tóxica de APAP en un modelo de rata de lesión renal aguda inducida por APAP. Las ratas recibieron una dosis única de APAP (2 g / kg) antes de ser sacrificadas después de 24 horas o se trataron previamente durante 7 días con dosis combinadas de RES (30 mg / kg) y QUR (50 mg / kg), antes de ser tratadas, se administró una dosis única de APAP y luego fueron sacrificadas 24 horas después de la ingestión. Los tejidos renales recolectados se tiñeron con H-E y fueron observados a través de microscopía óptica. Las muestras de tejido se analizaron para (i) biomarcadores de estrés oxidativo y antioxidante, malondialdehído (MDA) y superóxido dismutasa (SOD); y (ii) biomarcadores de inflamación, factor de necrosis tumoral alfa (TNF-α) e interleucina-6 (IL-6). Las imágenes teñidas con H & E mostraron que la sobredosis de APAP indujo daño renal agudo como lo demuestra la ampliación del espacio glomerular, la dilatación tubular, numerosos desechos celulares en los túbulos renales con degeneración epitelial tubular y la vacuolización, que se protegieron eficazmente con RES + QUR Se observó una protección parcial del espacio glomerular. Además, APAP modificó significativamente (p <0.05) los niveles tisulares de MDA, SOD, TNF-α e IL-6, que estaban protegidos por RES + QUR. Además, se observó una correlación positiva significativa (p <0,0001) entre el espacio glomerular y el TNF-α, (r = 0,8899), IL-6 (r = 0,8986) y MDA (r = 0,8552), mientras que la puntuación del espacio glomerular versus SOD mostró correlación negativa (r = - 0,7870). Concluimos que el resveratrol más quercetina protege sustancialmente contra la lesión renal aguda inducida por APAP en ratas, posiblemente a través del aumento de antioxidantes y la inhibición del estrés oxidativo y la inflamación.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Quercetin/therapeutic use , Acute Kidney Injury/drug therapy , Resveratrol/therapeutic use , Acetaminophen/toxicity , Quercetin/pharmacology , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Disease Models, Animal , Drug Therapy, Combination , Acute Kidney Injury/chemically induced , Resveratrol/pharmacology , Acetaminophen/antagonists & inhibitors , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Antioxidants/therapeutic use
12.
J. bras. nefrol ; 41(1): 152-156, Jan.-Mar. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002430

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis (RPGN) is a renal disease with an extensive differential diagnosis. This paper reports the case of a 55-year-old female patient diagnosed with Hansen's disease with acute progressive renal impairment after developing lower limb pyoderma. The association between Hansen's and kidney disease has been well documented, with glomerulonephritis (GN) ranked as the most common form of renal involvement. Post-infectious glomerulonephritis (PIGN) in adults has been associated with a number of pathogens occurring in diverse sites. The patient described in this case report had RPGN and biopsy findings suggestive of PIGN with C3 and IgA detected on immunofluorescence and kidney injury secondary to recent infection by Staphylococcus, a well-documented manifestation of renal impairment in patients with Hansen's disease.


RESUMO A Glomerulonefrite Rapidamente Progressiva (GNRP) é um padrão de doença renal com amplo diagnóstico diferencial. O caso reporta uma paciente de 55 anos com deterioração aguda e progressiva da função renal após quadro de piodermite em membro inferior com diagnóstico concomitante de hanseníase. Associação da hanseníase com doença renal é bem descrita, sendo a GN a forma de acometimento renal mais comum. As glomerulonefrites pós-infecciosas (GNPIs) em adultos ocorrem devido a um grande número de patógenos, nos mais diversos sítios. A paciente do caso relatado apresentava quadro de GNRP e achados de biópsia que sugerem GNPI com marcação de C3 e IgA na imunofluorescência, sugestiva de lesão renal secundária a infecção recente por Staphylococcus, uma manifestação bem descrita de doença renal em pacientes com hanseníase.


Subject(s)
Humans , Middle Aged , Complement C3/metabolism , Leprosy, Multibacillary/diagnosis , Acute Kidney Injury/diagnosis , Glomerulonephritis, IGA/diagnosis , Rifampin/therapeutic use , Biopsy , Blood Urea Nitrogen , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Clofazimine/therapeutic use , Creatinine/blood , Dapsone/therapeutic use , Diagnosis, Differential , Acute Kidney Injury/drug therapy , Glomerulonephritis, IGA/drug therapy , Glucocorticoids/administration & dosage , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use
13.
Acta cir. bras ; 34(1): e20190010000003, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-983683

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose: To investigate the influence of lycium barbarum polysaccharides (LBP), a functional derivative from lycium barbarum, on septic kidney injury. Methods: The SD male rats were randomly divided into 8 groups. The concentration of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, NF-κB and ROS, in kidney cortex homogenates after 12 h treatments were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and ROS test kit, respectively. Morphology observation of kidney tissue was conducted with HE staining. The mRNA and protein expression levels of Nrf2, HO-1, NQO1, NF-κB, and Keap1 in kidney tissues were determined by qRT-PCR and Western blot, respectively. Results: LPS treatment significantly increased the oxidative stress. After LBP treatment, the ROS content reduced significantly in a dose-depend manner. However, the levels of HO-1, NQO1 and Nrf2 as molecular elements that respond to oxidative stress were further increased. Also, administration of LBP increased the levels of NF-κB and Keap1, and decreased the levels of Nrf2 in the Keap 1-Nrf2∕ARE signaling pathway. By administrating the brusatol, the inhibition of Nrf2 enhanced the expression of NF-κB, inhibits the antioxidant responses, and further reverse the protective effect of LBP on the LPS induced septic kidney injury. Conclusion: Lycium barbarum polysaccharides can reduce inflammation and activate the antioxidant responses via regulating the level of pro-inflammatory cytokines and the Keap1-Nrf2/ARE signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/metabolism , Acute Kidney Injury/drug therapy , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Cytokines/drug effects , Disease Models, Animal
14.
Rev. bras. enferm ; 71(4): 1921-1927, Jul.-Aug. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-958662

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the antioxidant action of N-acetylcysteine and diosmin-hesperidin in an experimental model of sepsis-induced acute kidney injury in rats. Methods: The study used 20 Wistar adult male rats divided into the following groups: control (laparotomy with no induction of abdominal sepsis), sepsis (experimental model of sepsis with cecal ligation and puncture), N-acetylcysteine + sepsis and diosmin-hesperidin + sepsis. The evaluation contemplated physiological parameters (temperature, glycemia, and average blood pressure), kidney function (creatinine clearance), oxidative stress (urinary peroxides) and kidney histology. Results: The animals submitted to cecal ligation and puncture (sepsis) presented lower body temperature, lower average blood pressure, reduced creatinine clearance and increased urinary hydrogen peroxide levels. Treatment with diosmin-hesperidin improved kidney function and led to a reduction in the excretion of oxidative metabolites. Conclusion: The present study highlighted the protective antioxidant action of diosmin-hesperidin in the experimental model of sepsis-induced acute kidney injury.


RESUMEN Objetivo: Evaluar la acción antioxidante de agentes como la N-acetilcisteína y Diosmina-Hesperidina en modelo experimental de lesión renal aguda inducida por sepsis en ratones. Método: Fueron utilizados veinte ratones Wistar, adultos y machos, divididos en los grupos: Control (laparotomía sin inducción de sepsis abdominal), Sepsis (modelo experimental de sepsis con ligadura y punción de ciego-LPC), N-acelsisteína+Sepsis y Diosmina Hesperidina+Sepsis. Se evaluaron parámetros fisiológicos (temperatura, glucemia y presión arterial promedio), la función renal (clearance de creatinina), el estrés oxidativo (peróxidos urinarios) e histología renal. Resultados: Los animales sometidos a LPC (sepsis) presentaron reducción de la temperatura corporal, de la presión arterial promedio, del clearance de creatinina e incremento de niveles de peróxidos de hidrógeno urinarios. El tratamiento con Diosmina-Hesperidina mejoró la función renal, reduciendo la excreción de metabolitos oxidativos. Conclusión: Este estudio destacó la acción renoprotectora antioxidante de la Diosmina-Hesperidina en el modelo experimental de lesión renal aguda inducida por sepsis.


RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar a ação antioxidante de agentes como a N-acetilcisteína e diosmina-hesperidina em modelo experimental de lesão renal aguda induzida pela sepse em ratos. Método: Foram utilizados vinte ratos Wistar, adultos e machos, divididos nos seguintes grupos: Controle (laparotomia sem indução de sepse abdominal), Sepse (modelo experimental de sepse com ligadura e punção do cécum- LPC), N-acetilcisteína+Sepse e Diosmina Hesperidina+Sepse. Foram avaliados parâmetros fisiológicos (temperatura, glicemia e pressão arterial média), função renal (clearance de creatinina), estresse oxidativo (peróxidos urinários) e histologia renal. Resultados: Os animais submetidos à LPC (sepse) apresentaram redução da temperatura corporal, da pressão arterial média, do clearance de creatinina e elevação nos níveis de peróxidos de hidrogênio urinários. O tratamento com a Diosmina-Hesperidina melhorou a função renal com redução na excreção dos metabólitos oxidativos. Conclusão: Este estudo destacou a ação renoprotetora antioxidante da Diosmina-Hesperidina no modelo experimental de lesão renal aguda induzida pela sepse.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Sepsis/complications , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Acute Kidney Injury/drug therapy , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Acetylcysteine/therapeutic use , Acetylcysteine/pharmacology , Brazil , Cecum/drug effects , Cecum/injuries , Sepsis/drug therapy , Diosmin/therapeutic use , Diosmin/pharmacology , Disease Models, Animal , Acute Kidney Injury/prevention & control , Hesperidin/therapeutic use , Hesperidin/pharmacology , Antioxidants/therapeutic use
15.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 64(8): 680-683, Aug. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041022

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY Sodium polystyrene sulfonate (PSP) or Kayexalate is a cation-exchange resin, widely used in the management of hyperkalaemia due to renal disease. A rare, yet potentially dangerous, adverse event related to sodium polystyrene sulfonate use is intestinal mucosal injury, especially in the colon. The injury to the gastrointestinal mucosa can range from mild and superficial to wall necrosis and bowel perforation. The mechanism that leads to mucosal damage remains unclear. However, it is believed that sorbitol, commonly given to counteract PSP's tendency to cause constipation, may play an important role in the development of gastrointestinal injury. Other potential risk factors are uraemia or end-stage renal disease, hemodynamic instability, solid organ transplantation, postoperative status and concomitant opioid administration. The authors present a case of diarrhoea and haematochezia after the administration of PSP without sorbitol, in a patient with hyperkalaemia due to acute kidney injury, in the absence of other risk factors. A colonoscopy was performed and revealed a rectal ulcer which histological findings were suggestive of mucosal injury due to Kayexalate deposition. This case supports the concept that this widely used drug can itself, without sorbitol, cause injury to the gastrointestinal wall. Even though this is a rare adverse effect, the widespread use of this medication may put a large population at risk.


RESUMO O polistireno sulfonato de sódio (PSP) ou kayexalato é uma resina de troca iônica, amplamente usada no tratamento da hipercalemia associada à doença renal. Um efeito adverso raro, mas potencialmente grave, dessa terapêutica é a agressão à parede do trato gastrointestinal, principalmente ao nível do cólon, que pode ser ligeira e superficial ou culminar em necrose e perfuração intestinal. O mecanismo pelo qual o PSP lesa a mucosa intestinal não é totalmente conhecido. Contudo, pensa-se que o sorbitol, frequentemente administrado em simultâneo para contrabalançar o efeito obstipante do PSP, possa ter um papel preponderante no desenvolvimento de lesão gastrointestinal. Outros potenciais fatores de risco são a presença de uremia ou doença renal em estágio terminal, instabilidade hemodinâmica, pós-operatório, pós-transplante renal e a administração concomitante de opioides. Os autores descrevem um caso de diarreia e hematoquesias após a administração de PSP sem sorbitol, numa paciente com hipercalemia secundária a lesão renal aguda, sem outros fatores de risco para o desenvolvimento desse efeito adverso. A investigação etiológica com colonoscopia revelou a presença de uma úlcera retal, cujo estudo histológico foi compatível com lesão por deposição de cristais de kayexalato. Este relato incomum reforça o conceito de que este fármaco de uso frequente, mesmo na ausência de sorbitol, pode ser lesivo para a mucosa intestinal. Assim, e apesar de este ser um efeito adverso raro, a utilização difundida do PSP coloca uma vasta população em risco.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Aged, 80 and over , Polystyrenes/adverse effects , Rectal Diseases/chemically induced , Ulcer/chemically induced , Cation Exchange Resins/adverse effects , Rectal Diseases/pathology , Rectal Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Sorbitol/adverse effects , Ulcer/pathology , Ulcer/diagnostic imaging , Biopsy , Risk Factors , Colonoscopy , Acute Kidney Injury/drug therapy , Hyperkalemia/drug therapy
16.
Acta cir. bras ; 32(11): 973-983, Nov. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886188

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose: To evaluate histological parameters in rat renal tissue after tadalafil use during hot ischemia for 45 minutes and reperfusion for 24 hours. Methods: Twenty rats were divided into 2 groups. In the experimental group 10 mg/kg of tadalafil was used per gavage before the procedure. All cases underwent left partial nephrectomy, followed by 45 minutes of warm ischemia. Left nephrectomy of the remaining kidney was performed after 24 hours from the initial procedure. The histological parameters analyzed were: detachment of tubular cells, accumulation of desquamated cells in the proximal tubule, loss of brush border, tubular cylinders, interstitial edema, leukocyte infiltration, capillary congestion, vacuolization, tubular dilatation, necrosis and collapse of the capillary tuft. Results: Two rats from each group died and were excluded from the study. Tadalafil significantly reduced leukocyte infiltration (p = 0.036). The remaining histological parameters did not show statistical difference between the groups. Conclusion: The use of tadalafil during warm ischemia and reperfusion demonstrates statistically significant reduction of leukocyte infiltration in the renal interstitium.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Vasodilator Agents/therapeutic use , Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Tadalafil/therapeutic use , Kidney/drug effects , Kidney/pathology , Time Factors , Vasodilator Agents/pharmacology , Reperfusion Injury/pathology , Reperfusion Injury/drug therapy , Random Allocation , Rats, Wistar , Acute Kidney Injury/drug therapy , Tadalafil/pharmacology , Kidney/blood supply
17.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 67(1): 89-91, Jan.-Feb. 2017.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-843348

ABSTRACT

Abstract Inotropic drugs are part of the treatment of heart failure; however, inotropic treatment has been largely debated due to the increased incidence of adverse effects and increased mortality. Recently levosimendan, an inotropic positive agent, has been proved to be effective in acute heart failure, reducing the mortality and improving cardiac and renal performance. We report the case of a 75-year-old woman with history of heart and renal failure and hip fracture. Levosimendan was used in preoperative preparation as an adjuvant therapy, to improve cardiac and renal function and to allow surgery.


Resumo Fármacos inotrópicos fazem parte do tratamento de insuficiência cardíaca; no entanto, o tratamento com inotrópicos tem sido amplamente debatido devido ao aumento da incidência de efeitos adversos e da mortalidade. Recentemente, levosimendana, um agente inotrópico positivo, provou ser eficaz na insuficiência cardíaca aguda, reduz a mortalidade e melhora o desempenho cardíaco e renal. Relatamos o caso de uma paciente de 75 anos, com história de insuficiência cardíaca e renal e fratura de quadril. Levosimendana foi usada na preparação do pré-operatório como terapia adjuvante para melhorar a função cardíaca e renal e permitir a cirurgia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Aged , Pyridazines/therapeutic use , Shock, Cardiogenic/etiology , Vasodilator Agents/therapeutic use , Cardiotonic Agents/therapeutic use , Acute Kidney Injury/drug therapy , Hip Fractures/complications , Hydrazones/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome , Perioperative Care , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Simendan
18.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 32(1): 8-14, Jan.-Feb. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-843466

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: Acute kidney injury after cardiac surgery is associated with mortality and morbidity. Therefore, strategies to prevent acute kidney injury are very important. The aim of this placebo-controlled randomized double-blind study was to compare the prophylactic efficacy of N-Acetylcysteine and dopamine administration in patients with pre-existing moderate renal insufficiency who were undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass. Methods: This study included 135 patients with pre-existing moderate renal insufficiency who were scheduled for coronary artery bypass grafting surgery. Serum creatinine and GFR were recorded preoperatively and on the first and second postoperative days. Results: On the first and second postoperative days, the drugs used showed statistically significant differences among the creatinine groups (P<0.001). According to Tukey’s HSD, on the first and second PO, the creatinine of Group N, D and P were significantly different (P<0.001). On the first and second PO, the used drugs showed statistically significant differences among the effects of eGFR (P<0.001). According to Tukey’s HSD on the first postoperative day, the average eGFR score of Group N compared to D and P were significantly difference (P<0.001). On the second postoperative day, the eGFR of Group N and D showed no difference (P=0.37), but P showed a difference (P<0.001). Conclusion: We found that the prophylactic use of intravenous N-Acetylcysteine had a protective effect on renal function, whereas the application of renal dose dopamine did not have a protective effect in patients with pre-existing moderate renal failure.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Acetylcysteine/administration & dosage , Dopamine/administration & dosage , Acute Kidney Injury/prevention & control , Acute Kidney Injury/drug therapy , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/adverse effects , Placebos , Postoperative Complications , Cardiopulmonary Bypass , Coronary Artery Bypass , Double-Blind Method , Renal Insufficiency , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology
19.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 50(1): e5594, 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-839239

ABSTRACT

We aimed to study the renal injury and hypertension induced by chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) and the protective effects mediated by angiotensin 1-7 [Ang(1-7)]. We randomly assigned 32 male Sprague-Dawley rats (body weight 180-200 g) to normoxia control, CIH, Ang(1-7)-treated normoxia, and Ang(1-7)-treated CIH groups. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) was monitored at the start and end of each week. Renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) was recorded. CTGF and TGF-β were detected by immunohistochemistry and western blotting. Tissue parameters of oxidative stress were also determined. In addition, renal levels of interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, nitrotyrosine, and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α were determined by immunohistochemistry, immunoblotting, and ELISA. TUNEL assay results and cleaved caspase 3 and 12 were also determined. Ang(1-7) induced a reduction in SBP together with a restoration of RSNA in the rat model of CIH. Ang(1-7) treatment also suppressed the production of reactive oxygen species, reduced renal tissue inflammation, ameliorated mesangial expansion, and decreased renal fibrosis. Thus, Ang(1-7) treatment exerted renoprotective effects on CIH-induced renal injury and was associated with a reduction of oxidative stress, inflammation and fibrosis. Ang(1-7) might therefore represent a promising therapy for obstructive sleep apnea-related hypertension and renal injury.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Acute Kidney Injury/drug therapy , Angiotensin I/administration & dosage , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Peptide Fragments/administration & dosage , Disease Models, Animal , Inflammation/drug therapy , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Kidney/metabolism , Kidney/pathology , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
20.
An. bras. dermatol ; 92(5,supl.1): 14-16, 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-887093

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Epidermolysis bullosa acquisita is a severe autoimmune subepidermal bullous disease. In this report, we described for the first time a patient with epidermolysis bullosa acquisita who developed acute renal failure. There is a possibility that epidermolysis bullosa acquisita and acute renal failure's pathogenesis shared some common autoimmune pathways. Moreover, acute blood volume reduction may be another cause of prerenal kidney failure. Further studies are needed to verify our hypothesis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Epidermolysis Bullosa Acquisita/complications , Epidermolysis Bullosa Acquisita/pathology , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Skin/pathology , Biopsy , Epidermolysis Bullosa Acquisita/drug therapy , Treatment Outcome , Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Direct , Acute Kidney Injury/drug therapy
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