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Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 21(2): 131-155, mar. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1393364


Bacopa monnieri(L.) Wettst. (Plantaginaceae), also known as Brahmi, has been used to improve cognitive processes and intellectual functions that are related to the preservation of memory. The objective of this research is to review the ethnobotanical applications, phytochemical composition, toxicity and activity of B. monnieri in the central nervous system. It reviewed articles on B. monnieri using Google Scholar, SciELO, Science Direct, Lilacs, Medline, and PubMed. Saponins are the main compounds in extracts of B. monnieri. Pharmacological studies showed that B. monnieri improves learning and memory and presents biological effects against Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, epilepsy, and schizophrenia. No preclinical acute toxicity was reported. However, gastrointestinal side effects were reported in some healthy elderly individuals. Most studies with B. monnieri have been preclinical evaluations of cellular mechanisms in the central nervous system and further translational clinical research needs to be performed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the plant.

Bacopa monnieri (L.) Wettst. (Plantaginaceae), también conocida como Brahmi, se ha utilizado para mejorar los procesos cognitivos y las funciones intelectuales que están relacionadas con la preservación de la memoria. El objetivo de esta investigación es revisar las aplicaciones etnobotánicas, composición fitoquímica, toxicidad y actividad de B. monnieri en el sistema nervioso central. Se revisaron artículos sobre B. monnieri utilizando Google Scholar, SciELO, Science Direct, Lilacs, Medline y PubMed. Las saponinas son los principales compuestos de los extractos de B. monnieri. Los estudios farmacológicos mostraron que B. monnieri mejora el aprendizaje y la memoria y presenta efectos biológicos contra la enfermedad de Alzheimer, la enfermedad de Parkinson, la epilepsia y la esquizofrenia. No se informó toxicidad aguda preclínica. Sin embargo, se informaron efectos secundarios gastrointestinales en algunos ancianos sanos. La mayoría de los estudios con B. monnieri han sido evaluaciones preclínicas de los mecanismos celulares en el sistema nervioso central y es necesario realizar más investigaciones clínicas traslacionales para evaluar la seguridad y eficacia de la planta.

Humans , Plant Extracts/administration & dosage , Central Nervous System Diseases/drug therapy , Bacopa/chemistry , Parkinson Disease/drug therapy , Saponins/analysis , Schizophrenia/drug therapy , Triterpenes/analysis , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Central Nervous System/drug effects , Cognition/drug effects , Epilepsy/drug therapy , Alzheimer Disease/drug therapy , Phytochemicals
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922568


Due to its complex pathogenesis and lack of effective therapeutic methods, Alzheimer's disease (AD) has become a severe public health problem worldwide. Recent studies have discovered the function of central nervous system lymphatic drainage, which provides a new strategy for the treatment of AD. Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) has been considered as a cure for AD for hundreds of years in China, and its effect on scavenging β-amyloid protein in the brain of AD patients has been confirmed. In this review, the mechanism of central nervous system lymphatic drainage and the regulatory functions of CHM on correlation factors were briefly summarized. The advances in our understanding regarding the treatment of AD via regulating the central lymphatic system with CHM will promote the clinical application of CHM in AD patients and the discovery of new therapeutic drugs.

Alzheimer Disease/drug therapy , Amyloid beta-Peptides , Brain , China , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Humans
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929234


Ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) plays an important role in neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), and Huntington's disease (HD). The discovery of UPS activators for anti-neurodegenerative diseases is becoming increasingly important. In this study, we aimed to identify potential UPS activators using the high-throughput screening method with the high-content fluorescence imaging system and validate the neuroprotective effect in the cell models of AD. At first, stable YFP-CL1 HT22 cells were successfully constructed by transfecting the YFP-CL1 plasmid into HT22 cells, together with G418 screening. The degradation activity of the test compounds via UPS was monitored by detecting the YFP fluorescence intensity reflected by the ubiquitin-proteasome degradation signal CL1. By employing the high-content fluorescence imaging system, together with stable YFP-CL1 HT22 cells, the UPS activators were successfully screened from our established TCM library. The representative images were captured and analyzed, and quantification of the YFP fluorescence intensity was performed by flow cytometry. Then, the neuroprotective effect of the UPS activators was investigated in pEGFP-N1-APP (APP), pRK5-EGFP-Tau P301L (Tau P301L), or pRK5-EGFP-Tau (Tau) transiently transfected HT22 cells using fluorescence imaging, flow cytometry, and Western blot. In conclusion, our study established a high-content fluorescence imaging system coupled with stable YFP-CL1 HT22 cells for the high-throughput screening of the UPS activators. Three compounds, namely salvianolic acid A (SAA), salvianolic acid B (SAB), and ellagic acid (EA), were identified to significantly decrease YFP fluorescence intensity, which suggested that these three compounds are UPS activators. The identified UPS activators were demonstrated to clear AD-related proteins, including APP, Tau, and Tau P301L. Therefore, these findings provide a novel insight into the discovery and development of anti-AD drugs.

Alzheimer Disease/drug therapy , Humans , Neuroprotective Agents , Optical Imaging , Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex , Ubiquitin
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928962


Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of the most common neurodegenerative diseases among the elderly and it accounts for nearly 80% of all dementias. The pathogenesis of AD is complicated and enigmatic thus far. The mitochondrial cascade hypothesis assumes that mitochondrial damage may mediate, drive, or contribute to a variety of AD pathologies and may be the main factor in late-onset AD. Currently, there are no widely recognized drugs able to attenuate mitochondrial damage in AD. Notably, increasing evidence supports the efficacy of acupuncture for improving the mitochondrial structure and protecting mitochondrial functions in AD. This review reports the mechanisms by which acupuncture regulates mitochondrial dynamics, energy metabolism, calcium homeostasis and apoptosis. In conclusion, these findings suggest that AD mitochondrial dysfunction represents a reasonable therapeutic target and acupuncture could play a significant role in preventing and treating AD.

Acupuncture Therapy , Aged , Alzheimer Disease/drug therapy , Apoptosis , Humans , Mitochondria/metabolism
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928147


The present study investigated the mechanism of the Tibetan patent medicine Ershiwuwei Shanhu Pills(ESP) in alleviating Alzheimer's disease in mice via Akt/mTOR/GSK-3β signaling pathway. BALB/c mice were randomly assigned into a blank control group, a model group, low(200 mg·kg~(-1)), medium(400 mg·kg~(-1)) and high(800 mg·kg~(-1)) dose groups of ESP, and donepezil hydrochloride group. Except the blank control group, the other groups were given 20 mg·kg~(-1) aluminum chloride by gavage and 120 mg·kg~(-1) D-galactose by intraperitoneal injection for 56 days to establish Alzheimer's disease model. Morris water maze was used to detect the learning and memory ability of mice. The level of p-tau protein in mouse hippocampus and the levels of superoxide dismutase(SOD), malondialdehyde(MDA), catalase(CAT), and total antioxidant capacity(T-AOC) in hippocampus and serum were detected. Hematoxylin-eosin staining and Nissl staining were performed for the pathological observation of whole brain in mice. TdT-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling(TUNEL) staining was employed for the observation of apoptosis in mouse cortex. Western blot was adopted to detect the protein levels of p-mTOR, p-Akt, and GSK-3β in the hippocampus. Compared with the model group, the ESP groups showcased alleviated pathological damage of the whole brain, decreased TUNEL positive cells, reduced level of p-tau protein in hippocampus, and risen SOD, CAT, and T-AOC levels and declined MDA level in hippocampus and serum. Furthermore, the ESP groups had up-regulated protein levels of p-mTOR and p-Akt while down-regulated protein level of GSK-3β in hippocampus. Therefore, ESP can alleviate the learning and memory decline and oxidative damage in mice with Alzheimer's disease induced by D-galactose combined with aluminum chloride, which may be related to Akt/mTOR/GSK-3β signaling pathway.

Aluminum Chloride/adverse effects , Alzheimer Disease/drug therapy , Animals , Galactose/metabolism , Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 beta/metabolism , Hippocampus/metabolism , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Plant Extracts , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism , tau Proteins
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 20(4): 406-415, jul. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1352429


Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an age-related neurodegenerative disorder. Sever cognitive and memory impairments, huge increase in the prevalence of the disease, and lacking definite cure have absorbed worldwide efforts to develop therapeutic approaches. Since many drugs have failed in the clinical trials due to multifactorial nature of AD, symptomatic treatments are still in the center attention and now, nootropic medicinal plants have been found as versatile ameliorators to reverse memory disorders. In this work, anti-Alzheimer's activity of aqueous extract of areca nuts (Areca catechu L.) was investigated via in vitro and in vivo studies. It depicted good amyloid ß (Aß) aggregation inhibitory activity, 82% at 100 µg/mL. In addition, it inhibited beta-secretase 1 (BACE1) with IC50 value of 19.03 µg/mL. Evaluation of neuroprotectivity of the aqueous extract of the plant against H2O2-induced cell death in PC12 neurons revealed 84.5% protection at 1 µg/mL. It should be noted that according to our results obtained from Morris Water Maze (MWM) test, the extract reversed scopolamine-induced memory deficit in rats at concentrations of 1.5 and 3 mg/kg.

La enfermedad de Alzheimer (EA) es un trastorno neurodegenerativo relacionado con la edad. Los severos deterioros cognitivos y de la memoria, el enorme aumento de la prevalencia de la enfermedad y la falta de una cura definitiva han absorbido los esfuerzos mundiales para desarrollar enfoques terapéuticos. Dado que muchos fármacos han fallado en los ensayos clínicos debido a la naturaleza multifactorial de la EA, los tratamientos sintomáticos siguen siendo el centro de atención y ahora, las plantas medicinales nootrópicas se han encontrado como mejoradores versátiles para revertir los trastornos de la memoria. En este trabajo, se investigó la actividad anti-Alzheimer del extracto acuoso de nueces de areca (Areca catechu L.) mediante estudios in vitro e in vivo. Representaba una buena actividad inhibidora de la agregación de amiloide ß (Aß), 82% a 100 µg/mL. Además, inhibió la beta-secretasa 1 (BACE1) con un valor de CI50 de 19,03 µg/mL. La evaluación de la neuroprotección del extracto acuoso de la planta contra la muerte celular inducida por H2O2 en neuronas PC12 reveló una protección del 84,5% a 1 µg/mL. Cabe señalar que, de acuerdo con nuestros resultados obtenidos de la prueba Morris Water Maze (MWM), el extracto revirtió el déficit de memoria inducido por escopolamina en ratas a concentraciones de 1,5 y 3 mg/kg.

Animals , Rats , Areca/chemistry , Plant Extracts/administration & dosage , Alzheimer Disease/drug therapy , beta-Amylase/antagonists & inhibitors , Amyloid beta-Peptides/drug effects , Aspartic Acid Endopeptidases/antagonists & inhibitors , Aspartic Acid Endopeptidases/drug effects , Neuroprotective Agents , Amyloid Precursor Protein Secretases/antagonists & inhibitors , Amyloid Precursor Protein Secretases/drug effects , Alzheimer Disease/enzymology , Alzheimer Disease/prevention & control , Morris Water Maze Test , Medicine, Traditional
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 67(2): 190-194, Feb. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1287819


SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: To observe the effects of Dengzhan Shengmai capsule combined with donepezil hydrochloride on cognitive function, daily living ability, and safety in patients with Alzheimer's disease. METHODS: A total of 294 patients with Alzheimer's disease were randomly divided into a treatment group and a control group, 147 cases each group. The control group was given oral donepezil hydrochloride 5 mg once a day, and the treatment group was given oral Dengzhan Shengmai capsule 0.36 g three times a day, based on the control group. RESULTS: At 3 and 6 months of treatment, the ADAS-cog score of the treatment group was 48.69±6.23 and 44.24±5.53; for the control group, 45.48±5.94 and 41.57±5.10. The difference between the two groups is statistically significant (p<0.05). At 3 and 6 months of treatment, the NO level in the treatment group was (46.28±6.68) umol/l, (43.55±7.92) umol/l, and the control group was (42.95±7.92) umol/l, (38.89±5.93) umol/l. The differences between both groups were statistically significant (p<0.05). At 3 and 6 months of treatment, ET levels in the treatment group were (156.08±17.39) ng/l, (144.91±17.60) ng/l, and the control group was (150.48±22.94) ng/l, (135.04±10.08) ng/l. Correlation analysis showed that ADAS-cog score was negatively correlated with NO and ET (p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Dengzhan Shengmai capsule combined with donepezil hydrochloride can improve cognitive function and the living capacity of patients with Alzheimer's disease, reduce the production of neurotoxic substances NO and ET, and provide higher safety.

Humans , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/adverse effects , Alzheimer Disease/drug therapy , Double-Blind Method , Cholinesterase Inhibitors , Cognition , Donepezil
Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion ; (12): 1231-1235, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921037


OBJECTIVE@#To compare the clinical efficacy of abdominal acupoint thread embedding therapy based on "brain-intestinal connection" combined with donepezil hydrochloride tablets and oral donepezil hydrochloride tablets alone for mild-to-moderate Alzheimer's disease (AD) and observe its effects on amyloid precursor protein (APP) and β-amyloid protein@*METHODS@#Sixty patients with AD were randomly divided into an observation group (30 cases, 3 cases dropped off) and a control group (30 cases, 3 cases dropped off). The patients in the control group were treated with donepezil hydrochloride tablets (5 mg per day); based on the treatment in the control group, the patients in the observation group were treated with abdominal acupoint thread embedding therapy at Zhongwan (CV 12), Xiawan (CV 10), Huaroumen (ST 24), Wailing (ST 26), Daheng (SP 15), etc., once every 10 days. Both groups were treated for 2 months. The mini-mental state examination (MMSE), Alzheimer's disease assessment scale-cognitive subscale (ADAS-Cog), activity of daily living scale (ADL), neuropsychiatric inventory questionnaire (NPI) as well as the serum levels of APP and Aβ@*RESULTS@#After treatment, the MMSE scores in the two groups were higher than those before treatment (@*CONCLUSION@#The abdominal acupoint thread embedding therapy based on the theory of "brain-intestinal connection" combined with donepezil hydrochloride tablets can improve cognitive function, self-care ability of daily life and mental behavior, and reduce the serum levels of APP and Aβ

Acupuncture Points , Alzheimer Disease/drug therapy , Amyloid beta-Peptides , Amyloid beta-Protein Precursor , Brain , Donepezil , Humans , Peptide Fragments
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879061


To explore prescription medication regularity in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease with traditional Chinese medicine(TCM). With Alzheimer's disease or senile dementia as the subject, collecting and sorting out the journal papers in CNKI were collected as the data source to establish the literature research database of Alzheimer's disease prescriptions, and then the association rule analysis, factor analysis and systematic cluster analysis on the included TCM were conducted. Among the 113 prescriptions included in the standard, the single herb Acori Tatarinowii Rhizoma was the most common. The herbs were mainly warm and flat among four pro-perties, mainly sweet, bitter and spicy among five flavors. The drugs were mainly distributed in five internal organs, and the most commonly used drugs were deficiency tonifying drugs as well as blood activating and stasis removing drugs. In the association rule analysis, it was found that there were 6 drug pairs with the highest association strength. Eight common factors were extracted from the factor analysis, and they were classified into 6 categories in the systematic cluster analysis. The results have shown that the overall principles in treating Alzheimer's disease with modern Chinese medicine are tonifying deficiency, invigorating circulation, activating blood and dispelling phlegm.

Alzheimer Disease/drug therapy , Data Mining , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Prescriptions
Clinics ; 76: e2348, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153978


OBJECTIVES: TTP488, an antagonist of the receptor for advanced glycation end-products, was evaluated as a potential treatment for patients with mild-to-moderate Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the mechanism underlying the protective action of TTP488 against AD has not yet been fully explored. METHODS: Healthy male rats were exposed to aberrant amyloid β (Aβ) 1-42. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and the NOD-like receptor family pyrin domain containing 1 (NLRP1) overexpression lentivirus were injected to activate the NLRP1 inflammasome and exacerbate AD. TTP488 was administered to reverse AD injury. Finally, tofacitinib and fludarabine were used to inhibit the activity of Janus tyrosine kinase (JAK) and signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) to prove the relationship between the JAK/STAT signaling pathway and TTP488. RESULTS: LPS and NLRP1 overexpression significantly increased the NLRP1 levels, reduced neurological function, and aggravated neuronal damage, as demonstrated by the impact latency time of, time spent by, and length of the platform covered by, the mice in the Morris water maze assay, Nissl staining, and immunofluorescence staining in rats with AD. CONCLUSIONS: TTP488 administration successfully reduced AD injury and reversed the aforementioned processes. Additionally, tofacitinib and fludarabine administration could further reverse AD injury after the TTP488 intervention. These results suggest a new potential mechanism underlying the TTP488-mediated alleviation of AD injury.

Animals , Male , Mice , Rats , Janus Kinases/metabolism , Alzheimer Disease/drug therapy , Tyrosine , Transducers , Signal Transduction , Amyloid beta-Peptides , Janus Kinase 2 , Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products , Imidazoles
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 78(8): 501-511, Aug. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131741


ABSTRACT Background: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive and irreversible loss of cognitive function. The presence of senile plaques is one of the pathological markers of the disease and is associated with the onset of neuroinflammatory mechanisms. The exact pathophysiology of AD has not been completely understood, and there are no curative therapies yet. Resveratrol (3,5,4'-trihydroxy-trans-stilbene) is a polyphenol that is noted for its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Objective: To review the role of resveratrol in the pathophysiological aspects of AD. Methods: This study carried out a literature review using PubMed/Medline, Virtual Health Library (VHL), Web of Sciences, SCOPUS and the Cochrane Library databases. Original research articles, describing both in vitro and in vivo experiments, published between 2008 and 2018, were included. Results: We identified 667 articles, of which 619 were excluded because they were repeated or did not follow the inclusion criteria. The present study includes the remaining 48 articles. Discussion: Resveratrol demonstrates beneficial and protective effects in AD models and seems to provide a promising therapeutic alternative. Conclusion: Although resveratrol appears to mitigate some pathophysiological aspects of AD, further studies are needed to prove the safety and efficacy of this compound in humans.

RESUMO Introdução: A doença de Alzheimer (DA) é neurodegenerativa e caracterizada por perda progressiva e irreversível da função cognitiva. A presença de placas senis é um dos marcadores patológicos da doença e está associada ao aparecimento de mecanismos neuroinflamatórios. A fisiopatologia exata da DA ainda não é completamente compreendida, e ainda não existem terapias curativas. O resveratrol (3,5,4'-trihidroxi-trans-estilbeno) é um polifenol conhecido por suas propriedades antioxidantes e anti-inflamatórias. Objetivo: Revisar o papel do resveratrol nos aspectos fisiopatológicos da DA. Métodos: Este estudo realizou uma revisão narrativa da literatura a partir das bases de dados PubMed/Medline, Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde (BVS), Web of Science, SCOPUS e Cochrane Library. Foram incluídos artigos originais, realizados in vitro e in vivo, publicados entre 2008 e 2018. Resultados: Foram identificados 667 artigos, dos quais 619 foram excluídos por estarem repetidos ou não se enquadrarem nos critérios de inclusão. O presente estudo inclui os 48 artigos restantes. Discussão: O resveratrol demonstra efeitos benéficos e protetores em modelos de DA, bem como parece fornecer uma alternativa terapêutica promissora. Conclusão: Embora o resveratrol pareça atenuar alguns aspectos fisiopatológicos da DA, são necessários mais estudos para comprovar a segurança e a eficácia deste composto em seres humanos.

Humans , Alzheimer Disease/drug therapy , Cognition , Resveratrol/therapeutic use , Antioxidants
Braz. J. Psychiatry (São Paulo, 1999, Impr.) ; 42(4): 431-441, July-Aug. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132093


The prevalence of Alzheimer's disease (AD), a progressive neurodegenerative disorder, is expected to more than double by 2050. Studies on the pathophysiology of AD have been changing our understanding of this disorder and setting a new scenario for drug development and other therapies. Concepts like the "amyloid cascade" and the "continuum of AD," discussed in this article, are now well established. From updated classifications and recommendations to advances in biomarkers of AD, we aim to critically assess the literature on AD, addressing new definitions and challenges that emerged from recent studies on the subject. Updates on the status of major clinical trials are also given, and future perspectives are discussed.

Humans , Brain/pathology , Early Diagnosis , Alzheimer Disease/diagnosis , Alzheimer Disease/drug therapy , Biomarkers , Disease Progression
Säo Paulo med. j ; 138(3): 216-218, May-June 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1139694


ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Improving knowledge and establishing strategies and policies for better patient safety are worldwide priorities. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate drug safety among elderly people with Alzheimer's disease (AD). DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study among elderly people within the National AD Assistance Protocol (PCDTDA/MS) who were living in the municipality of Araraquara, Brazil, in 2017. METHODS: Through interviews conducted with relatives/caregivers of elderly people with diagnoses of AD, the following variables were evaluated: comorbidities, drug therapy used, use of potentially inappropriate medications for the elderly (PIMs), presence of potentially inappropriate interactions (PIIs) and medication regimen complexity index. Factors associated with AD severity were also evaluated. Multivariate and simple logistic regressions were applied. RESULTS: 143 elderly people enrolled in PCDTDA/MS were analyzed. The majority were women (67.1%); assisted only through the public healthcare system (75.5%); polymedicated (57.4%); using at least one PIM (63.6%); presenting at least one PII (63.6%); and under drug therapy of low to medium complexity (92.2%). No semi-annual monitoring of the effectiveness of PCDTDA/MS drugs was identified. The proportion using AD drug therapy at daily doses differing from those recommended by the World Health Organization was 75.6%. However, these doses were not associated with drug risk. CONCLUSION: The data from this study raise the hypothesis that use of polypharmacy might show a correlation with severity of AD. The drug safety risk may be associated with comorbidities of the metabolic syndrome, anxiety and off-label use of PIMs, such as risperidone and quetiapine, and benzodiazepines (i.e. clonazepam and flunitrazepam).

Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Alzheimer Disease/drug therapy , Brazil , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Polypharmacy , Inappropriate Prescribing
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 19(5): 466-481, 2020. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1283634


Neurodegeneration is a progressive loss of neurons both structurally and functionally causing neuronal cell death ultimately leading to development of various neurodegenerative diseases. Due to poor pharmacokinetic profile of neurotrophins, there still remains a challenge in their neurotrophic therapy where plants, bacteria and fungi, as natural products, could act as promising candidates against various neurological disorders by modulating the neurotrophic activity. Therefore, these natural products that mimic neurotrophins, could develop novel therapeutic approaches to herbal drug that can ameliorate neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease and other associated neurological disorders. Taking into account the failure of strategies involving single neurotrophins for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases, we propose a combination of small molecules of natural products that may work synergistically to restore neuronal functions, minimize side effects and target multiple pathways for a more effective treatment.

La neurodegeneración es una pérdida progresiva de neuronas, tanto estructural como funcional, que causa la muerte neuronal, lo que conduce al desarrollo de diversas enfermedades neurodegenerativas. Debido al pobre perfil farmacocinético de las neurotrofinas, existe un desafío en su terapia neurotrófica donde plantas, bacterias y hongos, como productos naturales, podrían actuar como candidatos contra diversos trastornos neurológicos al modular la actividad neurotrófica. Estos productos naturales que asemejan a las neurotrofinas podrían desarrollar enfoques terapéuticos novedosos como medicamentos a base de hierbas que pueden mejorar enfermedades neurodegenerativas como: Parkinson, Alzheimer y otros trastornos neurológicos asociados. Teniendo en cuenta el fracaso de las estrategias terapéuticas de neurotrofinas para las enfermedades neurodegenerativas, proponemos una combinación de pequeñas moléculas de productos naturales que pueden funcionar sinérgicamente para restaurar las funciones neuronales, minimizar los efectos secundarios y apuntar a múltiples vías para un tratamiento más efectivo.

Humans , Biological Products/therapeutic use , Neuroprotective Agents/therapeutic use , Neurodegenerative Diseases/drug therapy , Parkinson Disease/drug therapy , Signal Transduction , Alzheimer Disease/drug therapy
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 18(6): 544-554, nov. 2019. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1102238


In this work, the inhibitory activity of a wide range of polysaccharide extracts from two Iranian and French strains of Agaricus subrufescens were evaluated toward acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE). Among them, two extracts S9 and S'7 obtained from Iranian and French strains under different extraction conditions showed selective AChE inhibitory activity with IC50 values of 154.63 and 145.43 µg/mL, respectively. It should be noted that all extracts from both strains demonstrated no BChE inhibitory activity. S9 and S'7 were also tested for their effect on amyloid beta (Aß) aggregation, antioxidant activity, and neuroprotectivity. Their activity against Aß aggregation was comparable to that of donepezil as the reference drug but they induced moderate antioxidant activity by DPPH radical scavenging activity and negligible neuroprotectivity against Aß-induced damage.

En este trabajo, se evaluó la actividad inhibitoria de acetilcolinesterasa (AChE) y butirilcolinesterasa (BChE) para varios extractos de polisacáridos de dos cepas iraníes y francesas de Agaricus subrufescens. Los extractos más potentes mostraron valores de IC50 de 154,63 y 145 µg/ml para las cepas iraní (S9) y francesa (S'7), respectivamente, las cuales se obtuvieron de diferentes condiciones de extracción; sin embargo, todos los extractos no mostraron actividad inhibitoria de BChE. Además, S9 y S'7 se probaron para determinar su efecto sobre la agregación de beta-amiloide (Aß), así como su actividad antioxidante y neuroprotectora. Su actividad inhibitoria de la agregación de Aß fue comparable con donepezil, fármaco de referencia, pero indujeron una actividad antioxidante moderada, medida mediante la captación de radicales DPPH, y una neuroprotectora insignificante contra el daño inducido por Aß.

Agaricus/chemistry , Alzheimer Disease/drug therapy , Amyloid/drug effects , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Picrates , Biphenyl Compounds , Butyrylcholinesterase , Cholinesterase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Neuroprotective Agents , Alzheimer Disease/enzymology , Fungal Polysaccharides/pharmacology
Rev. bras. neurol ; 55(2): 17-32, abr.-jun. 2019. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1010037


Os derivados canabinoides podem ser vistos como novos potenciais terapêuticos para o tratamento da doença de Parkinson e Alzheimer. Assim, esta revisão teve como objetivo descrever os efeitos terapêuticos e adversos do uso de canabidiol e de delta-9-tetrahidrocanabinol nas doenças de Parkinson e de Alzheimer. Para tanto, foi realizada uma busca na base de dados Medline no período entre 2007 e 2017. Os descritores utilizados foram (Tetrahydrocannabinol OR Cannabidiol) AND (Parkinson OR Alzheimer) AND (Treatment OR Therapeutics). Os resultados mostraram efeitos terapêuticos promissores do canabidiol e do delta-9-tetrahidrocanabinol nestas doenças, tais como redução de sintomas motores e cognitivos, e ação neuroprotetora. Estes resultados podem ser explicados, em parte, pelos efeitos antioxidante, antiinflamatório, antagonista de receptores CB1, ou pela ativação de receptores PPAR-gama produzido por estas substâncias. Além disso, poucos efeitos adversos foram descritos, como boca seca e sonolência. Nesse contexto, estes resultados evidenciam a necessidade de novas pesquisas a respeito dos efeitos terapêuticos e adversos de canabinoides com maiores doses e períodos de exposição, para quem sabe, em um futuro próximo, ser possível olhar estas substâncias como uma opção terapêutica mais eficaz e segura para estes pacientes.

Cannabinoid derivatives can be viewed as a novel therapeutic potentials for the treatment of Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease. Thus, this review aimed to describe the therapeutic and adverse effects of the use of cannabidiol and delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol in Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease. A search of the Medline database was carried out between 2007 and 2017. The descriptors used were (Tetrahydrocannabinol OR Cannabidiol) AND (Parkinson OR Alzheimer) AND (Treatment OR Therapy). The results showed promising therapeutic effects of cannabidiol and delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol in Parkinson and Alzheimer's diseases, such as the reduction of motor and cognitive symptoms and neuroprotective action. These results may be explained, in part, by the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects, by CB1 receptor antagonism, or by the activation of PPAR-gamma receptors, produced by these substances. In addition, few adverse effects have been reported, such as dry mouth and drowsiness. In this context, these results highlight the need for further research on the therapeutic and adverse effects of cannabinoids with higher doses and periods of exposure, for whom, in the near future, it is possible to view these substances as a more effective and safe therapeutic option for these patients.

Humans , Animals , Aged , Rats , Parkinson Disease/diagnosis , Parkinson Disease/drug therapy , Cannabinoids/therapeutic use , Alzheimer Disease/diagnosis , Alzheimer Disease/drug therapy , Cannabinoids/administration & dosage , Cannabinoids/adverse effects , Double-Blind Method , Surveys and Questionnaires , Treatment Outcome , Animal Experimentation
Braz. J. Psychiatry (São Paulo, 1999, Impr.) ; 41(3): 218-224, May-June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011499


Objective: To perform a cost-effectiveness analysis of donepezil and rivastigmine therapy for mild and moderate Alzheimer's disease (AD) from the perspective of the Brazilian Unified Health System. Method: A hypothetical cohort of 1,000 individuals of both sexes, aged >65 years, and diagnosed with AD was simulated using a Markov model. The time horizon was 10 years, with 1-year cycles. A deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analysis was performed. Results: For mild AD, the study showed an increase in quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) of 0.61 QALY/21,907.38 Brazilian reais (BRL) for patients treated with donepezil and 0.58 QALY/BRL 24,683.33 for patients treated with rivastigmine. In the moderate AD group, QALY increases of 0.05/BRL 27,414.96 were observed for patients treated with donepezil and 0.06/BRL 34,222.96 for patients treated with rivastigmine. Conclusions: The findings of this study contradict the standard of care for mild and moderate AD in Brazil, which is based on rivastigmine. A pharmacological treatment option based on current Brazilian clinical practice guidelines for AD suggests that rivastigmine is less cost-effective (0.39 QALY/BRL 32,685.77) than donepezil. Probabilistic analysis indicates that donepezil is the most cost-effective treatment for mild and moderate AD.

Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Cholinesterase Inhibitors/economics , Cholinesterase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Alzheimer Disease/economics , Alzheimer Disease/drug therapy , Rivastigmine/economics , Rivastigmine/therapeutic use , Donepezil/economics , Donepezil/therapeutic use , Brazil , Cohort Studies , Treatment Outcome , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Quality-Adjusted Life Years , Alzheimer Disease/diagnosis , National Health Programs
Rio de Janeiro; s.n; 2019. 204 f p. tab, fig, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1051324


A Doença de Alzheimer (DA) representa a causa mais comum de demência, sendo uma doença neurodegenerativa progressiva e incurável, expressa por uma diversidade de sintomas neuropsiquiátricos. É a principal responsável pelas taxas de mortalidade e de dependência funcional entre os idosos, representando um impacto econômico importante para as famílias e sistemas universais de saúde. Apesar da literatura observar que os efeitos da memantina na DA são pequenos, o fármaco foi incorporado ao Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS) em 2017. No entanto, ao contrário do preconizado pela normativa legal acerca da incorporação de tecnologias no SUS, este processo não foi acompanhado de uma avaliação econômica completa que demonstrasse a custo-efetividade deste fármaco. Este estudo examinou a custo-utilidade da memantina para a DA grave em comparação a nenhum tratamento farmacológico específico, sob a perspectiva do SUS como financiador da assistência. Foi conduzida uma revisão sistemática de estudos de avaliação econômica que usaram a memantina isolada ou combinada com doenepezilpara a DA moderada a grave. A revisão permitiu conhecer o estado da arte das avaliações econômicas e possibilitou levantar aspectos gerais relacionados às modelagens utilizadas nos estudos de forma a auxiliar na construção do modelo de decisão analítico conduzido no estudo de custo-efetividade. Foi construído um modelo de Markov para modelar a progressão da doença com base nos estados de gravidade da DA (leve, moderado e grave), definidos pelo Mini- Exame do Estado Mental (MEEM), acrescidos do estado morto. Foram considerados ciclos de 1 ano e o horizonte temporal adotado foi de 5 anos. Os custos da memantina foram considerados por 2 anos, porém os efeitos observados apenas ao longo do primeiro ano. Custos e benefícios foram descontados em 5%. Comparado com nenhum tratamento específico, a memantina representou um aumento nos custos do cuidado e nos ganhos obtidos em QALY. Os pacientes que usaram memantina tiveram um ganho de 3,080 QALY ao longo dos 5 anos simulados a um custo incremental de R$ 351.500,00 em valores já descontados, resultando em uma RCEI de R$ 114.205,75 por QALY, para o caso de referência. Os resultados encontrados são de difícil comparação com estudos realizados fora do país. Desta forma, sua incorporação não seria justificada no contexto nacional, dados seus custos elevados e um benefício pequeno e circunscrito ao tempo

Alzheimer's disease (AD) represents the most common cause of dementia, being a progressive and incurable neurodegenerative disease, expressed by a variety of neuropsychiatric symptoms. It the main responsible for mortality rates and functional dependence among the elderly, representing an economic impact important for families and universal health systems. Although the literature observes that the effects of memantine on AD are small, the drug was incorporated into the Brazilian Health System in 2017. However, contrary to the legal norm regarding the incorporation of technologies in SUS, this process was not accompanied by an economic evaluation that would demonstrate the cost-effectiveness of this drug. This study examined the cost-utility of memantine for severe AD compared to no specific pharmacological treatment, from the perspective of the SUS as a care funder. A systematic review of economic evaluation studies using memantine alone or in combination with donepezil for moderate to severe AD has been conducted. The review allowed to know the state of the art of economic evaluations and made it possible to raise general aspects related to the modeling used in the studies to assist in the construction of the analytical decision model conducted in the cost-effectiveness study. A Markov model was constructed to model the progression of AD based on the severity states of AD (mild, moderate and severe), defined by the MEEM, plus the dead state. Cycles of 1 year were considered and the adopted time horizon was 5 years. The costs of memantine were considered for 2 years, but the effects observed only during the first year. Costs and benefits were discounted at 5%. Compared with no specific treatment, memantine represented an increase in care costs and gains in QALY. Patients who used memantine had a gain 3,080 QALY over the simulated 5 years at an incremental cost of $ 351.500,00 and an ICER of $ 114.205,75 in amounts already discounted for the reference case. The results found are difficult to compare with studies conducted outside the country. If the cost-effectiveness threshold adopted in Brazil was previously recommended by the WHO, memantine would be considered a non-cost-effective technology based on the analysis of the reference case. In this way, its incorporation would not be justified in the national context, given its high costs and a small benefit and circumscribed to the time

Health Evaluation , Memantine/therapeutic use , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Alzheimer Disease/drug therapy , Unified Health System , Brazil
Dement. neuropsychol ; 12(4): 380-387, Oct.-Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-984330


ABSTRACT We previously examined cerebral blood flow (CBF) with single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in Alzheimer's disease (AD) with reference to drug treatment (donepezil) and psychosocial intervention. Objective: The aim is to provide "brain-based" evidence for psychosocial interventions using SPECT. Methods: The participants were 27 consecutive outpatients with AD who received the drug and psychosocial intervention, and SPECT three times (baseline, pre-/post-intervention) at 6 month-intervals. The significance level of changes in CBF (Z score) and the extent of significantly changed areas, calculated with the eZIS system, were used as monitoring parameters. The participants were classified into three groups: improve (post-intervention CBF increased), worsening (progressive decline), and no change. Results: Six, 8, and 13 patients were classified as improve, worsening, and no change, respectively. All subjects in the improve group showed improvement in cognitive test scores for the MMSE and/or the CGI scores associated with the brain area with a CBF increase (right parietal lobe), suggesting appropriate psychosocial intervention (visuospatial intervention). Conclusion: These results suggest that monitoring of CBF with the eZIS system may be clinically applicable for monitoring of drug treatment and psychosocial intervention in AD patients.

RESUMO Nós examinamos previamente o fluxo sanguíneo cerebral (FSC) com tomografia computadorizada de emissão de fóton único (SPECT) na doença de Alzheimer (DA) com referência ao tratamento medicamentoso (donepezila) e intervenção psicossocial. Objetivo: Fornecer evidências "baseadas no cérebro" para intervenções psicossociais usando o SPECT. Métodos: Os participantes foram 27 pacientes ambulatoriais consecutivos com DA que receberam a droga e intervenção psicossocial, e SPECT por três vezes (basal, pré/pós-intervenção) em intervalos de seis meses. O nível de significância das mudanças no FSC (escore Z) e a extensão das áreas significativamente alteradas calculadas com o sistema eZIS foram utilizados como parâmetros de monitoramento. Os participantes foram classificados em três grupos: melhora (FSC pós-intervenção aumentada), piora (declínio progressivo) e nenhuma mudança. Resultados: Seis, oito e 13 pacientes foram classificados como melhora, piora e sem alteração, respectivamente. Todos no grupo melhora mostraram aumento dos escores no MEEM e/ou nos escores do CGI associados à área do cérebro com aumento do FSC (lobo parietal direito), sugerindo intervenção psicossocial apropriada (intervenção visoespacial). Conclusão: Estes resultados sugerem que o monitoramento do FSC com o sistema eZIS pode ser clinicamente aplicável para o monitoramento do tratamento medicamentoso e intervenção psicossocial em pacientes com DA.

Humans , Alzheimer Disease/drug therapy , Regional Blood Flow , Psychosocial Support Systems , /therapeutic use