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1.
Afr. J. Clin. Exp. Microbiol ; 24(1): 9-15, 2023. figures, tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1414325

ABSTRACT

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the twelfth most common cancer and the fifth leading cause of worldwide cancer related death. Chronic hepatitis B infection, caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV) and exposure to aflatoxins is fundamental in the formation of HCC in developing countries. This review of scientific publications aims to establish the detrimental effects of aflatoxin-contaminated foods and highlights the correlation between aflatoxin and hepatitis B viral-associated hepatocellular carcinoma. Research has shown a significant increase in the occurrence of HCC in HBV-infected individuals exposed to fungal toxins. HBV demonstrates the ability to integrate and bind to p53 protein in the host DNA and propagate hepatocyte vulnerability through carcinogenic aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) damage. Although there has been clear evidence about the synergistic interaction of exposure to AFB1 and HBV infection in the induction of HCC, other literature has shown otherwise, mainly because incomplete and vague findings and hypotheses were made in regions where AFB1 and HBV pose a public health risk. Vaccination against hepatitis B and measures such as robust food safety systems to avoid hepatotoxicity and hepatocellular carcinogenesis induced by AFB1 is the most effective methods in the prevention of HCC induced by HBV and AFB1


Subject(s)
Hepatitis B virus , Vaccination , Aflatoxin B1 , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Hepatitis B, Chronic , Aflatoxins , Hepatitis
2.
Rev. Ciênc. Méd. Biol. (Impr.) ; 20(4): 503-509, fev 11, 2022. fig, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1359302

ABSTRACT

Introdução: a espécie vegetal Curatella americana produz anualmente inflorescências com aroma adocicado rica em óleo essencial. Objetivo: avaliar as características físico-químicas, e atividades antifúngica e antioxidante do óleo essencial da flor de Curatella americana. Metodologia: as flores foram coletadas em quatro áreas de Cerrado no estado de Goiás; o rendimento de óleo essencial foi obtido através de hidrodestilação; as características físicas foram determinadas para densidade e solubilidade, a atividade antioxidante foi determinada pela redução do radical livre DPPH; a atividade antifúngica foi determinada por inibição das cepas de Candida, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides e Aspergillus flavus. Resultados: o rendimento de óleo foi de 0,18%, densidade de 0,907 g mL-1, solubilidade positiva para EtOH 70%, atividade antioxidante de CI50 µL mL-1 1,95. Atividade de inibição fúngica apenas para Candida tropicalis na concentração de 8% com halo de antibiose de 10 mm. Sensibilidade discreta nas maiores concentrações de 25, 50 e 100 µL-1 para Aspergillus flavus e Sclerotinia sclerotiorum e baixa atividade de inibição para Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. Conclusão: o óleo essencial da flor de Curatella americana apresentou baixo rendimento, entretanto, alta eficiência na redução do radical livre DPPH. As atividades antifúngicas apresentaram bons resultados de inibição, entretanto, torna-se necessário a adição de outros óleos essenciais para aumento das taxas de inibição micelial.


Introduction: the plant species Curatella americana produces annual inflorescences with a sweet flavour rich in essential oil. Objective: to evaluate the physicochemical characteristics, antifungal and antioxidant activities of the essential oil of the Curatella americana flower. Methodology: the flowers were collected in four areas of Cerrado in the state of Goiás; the essential oil yield was obtained through hydrodistillation; the physical characteristics were determined for density and solubility, the antioxidant activity was determined by the reduction of the free radical DPPH; antifungal activity was determined by inhibiting the strains of Candida, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Aspergillus flavus. Results: the oil yield was 0.18%, density 0.907 g mL-1, positive solubility for EtOH 70%, antioxidant activity of IC50 µL mL-1 1.95. Fungal inhibition activity only for Candida tropicalis at a concentration of 8% with a 10 mm antibiosis halo. Discrete sensitivity in the highest concentrations of 25, 50 and 100 µL-1 for Aspergillus flavus and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and low inhibition activity for Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. Conclusion: The essential oil of the Curatella americana flower showed low yield, however, high efficiency in reducing DPPH free radical. Antifungal activities showed good inhibition results, however, it is necessary to add other essential oils to increase mycelial inhibition rates.


Subject(s)
Candidiasis , Oils, Volatile , Aflatoxins , Flowers , Dilleniaceae
3.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 385-391, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927980

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to analyze aflatoxins content and fungal community distribution in the harvesting and processing of Platycladi Semen, and explore the key link that affects aflatoxins contamination. The related Platycladi Semen samples of different maturity periods(cone non-rupture period, early rupture, and complete rupture period) and different processing periods(before drying, during 2-d drying, during 7-d drying, before and after seed scale removal, before and after peeling, 1 d after color sorting, and 7 d after color sorting) were collected for identifying the fungal community composition on sample surface by ITS amplicon sequencing. Then the content of aflatoxins B_1, B_2, G_1 and G_2 was determined by HPLC-MS/MS. The results showed that during the harvesting of Platycladi Semen from cone non-rupture to complete rupture, aflatoxins were only detected in the seed scale and seed coat, with aflatoxin G_2 in the seed scale and aflatoxin B_1 in the seed coat. During the drying, with the prolongation of drying time, aflatoxins B_1 and G_2 were detected simultaneously in the seed scale, aflatoxin B_1 in the seed coat, and low-content aflatoxin B_1 in the seed kernel. During subsequent processing, the aflatoxin content in seed kernel during subsequent processing was slighted increased. As demonstrated by fungal detection, Aspergillus flavus was not present during the harvesting of Platycladi Semen, but present during the drying and processing. Its content in the seed coat during the drying process was relatively higher. In short, Platycladi Semen should be harvested as soon as possible after it becomes fully mature. Drying process is the key link of preventing aflatoxin contamination. It is advised to build a sunlight room or adopt similar settings, standardize the operations in other processes, and keep the surrounding environment clean to minimize aflatoxin contamination.


Subject(s)
Aflatoxins/analysis , Aspergillus flavus , Food Contamination/prevention & control , Mycobiome , Semen/chemistry , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
4.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 628-634, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927944

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to establish a method for synchronous detection of 14 mycotoxins in Pseudostellariae Radix and investigate its contamination with mycotoxins, so as to provide technical guidance for monitoring the quality of Chinese medicinal materials and medication safety. The sample was extracted with 80% acetonitrile in an oscillator for 1 h, purified using the modified QuEChERS purifying agent(0.1 g PSA + 0.3 g C_(18) + 0.3 g MgSO_4), and separated on a Waters HSS T3 chromatographic column(2.1 mm×100 mm, 1.8 μm). The gradient elution was carried out with 0.1% formic acid in water and acetonitrile, followed by the scanning in the multi-reaction monitoring(MRM) mode and the analysis of mycotoxin contamination in 26 Pseudostellariae Radix samples. The recovery rates of the established method were within the range of 82.17%-113.6%, with the RSD values less than 7% and the limits of quantification(LOQ) being 0.019-0.976 μg·kg~(-1). The detection rate of 14 mycotoxins in 26 batches of medicinal materials was 53.85%. The detection rate of sterigmatocystin(ST) was the highest, followed by those of zearalenone(ZEN), aflatoxin G_2(AFG_2), fumonisin B_1(FB_1), HT-2 toxin, and nivalenol(NIV). Their respective detection rates were 38.46%, 26.92%, 23.08%, 11.54%, 11.54%, and 7.69%, with the pollution ranges being 1.48-69.65, 0.11-31.05, 0.11-0.66, 0.28-0.83, 20.86-42.56, and 0.46-1.84 μg·kg~(-1), respectively. The established method for the detection of 14 mycotoxins is accurate, fast and reliable. The research results have very important practical significance for guiding the monitoring and prevention and control of exogenous fungal contamination of Chinese medicinal materials.


Subject(s)
Aflatoxins/analysis , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Drug Contamination , Food Contamination/analysis , Mycotoxins/analysis , Plant Roots/chemistry , Tandem Mass Spectrometry/methods
5.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 72-79, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878913

ABSTRACT

In the process of harvesting, production and processing, storage, and transportation, the traditional Chinese medicine Platycladi Semen is prone to mildew due to its own and environmental factors, which can nourish the production of toxic or pathogenic fungi, and even produce mycotoxins, which affects the safety of clinical medication. The 2020 edition of Chinese Pharmacopoeia limits the highest standard of aflatoxin content in Platycladi Semen. However, there are few studies on the fungal contamination of Platycladi Semen, and it is difficult to prevent and control it in a targeted manner. Therefore, based on the Illumina NovaSeq6000 platform, this article uses ITS sequence amplicon technology to analyze the distribution and diversity of fungi in 27 batches of commercially available Platycladi Semen in the Chinese market. A total of 10 phyla, 35 classes, 93 orders, 193 families, 336 genera, and 372 species of fungi were identified in China. Among them, Aspergillus, Alternaria spp. were dominant, 20 batches of samples were detected for A. flavus, 10 batches of samples were detected for A. nidulans, and all samples were detected for potential pathogenic fungi such as A. fumigatus and A. niger. According to diversity analysis, the diversity of the fungal communities in the samples from Gansu province was high, the samples in Shandong province contain the largest number of fungal species, and the samples in Guangxi province had the lo-west diversity and the least number of species. In most samples, pathogenic fungi such as A. fumigatus, A. niger, A. flavus, A. parasiticus were detected in varying degrees. This study systematically investigated the fungal contamination of Platycladi Semen from the markets in the last link of the its industrial chain, and clarified the distribution of Platycladi Semen fungi, especially toxin-producing fungi, and provided theoretical basis for the targeted prevention and control of fungal contamination in Platycladi Semen.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aflatoxins , China , Fungi/genetics , Mycobiome , Mycotoxins/analysis , Semen/chemistry
6.
Guatemala; INCAP; 2021. 4 p. ilus. (PP-NT-103).
Non-conventional in Spanish | LILACS, LIGCSA, REPincaP | ID: biblio-1396633

ABSTRACT

El cáncer de hígado, específicamente el carcinoma hepatocelular (CHC), se encuentra dentro de las primeras 5 causas de muerte por cáncer alrededor del mundo (1). De acuerdo con algunas estimaciones por agencias internacionales, este cáncer afecta considerablemente a Guatemala, país al cual se le calcula una de las tasas más altas de incidencia en el hemisferio occidental como describiremos más adelante. Las razones detrás de esta alta incidencia, aunque no se conocen de lleno, se presume que son debido en gran parte a la alta prevalencia de múltiples factores de riesgo, incluyendo enfermedades metabólicas (2) y exposición a toxinas producidas por hongos (e,g., aflatoxinas) consumidos en alimentos (3). En las secciones siguientes se describen varios factores de riesgo de CHC


Subject(s)
Incidence , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Cause of Death , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Aflatoxins , Food , Fungi , Liver Neoplasms , Metabolic Diseases
7.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 40(9): 717-725, Sept. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1143426

ABSTRACT

This research was carried out to evaluate the effect of mycotoxins on the performance of horses through physiological parameters, and hematology and serum biochemistry analyses. The essay lasted 40 days, with 12 days for adaptation and 28 days of experimentation. In the experimental stage, the horses were distributed in a completely randomized design, with three treatments with four animals each. The treatments used were 0 (control), 50 ppb and 100 ppb of Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) added to a concentrate in a basal diet. The basal diet contained mycotoxins from feedstuffs naturally contaminated. The exercise test was performed over the 21th day of the experimental stage. The exercise consisted in an interval training test with a warm-up of 17 mins at a trot followed by three gallops of 450m/min. The heart rate was monitored between the gallops. Before the exercise test and immediately after the third gallop, the physiological and blood parameters were evaluated, and continued up to 48 hours after the exercise. The results of the physiological, hematological and biochemical parameters were submitted to analysis of variance (ANOVA) and compared by the Tukey test at 5% of significance. The presence of AFB1 in the diet influenced the alkaline phosphatase activity, which presented higher values in horses fed diet with inclusion of 100 ppb AFB1, suggesting a hepatotoxic activity associated with the others mycotoxins naturally present in the feedstuffs.(AU)


Esta pesquisa foi conduzida para avaliar o efeito de micotoxinas no desempenho de equinos com avaliações fisiológicas e análises hematológicas e da bioquímica sérica. O ensaio durou 40 dias, com 12 dias de adaptação e 28 dias de experimentação. Na fase experimental, os equinos foram distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado em três tratamentos, com quatro animais cada. Os tratamentos utilizados foram 0 (controle), 50 ppb e 100 ppb de Aflatoxina B1 (AFB1) adicionada ao concentrado de uma dieta basal. A dieta basal continha alimentos naturalmente contaminados por micotoxinas. O teste de desempenho foi executado no 21º dia da fase experimental por meio de teste intervalado consistindo em aquecimento ao trote por 17 minutos, seguido de três galopes de 450m/min. A frequência cardíaca (FC) foi monitorada entre os galopes. Antes do exercício e imediatamente após o terceiro galope, os parâmetros fisiológicos e sanguíneos foram avaliados e continuaram sendo monitorados até 48 horas após o exercício. Os resultados dos parâmetros fisiológicos, hematológicos e bioquímicos foram submetidos à análise de variância (ANOVA) e comparados pelo teste de Tukey a 5% de significância. A presença de AFB1 na dieta influenciou a atividade da fosfatase alcalina, que apresentou valores mais elevadas na dieta com inclusão de 100 ppb de AFB1, sugerindo uma atividade hepatotóxica associada às outras micotoxinas naturalmente presentes nos alimentos.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Physical Conditioning, Animal , Mycotoxicosis/veterinary , Aflatoxins/toxicity , Gait Analysis/veterinary , Horses/blood , Animal Feed/toxicity , Physical Exertion
8.
Rev. Inst. Adolfo Lutz (Online) ; 79: 1-7, 31 mar. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, CONASS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP, SESSP-ACVSES, SESSP-IALPROD, SES-SP, SESSP-IALACERVO | ID: biblio-1291803

ABSTRACT

Micotoxinas são substâncias tóxicas produzidas por fungos e encontradas nos alimentos. As micotoxinas mais tóxicas são as aflatoxinas, produzidas, principalmente por Aspergillus flavus. Estudos realizados no país demonstraram alta incidência dessas micotoxinas em produtos de amendoim, que representa risco à saúde da população. O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar a incidência de aflatoxinas B1, B2, G1 e G2 em amostras de amendoins comercializados na região Nordeste do Estado de São Paulo nos períodos de 1994-2001 e 2016-2017. O método utilizado para analisar as amostras no primeiro período foi extração líquido-líquido e cromatografia em camada delgada e no segundo foi utilizando colunas de imunoafinidade, cromatografia líquida com derivatização pós- coluna e detector por fluorescência. No levantamento de 1994-2001 das 82 amostras, 39% tiveram contaminação de aflatoxinas variando de 11 a 1556 µg/kg com 37% das amostras contendo níveis maiores que 20 µg/kg, enquanto na pesquisa de 2016-17, das 56 amostras, 38% apresentaram contaminação destas toxinas variando de 0,09 a 60,40 µg/kg com 13% das amostras contendo níveis maiores que 20 µg/kg. Os resultados dos dois períodos estudados indicam que houve uma diminuição na incidência e nível das aflatoxinas estudadas, embora esta contaminação em amendoim permaneça um problema de saúde pública. (AU)


Mycotoxins are toxic compounds produced by fungi found in food. The most toxic mycotoxins are the aflatoxins produced mainly by Aspergillus flavus . Studies carried out in Brazil showed a high incidence of these mycotoxins in peanut products, a fact that represents public health problems. The aim of the study was to evaluate aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2 in samples of peanuts sold in cities of the Northeast of the State of São Paulo in the period from 1994 to 2001 and from 2016 to 2017. The samples of the first period were analyzed using liquid-liquid extraction and thin-layer chromatography and the second using immunoaffinity columns, post-column derivative liquid chromatography and fluorescence detector. In the 1994-2001 survey, among 82 samples, 39% presented aflatoxins contamination ranging from 11 to 1556 µg/kg with 37% with levels greater than 20 µg/kg whereas, in the 2016-17 survey, 38% of the 56 samples presented contamination of aflatoxins ranging from 0.09 to 60.40 µg/kg and 7 samples 13% containing aflatoxins levels higher than 20 µg/kg. The results indicated there was a decrease in the incidence and level of aflatoxins, but the contamination of aflatoxins in peanuts remains a public health problem. (AU)


Subject(s)
Arachis , Aspergillus flavus , Toxic Substances , Aflatoxins , Mycotoxins , Food Contamination
9.
Rev. Inst. Adolfo Lutz ; 79: e1783, 31 mar. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1489614

ABSTRACT

Micotoxinas são substâncias tóxicas produzidas por fungos e encontradas nos alimentos. As micotoxinas mais tóxicas são as aflatoxinas, produzidas, principalmente por Aspergillus flavus. Estudos realizados no país demonstraram alta incidência dessas micotoxinas em produtos de amendoim, que representa risco à saúde da população. O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar a incidência de aflatoxinas B1, B2, G1 e G2 em amostras de amendoins comercializados na região Nordeste do Estado de São Paulo nos períodos de 1994-2001 e 2016-2017. O método utilizado para analisar as amostras no primeiro período foi extração líquido-líquido e cromatografia em camada delgada e no segundo foi utilizando colunas de imunoafinidade, cromatografia líquida com derivatização pós-coluna e detector por fluorescência. No levantamento de 1994-2001 das 82 amostras, 39% tiveram contaminação de aflatoxinas variando de 11 a 1556 μg/kg com 37% das amostras contendo níveis maiores que 20 μg/kg, enquanto na pesquisa de 2016-17, das 56 amostras, 38% apresentaram contaminação destas toxinas variando de 0,09 a 60,40 μg/kg com 13% das amostras contendo níveis maiores que 20 μg/kg. Os resultados dos dois períodos estudados indicam que houve uma diminuição na incidência e nível das aflatoxinas estudadas, embora esta contaminação em amendoim permaneça um problema de saúde pública.


Mycotoxins are toxic compounds produced by fungi found in food. The most toxic mycotoxins are the aflatoxins produced mainly by Aspergillus flavus. Studies carried out in Brazil showed a high incidence of these mycotoxins in peanut products, a fact that represents public health problems. The aim of the study was to evaluate aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2 in samples of peanuts sold in cities of the Northeast of the State of São Paulo in the period from 1994 to 2001 and from 2016 to 2017. The samples of the first period were analyzed using liquid-liquid extraction and thin-layer chromatography and the second using immunoaffinity columns, post-column derivative liquid chromatography and fluorescence detector. In the 1994-2001 survey, among 82 samples, 39% presented aflatoxins contamination ranging from 11 to 1556 μg/kg with 37% with levels greater than 20 μg/kg whereas, in the 2016-17 survey, 38% of the 56 samples presented contamination of aflatoxins ranging from 0.09 to 60.40 μg/kg and 7 samples 13% containing aflatoxins levels higher than 20 μg/kg. The results indicated there was a decrease in the incidence and level of aflatoxins, but the contamination of aflatoxins in peanuts remains a public health problem.


Subject(s)
Aflatoxins/analysis , Arachis/microbiology , Aspergillus flavus , Chromatography, Thin Layer , Cohort Studies , Incidence , Mycotoxins
10.
Rev. argent. microbiol ; 51(4): 292-301, dic. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057392

ABSTRACT

Abstract Aflatoxin is a carcinogenic secondary metabolite produced mainly by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus, which can seriously endanger the health of humans and animals. Oxidative stress is a common defense response, and it is known that reactive oxygen species (ROS) can induce the synthesis of a series of secondary metabolites, including aflatoxin. By using mutants lacking the afap 1 gene, the role of afap 1 gene in oxidative stress and aflatoxin synthesis was assessed. The growth of the mutant strains was significantly inhibited by the increase in the concentration of H2O2, inhibition was complete at 40mmol/l. However, in the quantitative analysis by HPLC, the concentration of AFB1 increased with the increased H 2O 2 until 10mmol/l. Following an analysis based on the information provided by the NCBI BLAST analysis, it was assumed that Afap1, a basic leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factor, was associated with the oxidative stress in this fungus. Treatment with 5mmol/l H 2O 2 completely inhibited the growth of the mutant strains in afap 1 but did not affect the growth of the CA14PTs strain (non-mutant strain). In addition, the concentration of AFB 1 in the mutant strains was approximately V of that observed in the CA14PTs strain. These results suggested that Afap1 plays a key role in the regulation of oxidative stress and aflatoxin production in A. flavus. ©2018 Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. on behalf of Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (https://creativecommons.org/ licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).


Resumen La aflatoxina es un metabolito secundario cancerígeno producido principalmente por Aspergillus flavus y Aspergillus parasiticus, que pone en riesgo grave a la salud de los humanos y los animales. El estrés oxidativo es una respuesta de defensa común, y es sabido que las especies reactivas de oxígeno (ROS) pueden inducir la síntesis de una serie de metabolitos secundarios, incluida la aflatoxina. Empleando mutantes carentes del gen afap1 se evaluó el papel de Afap1 en el estrés oxidativo y la síntesis de aflatoxinas. El crecimiento de las cepas mutadas se vio significativamente inhibido con el aumento de la concentración de H 2O 2, la inhibición fue completa a 40mmol/l. Sin embargo, en el análisis cuantitativo por HPLC, la concentración de la aflatoxina AFBi aumentó con el aumento de la concentración de H 2O 2 hasta 10mmol/l. Tras un análisis apoyado en la información provista por la herramienta NCBI BLAST, se supuso que Afap1, un factor de transcripción de la cremallera de leucina básica (bZIP), estaba asociado con el estrés oxidativo en este hongo. El tratamiento con 5mmol/l de H 2O 2 inhibió completamente el crecimiento de las cepas mutantes en afap1, pero no afectó el crecimiento de la cepa CA14PTs (cepa no mutada). Además, la concentración de AFB 1 en las cepas mutadas fue de aproximadamente 1/4 de la observada en CA14PTs. Estos resultados sugieren que Afap1 juega un papel clave en la regulación del estrés oxidativo y la producción de aflatoxinas en A. flavus.


Subject(s)
Aspergillus flavus/pathogenicity , Aflatoxins/biosynthesis , Transcription Factors/analysis , Oxidative Stress/physiology
11.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 71(5): 1659-1668, set.-out. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | VETINDEX, LILACS | ID: biblio-1038665

ABSTRACT

Objetivou-se avaliar as variáveis micotoxicológicas e nutricionais de híbridos de milho com diferentes características que influenciam no custo da ração para frangos de corte. Foram avaliados 26 híbridos de milho geneticamente modificados nas safrinhas de 2016 e 2017, com diferentes germoplasmas, textura de endosperma e duração do ciclo. Nos híbridos, foram avaliados grãos avariados, fumonisinas (B1+B2) (FUM), aflatoxinas (B1+B2+G1+G2) (AFLA), zearalenona (ZEA), deoxinivalenol (DON), umidade, proteína bruta (PB), energia metabolizável aparente corrigida para balanço de nitrogênio (EMAn), aminoácidos digestíveis para aves (lisina, metionina, cistina e treonina) e o respectivo custo da ração inicial para frangos de corte, que foi calculada pelo custo mínimo. A prevalência de FUM, AFLA, ZEA e DON foi de 90, 17, 33 e 0%, com médias de 3067, 1, 38 e 0µg/kg nos dois anos, respectivamente. A média de EMAn e PB foi de 3264kcal/kg e 8,02%, respectivamente, e diferiu (P<0,05) nos dois anos. O custo da ração foi influenciado significativamente (P<0,05) por FUM, PB, EMAn nos dois anos. Híbridos com tecnologia Viptera apresentam menor concentração por FUM e menor custo da ração. Híbridos de ciclo precoce têm menor concentração de FUM, maiores percentuais de PB e de aminoácidos digestíveis e menor custo da ração.(AU)


The objective of this study was to evaluate the mycotoxicological and nutritional variables of maize hybrids with different characteristics that influence the broiler chicken's feed costs. In 2016 and 2017 winter crops, 26 genetically modified hybrids of maize with different germplasm, endosperm texture and cycle duration were evaluated. The analyzed variables were damaged grains, fumonisins (B 1 +B 2 ) (FUM), aflatoxins (B 1 +B 2 +G 1 +G 2 ) (AFLA), zearalenone (ZEA), deoxynivalenol (DON), moisture, crude protein (CP), apparent metabolizable energy corrected for nitrogen balance (AMEn), digestible amino acids for poultry (lysine, methionine, cystine and threonine) and the respective cost of the initial feed for broiler chickens calculated at the minimum cost. The prevalence of FUM, AFLA, ZEA and DON was 90, 17, 33 and 0%, with means of 3067, 1, 38 and 0µg/kg in the two years, respectively. The mean of AMEn and CP was 3264kcal/kg and 8.02%, respectively, and differed (P< 0.05) in the two years. The feed cost was significantly influenced (P<0.05) by FUM, PB, AMEn in two years. Hybrids with Viptera technology show lower concentration per FUM and lower feed cost. Early cycle hybrids have lower concentrations of FUM, higher percentages of CP and digestible amino acids, and lower feed costs.(AU)


Subject(s)
Zea mays/genetics , Zea mays/toxicity , Animal Feed/toxicity , Mycotoxins/analysis , Mycotoxins/toxicity , Zearalenone/toxicity , Aflatoxins/toxicity , Fumonisins/toxicity
12.
Hig. aliment ; 33(288/289): 2842-2845, abr.-maio 2019. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1482349

ABSTRACT

A castanha-do-brasil é uma matéria-prima de origem amazônica, conhecida por seus benefícios nutricionais. Entretanto, por conta da produção extrativista este produto está susceptivel a vários focos de contaminação durante a cadeia produtiva. Este trabalho teve como objetivos a avaliação de diferentes métodos de descontaminação para controle de Aspergillus nomius produtor de aflatoxinas em castanha-do-brasil. As amostras de castanhas foram inoculadas com suspensão de A. nomius e posteriormente, foram testadas as técnicas de secagem em estufa a 60°C por 8 horas, esterilização em cabine UV por 20 minutos e sanitização com hipoclorito de sódio a 200 ppm por 15 minutos. Todos os tratamentos tiveram ação sob a cepa, sendo obtidos reduções de 3,18; 1,66 e 1,04 RD, respectivamente. A secagem mostrou-se o melhor tratamento de descontaminação, no entanto, mais pesquisas com outros métodos de descontaminação em castanhas são necessárias para controle da contaminação fúngica.


Subject(s)
Aflatoxins/antagonists & inhibitors , Aspergillus/pathogenicity , Bertholletia/microbiology , Decontamination/methods , Food Microbiology
13.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 39: 82-90, may. 2019. graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1052045

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The infection of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) seed coat by the pathogenic fungus Aspergillus flavus has highly negative economic and health impacts. However, the molecular mechanism underlying such defense response remains poorly understood. This study aims to address this issue by profiling the transcriptomic and proteomic changes that occur during the infection of the resistant peanut cultivar J11 by A. flavus. RESULTS: Transcriptomic study led to the detection of 13,539 genes, among which 663 exhibited differential expression. Further functional analysis found the differentially expressed genes to encode a wide range of pathogenesis- and/or defense-related proteins such as transcription factors, pathogenesis-related proteins, and chitinases. Changes in the expression patterns of these genes might contribute to peanut resistance to A. flavus. On the other hand, the proteomic profiling showed that 314 of the 1382 detected protein candidates were aberrantly expressed as a result of A. flavus invasion. However, the correlation between the transcriptomic and proteomic data was poor. We further demonstrated by in vitro fungistasis tests that hevamine-A, which was enriched at both transcript and protein levels, could directly inhibit the growth of A. flavus. Conclusions: The results demonstrate the power of complementary transcriptomic and proteomic analyses in the study of pathogen defense and resistance in plants and the chitinase could play an important role in the defense response of peanut to A. flavus. The current study also constitutes the first step toward building an integrated omics data platform for the development of Aspergillus-resistant peanut cultivars


Subject(s)
Arachis/genetics , Proteome/analysis , Transcriptome , Arachis/microbiology , Aspergillus flavus/physiology , Seeds/genetics , Gene Expression , Chitinases , Aflatoxins , Disease Resistance/genetics , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA-Seq
14.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 35(1): 42-54, jan./fev. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1048559

ABSTRACT

O trigo (Triticum aestivum L.) é um cereal com grande importância econômica ecapacidade produtiva. Porém, é sujeito ao ataque de várias doenças o que demanda o uso de fungicidas durante o ciclo. Assim, este estudo teve como objetivo verificar a qualidade fisiológica e presença de aflatoxina em sementes de trigo quando tratadas com concentrações de fungicidas durante o desenvolvimento da cultura. Plantas da cultivar Mirante foram cultivadas com aplicação foliar de fungicidas com princípios ativos estrobilurina e triazol, adicionando-se adjuvante foliar. Após a colheita, avaliou-se o grau de umidade das sementes, porcentagem de germinação, envelhecimento acelerado, deterioração controlada, teste de frio,emergência em areia, condutividade elétrica e presença de aflatoxinas. Os resultados mostraram que a qualidade fisiológica e sanitária das sementes de trigo não foi influenciada pelo uso dos fungicidas testados. As sementes apresentaram elevado índice de germinação e emergência de plântulas, mesmo quando submetidas a condições de estresse.


Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is a cereal of great economic importance and productive capacity. However, it is subject to attack by various diseases, which requires the use of fungicides during the cycle. Thus, this study aimed to verify the physiological quality and presence of aflatoxin in wheat seeds when treated with concentrations of fungicides during the development of the crop. Plants of the cultivar Mirante were grown with foliar application of fungicides with active principles strobilurin and triazole, adding leaf adjuvant. After harvesting, the moisture content of the seeds, percentage of germination, accelerated aging, controlled deterioration, cold testing, sand emergence, electrical conductivity and the presence of aflatoxins were evaluated. The results showed that the physiological and sanitary quality of wheat seeds was not influenced by the use of the tested fungicides. The seeds showed a high rate of germination and seedling emergence, even when subjected to stress conditions. importanceimˈpôrtns Traduções de importance SubstantivoFrequência aimportância importance, significance, matter, value, amount, import ovalor value, amount, worth, valuation, importance, merit oalcance reach, range, scope, extent, power, importance ainfluência influence, leverage, hold, power, weight, importance aconsideração consideration, account, regard, respect, thought, importance aconseqüência consequence, result, outcome, effect, aftermath, importance Definições de importance Substantivo 1 the state or fact of being of great significance or value. On the whole it is clear that my field trip was of huge importance for my research. Sinônimos: powerinfluenceauthorityswayweightimpactdominanceprominenceeminencepreeminenceprestigenotabilityworthstaturecloutpullsignificancemomentousnessimportconsequencenotenoteworthinesssubstanceseriousnessgravityweightinessurgency Exemplos de importance Music lost its importance and he even sold some of his guitars to pay for his habit. +28 exemplos Sinônimos de importance Substantivo powersignificancegrandness +25 sinônimos


Subject(s)
Triticum , Aflatoxins , Fungicides, Industrial , Seeds , Germination
15.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 55: e18135, 2019. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011636

ABSTRACT

In the present study, the occurrence of fungi and aflatoxins (AFs) in peanut and cashew nut samples was investigated. Mycological analysis revealed the presence of fungi in 58.8% of samples, and assessment of AFs by chromatographic methods revealed that 52.9% were contaminated by AFs. AFB1 was the principal component in all AF-contaminated samples, with a mean level of 14.0, and 1.08 µg/kg in peanut and cashew nut, respectively. Eleven samples (32.4%) exceeded the total AF maximum level (4 µg/kg) and 8 samples (23.5%) exceeded the AFB1 (2 µg/kg) established by the European Commission. Our findings suggest that the incidence of AFs emphasizes the need for regular monitoring and a more stringent food safety system to control AFs at the lowest possible levels in peanuts and cashew nuts. The hypothetical dietary exposure suggests that the food products evaluated may significantly contribute to the overall human exposure


Subject(s)
Arachis/parasitology , Risk Assessment , Aflatoxins/adverse effects , Fungi , Anacardium/parasitology
16.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 5083-5087, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008367

ABSTRACT

The contamination of aflatoxin B_1,B_2,G_1,G_2,M_1 and M_2 in Eupolyphaga Steleophaga was determined by immunoaffinity column clean-up and HPLC-FLD with post-column photochemical derivatization. Chromatographic separations were carried out using a Cloversil C_(18) column( 4. 6 mm×250 mm,5 μm) that were eluted in isocratic with methanol-acetonitrile-water( 20 ∶ 20 ∶ 60) as the mobile phase. The excitation wavelength and the emission wavelength of fluorescence detector were maintained at 360 nm and 450 nm,respectively. The flow rate was 0. 8 m L·min~(-1),and the column temperature was 30 ℃ . The sample was prepared using the immunoaffinity column,then the recovery was measured with 75. 47%-101. 8% with RSD values lower than 6. 7%. A total of 20 batches of Eupolyphaga Steleophaga samples were assayed. According to the Chinese Pharmacopoeia( 2015 edition,part 1),the aflatoxin B_1 limit should be less than 5 μg·kg~(-1),and the sum of aflatoxins( AFB_1,AFB2,AFG_1,AFG_2) should be less than 10 μg·kg-1. Therefore,the positive rate of the 20 samples was 50. 0%,and 7 batches of samples exceeded the standard,and the over-standard rate was as high as 70. 0%. Among them,aflatoxins B_1,B_2,G_1,G_2,M_1,and M_2 were detected in three batches( SD-1,AH-1,AH-3),and aflatoxins B_1,B2,G1,G2,and M1 were detected in one batch( AH-7). The results showed that the newly developed method in this work is suitable for the simultaneous determination of six aflatoxins in Eupolyphaga Steleophaga,and also suggested that it should be of high values to take the contamination with aflatoxins into concerns.


Subject(s)
Animals , Aflatoxins/analysis , Chromatography, Affinity , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Cockroaches/chemistry
17.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 4433-4438, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008210

ABSTRACT

Traditional Chinese medicines( TCMs) are easily contaminated by fungi during planting,harvesting,processing,transportation and storage. The 2015 version of Chinese Pharmacopoeia stipulates the detection of aflatoxin in Dilong. After reviewing the literature,it has been found that there are no domestic and foreign scholars who have studied the surface fungi of Dilong. Pheretima,known as Dilong in China,is a commonly used TCMs in animal. In this experiment,8 batches of Dilong were collected from retail pharmacies in Beijing. The fungi on the surface of Dilong were cultured by traditional plate method and the single strain was obtained by the top purification method. The fungal colony morphology,microstructure characteristics and DNA barcode were used to isolate and identify the fungi. At the same time,based on Illumina Hi Seq 2500 high-throughput sequencing platform,the diversity of fungi on the surface of Dilong was analyzed. The results showed that 287 strains of 9 species of fungi were isolated and identified by plate method. Combined with 3 kinds of identification method,eight of nine fungi could be identified,respectively,Aspergillus niger,Penicillium,Alternaria nees,A. flavus,and Penicillium oxalicum,Humicola sp.,Talaromyces purpurogenus and A. insuetus,1 kind of fungi was not identified yet. Among them,Penicillium and Aspergillus were the dominant genus. The results of high-throughput sequencing belonged to 2 boundaries,6 gates,19 classes,44 orders,98 families,127 genus and 121 species in different classification levels. Wallemia,Aspergillus and Cordyceps were the dominant genus,and the relative abundances are 63. 33%,15. 28%,and 10. 28%,respectively. Through the diversity study on the surface fungi of Dilong in Beijing retail pharmacies,it can provide a reference for its safe storage and clinical use.


Subject(s)
Animals , Aflatoxins , Alternaria , Aspergillus , China , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Fungi , Penicillium
18.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2009-2014, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773136

ABSTRACT

Ziziphi Spinosae Semen is one of the Chinese herbal medicine being susceptible to aflatoxins contamination. To investigate the sources of aflatoxins contamination and toxigenic fungi species on Ziziphi Spinosae Semen,32 samples were collected from multiple steps during the post-harvest processing in this study. Aflatoxins in these samples were determined by immunoaffinity column and HPLC coupled with post-column photochemical derivatization. The dilution-plate method was applied to the fungi isolation. The isolated fungi strains were identified by morphological characterization and molecular approaches. The results showed that aflatoxins were detected in 28 samples from every step during the processing of Ziziphi Spinosae Semen. Three samples were detected with aflatoxin B_1 and 2 samples with both aflatoxin B_1 and total aflatoxin exceeding the limit of Chinese Pharmacopoeia. Especially the samples from the washing step,with the highest detected amounts of AFB_1 and AFs were reached 94. 79,121. 43 μg·kg~(-1),respectively. All 32 samples were contaminated by fungi. The fungal counts on the newly harvested samples were 2. 20 × 10~2 CFU·g~(-1). Moreover,it increased as tphreocessing progresses,and achieved 1. 16×10~6 CFU·g~(-1) after washing. A total of 321 isolates were identified to 17 genera. Aspergillus flavus was the main source of aflatoxins during the processing and storage of Ziziphi Spinosae Semen. One isolate of A. flavus was confirmed producing AFB_1 and AFB_2. The fungal count was significantly increased by composting,and Aspergillus was the predominant genus after shell breaking. The contamination level of aflatoxins was increased by composting and washing.


Subject(s)
Aflatoxins , Aspergillus , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Fungi , Seeds , Chemistry , Microbiology , Ziziphus , Chemistry
19.
Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives ; (6): 228-233, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760709

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Aflatoxins are a category of poisonous compounds found in most plants, milk and dairy products. The present research was carried out to detect the presence of aflatoxin M₁ (AFM₁) in samples of milk collected from Hamadan province, Iran. METHODS: Twenty five samples of ultra-high temperature (UHT) and 63 samples of pasteurized milk were collected and the amount of AFM₁ was measured by an Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay method. In addition, the estimated daily intake (EDI) and hazard index (HI) of AFM₁ was determined by the following equations:(EDI= mean concentration of AFM₁ × daily consumption of milk/body weight; HI=EDI/Tolerance Daily Intake). RESULTS: AFM₁ was detected in 21 (84%) UHT milk samples and in 55 (87.30%) pasteurized milk samples. Seven (28%) samples of UHT and 21 (33.33%) pasteurized milk samples had higher AFM₁ content than the limit allowed in the European Union and Iranian National Standard Limits (0.05 μg/kg). None of the samples exceeded the US Food and Drug Administration limit (0.5 μg/kg) for AFM₁. EDI and HI for AM₁ through milk were 0.107 ng/kg body weight/day, and 0.535, respectively. CONCLUSION: A significant percentage of milk produced by different factories in Iran (84% of UHT and 87.3% of pasteurized milk) was contaminated with AFM₁. Therefore, more control and monitoring of livestock feeding in dairy companies may help reduce milk contamination with AFM₁. As the HI value was lower than 1, it can be assumed that there was no risk of developing liver cancer due to milk consumption.


Subject(s)
Aflatoxins , Dairy Products , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , European Union , Iran , Liver Neoplasms , Livestock , Methods , Milk , Risk Assessment , United States Food and Drug Administration
20.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(4): 919-928, Oct.-Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974303

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The presence of mycotoxins or related fungi in animal feed is a major problem for animal and human health. Silage and concentrated feed samples were collected from 21 dairy farms in the Western part of Paraná state in Southern Brazil. Water activity and pH of all samples were measured, and each sample was analyzed to check for the presence of aflatoxigenic Aspergillus. Water activity was observed to be lower in the concentrated feed samples. The pH was lower in the silage samples, indicating fermentation processes. Two silage samples and four concentrated feed samples were contaminated with Aspergillus spp. Seven isolates of Aspergillus spp. were obtained and their potential to produce aflatoxins was evaluated. Four of the isolates, two from the silage samples and two from the concentrated feed samples, produced the aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2 in culture media. These isolates were identified as Aspergillus parasiticus and Aspergillus nomius. The presence of aflatoxigenic isolates of Aspergillus spp. in silage and concentrated feed samples is a matter of concern, because of the risk of aflatoxin production and contamination of the animal feed.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Aspergillus/isolation & purification , Food Contamination/analysis , Aflatoxins/metabolism , Animal Feed/microbiology , Aspergillus/classification , Aspergillus/genetics , Aspergillus/metabolism , Silage/classification , Silage/microbiology , Brazil , Animal Feed/analysis
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