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1.
Braz. j. oral sci ; 20: e213867, jan.-dez. 2021. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1254427

ABSTRACT

Aim: This study aimed to compare the microbiological potential and gustatory perception of essential oils (EO) mouthrinses containing and not containing alcohol. Methods: Twenty healthy adult volunteers rinsed with 10mL of the following test solutions: EO with alcohol, EO without alcohol, or a control solution (saline solution with mint essence). A washout period of at least seven days was adopted after a single-use protocol of the respective solution. All participants used all three tested substances. Antimicrobial potential was assessed by counting salivary total viable bacteria both before and after each rinse. Gustatory perception was evaluated using the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). Multiple comparisons were performed with the Wilcoxon test, using Bonferroni correction. Results: Both EO solutions presented a higher antimicrobial potential in comparison to the control solution (p<0.017). However, no significant difference in antimicrobial potential was observed between EO containing or not containing alcohol (p=0.218). VAS of EO with alcohol (median: 2.7) was similar to control solution (median: 1.6) (p=0.287). A better gustatory perception was observed of the EO without alcohol (median 7.6) when compared to the control solution (p<0.0001). When EO groups were compared, EO without alcohol also demonstrated a significantly better gustatory perception (p=0.001). Conclusion: Mouthrinse containing EO without alcohol presented a better taste perception when compared to the EO with alcohol, but no difference was observed in the antimicrobial potential of both EO solutions after a single rinse protocol


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Bacteria , Oils, Volatile , Alcohols , Taste Perception , Mouthwashes
2.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1721-1736, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878663

ABSTRACT

Higher alcohols that contain more than two carbon atoms have better fuel properties than ethanol, making them important supplements and alternatives to fossil fuels. Using microbes to produce higher alcohols from renewable biomass can alleviate the current energy and environmental crises, and has become a major future direction for green biomanufacturing. Since natural microbes can only produce a few higher alcohols in small amounts, it is necessary to reconstruct the synthetic pathways for higher alcohols in model industrial strains through metabolic engineering and synthetic biology to overcome the metabolic bottlenecks. A series of milestones have been accomplished in past decades. The authors of this review have witnessed the entire journey of this field from its first success to the leaping development. On the 30th anniversary of the founding of the discipline of metabolic engineering, this review dates back to the great milestones in achieving heterologous production of higher alcohols in non-native strains. The design and optimization of high alcohol biosynthetic pathways, the expansion of feedstock, the engineering of host strains and the industrialization process are summarized. This review aims to draw further attention to microbial synthesis of higher alcohols, inspire the development of novel techniques and strategies of metabolic engineering, and promote the innovation and upgrade of China's biofuel industry.


Subject(s)
Alcohols , Biofuels , Biosynthetic Pathways , Ethanol , Metabolic Engineering , Synthetic Biology
3.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 429-447, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878573

ABSTRACT

Higher alcohols are one of the main by-products of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in brewing. High concentration of higher alcohols in alcoholic beverages easily causes headache, thirst and other symptoms after drinking. It is also the main reason for chronic drunkenness and difficulty in sobering up after intoxication. The main objective of this review is to present an overview of the flavor characteristics and metabolic pathways of higher alcohols as well as the application of mutagenesis breeding techniques in the regulation of higher alcohol metabolism in S. cerevisiae. In particular, we review the application of metabolic engineering technology in genetic modification of amino transferase, α-keto acid metabolism, acetate metabolism and carbon-nitrogen metabolism. Moreover, key challenges and future perspectives of realizing optimization of higher alcohols metabolism are discussed. This review is intended to provide a comprehensive understanding of metabolic regulation system of higher alcohols in S. cerevisiae and to provide insights into the rational development of the excellent industrial S. cerevisiae strains producing higher alcohols.


Subject(s)
Alcoholic Beverages , Alcohols/analysis , Fermentation , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolism , Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins/metabolism
4.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(5): 1371-1375, oct. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134450

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Fixation is a crucial step in processing of tissue specimen for preservation of cellular architecture and composition of cells. Alcohol-based fixatives are considered some of the most promising alternatives to formalin. We evaluated the performance of alcohol-based fixatives (EthMeth and methacarn) and formalin as a comparator fixative in the research laboratory. Following 24 hours of fixation, tissue morphology and cellular details of the liver, spleen and brain (cerebral cortex) were evaluated. Morphological characteristics were evaluated by gross observations and analyzing cellular details, tissue architecture and overall staining characteristics (Hematoxylin and Eosin). EthMeth and methacarn fixation gave generally comparable and satisfactory results on the tissue morphology and subsequent identification of tissue characteristics. Particularly, tissues were well preserved and all nuclear as well as cytoplasmic details were clearly visible. However, formalin fixed tissues showed some peculiarity such as improper fixation, mild shrinkage, and alterations of tissue components. These results confirm that alcohol-based fixation is the superior alternative to formalin for preservation of tissue morphology. However, it is required to standardize the formalin-free methods and harmonize diagnosis in the laboratory worldwide.


RESUMEN: La fijación es un paso crucial en el procesamiento de muestras de tejido para preservar la arquitectura celular y la composición de las células. Los fijadores a base de alcohol se consideran algunas de las alternativas más prometedoras a la formalina. Evaluamos el rendimiento de los fijadores a base de alcohol (EthMeth y metacarn) y formalina como fijador comparativo en el laboratorio de investigación. Después de 24 horas de fijación, se observó la morfología del tejido y los detalles celulares del hígado, bazo y corteza cerebral. Se evaluaron las características morfológicas mediante observaciones generales y analizando detalles celulares, arquitectura de tejidos y características generales de tinción (hematoxilina y eosina). La fijación de EthMeth y metacarn dio resultados generalmente comparables y satisfactorios en la morfología del tejido y la posterior identificación de las características del mismo. Particularmente, los tejidos estaban bien conservados y todos los detalles nucleares y citoplasmáticos eran claramente visibles. Sin embargo, los tejidos fijados con formalina mostraron cierta peculiaridad, tal como una fijación inadecuada, la contracción leve y alteraciones de los componentes del tejido. Estos resultados confirman que la fijación a base de alcohol es la mejor alternativa a la formalina, para preservar la morfología del tejido. Sin embargo, es necesario estandarizar los métodos sin formalina y armonizar el diagnóstico en los laboratorios.


Subject(s)
Tissue Fixation/methods , Alcohols/chemistry , Fixatives , Formaldehyde/chemistry , Chloroform/chemistry , Acetic Acid/chemistry , Methanol/chemistry
5.
Article in English | AIM, AIM | ID: biblio-1270871

ABSTRACT

Objective: Alcohol use in pregnancy is linked with various negative health effects on the infant. The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of maternal alcohol use during pregnancy and socio-demographic and health correlates. Methods: Data of ever-pregnant women from the cross-sectional 'South African National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (SANHANES-1) 2011­2012' were analysed. The sample included 5089 adolescents and adult women aged 15­55 years. They responded to questions on alcohol use, socio-demographic and health indicators. Results: The results indicated that 3.7% (95.0% confidence interval [CI] = 3.1, 4.5) of South African women had engaged in alcohol use during their pregnancy. In adjusted analysis, being mixed race, not employed, poor self-rated health status, ever been diagnosed with tuberculosis and having partial post-traumatic stress disorder were found to be associated with alcohol use during pregnancy. Conclusions: The study findings suggest links between socio-demographic and health variables and prenatal alcohol use, which may have public health policy implications


Subject(s)
Alcohols , Pregnant Women , South Africa
6.
Health SA Gesondheid (Print) ; 24: 1-8, 2019. tab
Article in English | AIM, AIM | ID: biblio-1262546

ABSTRACT

Background: Health professional students frequently use alcohol and narcotics. The potential impact on academic performance and professional behaviour is concerning. Aim: This study aimed to determine self-reported use of alcohol, illicit substances (e.g.cannabis, lysergic acid diethylamide [LSD], magic mushroom, cocaine, crack, ecstasy, methamphetamine and heroin), prescription medication and smoking habits, correlating academic performance. Setting: Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Free State. Methods: An observational, descriptive, cross-sectional study design was used. Information was obtained using a self-administered questionnaire, capturing demographics, self-reported academic performance, drinking and smoking habits, and substance use. Coded responses were analysed using the Remark Office OMR 8 Software System. Descriptive statistics were calculated for categorical variables. Results: Completed questionnaires comprised 171 students. A total of 78.4% of second year and 82.8% of third year students reported using alcohol. Twenty-two per cent of second year and 24.1% of third year students reported cannabis use. In the second year group, three (2.7%) students reported using magic mushroom, two (1.8%) reported cocaine, two (1.8%) reported ecstasy and one (0.9%) reported using methamphetamine. Only third year students reported using LSD or 'crack'. Cigarette smoking was common ­ 31.5% and 35.1% in both groups, respectively. Smokeless tobacco devices were used by 8.5% of second year and 7.1% of third year students. Almost 40% of both groups reported that they had smoked a water pipe. Academic performance achieved was mostly 60% ­ 69% (38.9%) among second year students and 70% ­ 79% (46.6%) among third year students. Conclusion: Self-reported use of alcohol and drugs and smoking among medical students is alarming. Additional student support, early identification and referral for management and/or rehabilitation should be a priority at tertiary institutions responsible for training future healthcare professionals


Subject(s)
Academic Performance , Alcohols , Smoking , South Africa , Students, Medical
7.
J. appl. sci. environ. manag ; 23(1): 59-63, 2019. ilus
Article in English | AIM, AIM | ID: biblio-1263369

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Unwanted crude oil emulsions occur in many stages of oil production, transportation, and processing. The huge cost resulting from corrosion of transport system and production facilities, because of the presence of water is a major challenge to the oil industry and the global economy. However, the addition of alcohols to demulsifiers has been reported to enhance their efficiency in removing water from emulsions. There is therefore the need to identify the best type of alcohols and optimize this process of addition. Consequently in this work, the effect of different straight and branched chain alcohols on the performance enhancement of demulsifiers was investigated using four different crude oil emulsion samples. The results showed that straight alcohols performed better when compared to branched chain alcohols under all conditions of temperature. This may be due to their slow mobility particularly in stable emulsions


Subject(s)
Alcohols , Emulsifying Agents , Emulsions , Nigeria
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-759863

ABSTRACT

Alcohol-induced flushing syndrome is one of the alcohol hypersensitivity reactions commonly found among Asian population. This study was designed to find markers that can predict this particular propensity among Korean population and to assess the applicability of this finding to build a prediction model as forensic DNA phenotyping tool to operate in practical forensic cases. Five hundred seventy unrelated Koreans were genotyped using microfluidic technology with 24 possible candidate single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers. Of the 24 candidate SNPs, four markers, rs671, rs2074356, rs4646776, and rs10849915, on chromosome 12 showed statistically significant association with P-values ranging from 1.39×10⁻¹⁴ to 0.004988 among our subjects. All four markers show relatively high specificity values, ranging from 0.804651 to 0.972093, presenting their capabilities as differential SNPs that can distinguish a person with or without alcohol-induced flushing syndrome. Maneuvering these candidate SNPs as well as finding additional potential markers through future studies will help building an appropriate prediction model for Koreans that can be used as supplementary tool for individual identification.


Subject(s)
Alcohols , Aldehyde Dehydrogenase , Asian Continental Ancestry Group , Chromosomes, Human, Pair 12 , DNA , Flushing , Humans , Hypersensitivity , Microfluidics , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Sensitivity and Specificity
9.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765214

ABSTRACT

Alcohol is a substance that has a negative impact on public health according to the various drinking patterns and amount consumed. Alcohol epidemiology covers an investigation of the prevalence of alcohol use disorders, high risk drinking behaviors, and level of consumption per capita. The epidemiologic data of alcohol is an important guide to develop evidence-based alcohol policies. The high rate of drinking among middle aged males and young females is the result of recent socio-economic changes in South Korea and aggressive marketing from the alcohol industry. The high rate of treatment among middle-aged men indicates that the treatment of alcoholism begins later. Regarding alcohol policy, restrictions on alcohol accessibility and advertisement, and brief intervention systems might help reduce alcohol problems. In addition, a continuum of care system needs to be established to provide timely appropriate treatment and rehabilitation services.


Subject(s)
Alcoholism , Alcohols , Continuity of Patient Care , Drinking , Drinking Behavior , Epidemiology , Female , Humans , Korea , Male , Marketing , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Public Health , Rehabilitation
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764112

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate the relationships between lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and lifestyle factors (physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption, body mass index, and stress) in Korean men. METHODS: We analyzed the survey results of South Korean men (n=64,439) who were 40 years of age or older among whom interviews were conducted using questionnaires. Trained interviewers performed face-to-face surveys using computer-assisted personal interviewing, the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), and standard questions. We assessed the relationships of lifestyle factors (physical activity, cigarette smoking, alcohol intake, height, weight, and stress) with LUTS. RESULTS: We observed higher IPSS scores in participants who engaged in no exercise (n=46,008 [71.7%], IPSS=3.19±5.36) than in those who engaged in vigorous physical activity (n=10,657 [17.6%], IPSS=2.28±4.15). Former smokers showed higher total, storage, and voiding symptom IPSS scores than current smokers and nonsmokers. Nondrinkers had higher IPSS scores than current alcohol drinkers. In multivariable logistic regression analysis, we detected no relationship between LUTS and current alcohol drinking in the moderate and severe LUTS groups, using the mild LUTS group as a reference (moderate: 0.91; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.91–0.91; P<0.001, severe: 0.78; 95% CI, 0.78–0.78; P<0.001). Participants with moderate to severe stress showed higher total IPSS scores than those with no or mild stress (3.38±5.77 vs. 2.88±4.90), with significant relationships between stress and LUTS found in the moderate and severe LUTS groups. In logistic regression analysis, stronger relationships were found for storage and voiding symptoms in the moderate and severe stress groups compared to the mild stress group. CONCLUSIONS: A history of smoking, low levels of physical activity, low body mass index, and moderate to severe stress were associated with a greater severity of LUTS. Moderate to severe stress was also related to voiding symptoms. However, there was no association between alcohol intake and LUTS severity.


Subject(s)
Alcohol Drinking , Alcohols , Body Mass Index , Health Surveys , Humans , Life Style , Logistic Models , Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms , Male , Motor Activity , Prostate , Smoke , Smoking
11.
Asian Nursing Research ; : 249-256, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785469

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study aimed to validate the psychometric properties of the CRAFFT (Car, Relax, Alone, Forget, Family/Friends, Trouble) by using item response theory (IRT) and further examine gender differences in item-level responses.METHODS: This study used the 13(th) (2017) Korea Youth Risk Behavior Survey data conducted by the Korean Centers for Disease and Prevention and analyzed data of 8,568 students who reported drinking alcohol in the previous 30 days. IRT assumptions including unidimensionality, local independence, and monotonicity were tested. A one-factor two-parameter IRT model was fitted for item parameterization (M₂ = 76.92, 20 df, p < .001, root mean square error of approximation = 0.02). Graphics for item characteristic curves and item and test information curves were provided. Differential item functioning (DIF) analysis was evaluated to measure item equivalence between boys and girls.RESULTS: Unidimensionality and local independence were satisfied, and the dominant factor eigenvalue and variance were 2.48 and 41.3% in boys and 2.08 and 34.7% in girls, respectively, and residual correlations in paired items were less than .2. The discrimination parameters were estimated as 1.32–3.59 for boys and 1.30–3.64 for girls. The severity parameters estimated verity as −0.23 to 1.67 for boys and −0.32 to 2.17 for girls. DIF was detected for four of six items, “Car,” “Relax,” “Forget,” and “Family/friends.” However, its impact on the total score was negligible.CONCLUSION: The CRAFFT is a valid and reliable screening tool to identify alcohol use problems for both boys and girls, exhibiting good discrimination, good coverage of severity, and negligible DIF.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Alcohols , Discrimination, Psychological , Drinking , Female , Humans , Korea , Mass Screening , Psychometrics , Risk-Taking
12.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-787465

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Causal hypotheses suggest that alcohol-related disorders may also cause psychiatric disorders and problems, or vice versa. The association between alcohol consumption and mental health is important from both research and therapeutic viewpoints. Therefore, we aimed to analyze the association between alcohol consumption and mental health (perceived stress, depressive mood, suicidal ideation, quality of life) in Korean adults over 19 years old.METHODS: We finally included 5,399 adults who had participated in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2015, and analyzed the association between alcohol consumption and mental health, using logistic regression.RESULTS: Perceived stress was associated with alcohol consumption in problem drinkers (odds ratio [OR]=1.35, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.13–1.61). Depressive mood was associated with alcohol consumption in moderate and problem drinkers (OR=0.90, 95% CI=0.71–1.11 and OR=1.35, 95% CI=1.06–1.70, respectively). Suicidal ideation was not associated with alcohol consumption in moderate and problem drinkers (P=0.063 and P=0.068, respectively). Quality of life was associated with alcohol consumption in moderate and problem drinkers (OR=0.48, 95% CI=0.41–0.57 and OR=0.77, 95% CI=0.66–0.92, respectively).CONCLUSION: We found that moderate drinkers have a lower risk of depressive mood and a higher quality of life as compared to low drinkers. However, problem drinkers have a higher quality of life but a higher risk of perceived stress and depressive mood as compared to low drinkers.


Subject(s)
Adult , Alcohol Drinking , Alcohol-Related Disorders , Alcohols , Humans , Logistic Models , Mental Health , Nutrition Surveys , Quality of Life , Suicidal Ideation
13.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-787430

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coffee is a rich source of dietary antioxidants and is one of the most popular beverages worldwide. In recent times, substantial research has been published on its anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effect in addition to its effect as a stimulant. Chronic low-grade inflammation is known to affect the pathogenesis of diverse diseases such as cerebrovascular and cardiovascular disease, cancer, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and obesity. Serum C-reactive protein (CRP) is a good marker of chronic inflammation in the body. Therefore, we examined the relationship between coffee consumption and serum CRP.METHODS: Participants were 759 men and 1,003 women, aged 20–64 years, who participated in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2015. We categorized coffee consumption as follows: less than one cup a day, two to four cups a day, and five or more cups a day. Additionally, we classified women into pre- and post-menopausal women. Multiple linear regression analyses were conducted to evaluate the relationship between coffee consumption and serum CRP.RESULTS: Coffee consumption showed no measurable relationship with serum CRP in men and in pre- and post-menopausal women. However, serum CRP increased progressively with increase in coffee consumption in men reported high-risk alcohol use (P=0.005).CONCLUSION: Except for high-risk male drinkers, there is no association between coffee consumption and serum CRP.


Subject(s)
Adult , Alcohols , Antioxidants , Beverages , C-Reactive Protein , Caffeine , Cardiovascular Diseases , Coffee , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Female , Humans , Inflammation , Korea , Linear Models , Male , Nutrition Surveys , Obesity
14.
EMHJ-Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal. 2018; 24 (04): 351-359
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-192574

ABSTRACT

Background: Unsafe injection practices put patients and providers at risk of infectious and noninfectious adverse events. A 2001 Ministry of Health survey on injection practices in Oman indicated that, while overall standards were good, in some areas there was a need for improvement.


Aim: We aimed to evaluate injection safety practices to determine whether facilities meet the requirements for practices, equipment, supplies and waste disposal, and to identify unsafe practices.


Methods: We conducted a national cross-sectional survey in 2007 using the World Health Organization tool to evaluate injection safety practices. Using 2-stage cluster sampling, 80 government and 61 private health facilities were randomly selected and evaluated.


Results: There was no shortage of injection equipment nor evidence of attempts to sterilize disposable devices. Care providers immediately disposed of the used needle/syringe in sharps containers. Phlebotomy devices were taken from sealed packets in 96% of facilities. In private facilities, 66.3% of the care providers were fully immunized against hepatitis B. Wearing a new pair of gloves for phlebotomy was observed in only 46% of government and 38% of private health facilities. Many health facilities lacked alcohol-based handrub.


Conclusions: Many injection safety aspects were satisfactory. However there are still opportunities for improvement. Actions are required to make alcohol-based handrub and appropriate sharps containers available and to provide hepatitis B vaccine and training to health care workers in all facilities


Subject(s)
Humans , Safety , Risk Evaluation and Mitigation , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Personnel , Alcohols , Cluster Analysis
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714225

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine whether light alcohol drinking increases the risk of cancer by using a meta-analysis of cohort studies because the newly revised 2015 European Code against Cancer fourth edition on alcohol and cancer was based on critical flaws in the interpretation and citation of the previous meta-analyses. MATERIALS AND METHODS: PubMed and EMBASE were searched in April, 2016. Two authors independently reviewed and selected cohort studies on the association between very light (≤ 0.5 drink/day), light (≤ 1 drink/day), or moderate drinking (1-2 drinks/day) and the risk of cancer incidence and mortality. A pooled relative riskwith its 95% confidence intervalwas calculated by a random-effects meta-analysis. Main outcome measures were cancer incidence and mortality. RESULTS: A total of 60 cohort studies from 135 articles were included in the final analysis. Very light drinking or light drinking was not associated with the incidence of most cancers except for female breast cancer in women and male colorectal cancer. Conversely, light drinking was associated with a decreased incidence of both female and male lung cancer significantly and both female and male thyroid cancer marginally significantly. Moderate drinking significantly increased the incidence of male colorectal cancer and female breast cancer,whereas it decreased the incidence of both female and male hematologic malignancy. CONCLUSION: We found that very light or light alcohol drinking was not associated with the risk of most of the common cancers except for the mild increase in the incidence of breast cancer in women and colorectal cancer in men.


Subject(s)
Alcohol Drinking , Alcohols , Breast , Breast Neoplasms , Cohort Studies , Colorectal Neoplasms , Drinking , Female , Hematologic Neoplasms , Humans , Incidence , Lung Neoplasms , Male , Mortality , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Thyroid Neoplasms
16.
Anatomy & Cell Biology ; : 41-51, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713350

ABSTRACT

In the developed and developing world, opioid consumption in combination with alcohol has become one of the substances abused. In this experiment, we examined the effects of alcohol, morphine, and morphine+alcohol combination on cognitive functions and neuroinflammatory responses in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) of juvenile male rats. Alcohol (1.0 ml of 15% v/v ethanol twice daily, subcutaneously, 7 hours apart), morphine (0.5 ml/kg of 0.4 mg/kg morphine chlorate twice daily, subcutaneously, 7 hours apart), morphine+alcohol co-treatment (0.5 ml/kg of 0.4 mg/kg morphine chlorate+1.0 ml of 15% v/v ethanol twice daily, subcutaneously, 7 hours apart) were administered for 21 days. Treatment with morphine+alcohol significantly impairs cognition functions in the Morris water maze, passive avoidance, and novel object recognition tests, furthermore, the treatment significantly increased the quantitative count of astrocytic cells and also conferred marked neuronal cell death in the mPFC, which were studied by glial fibrillary acidic protein immunochemistry for astrocytes and Cresyl violet for Nissl's substance distribution in neurons respectively. These results suggest that alcohol, morphine, and morphine+alcohol co-treatment may trigger cognitive deficits and neuroinflammatory responses in the brain.


Subject(s)
Alcohols , Animals , Astrocytes , Brain , Cell Death , Cognition Disorders , Cognition , Ethanol , Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein , Humans , Immunochemistry , Male , Morphine , Neurons , Prefrontal Cortex , Rats , Viola , Water
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718285

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is a distinction in alcohol consumption behavior between adults and college students. This study aims to verify the usability and the optimal cutoff point of Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test–Korean revised version (AUDIT-KR) for screening alcohol use disorder in college students when the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM), 5th edition diagnostic criteria is applied. METHODS: A total of 922 college students living in Daejeon were enrolled and divided into two groups based on how many items they corresponded to among DSM-5 alcohol use disorder diagnostic criteria: those who corresponded to ≥2 of the 11 items were classified into the patient group (107 males, 89 females) while the others into the control group (311 males, 415 females). The participants were evaluated using AUDIT-KR to find the optimal cutoff point for screening alcohol use disorder, sensitivity, and specificity. RESULTS: The mean±standard deviation scores in the AUDIT-KR were 12.76±7.27, 10.72±4.62 for males and females, respectively, in the patient group. In contrast, in the control group the scores were 6.26±5.23 and 3.95±3.59 in males and females, respectively. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (95% confidence interval) regarding alcohol use disorder screening by AUDIT-KR was 0.768 (0.715–0.821) and 0.883 (0.848–0.919) for males and females, respectively. The optimal cutoff point of alcohol use disorder for males was >9, sensitivity 64.49%, and specificity 76.85%. The optimal cutoff point for females was >6, sensitivity 82.02%, and specificity 80.48%. CONCLUSION: This study suggested that AUDIT-KR can be used as a screening tool for alcohol use disorder in groups of college students when DSM-5 diagnosis criteria are applied.


Subject(s)
Adult , Alcohol Drinking , Alcohols , Diagnosis , Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders , Female , Humans , Male , Mass Screening , ROC Curve , Sensitivity and Specificity
18.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 89(1): 57-63, Jan,-Mar. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886625

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The present study evaluated the purification of inulinase by changing the ionic strength of the medium by addition of NaCl and CaCl2 followed by precipitation with n-propyl alcohol or iso-propyl alcohol. The effects of the concentration of alcohols and the rate of addition of alcohols in the crude extract on the purification yield and purification factor were evaluated. Precipitation caused an activation of enzyme and allowed purification factors up to 2.4-fold for both alcohols. The purification factor was affected positively by the modification of the ionic strength of the medium to 0.5 mol.L-1 NaCl before precipitation with the alcohol (n-propyl or iso-propyl). A purification factor of 4.8-fold and an enzyme yield of 78.1 % could be achieved by the addition of 0.5 mol.L-1 of NaCl to the crude extract, followed by the precipitation with 50 % (v/v) of n-propyl alcohol, added at a flow rate of 19.9 mL/min.


Subject(s)
Osmolar Concentration , Chemical Precipitation , Alcohols/chemistry , Glycoside Hydrolases/isolation & purification , Glycoside Hydrolases/chemistry , Reference Values , Salts/chemistry , Solvents/chemistry , Kluyveromyces/isolation & purification , Kluyveromyces/chemistry , Calcium Chloride/chemistry , Sodium Chloride/chemistry , Reproducibility of Results , Culture Media/chemistry
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-119537

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: In recent years, the incidence of acute pancreatitis (AP) has been increasing. A better understanding of the etiology is directly linked to more favorable outcomes. Unfortunately, there have been reports suggesting the variation of etiologies of AP across countries. The objective of this study was to determine the etiology of AP in a general hospital of Seoul-Gyeonggi province in Korea during the past decade. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of consecutive patients with AP who were admitted to St. Paul's Hospital (Seoul, Korea) with an affiliation to the Catholic University of Korea between January 2003 and January 2013. RESULTS: A total of 1,110 patients were enrolled, totaling 1,833 attacks, and the most frequent cause of AP was alcohol consumption. The recurrence rate of AP was 24.5% (272/1,110), and habitual recurrence rate (more than three times) was 12.6% (140/1,110). The rate of severe AP was 4.9% (90/1,833 attacks). The mortality rate of AP was 2.6% (29/1,110 patients). The frequency of an idiopathic cause of AP was 13.3%. The recurrence rate and mortality rate of idiopathic AP were 16.2% and 5.4%, respectively. In 41.7% (10/24) of cases of idiopathic AP, microlithiasis was suspected. CONCLUSIONS: Between 2003 and 2013 in Korea, alcohol was the most frequent cause of AP in the general hospital of Seoul-Gyeonggi province of Korea. It appears that alcohol abstinence program may be necessary. Further nationwide studies would be needed to evaluate the etiologies of AP.


Subject(s)
Alcohol Abstinence , Alcohol Drinking , Alcohols , Gallstones , Hospitals, General , Humans , Incidence , Korea , Medical Records , Mortality , Pancreatitis , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-33727

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to examine whether facial flushing after drinking influences the relationship between alcohol consumption and prostatic hyperplasia among Korean men. METHODS: The subjects were 957 Korean men (180 non-drinkers, 389 with drinking-related facial flushing, 388 without facial flushing) in the 40–69 age group, who underwent prostate ultrasound at the health promotion center of Chungnam National University Hospital between 2008 and 2014. Alcohol consumption and alcohol-related facial flushing were assessed through a questionnaire. In terms of the amount consumed, 14 g of alcohol was considered a standard drink. With the non-drinker group as reference, logistic regression was used to analyze the relationship between weekly alcohol intake and prostatic hyperplasia in the flushing and non-flushing groups, with adjustment for confounding factors such as age, body mass index, smoking, and exercise patterns. RESULTS: Individuals aged 50–59 years who experienced drinking-related facial flushing had a significantly lower risk of prostatic hyperplasia than the non-drinker group, depending on alcohol consumption: ≤4 standard drinks (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 0.38; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.16 to 0.86); >4 ≤8 standard drinks (OR, 0.35; 95% CI, 0.13 to 0.95); >8 standard drinks (OR, 0.33; 95% CI, 0.13 to 0.84). However, no significant relationship was observed between the number of drinks consumed and the risk of prostate hyperplasia in the non-flushing group. CONCLUSION: The risk of prostatic hyperplasia appears to be reduced by alcohol consumption among Korean men aged 50–59 years who exhibit drinking-related facial flushing.


Subject(s)
Alcohol Drinking , Alcohols , Body Mass Index , Drinking , Flushing , Health Promotion , Humans , Hyperplasia , Logistic Models , Male , Odds Ratio , Prostate , Prostatic Hyperplasia , Smoke , Smoking , Ultrasonography
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