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China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 3765-3773, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981509


Small-molecule compounds with rich sources have diverse structures and activities. The active ingredients in traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) provide new sources for the discovery of new antitumor drugs. Aconitum plants as Chinese medicinal plants have the effects of dispelling wind, removing dampness, warming meridian, and relieving pain. They are mainly used to treat inflammation, pain, rheumatism, and tumors, improve heart function, and dilate blood vessels in clinical practice. Diterpenoid alkaloids are the main active components of Aconitum plants, including C20-, C19-, C18-diterpenoid alkaloids and bis-diterpenoid alkaloids. Stu-dies have demonstrated that diterpenoid alkaloids can effectively treat lung cancer, liver cancer, breast cancer, colon cancer and other cancers. Diterpenoid alkaloids are considered as the most promising natural compounds against cancers. In this review, we summarized the chemical structures and antitumor activities of C20-, C19-, C18-diterpenoid alkaloids and bis-diterpenoid alkaloids extracted from plants of Aconitum, aiming to provide reference for further development of diterpenoid alkaloids from Aconitum as antitumor drugs.

Humans , Aconitum/chemistry , Molecular Structure , Alkaloids/analysis , Diterpenes/chemistry , Antineoplastic Agents/chemistry , Plant Roots/chemistry
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1989-1999, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981332


Alkaloids, widespread in plants, have a series of pharmacological activities and have been widely used to treat various diseases. Because alkaloids are usually presented in multicomponent mixtures and are deeply low in content, they are very difficult to extract and separate by traditional methods. High-speed counter current chromatography(HSCCC) is a kind of liquid-liquid chromatography without solid support phase, which has the advantages of large injection volume, low cost, and no irreversible adsorption. Compared with the traditional methods of extraction and separation of alkaloids, HSCCC can ensure the separation of many different alkaloids at one time, with a high recovery and large amount. In this paper, the advantages and disadvantages of HSCCC compared with traditional separation methods were discussed and the solvent system and elution mode of HSCCC used to separate alkaloids in recent years were summarized by referring to the relevant literature to provide some references for the separation of alkaloids by HSCCC.

Biological Products , Countercurrent Distribution/methods , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Alkaloids/analysis , Solvents/chemistry
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 59: e22394, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1505845


Abstract This study aimed to investigate the molecular mechanism of Picrasma quassioides Benn against inflammation by means of network pharmacology. The paper will provide a reference for multi-target and multi-channel treatment of inflammation with traditional Chinese medicine. Through screening and analysis, 11 active ingredients and 109 anti-inflammation prediction targets were obtained and constructed a compound-target network. The targets such as VEGFA, TLR4 and STAT3 may play a crucial role. Network enrichment analysis showed that the 109 potential targets constitute a number of pathways or inflammatory reactions closely related to inflammation, including NF-κB signaling pathway and MAPK signaling pathway. The docking results indicated that the binding energy of Picrasidine Y and the inflammatory factors VEGFA is the highest. This study predicted the role of multiple active compounds in the alkaloids of Picrasma in the inflammatory response, and provided a theoretical basis for the anti-inflammatory mechanism of Picrasma

Research/classification , Picrasma/classification , Alkaloids/analysis , Network Pharmacology/instrumentation , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/analysis , Medicine, Chinese Traditional
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e20464, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1403751


Abstract Papaveraceae is one of the prominent alkaloid-containing families, and plants of the genus Glaucium (Papaveraceae) are known for their bioactive alkaloids. Glaucium species have been used in traditional medicine in Turkey as an analgesic, narcotic, sedative, and antitussive. In this study, it was planned to evaluate the inhibitory activity of an alkaloidal extract of Glaucium corniculatum subsp. refractum on acetylcholinesterase (AChE), butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) and prolyl oligopeptidase (POP), as well as exploring the chemical profile of the plant by using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). The AChE, BuChE and POP inhibition activities of the alkaloidal extract of G. corniculatum subsp. refractum were determined spectrophotometrically. A rapid GC-MS method was used to identify alkaloids that could be responsible for these inhibition activities. In total, eleven alkaloids were identified in the alkaloid extract of the plant by GC-MS. Allocyptopine (52.92%) and protopine (25.38%) were found as the major constituents. The alkaloidal extract of G. corniculatum subsp. refractum showed potent AChE inhibitory activity (IC50:1.25 µg/mL) and BuChE inhibitory activity (IC50: 7.02 µg/mL). The extract also showed a remarkable inhibitory effect on POP with an IC50 value of 123.69 µg/mL. This study presents the first GC-MS investigation and POP inhibitory activity of G. corniculatum subsp. refractum.

Acetylcholinesterase/adverse effects , Butyrylcholinesterase/adverse effects , Papaveraceae/metabolism , Plant Extracts/agonists , Alkaloids/analysis , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry/methods , Medicine, Traditional
Rev. biol. trop ; 69(1)2021.
Article in English | LILACS, SaludCR | ID: biblio-1507825


Introduction: Prosopis spp. pods have shown to be a potential source of protein and energy in livestock. However, prolonged ingestion of some of these species produces neurological symptoms in ruminants. Objective: In the present study, the alkaloid content and the in vitro neurotoxic activity of alkaloid enriched-extracts from P. flexuosa and P. nigra pods were determined in order to elucidate the mechanism of animal poisoning caused by these species. Methods: The main alkaloids present in both extracts were analysed by high performance liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (HPLC-HRMS). The cytotoxic activity of Prosopis alkaloid enriched-extracts in primary mixed glial cell culture was assessed by phase contrast microscopy and using neutral red, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity assays. Results: Juliprosine and juliprosopine were identified in P. flexuosa pods, while the absence of these alkaloids in P. nigra was confirmed. Both extracts (5-30 μg/mL) induced in a dose dependent manner, morphological alterations, such as swelling, enlargement and detachment from the culture surface. Consistent with this, decrease in cell viability and release of LDH 48 hours after exposure, revealed that P. flexuosa pods was significantly more cytotoxic than P. nigra. Conclusions: In P. flexuosa pods, juliprosine and juliprosopine alkaloids were identified for the first time. Moreover, the present study suggests that the cytotoxic effect displayed by both extracts is due to its alkaloid content. However, the presence of piperidine alkaloids in P. flexuosa could explain the greater cytotoxicity on glial cells with respect to P. nigra that was not shown to contain these alkaloids.

Introducción: Las vainas de diversas especies de Prosopis muestran ser una potencial fuente de proteínas y energía para el ganado. Sin embargo, la ingestión prolongada de algunas de estas especies produce síntomas neurológicos en los rumiantes. Objetivo: En el presente estudio se determinó el contenido de alcaloides y la actividad neurotóxica in vitro de los extractos enriquecidos con alcaloides obtenidos en las vainas de P. flexuosa y P. nigra, con el fin de dilucidar el mecanismo de la intoxicación animal causada por estas especies. Métodos: Los principales alcaloides presentes en ambos extractos se analizaron mediante cromatografía líquida de alto rendimiento-espectrometría de masas de alta resolución (HPLC-HRMS). La actividad citotóxica de los extractos enriquecidos con alcaloides de Prosopis se determinó en cultivos primarios de células gliales mixtas y se evaluó mediante microscopía de contraste de fase y utilizando ensayos de actividad de rojo neutro y de deshidrogenasa láctica (LDH). Resultados: Se identificaron la juliprosina y la juliprosopina en las vainas de P. flexuosa, mientras que se confirmó la ausencia de estos alcaloides piperidínicos en P. nigra. Ambos extractos (5-30 μg/mL) indujeron, de manera dependiente a la dosis, alteraciones morfológicas, como hinchazón, agrandamiento y desprendimiento de la superficie de cultivo. En consecuencia, la disminución de la viabilidad celular y la liberación de la LDH después de 48 horas de exposición, reveló que las vainas de P. flexuosa eran significativamente más citotóxicas que las de P. nigra. Conclusiones: El presente estudio muestra la presencia de los alcaloides juliprosina y juliprosopina en vainas de P. flexuosa y sugiere que el efecto citotóxico mostrado por ambos extractos se debe al contenido de alcaloides. Sin embargo, la presencia de estos alcaloides piperidínicos en P. flexuosa podría explicar la mayor citotoxicidad en las células gliales con respecto a P. nigra que no mostró que tuviera estos alcaloides.

Alkaloids/analysis , Fabaceae/microbiology , South America , Toxicity Tests
Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines (English Ed.) ; (6): 305-320, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-881073


Qing-Fei-Pai-Du decoction (QFPDD) is a Chinese medicine compound formula recommended for combating corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) by National Health Commission of the People's Republic of China. The latest clinical study showed that early treatment with QFPDD was associated with favorable outcomes for patient recovery, viral shedding, hospital stay, and course of the disease. However, the effective constituents of QFPDD remain unclear. In this study, an UHPLC-Q-Orbitrap HRMS based method was developed to identify the chemical constituents in QFPDD and the absorbed prototypes as well as the metabolites in mice serum and tissues following oral administration of QFPDD. A total of 405 chemicals, including 40 kinds of alkaloids, 162 kinds of flavonoids, 44 kinds of organic acids, 71 kinds of triterpene saponins and 88 kinds of other compounds in the water extract of QFPDD were tentatively identified via comparison with the retention times and MS/MS spectra of the standards or refereed by literature. With the help of the standards and in vitro metabolites, 195 chemical components (including 104 prototypes and 91 metabolites) were identified in mice serum after oral administration of QFPDD. In addition, 165, 177, 112, 120, 44, 53 constituents were identified in the lung, liver, heart, kidney, brain, and spleen of QFPDD-treated mice, respectively. These findings provided key information and guidance for further investigation on the pharmacologically active substances and clinical applications of QFPDD.

Animals , Mice , Administration, Oral , Alkaloids/analysis , COVID-19 , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacokinetics , Flavonoids/analysis , SARS-CoV-2 , Saponins/analysis , Triterpenes/analysis
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 57: e19130, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1350226


Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder affecting a great part of population around the world. It is the fifth leading death causing disease in the world and its cases are increasing day by day. Traditional medicine is thought to have promising future in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. In contrast to synthetic drugs phytochemicals are considered to be free from side effects. As one of the main class of natural products, alkaloids and their derivatives have been widely used as sources of pharmacological agents against a variety of medical problems. Many studies confirmed the role of alkaloids in the management of diabetes and numerous alkaloids isolated from different medicinal plants were found active against diabetes. Like other natural products, alkaloids regulate glucose metabolism either by inhibiting or inducing multiple candidate proteins including AMP-activated protein kinase, glucose transporters, glycogen synthase kinase-3, sterol regulatory element-binding proteins 1, glucokinase, glucose-6-phosphatase, acetyl-CoA carboxylase among the others. A comprehensive review of alkaloids reported in the literature with anti-diabetic activities and their target enzymes is conducted, with the aim to help in exploring the use of alkaloids as anti-diabetic agents. Future work should focus on rigorous clinical studies of the alkaloids, their development and relevant drug targets.

Plants, Medicinal/anatomy & histology , Alkaloids/analysis , Phytochemicals/analysis , Metabolism , Sterols/adverse effects , Biological Products , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Glucose-6-Phosphatase/adverse effects , Diabetes Mellitus/pathology , AMP-Activated Protein Kinases , Synthetic Drugs
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 19(3): 247-288, mayo 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1116290


Selaginella is the only genus from Selaginellaceae, and it is considered a key factor in studying evolution. The family managed to survive the many biotic and abiotic pressures during the last 400 million years. The purpose of this review is to provide an up-to-date overview of Selaginella in order to recognize their potential and evaluate future research opportunities. Carbohydrates, pigments, steroids, phenolic derivatives, mainly flavonoids, and alkaloids are the main natural products in Selaginella. A wide spectrum of in vitro and in vivo pharmacological activities, some of them pointed out by folk medicine, has been reported. Future studies should afford valuable new data on better explore the biological potential of the flavonoid amentoflavone and their derivatives as chemical bioactive entities; develop studies about toxicity and, finally, concentrate efforts on elucidate mechanisms of action for biological properties already reported.

Selaginella es el único género de Selaginellaceae, y se considera un factor clave en el estudio de la evolución. La familia logró sobrevivir a las muchas presiones bióticas y abióticas durante los últimos 400 millones de años. El propósito de esta revisión es proporcionar un resumen actualizado de Selaginella para reconocer su potencial y evaluar futuras oportunidades de investigación. Los hidratos de carbono, pigmentos, esteroides, derivados fenólicos, principalmente flavonoides, y alcaloides son los principales productos naturales en Selaginella. Se ha informado un amplio espectro de actividades farmacológicas in vitro e in vivo, algunas de ellas señaladas por la medicina popular. Los estudios futuros deberían proporcionar datos nuevos y valiosos para explorar mejor el potencial biológico de la amentoflavona flavonoide y sus derivados como entidades bioactivas químicas; desarrollar estudios sobre la toxicidad y, finalmente, concentrar los esfuerzos en dilucidar los mecanismos de acción para las propiedades biológicas ya informadas.

Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Selaginellaceae/chemistry , Flavonoids/analysis , Alkaloids/analysis , Medicine, Traditional
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 19(3): 289-299, mayo 2020. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1116296


Piper kadsura (Choisy) Ohwi which belongs to the family Piperaceae, is a well-known medicinal plant possessing high medicinal and various therapeutic properties. It is widely used in traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of asthma and rheumatic arthritis. Numerous studies on this species have also corroborated the significant anti-inflammatory potential of its extracts and secondary metabolites. The main chemical constituents which have been isolated and identified from P. kadsura are lignans and neolignans, which possess anti-inflammatory activities. The present article aims to provide a review of the studies done on the phytochemistry and antiinflammatory activities of P. kadsura. The scientific journals for this brief literature review were from electronic sources, such as Science Direct, PubMed, Google Scholar, Scopus, and Web of Science. This review is expected to draw the attention of the medical professionals and the general public towards P. kadsura and to open the door for detailed research in the future.

Piper kadsura (Choisy) Ohwi, perteneciente a la familia Piperaceae, es una planta medicinal conocida que posee importantes propiedades medicinales y diversas propiedades terapéuticas. Es ampliamente utilizada en la medicina tradicional china para el tratamiento del asma y la artritis reumática. Numerosos estudios sobre esta especie también han corroborado el destacado potencial antiinflamatorio de sus extractos y metabolitos secundarios. Los principales componentes químicos que se han aislado e identificado de P. kadsura son los lignanos y los neolignanos, que poseen actividades antiinflamatorias. El presente artículo tiene como objetivo proporcionar una revisión de los estudios realizados sobre las actividades fitoquímicas y antiinflamatorias de P. kadsura. Las revistas científicas para esta breve revisión de literatura fueron de fuentes electrónicas, como Science Direct, PubMed, Google Scholar, Scopus y Web of Science. Se espera que esta revisión atraiga la atención de los profesionales médicos y el público en general respecto de P. kadsura y abra la puerta a una investigación detallada en el futuro.

Piper/chemistry , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/chemistry , Plants, Medicinal , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Lignans/analysis , Piperaceae/chemistry , Kadsura , Alkaloids/analysis , Phytochemicals/analysis , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 70(1): 50-59, marz. 2020. ilus, tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1129607


La medicina tradicional y estudios realizados a diferentes especies del género Prosopis, del desierto sonorense, indican que es una fuente para la cualificación de compuestos bioactivos, con poder antioxidante y ácidos grasos (linoleico y linolénico) de la semilla. La actividad biológica, es atribuible a alcaloides, flavonoides, terpenos y compuestos fenólicos, para lo cual, se realizó el perfil fitoquímico en los extractos acuoso, etanólico, hexanico y clorofórmico (mediante técnicas colorimétricas), actividad antioxidante (método: 1,1-difenil-2-picrilhidrazil (DPPH)), fenoles totales (utilizando el reactivo de Folin-Ciocalteau) y perfil de ácidos grasos (cromatografía de gases) de la semilla de Prosopis spp. La extracción del aceite se realizó mediante Soxhlet. Se encontraron saponinas en todos los extractos, mientras que, en el etanólico, hexanico y clorofórmico, terpenos y esteroles. En el extracto etanólico se encontraron quinonas y en el acuoso aminoácidos libres. El valor más alto de la actividad antioxidante de EC50 fue de 3.272,41 ± 5,97, para el extracto etanólico, indicando su potencial como antioxidante. El contenido de fenoles totales, fue hexano> etanol > cloroformo> acuoso (81,95; 119,83; 125,18 y 127,57 mg equivalentes de ácido gálico/g de extracto seco). Los ácidos grasos en mayor proporción fueron los insaturados con 71,41 % (ácido linoleico: 42,68 %; oleico: 28.73 %) y ácidos grasos saturados: ácido palmítico (13.42 %) y estérico (4,73 %). Se concluye que este tipo de extractos presentan metabolitos importantes para la dieta, presentan actividad antioxidante y ácidos grasos esenciales para el organismo(AU)

Traditional medicine and studies with different species of the Prosopis genus, from the Sonoran Desert, is a source for the qualification of bioactive compounds, with antioxidant power and fatty acids (linoleic and linolenic) of the seed. The biological activity is attributable to alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenes and phenolic compounds, for which, the phytochemical profile was performed in the aqueous, ethanolic, hexane and chloroform extracts (using colorimetric techniques), antioxidant activity (method: 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrilhidrazil (DPPH)), total phenols (using the Folin-Ciocalteau reagent) and fatty acid profile (gas chromatography). The oil was extracted using Soxhlet. Saponins were found in all extracts, while, in ethanolic, hexanic and chloroform, terpenes and sterols. In the ethanolic extract quinones were found and in the aqueous free amino acids. The highest value of the antioxidant activity of EC50 was 3,272.41 ± 5.97, for the ethanolic extract, indicating its potential as an antioxidant. The total phenolic content was hexane> ethanol> chloroform> aqueous (81.95, 119.83, 125.18 and 127.57 mg equivalent of gallic acid / g of dry extract). The fatty acids in greater proportion were unsaturated with 71.41 % (linoleic acid: 42.68 %; oleic: 28.73 %) and saturated fatty acids: palmitic acid (13.42 %) and stearic (4.73 %). It is concluded that this type of extracts have important metabolites for the diet, have antioxidant activity and essential fatty acids for the body(AU)

Prosopis , Phenolic Compounds , Fatty Acids , Phytochemicals , Seeds , Flavonoids/analysis , Alkaloids/analysis
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 19(6): 527-541, 2020. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1284290


The genus Lindera consists of approximately 100 species that are widely distributed in tropical and subtropical areas throughout the world. Most Lindera plants, particularly Lindera aggregata is a well-known traditional Chinese medicine that has important medicinal value and health benefits. Contemporary chemical and pharmacological studies have shown that L. aggregata are a source of structurally diverse molecules having pharmacological potential. In an effort to promote research on L. aggregata and develop therapeutic and pharmacological products, this review describes the structural diversity of its components and pharmacological and biological significance of L. aggregata. This review is based on a literature analysis of scientific journals from electronic sources, such as Science Direct, PubMed, Google Scholar, Scopus and Web of Science. Thus, with the growing interest in traditional medicine and botanical drugs worldwide, L. aggregata will increasingly capture chemists' and pharmacologists' attention because they produce diverse and structurally novel compounds having pharmacological significance.

El género Lindera consta de aproximadamente 100 especies que están ampliamente distribuidas en áreas tropicales y subtropicales en todo el mundo. La mayoría de las plantas de Lindera, particularmente Lindera aggregata, es parte conocida de la medicina tradicional china con un importante valor medicinal y beneficios para la salud. Estudios químicos y farmacológicos contemporáneos han demostrado que L. aggregata es una fuente de moléculas estructuralmente diversas que con potencial farmacológico. En un esfuerzo por promover la investigación sobre L. aggregata y desarrollar productos terapéuticos y farmacológicos, esta revisión describe la diversidad estructural de sus componentes y la importancia farmacológica y biológica de L. aggregata. Esta revisión se basa en un análisis de literatura de revistas científicas de fuentes electrónicas, como Science Direct, PubMed, Google Scholar, Scopus y Web of Science. Por lo tanto, con el creciente interés en la medicina tradicional y las drogas botánicas en todo el mundo, L. aggregata captará cada vez más la atención de los químicos y farmacólogos debido a que producen compuestos diversos y estructuralmente novedosos que tienen importancia farmacológica.

Biological Products , Lindera/chemistry , Phytochemicals/analysis , Sesquiterpenes/analysis , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Lauraceae/chemistry , Alkaloids/analysis , Phenolic Compounds/analysis , Phytotherapy , Medicine, Traditional
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 17(3): 259-269, mayo 2018. tab, ilus, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-915349


Berberis darwinii Hook es una especie que habita el sur de Chile y la Patagonia. Siendo utilizada por la etnia mapuche para el tratamiento de procesos inflamatorios, estados febriles, y dolor estomacal. El propósito del siguiente estudio fue evaluar in vitro las propiedades del extracto de alcaloides de raíz de B. darwinii sobre respuestas celulares en monocitos desde sangre periférica de rata. Los resultados de la cuantificación del extracto muestran una concentración de alcaloides totales de 1,67 mg/g y la caracterización por HPLC- MS determinó la presencia de berberina y palmatina. In vitro se observó que los extractos disminuyeron la capacidad de adhesión y la actividad fagocítica de los monocitos e inhibieron la translocación del factor nuclear NF-κB asociado a la modulación de la inflamación, pero no así la producción de anión superóxido. Estos resultados indicarían que los alcaloides totales de B. darwinii inhiben algunos mecanismos específicos de defensa celular.

Berberis darwinii Hook is a species that inhabits southern Chile and Patagonia. This is being used by the Mapuche ethnic group for the treatment of inflammatory processes, febrile states, and stomach pain. The purpose of the following study was to evaluate in vitro the properties of an alkaloid extract of B. darwinii root on cellular responses in monocytes from the rat peripheral blood. The results of the quantification of the extract showed a total alkaloid concentration of 1.67 mg/g and the characterization by HPLC-MS determined the presence of berberine and palmatine. In vitro, it was observed that the extracts decreased the adhesion capacity and phagocytic activity of the monocytes and inhibited the translocation of the nuclear factor NF-κB associated with the modulation of inflammation, but not the production of superoxide anion. These results indicate that the total alkaloids of B. darwinii inhibit some specific mechanisms of cellular defense.

Animals , Male , Rats , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Roots/chemistry , Berberis/chemistry , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Monocytes/drug effects , Cell Adhesion/drug effects , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , NF-kappa B/drug effects , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Alkaloids/analysis
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 54(4): e17242, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001571


The novel alkaloid, oleracimine, presented remarkable anti-inflammatory bioactivity, and therefore, its pharmacokinetics was investigated in rat plasma after intravenous and oral administration by using a rapid ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) method with UV detection at 270 nm. The analysis was performed on a shim-pack ODS column (75 mm×2 mm, 1.6 µm particle size, Shimadzu, Japan) column using isocratic elution with a mobile phase consisting of methanol-water (62:38, v/v) within 3 min. The results indicated that oleracimine was rapidly distributed with Tmax for 11.7 min after oral administration, which presented the double-peak phenomenon in the pharmacokinetic profile with a higher oral absolute bioavailability of 55.1% ± 7.83%.

Animals , Male , Rats , Pharmacokinetics , Chromatography, Liquid/methods , Portulaca/adverse effects , Alkaloids/analysis
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 50(12): e5916, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888970


Lider-7-tang, a medicine used for the treatment of respiratory diseases especially pneumonia and fever in Mongolian Traditional Medicine, was selected for this phytochemical and pharmacological study. The objectives of the study were to determine total biological active substances and analyze the effects of Lider-7-tang treatment in rats with acute lung injury (ALI). Quantitative determination of the total active constituents (phenolic, flavonoid, iridoid and alkaloid) of the methanol extract of Lider-7-tang was performed using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent, aluminum chloride reagent, Trim-Hill reagent, and Bromocresol green reagent, respectively. A total of fifty 8-10-week-old male Wistar rats (200-240 g) were randomized into three groups: control group, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) group (7.5 mg/kg) and LPS+Lider-7 group (90 mg/kg Lider-7-tang before LPS administration). The total content of alkaloids was 0.2±0.043%, total phenols 7.8±0.67%, flavonoids 3.12±0.206%, and iridoids 0.308±0.0095%. This study also evaluated the effects of Lider-7 on levels of inflammatory mediators by observing histopathological features associated with LPS-induced ALI. The rats pretreated with Lider-7 had significantly lower levels of IL-6 (at 3 and 6 h), and TNF-α (at 3, 6, 9, and 12 h). The current study showed that Lider-7 exerted a preventive effect against LPS-induced ALI, which appeared to be mediated by inhibiting the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines.

Animals , Male , Acute Lung Injury/prevention & control , Alkaloids/pharmacology , Flavonoids/pharmacology , Iridoids/pharmacology , Phenols/pharmacology , Plants, Medicinal/chemistry , Acute Lung Injury/pathology , Alkaloids/analysis , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Flavonoids/analysis , Indicators and Reagents , Interleukin-6/blood , Iridoids/analysis , Lipopolysaccharides , Lung/drug effects , Lung/pathology , Molybdenum , Mongolia , Phenols/analysis , Phytotherapy/methods , Protective Agents/pharmacology , Rats, Wistar , Reproducibility of Results , Spectrophotometry , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/blood , Tungsten Compounds
Rev. biol. trop ; 64(3): 1171-1184, jul.-sep. 2016. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-958204


ResumenEntre los principales compuestos químicos sintetizados por las plantas, pero considerados no esenciales para su metabolismo básico, están los alcaloides, los polifenoles, los glucósidos cianogénicos y las saponinas que tienen diversas funciones en las plantas y reconocidas propiedades medicinales y farmacológicas. En esta investigación se determinaron las concentraciones de los mencionados metabolitos secundarios en los extractos de las hojas de las plantas medicinales Taraxacum officinale, Parthenium hysterophorus, Artemisia absinthium, Cnidoscolus aconitifolius y Piper carpunya y se relacionaron con la toxicidad aguda contra Artemia salina. En cada bioensayo con A. salina se usaron los extractos alcohólicos de las hojas de las plantas seleccionadas a diferentes concentraciones, calculándose la proporción de organismos muertos y los CL50. Las concentraciones de alcaloides, fenoles totales, taninos, glucósidos cianogénicos y saponinas fueron determinadas mediante métodos espectrofotométricos. Este es el primer reporte de cuantificación de metabolitos secundarios en las plantas analizadas provenientes de Ecuador. T. officinale presentó las mayores concentraciones de fenoles (22.30 ± 0.23 mg/g) y taninos (11.70 ± 0.10 mg/g), C aconitifolius de glucósidos cianogénicos (5.02 ± 0.37 µg/g) y P. hysterophorus de saponinas (6.12 ± 0.02 mg/g). Las plantas evaluadas presentaron actividades hemolíticas dependiendo de las concentraciones de saponinas. Los valores de taninos determinados estuvieron entre 0.20 ± 0.01 y 11.70 ± 0.10 mg/g, por lo que no son adversos para su consumo. Aunque los valores de glucósidos cianogénicos son permisibles, es necesario monitorear la presencia de estos compuestos químicos en las plantas para minimizar problemas de salud. Los CL50 obtenidos oscilaron entre los valores 3.37 µg/mL, extremadamente letal o tóxica, para P. carpunya y 274.34 µg/mL, altamente tóxica, para T. officinale. De los análisis de correlaciones realizados a los resultados, se observó que los alcaloides favorecen de manera significativa (p<0.001) a la toxicidad aguda contra A. salina, mientras que a mayor contenido de polifenoles dicha toxicidad disminuye significativamente (p<0.001) el nivel de toxicidad de las plantas. Del análisis de componentes principales, se demuestra que las saponinas están en sinergia con los polifenoles para disminuir la toxicidad, pero tienen un efecto antagónico con los alcaloides y los glucósidos cianogénicos, lo cual evidencia que estos metabolitos secundarios presentan variabilidades en los mecanismos de acción contra A. salina, como compuestos citotóxicos. Estos resultados demuestran que las saponinas y los polifenoles pueden ser letales para A. salina a bajas concentraciones, evidenciando que este bioensayo permite evaluar extractos vegetales que contengan bajas concentraciones de compuestos con altas polaridades. La correspondencia significativamente positiva entre citoxicidad y concentración de los alcaloides, confirmada con el bioensayo de Artemia salina, puede ser útil para hallar fuentes promisorias de compuestos antitumorales y para evaluar los límites tolerables que no afecten otras células benignas. El contenido de metabolitos secundarios hallados en las plantas analizadas les atribuye un gran valor farmacológico.

Abstract:Alkaloids, polyphenols, cyanogenic glycosides and saponins are among the main chemical compounds synthesized by plants but not considered essential for their basic metabolism. These compounds have different functions in plants, and have been recognized with medicinal and pharmacological properties. In this research, concentrations of the mentioned secondary metabolites were determined in the medicinal plants Artemisia absinthium, Cnidoscolus aconitifolius, Parthenium hysterophorus, Piper carpunya and Taraxacum officinale, from Ecuador, and related with cytotoxic effects against Artemia salina. Alcoholic and aqueous extracts from leaves of these selected plants were prepared at different concentrations. To assess cytotoxicity of these extracts, different bioassays with A. salina were undertaken, and the mortality rates and LC50 were obtained. Besides, concentrations of alkaloids, cyanogenic glycosides, phenols, tannins and saponins were determined by spectrophotometric methods; this constituted the first report of quantification of secondary metabolites in the selected plants from Ecuador. T. officinale had the highest concentration of total phenols (22.30 ± 0.23 mg/g) and tannins (11.70 ± 0.10 mg/g), C. aconitifolius of cyanogenic glycosides (5.02 ± 0.37 µg/g) and P. hysterophorus of saponins (6.12 ± 0.02 mg/g). Tannins values obtained were not adverse to their consumption. Alcoholic and aqueous extracts of selected plants had hemolytic activity depending on the concentration of saponins. Although the values of cyanogenic glycosides were permissible, it was necessary to monitor the presence of this metabolite in plants to minimize health problems. LC50 values ranged from extremely toxic (3.37 µg/mL) to highly toxic (274.34 μg/mL), in P. carpunya and T. officinale, respectively. From correlation analysis, it was observed that increase values of alkaloids concentrations had highly significant (p<0.001) acute toxicity against A. salina, while at a higher polyphenol concentration the level of plants cytotoxicity decreased significantly (p<0.001). The results of principal component analysis showed that saponins apparently were in synergy with polyphenols to decrease cytotoxicity, but antagonize with alkaloids and cyanogenic glycosides, indicating that these secondary metabolites present variability in the mechanisms of action against A. salina, as cytotoxic compounds. These results also demonstrate that polyphenols and saponins can be lethal at low concentrations, demonstrating the potential of brine shrimp bioassay as a model to evaluate plant extracts containing low concentrations of chemical compounds with high polarities. The significant positive correlation between cytotoxicity and concentration of alkaloids confirmed by the bioassay of brine shrimp can be useful to identify promising sources of antitumor compounds, and to evaluate tolerable limits not affecting other benign cells. Contents of secondary metabolites found in the selected plants confer them great pharmacologic values. Rev. Biol. Trop. 64 (3): 1171-1184. Epub 2016 September 01.

Animals , Plants, Medicinal/chemistry , Artemia/drug effects , Saponins/analysis , Alkaloids/analysis , Polyphenols/analysis , Glycosides/analysis , Time Factors , Biological Assay , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Asteraceae/toxicity , Asteraceae/chemistry , Euphorbiaceae/chemistry , Artemisia absinthium/chemistry , Taraxacum/chemistry , Piper/chemistry , Ecuador , Secondary Metabolism
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 14(1): 21-32, ene.2015. ilus, tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-795830


Diabetes mellitus type 2 is a metabolic disorder characterized by chronic hyperglycemia, and an important cardiovascular risk factor with a high morbidity and mortality worldwide. Phytotherapy can be an useful complement in the treatment of chronic diseases, so the hypoglycemic effect of Bauhinia forficata (L) subsp. pruinosa (Fabaceae) was evaluated, as used in Chilean traditional medicine. The content of rutin (R) and trigonelline (T) in aqueous extracts (0.15 and 1.0 percent infusions) and lyophilized extract from leaves of B. forficata were determined by HPLC. It was obtained 2.80 ugR/mL and 2.87 ugT/mL for 0.15 percent infusion, 12.48 ugR/mL and 16.24 ugT/mL for 1.0 percent infusion, and 5.70 ugR/mL and 8.14 ugT/mL for the lyophilized extract (0.1percent). Subsequently, a pilot clinical study in diabetic and prediabetic volunteers (n = 15) was performed, taking one dose of the 0.15 percent infusion, three times a day after meals, for 3 months. The results showed a significant statistically reduction in percent of HbA1c of 0.57 +/- 0.83 (p = 0.0179), suggesting that the 0.15 percent infusion of B. forficata could be useful in the prevention or complementary treatment of diabetes...

La diabetes mellitus tipo 2 es una alteración metabólica caracterizada por hiperglicemia crónica, y un importante factor de riesgo cardiovascular con elevada morbimortalidad a nivel mundial. La Fitoterapia puede ser un complemento útil en el tratamiento de enfermedades crónicas, por lo que se evaluó el efecto hipoglicemiante de Bauhinia forficata (L) subsp. pruinosa (Fabaceae), según su uso en medicina tradicional Chilena. Se determinó mediante HPLC el contenido de rutina (R) y trigonelina (T) en infusos (0.15 por ciento y 1.0 por ciento) y extracto acuoso liofilizado de las hojas de B. forficata. Se obtuvo para el infuso 0.15 por ciento = 2.80 ugR/mL y 2.87 ugT/mL, infuso 1.0 por ciento = 12.48 ugR/mL y 16.24 ugT/mL, y en el extracto liofilizado 0.1 por ciento = 5.70 ugR/mL y 8.14 ugT/mL. Posteriormente, se realizó un estudio clínico piloto en voluntarios diabéticos y prediabéticos (n = 15), tomando una dosis del infuso al 0.15 por ciento, tres veces al día después de las comidas, durante 3 meses. Los resultados mostraron una reducción estadísticamente significativa del por ciento de HbA1c de 0.57 +/- 0.83 (p = 0.0179), sugiriendo que el infuso de hojas de B. forficata (0.15 por ciento) podría ser útil en la prevención o tratamiento complementario de la diabetes...

Humans , Bauhinia/chemistry , /drug therapy , Plant Extracts/administration & dosage , Hypoglycemic Agents/administration & dosage , Alkaloids/analysis , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Medicine, Traditional , Phytotherapy , Rutin/analysis
Rev. bras. plantas med ; 17(4,supl.2): 922-927, 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-771166


ABSTRACT The antibacterial activity of the alkaloid extract from the leaves of Croton bonplandianum Baill. and its main compounds, sparsiflorine and crotsparine, was tested against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa by the resazurin microtitre-plate method. Pure compounds were identified by spectroscopic techniques, mainly 1D and 2D NMR. The alkaloid extract showed activity particularly against the S. aureus and P. aeruginosa. Regarding the pure compounds, the crotsparine was inactive against the microorganisms assayed, whereas the sparsiflorine indicated a moderate activity similar to the alkaloid extract. The Pseudomonas aeruginosa was the most sensitive of the tested microorganisms with MIC of 0.141 mg/mL. The results suggest that the activity of the extract may be credited mainly to the presence of the sparsiflorine. Although the activity of the sparsiflorine does not get close to the antimicrobial drugs in clinical use, it still could be a lead compound for the development of new antibacterial substances.

RESUMO A atividade antibacteriana do extrato alcaloidal das folhas de Croton bonplandianum Baill., além dos principais compostos isolados, esparsiflorina e crotsparina, foi testada contra Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae e Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Foi utilizado o método de microdiluição em placa empregando resazurina como indicador da viabilidade celular. Os compostos isolados foram identificados por técnicas espectroscópicas, principalmente RMN 1D e 2D. O extrato alcaloidal foi ativo principalmente contra S. aureus e P. aeruginosa. Crotsparina mostrou-se inativa contra todos os micro-organismos testados, enquanto esparsiflorina apresentou atividade moderada, a qual foi similar à do extrato bruto. Pseudomonas aeruginosa foi a mais sensível das bactérias testadas, com CIM de 0,141 mg/mL. Os resultados sugerem que a atividade do extrato pode ser devida em grande medida pela presença de esparsiflorina. Apesar de a CIM da esparsiflorina não ter se aproximado daquela apresentada pelos agentes antimicrobianos em uso clínico, tal composto ainda pode compor um protótipo interessante para o desenvolvimento de novas substâncias antibacterianas.

Euphorbiaceae/classification , Alkaloids/analysis , Anti-Bacterial Agents/analysis , Plant Extracts , Staphylococcus Phages , Croton/classification
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 13(4): 324-335, jul. 2014. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-785450


Berberis microphylla (G. Forst) is a native plant growing in Patagonia. In recent years Patagonia Berberis are becoming important due to their interesting biological properties related to their alkaloids content. The aim of this study was determine the distribution and proportion of isoquinoline alkaloids in leaves, stems and roots of B. microphylla collected in two different climatic zones from Chilean Patagonia. Using by HPLC ESI-MS/MS isocorydine, jatrorrhizine, palmatine, reticuline, scoulerine, tetrahydroberberine and thalifendine were detected for the first time in this specie, and the presence of allocryptopine, berberine, calafatine and protopine, previously isolated in B. microphylla was corroborated. The alkaloids profile showed differences of compounds in samples collected in two climatic zones, where more compounds were detected in plants from Lago Deseado than Cerro Sombrero. Furthermore, a greater number of alkaloids were found in stem and root extracts and berberine and thalifendine were detected in higher proportion in these structures.

Berberis microphylla (G. Forst) es un arbusto nativo que crece en la Patagonia. Actualmente, esta planta ha sido foco de estudio dada las propiedades biológicas que presenta, atribuidas principalmente al contenido de alcaloides. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la distribución y proporción de alcaloides isoquinolínicos en hojas, tallos y raíces de B. microphylla colectadas en dos zonas climáticas de la Patagonia chilena. Mediante CLAE IES-MS/MS se informa por primera vez la presencia de isocoridina jatrorrizina, palmatina, reticulina, escoulerina, tetrahidroberberina y talifendina en esta especie y se confirma la presencia de allocriptopina, berberina, calafatina y protopina, identificados previamente en B. microphylla. El perfil de alcaloides mostró diferencias en la presencia de compuestos en las muestras colectas en las dos zonas climáticas, observándose un mayor número de compuestos en plantas provenientes de Lago Deseado. Además, un mayor número de compuestos se identificó en extractos de tallos y raíces donde berberina y talifendina fueron detectados en mayor proporción.

Alkaloids/analysis , Berberis/chemistry , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Plant Roots/chemistry , Spectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization , Plant Stems/chemistry
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 13(2): 205-212, mar. 2014. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-767364


The piperidine alkaloid composition from young stems of Lobelia polyphylla Hook & Arn. was determined by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The tentative structures, without the stereochemistry, were obtained by the analysis of the fragmentation patterns of the mass spectra of each compound. The stems contained a mixture of lobeline (1), norlobelanidine (2), 1-(1-(2-hydroxy-2-phenylethyl)-1-methylpiperidin) butane-2-ol (3), 8-propyl-10-phenyl lobelionol (4), 1-(6-(2-hydroxy-2-phenylethyl)-1-methylpiperidin) butane-2-one (5), 1-(6-(2-hidroxypentyl)-1-ethylpiperidin) butane-2-one (6) and 1-methyl-2-piperidinemethanol (7). The role of these alkaloids in the toxic, narcotic and hallucinogenic effects, produced after smoking the aerial parts of this species is discussed.

La composición de alcaloides piperidínicos de tallos jóvenes de Lobelia polyphylla Hook & Arn. se determinó por cromatografía de gases acoplada a espectrometría de masas (CG-EM). Las estructuras tentativas sin incluir la estereoquímica, se obtuvieron mediante el análisis de los patrones de fragmentación de los espectros de masas de cada compuesto. Los tallos contienen una mezcla de lobelina (1), norlobelanidina (2), 1-(1-(2-hidroxi-2-feniletil)-1-metilpiperidin) butano-2-ol (3), 8-propil-10-fenil lobelionol (4), 1-(6-(2-hidroxi-2-feniletil)-1-metilpiperidin) butano-2-ona (5), 1-(6-(2-hidroxypentyl)-1-etilpiperidin) butano-2-ona (6) y 1-metil-2-piperidinmetanol (7). Se discute el posible papel de estos alcaloides en los efectos tóxicos, estupefacientes y alucinógenos, producidos después de haber fumado la parte aérea de esta especie.

Alkaloids/analysis , Lobelia/chemistry , Piperidines/analysis , Plant Stems/chemistry , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 13(1): 109-116, ene. 2014. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-726608


A screening was undertaken of the native flora of Chile excluding Pteridophyta, Cactaceae and Poaceae the study included 396 species. Alkaloids were found in 189 species, the highest concentration being 3 mg/g dry tissue. A table was produced listing all species collected and specifying the subset containing alkaloids, the species with a particularly high alkaloid content and also the endemic species within this latter set. Alkaloid concentration as well as presence or absence data in different vegetational subregions correlated with mean collection latitude, under the limitations imposed by the relationship between alkaloid concentration and species lineage. In practical terms, the results indicate that in studies aimed at identifying alkaloids in the native flora of Chile, plant collections should take into consideration the promising species listed in the table and take place at the lowest possible latitude if the chance of finding alkaloids and the yield of isolated alkaloids are to be maximized.

Se muestreó un conjunto de 396 especies de la flora nativa de Chile (excluyendo Pteridophyta, Cactaceae y Poaceae), encontrándose alcaloides en 189 de ellas (concentración máxima: 3 mg/g de tejido seco). Se generó una tabla que contiene todas las especies analizadas y especifica aquellas que contienen alcaloides, aquellas que los contienen en altas concentraciones y, entre estas últimas, aquellas que son endémicas. La concentración de alcaloides y también los datos de presencia/ausencia correlacionaron con la latitud media de colecta, bajo las limitaciones impuestas por la relación entre concentración de alcaloides y linaje de la especie. En términos prácticos, los resultados señalan que en estudios que apunten a la identificación de alcaloides en la flora nativa de Chile la colecta de plantas debería tomar en consideración las especies promisoras incluídas en la tabla y ser realizada a la latitud más baja posible dentro del rango de distribución de la especie, maximizando así la probabilidad de encontrar alcaloides en altas concentraciones.

Alkaloids/analysis , Phylogeography , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Plants , Chile