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1.
Braz. dent. j ; 30(1): 12-21, Jan.-Feb. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-989433

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study aimed to assess the effects of low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) on alveolar bone loss (ABL), blood count, and counting of megakaryocytes and adipocytes in male Wistar rats. Forty male 60-day Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups: Control (C), Periodontal Disease (PD), Heparin (Hp) and Heparin + Periodontal Disease (Hp+PD). LMWH was applied for 60 days at doses of 1 ml/kg/day. Blood samples were collected at baseline, 30 and 60. On day-49, PD and Hp+PD groups were subjected to ligature-induced periodontitis around second upper right molar. The left side was assessed as spontaneous alveolar bone loss. Mean ABL in the side with ligature showed significantly different between C (0.35±0.07 mm) and Hp+DP (0.49±0.09 mm) groups (p<0.001), between PD (0.55±0.11 mm) and Hp (0.32±0.06 mm) groups (p<0.001) and between Hp and Hp+DP groups (p<0.001). No significant differences were found among groups for ABL in the side without ligature. Animal weight, food intake, and water consumption showed no statistically significant difference among groups. Megakaryocytes and adipocytes were counted using optical microscopy and no statistically significant differences were found. Within-groups, there were an increase and a decrease, respectively, in the counting of lymphocytes (p=0.005 for C and p=0.009 for Hp+PD groups only) and leukocytes (p=0.003 for C, p=0.001 for PD, p=0.002 for Hp, and p<0.001 for Hp+PD groups). There was no decrease in the number of platelets in the three collection periods. LMWH was not able to affect ABL, but it may change the blood counting, especially increasing lymphocytes.


Resumo O presente estudo objetivou verificar o efeito da heparina de baixo peso molecular (HBPM) sob a perda óssea alveolar (POA), contagem de células sanguíneas, megacariócitos e adipócitos em ratos Wistar machos. Quarenta ratos Wistar de 60 dias foram randomicamente divididos em quatro grupo: Controle (C), Doença Periodontal (DP), Heparina (Hp) e Heparina + Doença Periodontal (Hp+DP). HBPM foi aplicada durante 60 dias em doses de 1 mL/kg/dia. Coletas sanguíneas foram realizadas nos dias 0, 30 e 60. No dia 49, os grupos DP e Hp+DP receberam indução de doença periodontal por ligadura ao redor do segundo molar superior direito. No lado esquerdo, verificou-se perda óssea alveolar espontânea. A média de POA no lado com ligadura mostrou-se estatisticamente diferente entre os grupos C (0,35±0,07 mm) e Hp+PD (0,49±0,09 mm) (p<0,001), entre os grupos DP (0,55±0,11 mm) e Hp (0,32±0,06 mm) (p<0,001) e entre os grupos Hp e Hp+DP (p<0,001). Nenhuma diferente significativa foi observada entre os grupos no lado sem ligadura. Peso dos animais, consumo de ração e ingestão de água não mostraram diferenças significativas entre os grupos. Megacariócitos e adipócitos foram contados por microscopia óptica e nenhuma diferença significativa foi encontrada. Dentro dos grupos, houve um aumento e uma diminuição, respectivamente, na contagem de linfócitos (p=0,005 no grupo C e p=0,009 no grupo Hp+DP somente) e leucócitos (p=0,003 no grupo C, p=0.001 no grupo DP e p=0,002 no grupo Hp e Hp+DP). Não houve diminuição no número de plaquetas nos três períodos de coleta. HBPM não foi capaz de modificar a POA, porém modificou a contagem de células sanguíneas, especialmente aumentando o número de linfócitos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Alveolar Bone Loss/prevention & control , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight/pharmacology , Megakaryocytes/cytology , Rats, Wistar , Adipocytes/cytology , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight/administration & dosage , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
2.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 90(1): 247-253, Mar. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886903

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Twenty-four Iberian castrated male pigs were used to characterize and evaluate the effect of the duration of "Montanera" in the adipocytes size and its relation with the backfat thickness and intramuscular fat. The animals were fed under extensive conditions during 30, 60 and 90 days in the "Dehesa" before slaughtered. Carcass weight, percentage of intramuscular fat, thickness of backfat and its three layers and adipocytes size of the intramuscular fat were obtained. The group which expended 90 days on fattening obtained the highest adipocytes, with an area higher by a 50% than those that only expended 30 days. The differences in diameter and perimeter adipocyte were not as marked as area. A significant positive correlation between the diameter, area and perimeter of adipocyte with the backfat thickness were found. The fat cells in Iberian pig hypertrophy during the "montanera stage", being this increase significant from month to month in this period of fattening. Also, this adipocyte increase is correlated with the animal weight. The correlation between adipocyte size and inner layer of backfat shows that the inner layer obtained in live pig by ultrasound techniques could be a good marker of fat infiltration in pigs fattening in "montanera" system.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Body Composition/physiology , Adipose Tissue/physiology , Adipocytes/physiology , Paraspinal Muscles/anatomy & histology , Swine , Time Factors , Body Weight , Adipose Tissue/diagnostic imaging , Adipocytes/cytology , Cell Enlargement , Diet/veterinary , Animal Feed
3.
Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B ; (12): 884-894, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010429

ABSTRACT

Because of their physiological similarity to humans, pigs provide an excellent model for the study of obesity. This study evaluated diet-induced adiposity in genetically lean pigs and found that body weight and energy intake did not differ between controls and pigs fed the high-fat (HF) diet for three months. However, fat mass percentage, adipocyte size, concentrations of total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), insulin, and leptin in plasma were significantly higher in HF pigs than in controls. The HF diet increased the expression in backfat tissue of genes responsible for cholesterol synthesis such as Insig-1 and Insig-2. Lipid metabolism-related genes including sterol regulatory element binding protein 1c (SREBP-1c), fatty acid synthase 1 (FASN1), diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 2 (DGAT2), and fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) were significantly up-regulated in backfat tissue, while the expression of proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPAR-α) and carnitine palmitoyl transferase 2 (CPT2), both involved in fatty acid oxidation, was reduced. In liver tissue, HF feeding significantly elevated the expression of SREBP-1c, FASN1, DGAT2, and hepatocyte nuclear factor-4α (HNF-4α) mRNAs. Microarray analysis further showed that the HF diet had a significant effect on the expression of 576 genes. Among these, 108 genes were related to 21 pathways, with 20 genes involved in adiposity deposition and 26 related to immune response. Our results suggest that an HF diet can induce genetically lean pigs into obesity with body fat mass expansion and adipose-related inflammation.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Adipocytes/cytology , Adipogenesis/genetics , Adipose Tissue/metabolism , Adiposity , Body Weight , Cholesterol/blood , Cholesterol, HDL/blood , Cholesterol, LDL/blood , Diet, High-Fat , Inflammation/genetics , Insulin/blood , Leptin/blood , Lipid Metabolism , Obesity/genetics , Random Allocation , Swine , Triglycerides/blood
4.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 15(3): 334-338, July-Sept. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-891405

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate the effect of low-level laser irradiation on proliferation and viability of murine adipose-derived stem cells previously submitted to cryopreservation. Methods Adipose-derived stem cells were isolated from inguinal fat pads of three mice, submitted to cryopreservation in fetal bovine serum with 10% dimethylsulfoxide for 30 days and then thawed and maintained in normal culture conditions. Culture cells were either irradiated or not (control) with an InGaAIP diode laser at zero and 48 hours, using two different energy densities (0.5 and 1.0J/cm2). Cell proliferation was evaluated by trypan blue exclusion method and MTT assay at intervals of zero, 24, 48, and 72 hours after the first laser application. Cell viability and apoptosis of previously cryopreserved cells submitted to laser therapy were evaluated by flow cytometry. Results The Irradiated Groups (0.5 and 1.0J/cm2) showed an increased cell proliferation (p<0.05) when compared to the Control Group, however no significant difference between the two energy densities was observed. Flow cytometry revealed a percentage of viable cells higher than 99% in all groups. Conclusion Low-level laser irradiation has stimulatory effects on the proliferation of adipose-derived stem cells previously submitted to cryopreservation.


RESUMO Objetivo Avaliar o efeito do laser de baixa intensidade na proliferação e na viabilidade de células-tronco derivadas de tecido adiposo murinas previamente submetidas à criopreservação. Métodos Células-tronco derivadas de tecido adiposo foram isoladas da região inguinal de três camundongos, submetidas à criopreservação em soro fetal bovino com 10% de dimetilsulfóxido por 30 dias e, depois, descongeladas e mantidas em condições normais de cultivo. As células cultivadas foram irradiadas ou não (controle) com um laser de diodo InGaAIP nos intervalos de zero e 48 horas, utilizando duas densidades de energia diferentes (0,5 e 1,0J/cm2). A proliferação celular foi avaliada pelo método de exclusão de azul de tripan e ensaio MTT, nos intervalos de zero, 24, 48 e 72 horas após a primeira aplicação do laser. A viabilidade celular e a apoptose das células previamente criopreservadas submetidas à laserterapia foram avaliadas por citometria de fluxo. Resultados Os Grupos Irradiados (0,5 e 1,0J/cm2) apresentaram aumento da proliferação celular (p<0,05) quando comparados ao Grupos Controle, porém não foi observada diferença significativa entre as duas densidades de energia. A citometria de fluxo revelou percentagem de células viáveis superior a 99% em todos os grupos. Conclusão O laser de baixa intensidade tem efeitos estimuladores sobre a proliferação de células-tronco derivadas de tecido adiposo previamente submetidas à criopreservação.


Subject(s)
Animals , Stem Cells/radiation effects , Cryopreservation , Cell Survival/radiation effects , Adipocytes/radiation effects , Low-Level Light Therapy , Cell Proliferation/radiation effects , Stem Cells/cytology , Cells, Cultured , Apoptosis/radiation effects , Adipocytes/cytology , Lasers, Semiconductor , Flow Cytometry , Mice
5.
Biol. Res ; 49: 1-11, 2016. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950864

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: From ancient times, marine algae have emerged as alternative medicine and foods, contains the rich source of natural products like proteins, vitamins, and secondary metabolites, especially Chlorella vulgaris (C. vulgaris) contains numerous anti-inflammatory, antioxidants and wound healing substances. Type 2 diabetes mellitus is closely associated with adipogenesis and their factors. Hence, we aimed to investigate the chemical constituents and adipo-genic modulatory properties of C. vulgaris in 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes. RESULTS: We analysed chemical constituents in ethanolic extract of C. vulgaris (EECV) by LC-MS. Results revealed that the EECV contains few triterpenoids and saponin compounds. Further, the effect of EECV on lipid accumulation along with genes and proteins expressions which are associated with adipogenesis and lipogenesis were evaluated using oil red O staining, qPCR and western blot techniques. The data indicated that that EECV treatment increased differentiation and lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells, which indicates positive regulation of adipogenic and lipogenic activity. These increases were associated with up-regulation of PPAR-γ2, C/EBP-α, adiponectin, FAS, and leptin mRNA and protein expressions. Also, EECV treatments increased the concentration of glycerol releases as compared with control cells. Troglitazone is a PPAR-γ agonist that stimulates the PPAR-y2, adiponectin, and GLUT-4 expressions. Similarly, EECV treatments significantly upregulated PPAR-γ, adiponectin, GLUT-4 expressions and glucose utilization. Further, EECV treatment decreased AMPK-α expression as compared with control and metformin treated cells. CONCLUSION: The present research findings confirmed that the EECV effectively modulates the lipid accumulation and differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells through AMPK-α mediated signalling pathway.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Seaweed/chemistry , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , 3T3-L1 Cells/drug effects , Chlorella vulgaris/chemistry , Time Factors , Down-Regulation , Gene Expression , Cell Differentiation/drug effects , Up-Regulation , Cell Survival/drug effects , Cells, Cultured , Adipocytes/cytology , Adipocytes/drug effects , Adipocytes/metabolism , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , 3T3-L1 Cells/physiology , PPAR gamma/analysis , PPAR gamma/drug effects , PPAR gamma/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/metabolism , Adiponectin/analysis , Adiponectin/metabolism , Glucose Transporter Type 4/analysis , Glucose Transporter Type 4/drug effects , Glucose Transporter Type 4/metabolism , AMP-Activated Protein Kinases/analysis , AMP-Activated Protein Kinases/drug effects , AMP-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism , Glucose/metabolism
7.
Acta cir. bras ; 29(supl.3): 2-5, 2014. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-726245

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate the viability of random pattern dorsal skin flaps in rats after injection of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSC). METHODS: Thirty five adult male Wistar EPM rats (weight 250-300 g) were distributed, at random, in two groups. I- Control (flap elevation with injection of saline solution) with fifteen animals and II- Experimental (flap elevation with injection of ADSC ) with fifteen animal. The ADSC were isolated from others five adult male rats. A dorsal skin flap measuring 10x4 cm was raised and a plastic barrier was placed between the flap and its bed in both groups and the injection (cells or saline solution) were perfomed immediately after the surgery. The percentage of flap necrosis was measured on the seventh postoperative day. RESULTS: The ADSC were able to replicate in our culture conditions. We also induced their adipogenic, osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation to verify their mesenchymal stem cells potentiality in vitro. The results were statistically significant showing that the ADSC decreased the area of necrosis (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The cells demonstrated adipogenic, osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation potential in vitro. The administration of adipose-derived stem cells was effective to increase the viability of the random random pattern dorsal skin flaps in rats. .


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Adipocytes/cytology , Adult Stem Cells/cytology , Skin/pathology , Surgical Flaps/pathology , Cell Differentiation , Injections, Intravenous , Models, Animal , Necrosis/pathology , Random Allocation , Rats, Wistar , Tissue Survival/physiology
8.
Experimental & Molecular Medicine ; : e78-2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-72397

ABSTRACT

Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a specialized thermoregulatory organ that has a critical role in the regulation of energy metabolism. Specifically, energy expenditure can be enhanced by the activation of BAT function and the induction of a BAT-like catabolic phenotype in white adipose tissue (WAT). Since the recent recognition of metabolically active BAT in adult humans, BAT has been extensively studied as one of the most promising targets identified for treating obesity and its related disorders. In this review, we summarize information on the developmental origin of BAT and the progenitors of brown adipocytes in WAT. We explore the transcriptional control of brown adipocyte differentiation during classical BAT development and in WAT browning. We also discuss the neuronal control of BAT activity and summarize the recently identified non-canonical stimulators of BAT that can act independently of beta-adrenergic stimulation. Finally, we review new findings on the beneficial effects of BAT activation and development with respect to improving metabolic profiles. We highlight the therapeutic potential of BAT and its future prospects, including pharmacological intervention and cell-based therapies designed to enhance BAT activity and development.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Adipocytes/cytology , Adipogenesis , Adipose Tissue, Brown/cytology , Obesity/therapy
9.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 73(5): 401-5, oct. 2013.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1165168

ABSTRACT

Glucocorticoids play an important role in adipogenesis via the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) that forms a heterocomplex with Hsp90-Hsp70 and a high molecular weight immunophilin FKBP51 or FKBP52. We have found that FKBP51 level of expression progressively increases, FKBP52 decreases, whereas Hsp90, Hsp70, and p23 remain unchanged when 3T3-L1 preadipocytes differentiate. Interestingly, FKBP51 translocates from mitochondria to the nucleus at the onset of adipogenesis. FKBP51 transiently concentrates in the nuclear lamina, at a time that this nuclear compartment undergoes its reorganization. FKBP51 nuclear localization is transient, after 48 h it cycles back to mitochondria. We found that the dynamic FKBP51 mitochondrial-nuclear shuttling is regulated by glucocorticoids and mainly on cAMP-PKA signaling since PKA inhibition by myristoilated-PKI, abrogated FKBP51 nuclear translocation induced by 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX). It has been reported that PKA interacts with GR in a ligand dependent manner potentiating its transcriptional capacity. GR transcriptional capacity is reduced when cells are incubated in the presence of IBMX, forskolin or dibutyryl-cAMP, compounds that induced nuclear translocation of FKBP51, therefore PKA may exert a dual role in the control of GR. In summary, the presence of FKBP51 in the nucleus may be critical for GR transcriptional control, and possibly for the control of other transcription factors that are not members of the nuclear receptor family but are regulated by PKA signaling pathway, when transcription has to be strictly controlled to succeed in the acquisition of the adipocyte phenotype.


Subject(s)
Adipogenesis/physiology , Adipocytes/cytology , Mitochondria/metabolism , Cell Nucleus/metabolism , Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins/metabolism , Tacrolimus Binding Proteins/metabolism , Receptors, Glucocorticoid/metabolism , /metabolism , Humans , Tacrolimus Binding Proteins/analysis
10.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 46(9): 758-764, 19/set. 2013. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-686576

ABSTRACT

To explore the effects of adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs) on the proliferation and invasion of pancreatic cancer cells in vitro and the possible mechanism involved, ADSCs were cocultured with pancreatic cancer cells, and a cell counting kit (CCK-8) was used to detect the proliferation of pancreatic cancer cells. ELISA was used to determine the concentration of stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) in the supernatants. RT-PCR was performed to detect the expression of the chemokine receptor CXCR4 in pancreatic cancer cells and ADSCs. An in vitro invasion assay was used to measure invasion of pancreatic cancer cells. SDF-1 was detected in the supernatants of ADSCs, but not in pancreatic cancer cells. Higher CXCR4 mRNA levels were detected in the pancreatic cancer cell lines compared with ADSCs (109.3±10.7 and 97.6±7.6 vs 18.3±1.7, respectively; P<0.01). In addition, conditioned medium from ADSCs promoted the proliferation and invasion of pancreatic cancer cells, and AMD3100, a CXCR4 antagonist, significantly downregulated these growth-promoting effects. We conclude that ADSCs can promote the proliferation and invasion of pancreatic cancer cells, which may involve the SDF-1/CXCR4 axis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adipose Tissue/pathology , Cell Proliferation , /analysis , Pancreatic Neoplasms/pathology , /analysis , Stem Cells/physiology , Adipocytes/cytology , Cell Differentiation , Cell Line, Tumor , Coculture Techniques , Culture Media, Conditioned , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Neoplasm Invasiveness/physiopathology , Pancreatic Neoplasms/metabolism , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , /genetics , /metabolism , Stem Cells/pathology
11.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 46(5): 405-416, maio 2013. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-675676

ABSTRACT

Epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation and histone modification are important in stem cell differentiation. Methylation is principally associated with transcriptional repression, and histone acetylation is correlated with an active chromatin state. We determined the effects of these epigenetic mechanisms on adipocyte differentiation in mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from bone marrow (BM-MSCs) and adipose tissue (ADSCs) using the chromatin-modifying agents trichostatin A (TSA), a histone deacetylase inhibitor, and 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine (5azadC), a demethylating agent. Subconfluent MSC cultures were treated with 5, 50, or 500 nM TSA or with 1, 10, or 100 µM 5azadC for 2 days before the initiation of adipogenesis. The differentiation was quantified and expression of the adipocyte genes PPARG and FABP4 and of the anti-adipocyte gene GATA2 was evaluated. TSA decreased adipogenesis, except in BM-MSCs treated with 5 nM TSA. Only treatment with 500 nM TSA decreased cell proliferation. 5azadC treatment decreased proliferation and adipocyte differentiation in all conditions evaluated, resulting in the downregulation of PPARG and FABP4 and the upregulation of GATA2. The response to treatment was stronger in ADSCs than in BM-MSCs, suggesting that epigenetic memories may differ between cells of different origins. As epigenetic signatures affect differentiation, it should be possible to direct the use of MSCs in cell therapies to improve process efficiency by considering the various sources available.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Middle Aged , Adipocytes/drug effects , Cell Differentiation/drug effects , Deoxycytidine/pharmacology , Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Hydroxamic Acids/pharmacology , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/drug effects , Adipocytes/cytology , Blotting, Western , Cells, Cultured , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , DNA Methylation , Epigenomics , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Up-Regulation
12.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 100(1): 82-89, jan. 2013. ilus, graf, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-662387

ABSTRACT

FUNDAMENTO: O potencial de renovação e proliferação dos cardiomiócitos, in vivo, é pequeno, e por isso, o músculo cardíaco apresenta limitada capacidade de repor células perdidas. Na tentativa de minimizar os danos oriundos de lesões hipóxico-isquêmicas e daquelas que acometem o sistema de condução do coração, a terapia celular com células-tronco mesenquimais (MSC) vem sendo utilizada, inclusive com cardiomiócitos diferenciados a partir de MSC. OBJETIVO: O presente trabalho comparou três protocolos distintos de indução de diferenciação objetivando a sugestão de um método viável para a diferenciação de maior número de células funcionais que expressem fenótipo cardiomiogênico. MÉTODOS: Culturas de MSC obtidas de tecido adiposo de ratos jovens da linhagem Lewis transgênicos para proteína verde fluorescente (GFP) foram submetidos a três diferentes meios de diferenciação cardiogênica: Planat-Bérnard, 5-azacitidina e meio Planat-Bérnard + 5-azacitidina e observadas quanto a expressão de marcadores celulares cardíacos. RESULTADOS: Nos três protolocos utilizados observou-se formação da proteína alfa-actinina sarcomérica no citoesqueleto das células submetidas à diferenciação, expressão de conexina 43 na membrana nuclear e citoplasmática e formação de gap junctions, necessárias para a propagação do impulso elétrico no miocárdio, contudo, em nenhum protocolo foi observada contração espontânea das células submetidas à diferenciação cardiogênica. CONCLUSÃO: A indução com 5-azacitidina proporcionou diferenciação celular cadiomiogênica efetiva e similar à encontrada com o meio Planat-Bénard e, por ser um protocolo mais simples, rápido e com menor custo torna-se o método de eleição.


BACKGROUND: Cardiomyocytes have small potential for renovation and proliferation in vivo. Consequently, the heart muscle has limited capacity of self-renewal. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) therapy, as well as MSC differentiated into cardiomyocytes, has been used in the attempt to minimize the effects of ischemic-hypoxic lesions and those affecting the electrical conduction system of the heart. OBJECTIVE: The present study compared three distinct protocols for induced differentiation of MSC into cardiomyocytes aimed at finding a viable method for producing a large number of functional cells expressing cardiomyogenic phenotype. METHODS: Mesenchymal stem cells were obtained from the adipose tissue of young transgenic Lewis rats expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP), and submitted to three distinct differentiation-inducing media: 1) Planat-Bérnard, 2) 5-azacytidine, and 3) Planat-Bérnard + 5-azacytidine; further, these cells were identified based on the expression of cardiac cell markers. RESULTS: All three protocols detected the expression of sarcomeric-alpha-actinin protein in the exoskeleton of cells, expression of connexin-43 in the nuclear and cytoplasmic membrane, and formation of gap junctions, which are necessary for electrical impulse propagation in the myocardium. However, no spontaneous cell contraction was observed with any of the tested protocols. CONCLUSION: Induction with 5-azacytidine provided an effective cadiomyogenic cellular differentiation similar to that obtained with Planat-Bénard media. Therefore, 5-azacytidine was the method of choice for being the simplest, fastest and lowest-cost protocol for cell differentiation.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Adipocytes/cytology , Adipose Tissue/cytology , Cell Differentiation , Cell Culture Techniques/methods , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/cytology , Myocytes, Cardiac/cytology , Adipocytes/drug effects , Azacitidine/pharmacology , Cells, Cultured , Cell Differentiation/drug effects , Flow Cytometry , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Rats, Inbred Lew , Reproducibility of Results
13.
Acta cir. bras ; 27(4): 283-289, Apr. 2012. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-622351

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate the implant of human adipose derived stem cells (ADSC) delivered in hyaluronic acid gel (HA), injected in the subcutaneous of athymic mice. METHODS: Control implants -HA plus culture media was injected in the subcutaneous of the left sub scapular area of 12 athymic mice. ADSC implants: HA plus ADSC suspended in culture media was injected in the subcutaneous, at the contra lateral area, of the same animals. With eight weeks, animals were sacrificed and the recovered implants were processed for extraction of genomic DNA, and histological study by hematoxilin-eosin staining and immunufluorescence using anti human vimentin and anti von Willebrand factor antibodies. RESULTS: Controls: Not visualized at the injection site. An amorphous substance was observed in hematoxilin-eosin stained sections. Human vimentin and anti von Willebrand factor were not detected. No human DNA was detected. ADSC implants - A plug was visible at the site of injection. Fusiform cells were observed in sections stained by hematoxilin- eosin and both human vimentin and anti von Willebrand factor were detected by immunofluorescence. The presence of human DNA was confirmed. CONCLUSION: The delivery of human adipose derived stem cells in preparations of hyaluronic acid assured cells engraftment at the site of injection.


OBJETIVO: Avaliar o implante de células tronco do tecido adiposo humano (CTTAH) em gel de ácido hialurônico (AH), injetados no tecido subcutâneo de camundongos atímicos. MÉTODOS: Implantes controle - HA com meio de cultura foram injetados no tecido subcutâneo da região infraescapular esquerda de 12 camundongos atímicos. Implantes de CTTAH: HA com CTTAH suspensas em meio de cultura foi injetado no subcutâneo da região contra lateral, dos mesmos animais. Com oito semanas, os animais foram sacrificados e os implantes recuperados foram processados para extração de DNA genômico, estudo histológico por coloração por hematoxilina eosina e imnuoflurescência utilizando anticorpos anti vimentina humana e anti fator de von Willebrand. RESULTADOS: Controles - implantes não visualizados no local da injeção. Uma substância amorfa foi observada nos cortes corados por hematoxilina eosina. Vimentina humana e fator anti von Willebrand não foram identificados. DNA humano não foi detectado. Implantes de CTTAH - Uma massa era visível no local da injeção. Células fusiformes foram observadas nos corte corados com hematoxilina eosina. Tanto vimentina humana quanto fator de von Willebrand foram identificados pela imunofluorescência. A presença de DNA humano foi confirmada. CONCLUSÃO: O implante de células tronco do tecido adiposo humano em veículo de ácido hialurônico gel assegurou a manutenção das células no local do implante.


Subject(s)
Adult , Animals , Female , Humans , Mice , Adipocytes/transplantation , Adipose Tissue/cytology , Hyaluronic Acid/administration & dosage , Stem Cell Transplantation/methods , Adipocytes/cytology , Adipocytes/drug effects , Cells, Cultured , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Implants, Experimental , Injections, Subcutaneous/methods , Mice, Nude , Models, Animal , Tissue Engineering/methods , Vimentin/analysis , von Willebrand Factor/analysis , von Willebrand Factor/antagonists & inhibitors
14.
Experimental & Molecular Medicine ; : 330-339, 2012.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-153074

ABSTRACT

Auto-transplantation of adipose tissue is commonly used for the treatment of tissue defects in plastic surgery. The survival of the transplanted adipose tissue is not always constant, and one of reasons is the accelerated apoptosis of the implanted preadipocytes. We have recently established highly homogeneous preadipocytes, named ccdPAs. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the regulation of the potency of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) on the apoptosis of ccdPAs in vitro. PRP stimulated the proliferation of the preadipocytes in a dose-dependent manner, and the stimulatory activity of 2% PRP was significantly higher than that of 2% FBS or 2% platelet-poor plasma (PPP). The presence of 2% PRP significantly inhibited serum starvation- or TNF-alpha/cycloheximide-induced apoptosis in comparison to 2% FBS or 2% PPP. DAPK1 and Bcl-2-interacting mediator of cell death (BIM) mRNAs were reduced in the preadipocytes cultured with 2% PRP in comparison to those cultured in 2% FBS. The gene expression levels were significantly higher in cells cultured without serum in comparison to cells cultured with 2% FBS, and the levels in the cells with 2% PRP were reduced to 5-10% of those in the cells without serum. These results indicated that ccdPAs exhibit anti-apoptotic activities, in addition to increased proliferation, when cultured in 2% PRP in comparison to the same concentration of FBS, and that this was accompanied with reduced levels of DAPK1 and BIM mRNA expression in in vitro culture. PRP may improve the outcome of transplantation of adipose tissue by enhancing the anti-apoptotic activities of the implanted preadipocytes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adipocytes/cytology , Adipose Tissue/cytology , Apoptosis/physiology , Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases/antagonists & inhibitors , Cell Culture Techniques/methods , Cell Differentiation , Cell Proliferation , Cells, Cultured , Gene Expression Regulation , Membrane Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Platelet-Rich Plasma/metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Tissue Transplantation
15.
Clinics ; 66(2): 307-312, 2011. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-581519

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to describe the probable mechanism of the volume increase of laparoscopically harvested omentum flaps used to treat breast deformities. METHODS: A histological analysis of omentum samples was performed to study the volume increase of laparoscopically harvested omentum flaps. Samples were harvested immediately after the transposition of the omentum from the abdominal cavity to the breast region and during the second surgical procedure for breast symmetrization of eight patients submitted to the transposition of the omentum flap. Changes in the morphometric measurements of the adipocytes (perimeter, diameter, and area), microvascular density (as measured by the CD31 endothelial marker), and immunohistochemical expression of VEGF were documented. RESULTS: The increases in adipocyte size and microvascular density were statistically significant (P < 0.012). The expression levels of VEGF were lower in the second set of samples when compared to the first set, but the differences were not statistically significant (P < 0.093). CONCLUSION: These results demonstrate an increase in cellular volume as measured by adipocyte perimeter, diameter, and area. Moreover, the increase in the number of vessels in the second set of samples suggests that neoangiogenesis was stimulated by the initial increase in VEGF expression levels observed in the first set of samples. The increase in VEGF expression in the flap may have been caused by adipocyte hypertrophy resulting from neoangiogenesis.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Adipocytes/cytology , Breast Neoplasms/surgery , Breast/growth & development , Omentum/transplantation , Surgical Flaps , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factors/physiology , Body Mass Index , Breast Neoplasms/blood supply , Breast Neoplasms/pathology , Breast/blood supply , Breast/surgery , Cell Enlargement , Laparoscopy , Neovascularization, Physiologic/physiology , Organ Size , Omentum/blood supply , Omentum/cytology , Postoperative Period , Statistics, Nonparametric , Surgical Flaps/blood supply , Surgical Flaps/pathology , Time Factors
16.
Experimental & Molecular Medicine ; : 161-167, 2011.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-34111

ABSTRACT

The development of clinically applicable scaffolds is important for the application of cell transplantation in various human diseases. The aims of this study are to evaluate fibrin glue in a novel protein replacement therapy using proliferative adipocytes and to develop a mouse model system to monitor the delivery of the transgene product into the blood and the fate of the transduced cells after transplantation. Proliferative adipocytes from mouse adipose tissue were transduced by a retroviral vector harboring the human lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (lcat) gene, and were subcutaneously transplanted into mice combined with fibrin glue. The lcat gene transduction efficiency and the subsequent secretion of the product in mouse adipocytes were enhanced using a protamine concentration of 500 microg/ml. Adipogenesis induction did not significantly affect the lcat gene-transduced cell survival after transplantation. Immunohistochemistry showed the ectopic enzyme production to persist for 28 days in the subcutaneously transplanted gene-transduced adipocytes. The increased viability of transplanted cells with fibrin glue was accompanied with the decrease in apoptotic cell death. The immunodetectable serum LCAT levels in mice implanted with the fibrin glue were comparable with those observed in mice implanted with Matrigel, indicating that the transplanted lcat gene-transduced adipocytes survived and functioned in the transplanted spaces with fibrin glue as well as with Matrigel for 28 days. Thus, this in vivo system using fibrin is expected to serve as a good model to further improve the transplanted cell/scaffold conditions for the stable and durable cell-based replacement of defective proteins in patients with LCAT deficiency.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Male , Mice , Adipocytes/cytology , Blotting, Western , Cell Differentiation , Cell Survival/drug effects , Cells, Cultured , Collagen/metabolism , Drug Combinations , Drug Delivery Systems , Fibrin Tissue Adhesive/administration & dosage , Genetic Vectors/administration & dosage , Laminin/metabolism , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Nude , Phosphatidylcholine-Sterol O-Acyltransferase/genetics , Proteoglycans/metabolism , RNA, Messenger/genetics , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Tissue Engineering
17.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-135514

ABSTRACT

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder of unknown etiology. Insulin resistance is very common and plays a central pathogenic role in PCOS. During last decade several studies have been conducted to understand the mechanisms contributing to the state of insulin resistance and insulin-induced hyperandrogenemia in PCOS. Insulin signaling pathways have been dissected in different insulin responsive tissues such as skeletal muscles, adipose tissues, fibroblasts as well as ovaries to elucidate the mechanism. These studies suggest a post receptor signaling defect where metabolic action of insulin is affected but not the steroidogenic and mitogenic actions. Despite advancement in these studies gaps exist in our understanding of the mechanism of insulin resistance as well as insulin-induced steroidogenesis in PCOS. The syndrome is now considered as a complex multigenic disorder. Efforts are ongoing to dissect the variants of genes from multiple logical pathways which are involved in pathophysiology of the syndrome. But still today no gene has been emerged as universally accepted susceptibility gene for PCOS. This review briefly describes the lacunae along with the current status of molecular events underlying insulin resistance and the contribution of insulin signaling pathway genes in pathogenesis of PCOS along with future researchable areas.


Subject(s)
Adipocytes/cytology , Adipocytes/metabolism , Adipose Tissue/metabolism , Animals , Female , Fibroblasts/cytology , Fibroblasts/physiology , Genetic Variation , Humans , Hyperandrogenism/complications , Hyperandrogenism/physiopathology , Insulin/metabolism , Insulin Resistance/physiology , Muscle, Skeletal/cytology , Muscle, Skeletal/physiology , Polycystic Ovary Syndrome/etiology , Polycystic Ovary Syndrome/physiopathology , Signal Transduction/physiology
18.
Experimental & Molecular Medicine ; : 397-405, 2009.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-196697

ABSTRACT

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) activation in rodents is thought to improve insulin sensitivity by decreasing ectopic lipids in non-adipose tissues. Fenofibrate, a lipid-modifying agent that acts as a PPARalpha agonist, may prevent adipocyte hypertrophy and insulin resistance by increasing intracellular lipolysis from adipose tissue. Consistent with this hypothesis, fenofibrate decreased visceral fat mass and adipocyte size in high fat diet-fed obese mice, and concomitantly increased the expression of PPARalpha target genes involved in fatty acid beta-oxidation in both epididymal adipose tissue and differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. However, mRNA levels of adipose marker genes, such as leptin and TNFalpha, were decreased in epididymal adipose tissue by fenofibrate treatment. Fenofibrate not only reduced circulating levels of free fatty acids and triglycerides, but also normalized hyperinsulinemia and hyperglycemia in obese mice. Blood glucose levels of fenofibrate-treated mice were significantly reduced during intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test compared with obese controls. These results suggest that fenofibrate-induced fatty acid beta-oxidation in visceral adipose tissue may be one of the major factors leading to decreased adipocyte size and improved insulin sensitivity.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , 3T3 Cells , Adipocytes/cytology , Hypolipidemic Agents/pharmacology , Blood Glucose , Body Weight , Cell Enlargement/drug effects , Dietary Fats , Gene Expression Regulation/drug effects , Glucose Tolerance Test , Insulin/blood , Insulin Resistance , Leptin/genetics , Lipids/blood , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Obese , PPAR alpha/metabolism , Fenofibrate/pharmacology , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/genetics
19.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : 104-109, 2009.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-112917

ABSTRACT

In this study of a developed soft tissue filler, adipose tissue equivalents were constructed using adipose stem cells (ASCs) and micronized acellular dermal matrix (Alloderm). After labeling cultured human ASCs with fluorescent green protein and attaching them to micronized Alloderm (5X10(5) cells/1 mg), ASC-Alloderm complexes were cultured in adipogenic differentiation media for 14 days and then injected into the dorsal cranial region of nude male mice. The viabilities of ASCs in micronized Alloderm were determined at 1, 4, 7, and 14 days, and complexes, which had been cultured for 14 days and implanted in vivo for 2 months, were histologically evaluated by light, confocal, and scanning electron microscopy. The viabilities represented that ASCs in micronized Alloderm were alive during the culture period. ASC-Alloderm complexes cultured for 14 days contained round cells with large lipid vesicles by light microscopy and many spherical cells by SEM. ASCs in implanted ASCAlloderm complexes harvested from mice at 2 months postinjection were histologically found to have differentiated into adipocytes which had green fluorescence dye. Micronized Alloderm may be found useful as scaffold for human ASCs when constructing fat tissue for three-dimensional soft tissue filling. The present study suggests that ASC-Alloderm complexes can be used as injectable three-dimensional soft tissue fillers.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Adipocytes/cytology , Adipogenesis , Adipose Tissue/cytology , Cell Differentiation , Cells, Cultured , Collagen/chemistry , Fluorescent Dyes/chemistry , Injections, Subcutaneous , Mice, Nude , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Stem Cell Transplantation/methods , Stem Cells/cytology , Time Factors , Tissue Engineering/methods , Transplantation, Heterologous
20.
Experimental & Molecular Medicine ; : 208-216, 2009.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-76609

ABSTRACT

B cell activation factor (BAFF) is a novel member of the TNF ligand superfamily, mainly produced by myeloid cells. BAFF has been shown to participate in B-cell survival and B- and T-cell maturation. BAFF expression in adipocytes has been recently demonstrated. In the current study, we verified that BAFF expression is increased during adipocyte differentiation. BAFF expression was augmented by TNF-alpha treatment and was decreased by rosiglitazone treatment. BAFF secretion in lean and in ob/ob mice sera were compared and smaller amount of BAFF was secreted in ob/ob mice. mRNA and protein expression were different between epididymal and visceral adipose tissue. BAFF expression was also increased in ob/ob mouse adipose tissue. We sought to identify known BAFF receptors (BAFF-R, BCMA, and TACI) in adipocytes, and determined that all three were present and upregulated during adipocyte differentiation. However, the expression of TACI was distinct from that of BAFF-R and BCMA under TNF-alpha and BAFF ligand treatment. BAFF-R and BCMA expression levels were upregulated under pro-inflammatory conditions, but TACI was reduced. Conversely, BAFF-R and BCMA expression levels were downregulated by rosiglitazone treatment, but TACI was increased. Taken together, our results suggest that BAFF may be a new adipokine, representing a link between obesity and inflammation.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Adipocytes/cytology , Adipokines/biosynthesis , B-Cell Activating Factor/biosynthesis , B-Cell Activation Factor Receptor/metabolism , Cell Differentiation , Hypoglycemic Agents/pharmacology , Inflammation/metabolism , Obesity/metabolism , Thiazolidinediones/pharmacology , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/pharmacology
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