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Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1177-1187, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-980908


BACKGROUND@#Ischemic acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common syndrome associated with considerable mortality and healthcare costs. Up to now, the underlying pathogenesis of ischemic AKI remains incompletely understood, and specific strategies for early diagnosis and treatment of ischemic AKI are still lacking. Here, this study aimed to define the transcriptomic landscape of AKI patients through single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) analysis in kidneys.@*METHODS@#In this study, scRNA-seq technology was applied to kidneys from two ischemic AKI patients, and three human public scRNA-seq datasets were collected as controls. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and cell clusters of kidneys were determined. Gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analysis, as well as the ligand-receptor interaction between cells, were performed. We also validated several DEGs expression in kidneys from human ischemic AKI and ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury induced AKI mice through immunohistochemistry staining.@*RESULTS@#15 distinct cell clusters were determined in kidney from subjects of ischemic AKI and control. The injured proximal tubules (PT) displayed a proapoptotic and proinflammatory phenotype. PT cells of ischemic AKI had up-regulation of novel pro-apoptotic genes including USP47 , RASSF4 , EBAG9 , IER3 , SASH1 , SEPTIN7 , and NUB1 , which have not been reported in ischemic AKI previously. Several hub genes were validated in kidneys from human AKI and renal I/R injury mice, respectively. Furthermore, PT highly expressed DEGs enriched in endoplasmic reticulum stress, autophagy, and retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) signaling. DEGs overexpressed in other tubular cells were primarily enriched in nucleotide-binding and oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptor signaling, estrogen signaling, interleukin (IL)-12 signaling, and IL-17 signaling. Overexpressed genes in kidney-resident immune cells including macrophages, natural killer T (NKT) cells, monocytes, and dendritic cells were associated with leukocyte activation, chemotaxis, cell adhesion, and complement activation. In addition, the ligand-receptor interactions analysis revealed prominent communications between macrophages and monocytes with other cells in the process of ischemic AKI.@*CONCLUSION@#Together, this study reveals distinct cell-specific transcriptomic atlas of kidney in ischemic AKI patients, altered signaling pathways, and potential cell-cell crosstalk in the development of AKI. These data reveal new insights into the pathogenesis and potential therapeutic strategies in ischemic AKI.

Humans , Mice , Animals , Transcriptome/genetics , Ligands , Kidney/metabolism , Acute Kidney Injury/metabolism , Ischemia/metabolism , Reperfusion Injury/metabolism , Sequence Analysis, RNA , Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/metabolism , Tumor Suppressor Proteins/metabolism
Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines (English Ed.) ; (6): 47-57, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971663


Sepsis-induced uncontrolled systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) is a critical cause of multiple organ failure. Acute kidney injury (AKI) is one of the most serious complications associated with an extremely high mortality rate in SIRS, and it lacked simple, safe, and effective treatment strategies. Leontopodium leontopodioides (Willd.) Beauv (LLB) is commonly used in traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of acute and chronic nephritis. However, it remains unclear whether lipopolysaccharide (LPS) affects LPS-induced AKI. To identify the molecular mechanisms of LLB in LPS-induced HK-2 cells and mice, LLB was prepared by extraction with 70% methanol, while a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced HK-2 cell model and an AKI model were established in this study. Renal histopathology staining was performed to observe the morphology changes. The cell supernatant and kidney tissues were collected for determining the levels of inflammatory factors and protein expression by ELISA, immunofluorescence, and Western blot. The results indicated that LLB significantly reduced the expression of IL-6 and TNF-α in LPS-induced HK-2 cells, as well as the secretion of IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-1β in the supernatant. The same results were observed in LPS-induced AKI serum. Further studies revealed that LLB remarkably improved oxidative stress and apoptosis based on the content of MDA, SOD, and CAT in serum and TUNEL staining results. Notably, LLB significantly reduced the mortality due to LPS infection. Renal histopathology staining results supported these results. Furthermore, immunofluorescence and Western blot results confirmed that LLB significantly reduced the expression of the protein related to the NF-κB signaling pathway and NLRP3, ASC, and Caspase-1 which were significantly increased through LPS stimulation. These findings clearly demonstrated the potential use of LLB in the treatment of AKI and the crucial role of the NF-κB/NLRP3 pathway in the process through which LLB attenuates AKI induced by LPS.

Animals , Mice , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Lipopolysaccharides/adverse effects , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Acute Kidney Injury/metabolism , Kidney , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/pathology
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 39-46, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927579


Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common clinical syndrome and an independent risk factor of chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal failure. At present, the treatments of AKI are still very limited and the morbidity and mortality of AKI are rising. Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs), including microRNAs, long non-coding RNAs and circular RNAs (circRNAs), are RNAs that are transcribed from the genome, but not translated into proteins. It has been widely reported that ncRNA is involved in AKI caused by ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI), drugs and sepsis through different molecular biological mechanisms, such as apoptosis and oxidative stress response. Therefore, ncRNAs are expected to become a new target for clinical prevention and treatment of AKI and a new biomarker for early warning of the occurrence and prognosis of AKI. Here, the role and mechanism of ncRNA in AKI and the research progress of ncRNA as biomarkers are reviewed.

Humans , Acute Kidney Injury/metabolism , MicroRNAs/metabolism , RNA, Circular , RNA, Long Noncoding/genetics , RNA, Untranslated/genetics , Reperfusion Injury/genetics
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 28-38, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927578


Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common critical clinical disease characterized by a sharp decline of renal function. Ischemia-reperfusion (IR) is one of the main causes of AKI. The mortality of AKI remains high due to the lack of early diagnosis and cause specific treatment. IR rapidly initiates innate immune responses, activates complement and innate immune cells, releasing a large number of injury-related molecules such as high mobility group box-1 (HMGB1), inflammatory mediators such as caspase-3, and then recruits immune inflammatory cells including M1 macrophages (Mϕ) to the microenvironment of injury, causing apoptosis and necrosis of renal tubular epithelial cells (TECs). Dead cells and associated inflammation further activate the adaptive immune system, which not only aggravates tissue damage, but also initiates M2 Mϕ participated inflammatory clearance, tissue repair and regeneration. Mϕ, professional phagocytes, and TECs, semi-professional phagocytes, can phagocytose around damaged cells including apoptotic Mϕ and TECs, which are key innate immune cells to regulate the outcome of injury, repair or fibrosis. In recent years, it has been found that erythropoietin (EPO) not only binds to the homodimeric receptor (EPOR)2 to induce erythropoiesis, but also binds to the heterodimeric receptor EPOR/βcR, also known as innate repair receptor, which plays renoprotective roles. Properdin is the only positive regulator in the complement activation of alternative pathway. It also can effectively identify and bind to early apoptotic T cells and facilitate phagocytic clearing by Mϕ through a non-complement activation-dependent mechanism. Our previous studies have shown that Mϕ and TECs associated with EPO and its receptors and properdin are involved in IR injury and repair, but the underlying mechanism needs to be further explored. As an important carrier of cell-to-cell signal transmission, exosomes participate in the occurrence and development of a variety of renal diseases. The role of exosomes involved in the interaction between Mϕ and TECs in IR-induced AKI is not fully defined. Based on the available results in the role of Mϕ and TECs in renal IR-induced AKI, this review discussed the role of Mϕ polarization and interaction with TECs in renal IR injury, as well as the participation of EPO and its receptors, properdin and exosomes.

Animals , Humans , Mice , Acute Kidney Injury/metabolism , Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Ischemia/metabolism , Kidney , Macrophages/physiology , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Reperfusion , Reperfusion Injury
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 4-14, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927576


Acute kidney injury (AKI) refers to a clinical syndrome in which renal function declines rapidly in a short period of time caused by various pathological factors. During the development of AKI, renal tubules with the functions of reabsorption and excretion are prone to cell death due to external pathological stimuli, which is an important cause of impaired renal function. In recent years, a variety of new cell death pathways have been gradually recognized. Researchers have now found that regulated cell death (RCD), such as necroptosis, pyroptosis and ferroptosis, are important regulatory mechanisms of AKI. This article will summarize the research advances of various types of RCD involved in the process of AKI, aiming to deepen the understanding of AKI and provide innovative thoughts for the clinical treatment of AKI.

Humans , Acute Kidney Injury/metabolism , Cell Death , Kidney/metabolism , Necroptosis , Necrosis/pathology , Regulated Cell Death
Rev. méd. Chile ; 147(10): 1323-1328, oct. 2019.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058600


Renal functional reserve (RFR) is the capacity of the kidney to increase its glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in response to physiological or pathological stimuli. The most commonly used stimuli to assess this reserve are an oral load of proteins of animal origin, amino acid infusions, dopamine, glucagon or combinations of them. RFR is calculated as the difference between stimulated and baseline GFR. Vegetarians have lower baseline GFR than the general population and an increased RFR. Subjects with only one kidney and those suffering from chronic nephropathies usually have a reduced or absent RFR despite having normal basal GFR. Quantification of RFR may be useful to detect subclinical renal damage, physiological conditions that reduce baseline GFR, evaluation of potential donors for kidney transplantation, suspected hyperfiltration, detection of renal lability against acute injuries or pregnancy and the evaluation after an acute renal injury when renal function seems to be recovered and residual subclinical damage is suspected.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Acute Kidney Injury/physiopathology , Glomerular Filtration Rate/physiology , Proteins/metabolism , Risk Factors , Creatinine/blood , Acute Kidney Injury/metabolism
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 65(8): 1067-1073, Aug. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041054


SUMMARY OBJECTIVE Diabetes is a risk factor for acute kidney injury (AKI). However, its mechanism of pathogenesis has not been elucidated. The aim of the study was to investigate the role of inflammation and the toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) in ischemic AKI for diabetes. METHODS A high glucose hypoxia-reoxygenation model of human renal tubular epithelial (HK-2) cells was used to generate AKI induced by ischemia-reperfusion in diabetes. The activity of cells was measured by CCK-8 assay and LDH activity. Inflammatory cytokines were assessed by ELISA. TLR7, MyD88, and NF-κB expressions were examined by western blotting. Apoptosis was evaluated by flow cytometry. RESULTS The high glucose group and low glucose group were subjected to hypoxia-reoxygenation. The low glucose group developed only mild cell damage, apoptosis, and inflammatory response. In contrast, an equivalent hypoxia-reoxygenation injury provoked severe cell damage, apoptosis, and inflammatory response in the high glucose group. Expression of TLR7 and its related proteins were measured in the high glucose group before and after hypoxia-reoxygenation. The high glucose group exhibited more significant increases in TLR7 expression following hypoxia-reoxygenation than the low glucose group. In addition, the expression of TLR7 and its related proteins after hypoxia-reoxygenation were higher in the high glucose group than in the low glucose group. Inhibition of TLR7 provides significant protection against ischemic injury in diabetes. CONCLUSION Our results suggest that diabetes increases the vulnerability to ischemia-induced renal injury. This increased vulnerability originates from a heightened inflammatory response involving the TLR7 signal transduction pathway.

RESUMO OBJETIVO O diabetes é um fator de risco para a lesão renal aguda (LRA). No entanto, seu mecanismo de patogênese não foi elucidado. O objetivo do estudo foi investigar o papel da inflamação e do receptor Toll-like 7 (TLR7) na LRA isquêmica no diabetes. MÉTODOS Um modelo de hipóxia-reoxigenação de células epiteliais tubulares renais humanas (HK-2) na presença de concentrações altas de glicose foi utilizado para gerar LRA induzida por isquemia-reperfusão em diabetes. A atividade das células foi medida pelo ensaio Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) e pela atividade da lactato desidrogenase (LDH). As citocinas inflamatórias foram avaliadas por ensaio imunoenzimático (Elisa). A expressão de TLR7, do fator de diferenciação mieloide 88 (MyD88) e do fator de transcrição nuclear-κB (NF-κB) foi examinada por Western blotting. A apoptose foi avaliada por citometria de fluxo. RESULTADOS Os grupos glicose alta e glicose baixa foram submetidos à hipóxia-reoxigenação. O grupo de baixa glicose desenvolveu apenas danos celulares ligeiros, apoptose e uma resposta inflamatória. Em contraste, no grupo de alta glicose, uma lesão equivalente de hipóxia-reoxigenação provocou danos celulares graves, apoptose e uma resposta inflamatória. A expressão de TLR7 e suas proteínas relacionadas foi medida no grupo de alta glicose antes e após a hipóxia-reoxigenação. O grupo de alta glicose exibiu maiores aumentos na expressão de TLR7 após hipóxia-reoxigenação do que o grupo de baixa glicose. Além disso, a expressão de TLR7 e suas proteínas relacionadas após a hipóxia-reoxigenação foi maior no grupo com alto nível de glicose do que no grupo com baixo nível de glicose. A inibição do TLR7 fornece proteção significativa contra a lesão isquêmica no diabetes. CONCLUSÃO Nossos resultados sugerem que o diabetes aumenta a vulnerabilidade à lesão renal induzida por isquemia. Essa vulnerabilidade acrescida tem por origem uma resposta inflamatória aumentada envolvendo a via de transdução de sinal do TLR7.

Humans , Diabetes Mellitus/metabolism , Toll-Like Receptor 7/metabolism , Acute Kidney Injury/metabolism , Ischemia/metabolism , Transfection , Signal Transduction , Cells, Cultured , RNA, Small Interfering , Diabetes Mellitus/physiopathology , Toll-Like Receptor 7/physiology , Acute Kidney Injury/physiopathology , Flow Cytometry , Ischemia/physiopathology
Acta cir. bras ; 34(6): e201900602, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019265


Abstract Purpose To investigate the role and related mechanisms of miR-106a in sepsis-induced AKI. Methods Serum from sepsis and healthy patients was collected, sepsis mouse model was established by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). TCMK-1 cells were treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and transfected with THBS2-small interfering RNA (siTHBS2), miR-106a inhibitor, miR-106a mimics and their negative controls (NCs). The expression of miR-106a, thrombospondin 2 (THBS2), Bax, cleaved caspase-3 and Bcl-2, cell viability, relative caspase-3 activity and TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 content were respectively detected by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), western blotting, Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The relationship between miR-106a and THBS2 was confirmed by dual luciferase reporter assay. Results MiR-106a was up-regulated in serum of sepsis patients, CLP-induced mice models and LPS-induced TCMK-1 cells. LPS reduced cell viability and Bcl-2 expression, and increased caspase-3 activity, Bax expression, the content of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6. THBS2 was a target of miR-106a. The decreases of caspase-3 activity, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, Bax expression and the increases of cell viability, Bcl-2 expression caused by miR-106a knockdown were reversed when THBS2 silencing in LPS-stimulated TCMK-1 cells. Conclusion MiR-106a aggravated LPS-induced inflammation and apoptosis of TCMK-1 cells via regulating THBS2 expression.

Humans , Animals , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Rats , Sepsis/pathology , Thrombospondins/pharmacology , MicroRNAs/metabolism , Epithelial Cells/pathology , Acute Kidney Injury/metabolism , Kidney/cytology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Transfection , Case-Control Studies , Cells, Cultured , Cytokines/metabolism , Apoptosis , Sepsis/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Acute Kidney Injury/pathology , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
Biol. Res ; 52: 29, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011431


BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI), which is mainly caused by sepsis, has high morbidity and mortality rates. CXCL8(3-72) K11R/G31P (G31P) can exert therapeutic effect on inflammatory diseases and malignancies. We aimed to investigate the effect and mechanism of G31P on septic AKI. METHODS: An AKI mouse model was established, and kidney injury was assessed by histological analysis. The contents of serum creatinine (SCr) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) were measured by commercial kits, whereas neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) and kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits. The expressions of CXCL8 in serum and kidney tissues were determined using ELISA and immunohistochemical analysis, respectively. Apoptosis rate of renal tissue was detected by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transfer-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) analysis. The expressions of inflammatory cytokines were measured by quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot, respectively. The apoptosis-related proteins, JAK2, STAT3, NF-κB and IκB were determined by Western blot. RESULTS: G31P could reduce the levels of SCr, BUN, HGAL and KIM-1 and inhibit the renal tissue injury in AKI mice. G31P was also found to suppress the serum and nephric CXCL8 expressions and attenuated the apoptosis rate. The levels of inflammatory cytokines, pro-apoptotic proteins were decreased, while the anti-apoptotic proteins were increased by G31P in AKI mice. G31P also inhibited the activation of JAK2, STAT3 and NF-κB in AKI mice. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that G31P could protect renal function and attenuate the septic AKI. Our findings provide a potential target for the treatment of AKI.

Animals , Male , Mice , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Sepsis/complications , STAT3 Transcription Factor/metabolism , Janus Kinase 2/metabolism , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Signal Transduction , Apoptosis , Sepsis/pathology , Disease Models, Animal , Acute Kidney Injury/metabolism , Acute Kidney Injury/pathology , Mice, Inbred C57BL
Biol. Res ; 51: 31, 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-983936


BACKGROUND: miR-214 was demonstrated to be upregulated in models of renal disease and promoted fibrosis in renal injury independent of TGF-ß signaling in vivo. However, the detailed role of miR-214 in acute kidney injury (AKI) and its underlying mechanism are still largely unknown. METHODS: In this study, an I/R-induced rat AKI model and a hypoxia-induced NRK-52E cell model were used to study AKI. The concentrations of kidney injury markers serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, and kidney injury molecule-1 were measured. The expressions of miR-214, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-1ß, IL-6, were detected by RT-qPCR. The protein levels of Bcl-2, Bax, Dickkopf-related protein 3, ß-catenin, c-myc, and cyclinD1 were determined by western blot. Cell apoptosis and caspase 3 activity were evaluated by flow cytometry analysis and caspase 3 activity assay, respectively. Luciferase reporter assay was used to confirm the interaction between miR-214 and Dkk3. RESULTS: miR-214 expression was induced in ischemia-reperfusion (I/R)-induced AKI rat and hypoxic incubation of NRK-52E cells. Overexpression of miR-214 alleviated hypoxia-induced NRK-52E cell apoptosis while inhibition of miR-214 expression exerted the opposite effect. Dkk3 was identified as a target of miR-214. Anti-miR-214 abolished the inhibitory effects of DKK3 knockdown on hypoxia-induced NRK-52E cell apoptosis by inactivation of Wnt/ß-catenin signaling. Moreover, miR-214 ameliorated AKI in vivo by inhibiting apoptosis and fibrosis through targeting Dkk3 and activating Wnt/ß -catenin pathway. CONCLUSION: miR-214 ameliorates AKI by inhibiting apoptosis through targeting Dkk3 and activating Wnt/ß -catenin signaling pathway, offering the possibility of miR-214 in the therapy of ischemic AKI.

Animals , Male , Rats , Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins/metabolism , MicroRNAs/metabolism , Catenins/metabolism , Acute Kidney Injury/metabolism , Wnt Signaling Pathway/genetics , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Chemokines , Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins/genetics , MicroRNAs/genetics , Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing , Cell Proliferation , Disease Models, Animal , Catenins/genetics , Acute Kidney Injury/chemically induced
J. bras. nefrol ; 39(3): 323-328, July-Sept. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-893774


Abstract Sepsis is the most common cause of death in critically ill patients and it may be associated with multiorgan failure, including acute kidney injury (AKI). This situation can require acute renal support and increase mortality. Therefore, it is essential to administrate antimicrobials in dosis to achieve adequate serum levels, preventing overdosis and drug toxicity or underdosing and risk for resistance to antibiotics and higher mortality. To date, there aren't validated guidelines on antibiotic dosis adjustment in septic patients with AKI and the recommendations are extrapolated from studies conducted in non-critical patients with chronic kidney disease in end stage receiving chronic renal replacement therapy. This study aimed to review and discuss the complexity of that issue, considering the several factors related to the drugs removal: critically ill patient characteristics, antimicrobial properties and dialysis method.

Resumo A sepse é a principal causa de óbito em pacientes críticos e pode cursar com falência de vários órgãos, entre eles os rins, requerendo, com frequência, suporte renal agudo e elevando a mortalidade. Assim, torna-se imprescindível a administração de antimicrobianos em dose que garanta nível sérico adequado para evitar superdosagem e toxicidade medicamentosa ou ainda subdosagem e risco de resistência microbiana, ambas as situações contribuindo para maior mortalidade. Até o momento, não há diretrizes validadas para auxiliar no ajuste de dose de antibióticos nos pacientes sépticos com lesão renal aguda em suporte renal, sendo as recomendações extrapoladas de estudos realizados em pacientes não críticos e com doença renal em estádio final recebendo terapia renal substitutiva crônica. Esse estudo teve como objetivo revisar e discutir a complexidade desse assunto, levando em consideração os vários fatores relacionados à remoção de drogas: características do paciente crítico, propriedades dos antimicrobianos e método dialítico utilizado.

Humans , Sepsis/complications , Sepsis/drug therapy , Acute Kidney Injury/complications , Anti-Infective Agents/therapeutic use , Acute Kidney Injury/metabolism , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacokinetics
J. bras. nefrol ; 39(1): 15-22, Jan.-Mar. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-841199


Abstract Introduction: It is needed for nutrition prescription correct estimate of resting energy expenditure (REE), which is a challenge given the possible daily variation in critically ill patients with acute kidney injury (AKI). Objective: To evaluate the daily variability of REE measured by indirect calorimetry (IC) in patients with AKI and dialysis indication and identify clinical variables associated with REE. Methods: The REE was measured on the time of dialysis indication and the subsequent four days. We also evaluated parameters that can influence the REE. The daily differences were analyzed by generalized linear model for repeated measures. We also used Spearman correlation and multiple linear regression. Results: There were 301 IC measurements in 114 patients, mean age of 60.65 ± 16.9 years and 68.4% were male. The average REE was 2081 ± 645 kcal, rising on day 5 (2270 ± 556 kcal) compared to the days 2 and 3 (2022 ± 754; 2022 ± 660 kcal, respectively, p = 0,04). When normalized to weight, there was no significant difference in REE (kcal/kg/day) during follow-up. REE was positively correlated with total leukocyte count, C-reactive protein, minute volume (MV), fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) urea nitrogen appearance (UNA), weight and height and inversely with age. After multiple regression, MV, FiO2, weight and age are correlated independently with REE. Conclusion: Patients with AKI have REE stable. The REE was associated independently with FiO2, MV, body weight and age. Thus, ventilatory parameters should be evaluated each day for the necessary dietary changes may be made.

Resumo Introdução: É imprescindível a correta estimativa do gasto energético de repouso (GER), que pode apresentar considerável variação diária no paciente crítico com lesão renal aguda (LRA). Objetivo: Avaliar a variabilidade diária do GER medido por calorimetria indireta (CI) em pacientes com LRA e indicação dialítica e identificar as variáveis clínicas associadas ao GER. Métodos: O GER foi medido no dia da indicação do procedimento dialítico e nos quatro dias subsequentes. Também foram avaliados parâmetros que podem influenciar o GER. As diferenças diárias foram analisadas pelo modelo linear generalizado para medidas repetidas, com distribuição gama, além da correlação de Spearman e regressão linear múltipla. Resultados: Foram 301 medidas de CI realizadas em 114 pacientes, com idade de 60,65 ± 16,9 anos e 68,4% do sexo masculino. O GER médio foi de 2081 ± 645 Kcal, com aumento no dia 5 (2270 ± 556 Kcal), quando comparado aos dias 2 e 3 (2022 ± 754; 2022 ± 660 kcal, respectivamente, p = 0,04); quando normalizado para peso, não houve diferença significante no GER (kcal/kg/dia) durante o acompanhamento. GER correlacionou-se positivamente com temperatura corporal, contagem total de leucócitos, proteína C reativa, volume minuto (VM), fração inspirada de oxigênio (FiO2), aparecimento de nitrogênio ureico (UNA), peso corporal e estatura e inversamente com idade. Após a regressão linear múltipla, somente VM, FiO2 e peso corporal e idade se correlacionaram independentemente. Conclusão: Pacientes com LRA dialíticos apresentam GER estável. O GER foi associado independentemente com FiO2, VM, peso e idade. Assim, requisitos ventilatórios precisam ser avaliados diariamente para que alterações necessárias na prescrição dietética sejam feitas.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Renal Dialysis , Energy Metabolism , Acute Kidney Injury/metabolism , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , Time Factors , Prospective Studies , Circadian Rhythm
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 62(7): 672-679, Oct. 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-829513


Summary Patients on intensive care present systemic, metabolic, and hormonal alterations that may adversely affect their nutritional condition and lead to fast and important depletion of lean mass and malnutrition. Several factors and medical conditions can influence the energy expenditure (EE) of critically ill patients, such as age, gender, surgery, serious infections, medications, ventilation modality, and organ dysfunction. Clinical conditions that can present with EE change include acute kidney injury, a complex disorder commonly seen in critically ill patients with manifestations that can range from minimum elevations in serum creatinine to renal failure requiring dialysis. The nutritional needs of this population are therefore complex, and determining the resting energy expenditure is essential to adjust the nutritional supply and to plan a proper diet, ensuring that energy requirements are met and avoiding complications associated with overfeeding and underfeeding. Several evaluation methods of EE in this population have been described, but all of them have limitations. Such methods include direct calorimetry, doubly labeled water, indirect calorimetry (IC), various predictive equations, and, more recently, the rule of thumb (kcal/kg of body weight). Currently, IC is considered the gold standard.

Resumo Os pacientes em cuidados intensivos apresentam alterações sistêmicas, metabólicas e hormonais, que podem afetar adversamente a condição nutricional e levar à rápida e importante depleção da massa magra e desnutrição. Vários fatores e situações clínicas podem exercer influência sobre o gasto energético (GE) de pacientes críticos, como idade, sexo, cirurgias, infecções graves, medicamentos, modalidade ventilatória e disfunção de órgãos. Dentre as condições clínicas que podem cursar com alteração do GE, encontra-se a lesão renal aguda (LRA), distúrbio complexo comumente observado em pacientes críticos, com manifestações que podem variar de mínimas elevações na creatinina sérica até insuficiência renal com necessidade dialítica. Dessa forma, essa população crítica apresenta necessidades nutricionais complexas e a determinação do gasto energético de repouso (GER) torna-se essencial para o ajuste da oferta nutricional e para o planejamento de uma nutrição adequada, assegurando que as necessidades energéticas sejam atingidas e evitando as complicações associadas à hiper ou hipoalimentação. Diversos métodos de avaliação do GE nessa população foram descritos, mas todos apresentam limitações. Dentre eles, destacam-se a calorimetria direta, a água duplamente marcada, a calorimetria indireta (CI), diversas equações preditivas e, mais atualmente, a regra de bolso (kcal/kg de peso). Atualmente, a CI é eleita o método padrão-ouro.

Humans , Male , Female , Rest/physiology , Calorimetry/methods , Critical Illness , Energy Metabolism/physiology , Algorithms , Predictive Value of Tests , Acute Kidney Injury/metabolism , Nutritional Requirements
Acta cir. bras ; 31(7): 448-455, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-787258


ABSTRACT PURPOSE: To determine whether Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) is the potential targets of prevention or progression in the renal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury of STZ-induced diabetic rats. METHODS: Thirty six Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly arranged to the nondiabetic (ND) or diabetic group (DM), with each group further divided into sham (no I/R injury), I/R (ischemia-reperfusion) and CD (given by Chloroquine) group. Preoperatively, Chloroquine (40 mg/kg, intraperitoneal injection.) was administrated 6 days for treatment group. I/R animals were subjected to 25 min of bilateral renal ischemia. Renal function, histology, apoptosis, cytokines, expression of TLR7, MyD88 and NF-κB were detected. RESULTS: The serum levels of blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, IL-6 and TNF-α, apoptotic tubular epithelial cells, expression of TLR7, MyD88 and NF-κB were significantly increased in DM+I/R group, compared with ND+I/R group (p<0.05). All these changes were further improved by TLR7 inhibition Chloroquine except Paller scores (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: Toll-like receptor 7 inhibition attenuates the acute renal ischemia/reperfusion injury of STZ-induced diabetic in SD rats.

Animals , Male , Reperfusion Injury/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/metabolism , Toll-Like Receptor 7/metabolism , Acute Kidney Injury/metabolism , Kidney/metabolism , Reperfusion Injury/complications , Random Allocation , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Apoptosis , In Situ Nick-End Labeling/methods , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/complications , Disease Models, Animal , Toll-Like Receptor 7/blood , Myeloid Differentiation Factor 88/metabolism , Acute Kidney Injury/pathology , Kidney/pathology
J. bras. nefrol ; 38(2): 161-172, tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-787876


RESUMO Introdução: Priming é um mecanismo de proteção induzida pela exposição anterior de uma célula ou órgão a baixas ou mesmas concentrações de uma substância tóxica. Objetivo: analisar o mecanismo de priming induzido pela exposição a gentamicina em células tubulares proximais humanas e na insuficiência renal aguda (IRA). Métodos: Células tubulares foram expostos a 2 mM de gentamicina durante 24 horas, enquanto ratos Wistar foram expostas a 40 mg/kg durante 3 dias. Depois de uma semana, as células foram expostas à mesma concentração durante 24h e os ratos durante dez dias. Os animais condicionados foram comparados com ratos controle e tratados com gentamicina durante 10 dias. Foram analisados parâmetros bioquímicos, o estresse oxidativo foi analisado por hidroperóxidos e proteínas carboniladas urinárias, enquanto a defesa antioxidante foi estudada pela atividade antioxidante do plasma e imunomarcação e atividade da catalase, superóxido dismutase, heme oxigenase-1 (HO-1) nos rins. Necrose, apoptose, proliferação e expressão da endotelina-1 (ET-1) e HO-1 foram estudadas em células. Resultados: o condicionamento dos animais inibiu o aumento da creatinina, ureia, excreção urinária de sódio e de proteína induzida por gentamicina. Bosentana, antagonista do receptor ET-1, e hemin, indutor de HO-1, potencializaram a inibição. O mecanismo de proteção foi mediado pela indução de enzimas antioxidantes HO-1, catalase e SOD atividade e redução do estresse oxidativo. O condicionamento inibiu a morte celular e induziu a proliferação via produção de ET-1. Conclusão: o mecanismo de condicionamento é persistente e multifactorial, o estímulo da defesa antioxidante poderia mimetizar o processo de condicionamento e impedir a IRA.

ABSTRACT Introduction: Priming is the mechanism of protection induced by a previous exposition of a cell or organ to low or equal concentrations of a toxic substance. Objective: To analyze the mechanism of priming induced by the previous exposition to gentamicin in human proximal tubular cells and nephrotoxic acute renal failure (ARF). Methods: Wistar rats and tubular cells were exposed to gentamicin 2mM during 24h or 40 mg/kg during 3 days and after one rest week were exposed to the same concentration during 24h in cells and additional ten days in rats. The primed animals were compared to control rats receiving vehicle and GENTA animals treated with the gentamicin during the same period. Biochemical parameters were analyzed. The oxidative stress was analyzed by urinary hydroperoxides and carbonylated protein while antioxidant defense was studied by antioxidant activity of the plasma (FRAP), catalase, superoxide dismutase, heme-oxygenase 1 (HO-1) immunostaining and enzymatic activity in kidney. Necrosis, apoptosis, proliferation, endothelin 1 (ET-1) and HO-1 expression were studied in cells. Results: Priming of the animals inhibited the increase in creatinine, urea, sodium excretion and urinary protein induced by gentamicin. Bosentan, ET-1 receptor antagonist, and hemin, HO-1 inducer, potentiate the inhibition. The mechanism of protection was mediated by induction of the antioxidant enzymes HO-1, catalase and SOD activity and oxidative stress reduction. Priming inhibited cell death and induced proliferation through ET-1 production. Conclusion: Priming is a persistent and multifactorial mechanism, the stimulation of the antioxidant defense could mimics partially the priming process and prevent the ARF.

Animals , Male , Rats , Acute Kidney Injury/chemically induced , Kidney Tubules, Proximal/cytology , Kidney Tubules, Proximal/physiology , Antioxidants/physiology , Gentamicins/administration & dosage , Cells, Cultured , Rats, Wistar , Oxidative Stress , Acute Kidney Injury/metabolism , Acute Kidney Injury/prevention & control
Acta cir. bras ; 31(1): 8-14, Jan. 2016. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-771854


PURPOSE: To investigate the protective effects of dexmedetomidine (Dex) against renal ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI). METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided to sham group, IRI group and Dex group. The SD rats were subjected to 45 min of ischemia followed by eight weeks of reperfusion. Prior to ischemia, rats were either treated with Dex or not. Blood samples were collected for the detection of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine (Cr) levels. Immunohistochemistry was performed for CD3 T-cell infiltrates. Real-time PCR and western blot were detected for the expression of TNF-α, IL-1β, ICAM-1, HMGB1 and TLR4. RESULTS: Compared with sham group, renal IRI significantly increased the serum levels of BUN and Cr. The H&E staining indicated that renal IRI resulted in obvious renal injury and immunohistochemistry found that there were more CD3 T-cell infiltrates in IRI group. Also, renal IRI upregulated the expression of TNF-α, IL-1β, ICAM-1, HMGB1 and TLR4. However, all these changes were alleviated by the treatment with Dex. CONCLUSIONS: Dexmedetomidine has beneficial effects on long term inflammation induced by renal ischemia/reperfusion injury. Its mechanisms may be achieved through inhibiting the HMGB1/TLR4 pathway to exert protective effects.

Animals , Male , Acute Kidney Injury/pathology , /pharmacology , Dexmedetomidine/pharmacology , Kidney/blood supply , Reperfusion Injury/complications , Actins/analysis , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Acute Kidney Injury/metabolism , Blood Urea Nitrogen , Blotting, Western , Creatinine/blood , HMGB1 Protein/analysis , Immunohistochemistry , Inflammation/etiology , Inflammation/metabolism , Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1/analysis , Interleukin-1beta/analysis , Kidney/chemistry , Random Allocation , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA , Reperfusion Injury/pathology , /analysis , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/analysis
J. bras. nefrol ; 36(3): 379-388, Jul-Sep/2014. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-725503


Injúria renal aguda (IRA) é uma síndrome de elevada incidência, associada a altas taxas de morbimortalidade. Sepse, grandes cirurgias e baixo débito cardíaco são as principais causas de IRA no mundo. Na maioria destas situações clínicas, a expansão volêmica é o elemento fundamental de prevenção e do manejo terapêutico da IRA, restaurando a perfusão periférica e atenuando a nefrotoxicidade de drogas. Ressuscitação volêmica precoce em pacientes sépticos está associada à prevenção de isquemia tecidual e à maior sobrevida. Contudo, a manutenção de estratégia liberal de infusão de fluidos após ressuscitação inicial pode causar balanços hídricos cumulativamente positivos, e este vem sendo associado a aumento de morbimortalidade em pacientes criticamente enfermos. Neste trabalho, revisamos os principais estudos que associam balanço hídrico positivo (BH+) e morbimortalidade em pacientes internados em Unidades de Terapia Intensiva (UTI). Sugerimos que BH+ (não apenas o volume urinário) possa ser utilizado como possível biomarcador precoce de IRA nestes pacientes.

Acute kidney injury (AKI) has a high hospital incidence and is associated to significant morbidity and mortality. Sepsis, major surgery and low cardiac output are the main cause of AKI worldwide. In the majority of these situations, volume expansion is part of both prevention and therapeutic management, restoring peripheral perfusion and attenuating drug nephrotoxicity. Early and aggressive volume resuscitation in septic patients halts tissue ischemia and is associated with higher survival. However, a liberal fluid infusion strategy after six hours can cause fluid overload. Fluid overload has been associated with morbidity and mortality increase in critically ill patients. Herein, we present a review of the main studies that assessed the effects of net fluid balance/fluid overload on the morbidity and mortality of critically ill patients. We suggest that positive water balance may be used as a potential early biomarker of AKI in these patients.

Humans , Acute Kidney Injury/metabolism , Acute Kidney Injury/mortality , Water-Electrolyte Balance , Intensive Care Units
Clinics ; 69(7): 476-482, 7/2014. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-714608


OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to perform a nutritional assessment of acute kidney injury patients and to identify the relationship between nutritional markers and outcomes. METHOD: This was a prospective and observational study. Patients who were hospitalized at the Hospital of Botucatu School of Medicine were evaluated between January 2009 and December 2011. We evaluated a total of 133 patients with a clinical diagnosis of acute kidney injury and a clinical presentation suggestive of acute tubular necrosis. We explored the associations between clinical, laboratory and nutritional markers and in-hospital mortality. Multivariable logistic regression was used to adjust for confounding and selection bias. RESULTS: Non-survivor patients were older (67±14 vs. 59±16 years) and exhibited a higher prevalence of sepsis (57.1 vs. 21.4%) and higher Acute Tubular Necrosis-Individual Severity Scores (0.60±0.22 vs. 0.41±0.21) than did survivor patients. Based on the multivariable analysis, laboratorial parameters such as blood urea nitrogen and C-reactive protein were associated with a higher risk of death (OR: 1.013, p = 0.0052; OR: 1.050, p = 0.01, respectively), and nutritional parameters such as low calorie intake, higher levels of edema, lower resistance based on bioelectrical impedance analysis and a more negative nitrogen balance were significantly associated with a higher risk of death (OR: 0.950, p = 0.01; OR: 1.138, p = 0.03; OR: 0.995, p = 0.03; OR: 0.934, p = 0.04, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: In acute kidney injury patients, a nutritional assessment seems to identify nutritional markers that are associated with outcome. In this study, a low caloric intake, higher C-reactive protein levels, the presence of edema, a lower resistance measured during a bioelectrical impedance analysis and a lower nitrogen balance were significantly associated ...

Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Acute Kidney Injury/metabolism , Acute Kidney Injury/mortality , Nutrition Assessment , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Blood Urea Nitrogen , Biomarkers/analysis , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , Electric Impedance , Energy Intake , Hospital Mortality , Multivariate Analysis , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors