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1.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 1068-1072, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985634

ABSTRACT

Objective: To understand the distribution characteristics of age of Alzheimer's disease (AD) onset and influencing factors. Methods: Based on the follow-up data of Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative from 2005 to 2022, participants with normal cognition (CN) or mild cognitive impairment (MCI) at baseline survey, and those with progression to AD during follow-up period were selected as study subjects. Univariate analysis and multiple linear regression analysis were performed to explore the associations of gender, race, number of ApoE ε4 genes carried, family history, years of education and marital status with the age of AD onset. Results: A total of 405 participants, with an average age of (74.0±6.9) years at baseline survey, progressed to AD during follow up period. The age of AD onset was (76.6±7.5) years, and age of onset in men was about 1.9 years later than women. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that for each increase in ApoE ε4 gene number, the age of AD onset was about 0.344 years earlier. The age of AD onset was 4.007 years earlier for those with MCI at baseline survey compared with those with CN. Years of education were not significantly associated with the age of onset of AD (P>0.05). Conclusion: Those who carry ApoE ε4 gene, and have MCI at baseline survey might have earlier age of AD onset.


Subject(s)
Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Alzheimer Disease/genetics , Apolipoprotein E4/genetics , Cognition , Cognition Disorders , Cognitive Dysfunction/genetics
2.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 534-541, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970490

ABSTRACT

This study investigated the mechanism of Danggui Shaoyao Powder(DSP) against mitophagy in rat model of Alzheimer's disease(AD) induced by streptozotocin(STZ) based on PTEN induced putative kinase 1(PINK1)-Parkin signaling pathway. The AD rat model was established by injecting STZ into the lateral ventricle, and the rats were divided into normal group, model group, DSP low-dose group(12 g·kg~(-1)·d~(-1)), DSP medium-dose group(24 g·kg~(-1)·d~(-1)), and DSP high-dose group(36 g·kg~(-1)·d~(-1)). Morris water maze test was used to detect the learning and memory function of the rats, and transmission electron microscopy and immunofluorescence were employed to detect mitophagy. The protein expression levels of PINK1, Parkin, LC3BⅠ/LC3BⅡ, and p62 were assayed by Western blot. Compared with the normal group, the model group showed a significant decrease in the learning and memory function(P<0.01), reduced protein expression of PINK1 and Parkin(P<0.05), increased protein expression of LC3BⅠ/LC3BⅡ and p62(P<0.05), and decreased occurrence of mitophagy(P<0.01). Compared with the model group, the DSP medium-and high-dose groups notably improved the learning and memory ability of AD rats, which mainly manifested as shortened escape latency, leng-thened time in target quadrants and elevated number of crossing the platform(P<0.05 or P<0.01), remarkably activated mitophagy(P<0.05), up-regulated the protein expression of PINK1 and Parkin, and down-regulated the protein expression of LC3BⅠ/LC3BⅡ and p62(P<0.05 or P<0.01). These results demonstrated that DSP might promote mitophagy mediated by PINK1-Parkin pathway to remove damaged mitochondria and improve mitochondrial function, thereby exerting a neuroprotective effect.


Subject(s)
Rats , Animals , Mitophagy , Alzheimer Disease/genetics , Powders , Protein Kinases/metabolism , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases/metabolism
3.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 5032-5040, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008673

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to explore the possible effect of Xixin Decoction(XXD) on the learning and memory ability of Alzheimer's disease(AD) model senescence-accelerated mouse-prone 8(SAMP8) and the related mechanism in enhancing neuroprotective effect and reducing neuroinflammation. Forty SAMP8 were randomly divided into a model group(10 mL·kg~(-1)·d~(-1)), a probiotics group(0.39 g·kg~(-1)·d~(-1)), a high-dose group of XXD granules(H-XXD, 5.07 g·kg~(-1)·d~(-1)), a medium-dose group of XXD granules(M-XXD, 2.535 g·kg~(-1)·d~(-1)), and a low-dose group of XXD granules(L-XXD, 1.267 5 g·kg~(-1)·d~(-1)). Eight senescence-accelerated mouse-resistant 1(SAMR1) of the same age and strain were assigned to the control group(10 mL·kg~(-1)·d~(-1)). After ten weeks of intragastric administration, the Morris water maze was used to test the changes in spatial learning and memory ability of mice after treatment. Meanwhile, immunofluorescence staining was used to detect the positive expression of receptor for advanced glycation end products(AGER), Toll-like receptor 1(TLR1), and Toll-like receptor 2(TLR2) in the hippocampal CA1 region of mice. Western blot was employed to test the protein expression levels of silencing information regulator 2 related enzyme 1(SIRT1), AGER, TLR1, and TLR2 in the hippocampus of mice. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA) was applied to assess the levels of Aβ_(1-42) in the hippocampus of mice and the levels of nuclear factor κB p65(NF-κB p65), NOD-like receptor protein 3(NLRP3), tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α), and interleukin-1β(IL-1β) in the serum and hippocampus of mice. Compared with the model group, XXD significantly improved the spatial learning and memory ability of SAMP8, increased the expression of neuroprotective factors in the hippocampus, decreased the levels of neuroinflammatory factors, and inhibited the expression of Aβ_(1-42). In particular, H-XXD significantly increased the expression of SIRT1 in the hippocampus of mice, reduced the expression levels of NF-κB p65, NLRP3, TNF-α, and IL-1β in the serum and hippocampus of mice, and decreased the expression of AGER, TLR1, and TLR2 in the hippocampus of mice(P<0.05 or P<0.01). XXD may improve the spatial learning and memory ability of AD model SAMP8 by enhancing the neuroprotective effect and inhibiting neuroinflammation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Neuroprotective Agents/therapeutic use , Sirtuin 1/metabolism , Toll-Like Receptor 2/metabolism , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Neuroinflammatory Diseases , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/metabolism , Toll-Like Receptor 1/metabolism , Alzheimer Disease/genetics , Hippocampus
4.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 4046-4059, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008600

ABSTRACT

The present study aimed to investigate the protective effect and underlying mechanism of Platycladi Semen oil(SP) on Aβ_(25-35)-induced brain injury in mice to provide a theoretical basis for the clinical treatment of Alzheimer's disease(AD). Male Kunming(KM) mice were randomly divided into a control group, a model group(brain injection of Aβ_(25-35), 200 μmol·L~(-1), 0.15 μL·g~(-1)), a positive drug group(donepezil, 10 mg·kg~(-1)), and low-and high-dose SP groups(0.5 and 1 mL·kg~(-1)). Learning and memory ability, neuronal damage, levels of Aβ_(1-42)/Aβ_(1-40), p-Tau, related indicators of apoptosis and oxidative stress, and immune cells, and protein and mRNA expression related to the sphingosine kinase 1(SPHK1)/sphingosine-1-phosphate(S1P)/sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 5(S1PR5) signaling pathway of mice in each group were determined. In addition, compounds in SP were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry(GC-MS). The mechanism of SP against AD was investigated by network pharmacology, 16S rDNA gene sequencing for gut microbiota(GM), and molecular docking techniques. The results showed that SP could improve the learning and memory function of Aβ_(25-35)-induced mice, reduce hippocampal neuronal damage, decrease the levels of Aβ_(1-42)/Aβ_(1-40), p-Tau, and indicators related to apoptosis and oxidative stress in the brain, and maintain the homeostasis of immune cells and GM. Network pharmacology and sequencing analysis for GM showed that the therapeutic effect of SP on AD was associated with the sphingolipid signaling pathway. Meanwhile,(Z,Z,Z)-9,12,15-octadecatrienoic acid and(Z,Z)-9,12-octadecadienoic acid, the components with the highest content in SP, showed good binding activity to SPHK1 and S1PR5. Therefore, it is inferred that SP exerts anti-apoptosis and antioxidant effects by regulating GM and inhibiting SPHK1/S1P/S1PR5 pathway, thereby improving brain injury induced by Aβ_(25-35) in mice. Moreover,(Z,Z,Z)-9,12,15-octadecatrienoic acid and(Z,Z)-9,12-octadecadienoic acid may be the material basis for the anti-AD effect of SP.


Subject(s)
Mice , Animals , Male , Semen/metabolism , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Network Pharmacology , Linoleic Acid , Molecular Docking Simulation , Alzheimer Disease/genetics , Brain Injuries
5.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 4039-4045, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008599

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to investigate the mechanism of Psoraleae Fructus in improving the learning and memory ability of APP/PS1 mice by serum metabolomics, screen the differential metabolites of Psoraleae Fructus on APP/PS1 mice, and reveal its influence on the metabolic pathway of APP/PS1 mice. Thirty 3-month-old APP/PS1 mice were randomly divided into a model group and a Psoraleae Fructus extract group, and another 15 C57BL/6 mice of the same age were assigned to the blank group. The learning and memory ability of mice was evaluated by the Morris water maze and novel object recognition tests, and metabolomics was used to analyze the metabolites in mouse serum. The results of the Morris water maze test showed that Psoraleae Fructus shortened the escape latency of APP/PS1 mice(P<0.01), and increased the number of platform crossing and residence time in the target quadrant(P<0.01). The results of the novel object recognition test showed that Psoraleae Fructus could improve the novel object recognition index of APP/PS1 mice(P<0.01). Eighteen differential metabolites in serum were screened out by metabolomics, among which the levels of arachidonic acid, tryptophan, and glycerophospholipid decreased after drug administration, while the levels of glutamyltyrosine increased after drug administration. The metabolic pathways involved included arachidonic acid metabolism, glycerophospholipid metabolism, tryptophan metabolism, linoleic acid metabolism, α-linolenic acid metabolism, and glycerolipid metabolism. Therefore, Psoraleae Fructus can improve the learning and memory ability of APP/PS1 mice, and its mechanism may be related to the effects in promoting energy metabolism, reducing oxidative damage, protecting central nervous system, reducing neuroinflammation, and reducing Aβ deposition. This study is expected to provide references for Psoraleae Fructus in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease(AD) and further explain the mechanism of Psoraleae Fructus in the treatment of AD.


Subject(s)
Mice , Animals , Amyloid beta-Protein Precursor/genetics , Mice, Transgenic , Arachidonic Acid , Tryptophan , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Alzheimer Disease/genetics , Maze Learning , Glycerophospholipids , Disease Models, Animal , Amyloid beta-Peptides/metabolism
6.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 671-681, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007782

ABSTRACT

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a typical cognitive disorder with an increasing incidence in recent years. AD is also one of the main causes of disability and death of the elderly in current aging society. One of the most common symptoms of AD is spatial memory impairment, which occurs in more than 60% of patients. This memory loss is closely related to the impairment of cognitive maps in the brain. The entorhinal grid cells and the hippocampal place cells are important cellular basis for spatial memory and navigation functions in the brain. Understanding the abnormal firing pattern of these neurons and their impaired coordination to neural oscillations in transgenic rodents is crucial for identifying the therapeutic targets for AD. In this article, we review recent studies on neural activity based on transgenic rodent models of AD, with a focus on the changes in the firing characteristics of neurons and the abnormal electroencephalogram (EEG) rhythm in the entorhinal cortex and hippocampus. We also discuss potential cell-network mechanism of spatial memory disorders caused by AD, so as to provide a scientific basis for the diagnosis and treatment of AD in the future.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Alzheimer Disease/genetics , Animals, Genetically Modified , Cognition , Cognitive Dysfunction , Hippocampus/physiology , Memory Disorders , Mice, Transgenic , Neurons/physiology
7.
Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine ; (12): 280-286, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935282

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the correlation of serum lipids levels of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients with sex, age and apolipoprotein E (Apo E) gene polymorphism. Methods: The retrospective study method was used, and 407 AD patients (142 males and 265 females, aged 52-91 years) were selected from Beijing Tiantan Hospital from January 2015 to August 2021 as the research target, and 894 healthy persons (339 males and 555 females, aged 52-94 years) who did body examination were selected as the control group. The AD patients were divided into four age groups according to the age interval of 10 years, including 85 aged 50-59 years, 163 aged 60-69 years, 119 aged 70-79 years, and 40 aged more than 80 years. The serum lipids levels were detected by biochemical analyzer, including triglycerides (TG), cholesterol (CHO), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), apolipoproteinA1(Apo A1) and apolipoprotein B (Apo B). ApoE gene polymorphism were detected by PCR fluorescent probe method. Mann-Whitney U test and Kruskal-Wallis H test were used to compare the serum lipids levels in each group. Results: The levels of serum CHO and LDL-C were 3.30(1.41,4.82) mmol/L and 1.76(1.39,2.78) mmol/L in AD patients, and 4.84(4.24, 5.56) mmol/L and 2.91(2.36, 3.57) mmol/L in control group, and the levels of serum CHO and LDL-C of AD patients were significantly lower than control group (Z=-15.172,Z=-14.583 , P<0.001, P<0.001). The levels of serum HDL-C and Apo B were 1.84(1.30, 3.88) mmol/L and 1.17(0.85, 1.57) g/L in AD patients, and 1.39(1.18, 1.64) mmol/L and 0.93(0.81, 1.09) g/L in control group, and the levels of serum HDL-C and Apo-B of AD patients were significantly higher than control group (Z=-12.249 , Z=-9.706 , P<0.001, P<0.001). There was no significant difference in TG and Apo A1 between 2 groups (Z=-1.577 , Z=-0.408 , P=0.115, P=0.683). The levels of TG, CHO, LDL-C in female AD patients were significantly higher than male patients (Z=-2.737 , Z=-3.963 , Z=-4.417, P=0.006, P<0.001, P<0.001). There were significant differences in TG, CHO, HDL-C, LDL-C, Apo A1 and Apo B among AD patients of all age groups (Z=11.263 , Z=10.060 , Z=40.246 , Z=10.451 , Z=24.315 , Z=19.922 , P=0.010 , P=0.018 , P<0.001 , P=0.015 , P<0.001 , P<0.001). The serum CHO and LDL-C levels were positively correlated with age (rs=0.160, rs=0.174, P=0.001, P<0.001), and HDL-C, Apo A1 and Apo B levels were negatively correlated with age (rs=-0.312, rs=-0.272, rs=-0.146, P<0.001, P<0.001, P=0.003), and there was no correlation between TG level and age in AD patients (rs=0.086, P=0.082). There were 3 cases (3.33%) of E2, 43 cases of E3 (47.78%) and 44 cases of E4 (48.89%) in AD patients, and 22 cases (12.72%) of E2, 117 cases of E3 (67.63%) and 34 cases of E4 (19.65%) in control group. There was significant difference in Apo E genotype distribution between AD patients and control group (χ²=26.381 , P<0.001). Apo E4 was the most common genotype in AD patients, and the proportion was 48.89%. Except for Apo A1(Z=7.821 , P=0.020), there was no significant difference in TG, CHO, HDL-C, LDL-C and Apo B levels among all patients with different genotypes (Z=3.732 , Z=1.677 , Z=1.455 , Z=1.619 , Z=2.202 , P=0.155, P=0.432, P=0.483, P=0.445, P=0.333). Conclusion: The levels of CHO and LDL-C decreased while the levels of HDL-C and Apo B increased in AD patients. The dyslipidemia in AD patients might be correlated with age, but not sex and Apo E genotypes.


Subject(s)
Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Alzheimer Disease/genetics , Apolipoproteins E/genetics , Cholesterol, HDL/blood , Polymorphism, Genetic , Retrospective Studies , Triglycerides/blood
8.
Chinese Medical Sciences Journal ; (4): 320-330, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970694

ABSTRACT

Objective To study the effects of TYRO protein kinase-binding protein (TYROBP) deficiency on learning behavior, glia activation and pro-inflammatory cycokines, and Tau phosphorylation of a new Alzheimer's disease (AD) mouse model carrying a PSEN1 p.G378E mutation.Methods A new AD mouse model carrying PSEN1 p.G378E mutation was built based on our previously found AD family which might be ascribed to the PSEN1 mutation, and then crossed with TYROBP deficient mice to produce the heterozygous hybrid mice (PSEN1G378E/WT; Tyrobp+/-) and the homozygous hybrid mice (PSEN1G378E/G378E; Tyrobp-/-). Water maze test was used to detect spatial learning and memory ability of mice. After the mice were sacrificed, the hippocampus was excised for further analysis. Immunofluorescence was used to identify the cell that expresses TYROBP and the number of microglia and astrocyte. Western blot was used to detect the expression levels of Tau and phosphorylated Tau (p-Tau), and ELISA to measure the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Results Our results showed that TYROBP specifically expressed in the microglia of mouse hippocampus. Absence of TYROBP in PSEN1G378E mutation mouse model prevented the deterioration of learning behavior, decreased the numbers of microglia and astrocytes, and the levels of interleukin-6, interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α in the hippocampus (all P < 0.05). The ratios of AT8/Tau5, PHF1/Tau5, pT181/Tau5, pT231/Tau5 and p-ERK/ERK were all higher in homozygous hybrid mice (PSEN1G378E/G378E; Tyrobp-/- mice) compared with PSEN1G378E/G378E mice (all P < 0.05). Conclusions TYROBP deficiency might play a protective role in the modulation of neuroinflammation of AD. However, the relationship between neuroinflammation processes involving microglia and astrocyte activation, and release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and p-Tau pathology needs further study.


Subject(s)
Mice , Animals , Alzheimer Disease/genetics , Neuroinflammatory Diseases , Hippocampus/pathology , Mutation , Cytokines/pharmacology , Disease Models, Animal , tau Proteins/pharmacology , Amyloid beta-Peptides/metabolism , Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/pharmacology
9.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(5): e9665, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153550

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to explore the effect of microRNA (miR)-146a inhibition on regulating cell apoptosis, total neurite outgrowth, inflammation, and STAT1/MYC pathway in Alzheimer's disease (AD). PC12 and cortical neuron cellular AD models were constructed by Aβ1-42 insult. For the former model, nerve growth factor (NGF) stimulation was previously conducted. miR-146a inhibitor and negative-control (NC) inhibitor were transfected into the two cellular AD models, and then cells were named miR-inhibitor group and NC-inhibitor group, respectively. After transfection, cell apoptosis, total neurite outgrowth, supernatant inflammation cytokines, and STAT1/MYC pathway were detected. miR-146a expression was similar between PC12 cellular AD model and control cells (NGF-stimulated PC12 cells), while miR-146a expression was increased in cortical neuron cellular AD model compared with control cells (rat embryo primary cortical neurons). In both PC12 and cortical neuron cellular AD models, miR-146a expression was reduced in miR-inhibitor group compared with NC-inhibitor group after transfection. Furthermore, cell apoptosis was attenuated, while total neurite outgrowth was elevated in miR-inhibitor group compared with NC-inhibitor group. As for supernatant inflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and IL-17 levels were lower in miR-inhibitor group than in NC-inhibitor group. Additionally, STAT1 and c-Myc mRNA and protein expressions were attenuated in miR-inhibitor group compared with NC-inhibitor group. In conclusion, miR-146a potentially represented a viable therapeutic target for AD.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , MicroRNAs/genetics , Alzheimer Disease/genetics , PC12 Cells , Apoptosis , STAT1 Transcription Factor , Neuronal Outgrowth , Inflammation , Neurons
10.
Journal of Southern Medical University ; (12): 10-19, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880822

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the therapeutic mechanism of resveratrol (RES) for Alzheimer's disease (AD) in light of network pharmacology.@*METHODS@#We searched PubChem, BATMAN-TCM, Genecards, AD, TTD, String 11.0, AlzData, SwissTargetPrediction, Metascape and other databases for the therapeutic targets of RES and human AD-related targets. The intersection was determined using Venny 2.1 to obtain the therapeutic targets of RES for AD. The protein-protein interaction (PPI) network was constructed, the gene ontology (GO) was enriched and the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway (KEGG pathway) were analyzed. Cytoscape 3.7.1 software was used to construct a target-signaling pathway network of RES in the treatment of AD. Molecular docking verification was carried out on SwissDock (http://www.swissdock.ch/docking). We examined a 293Tau cell model of AD for changes in protein levels of pS396, pS199, Tau5, CDK5, glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) and p-GSK3β in response to RES treatment using Western blotting.@*RESULTS@#We obtained 182 targets of RES, 525 targets related to AD, and 36 targets of RES for AD treatment, among which 34.6% of the targets were protein-modifying enzymes, 27.7% were metabolite invertase, 13.8% were gene-specific transcriptional regulators, and 10.3% were transporters. The core key targets of RES in the treatment of AD included INS, APP, ESR1, MMP9, IGF1R, CACNA1C, MAPT (microtubule- associated protein Tau), MMP2, TGFB1 and GSK3B. Enrichment analysis of GO biological process suggested that the biological function of RES in AD treatment mainly involved the response to β-amyloid protein, positive regulation of transferase activity, the transmembrane receptor protein tyrosine kinase signaling pathway, regulation of behavior, learning or memory, aging, and transmembrane transport. KEGG pathway enrichment analysis showed that the most significantly enriched signaling pathways were AD pathway, PI3K-AKT signaling pathway, cGMP-PKG signaling pathway, and MAPK signaling pathway. Molecular docking results showed that RES had strong binding with ESR1, GSK3B, MMP9, IGF1R, APP and INS. In the cell model of AD, treatment with 50 μmol/L RES for 12 h significantly reduced the levels of pS396 and pS199 by regulating CDK5 and GSK3β activity (@*CONCLUSIONS@#RES produces therapeutic effects on AD by acting on multiple targets and affecting multiple signaling pathways and improves AD-associated pathologies


Subject(s)
Humans , Alzheimer Disease/genetics , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Molecular Docking Simulation , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases , Resveratrol/pharmacology
11.
Journal of Central South University(Medical Sciences) ; (12): 189-194, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880642

ABSTRACT

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common senile neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive cognitive dysfunction, psychological and behavioral abnormalities, and impaired ability of activities of daily living. A family with a total of 3 patients were admitted to the Department of Neurology of Xiangya Hospital, Central South University in 2018. The proband showed memory decline as the presenting symptoms, and subsequently showed psychological and behavioral abnormalities, personality changes, seizures, and motor retardation. Definite diagnosis of early-onset familial AD (EOFAD) with missense mutation of presenilin 2 (PSEN2) (c.715A>G p.M239V) was established by whole exome sequencing (WES) technology. We reported the mutation in Chinese Han population for the first time, which expanded the mutation spectrum ofPSEN2 gene and aid to enrich the characterization of clinical phenotype in EOFAD associated to PSEN2 mutations. Patients with early onset age and complex clinical manifestations of AD can be diagnosed with the help of genetic testing to avoid misdiagnosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Activities of Daily Living , Alzheimer Disease/genetics , Mutation , Neurodegenerative Diseases , Presenilin-1/genetics , Presenilin-2/genetics
12.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1743-1751, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879088

ABSTRACT

Alzheimer's disease(AD) is a chronic progressive neurodegenerative disease with recent memory impairment as the main clinical manifestation and senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles as the main pathological changes. In recent years, the effect of microRNAs on AD has attracted widespread attention. Patients with AD have abnormal expression of miRNA, which is closed related to regulation of AD pathophysiology-related genes. Therefore, this paper first elaborated neuroprotective and toxic effects of microRNA in AD, and then explored relevant traditional Chinese medicines that can regulate miRNA in the treatment of AD, so as to provide basis for revealing the pathogenesis relationship between miRNA and AD and provide ideas for further development of anti-AD traditional Chinese medicine.


Subject(s)
Humans , Alzheimer Disease/genetics , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , MicroRNAs/genetics , Neurodegenerative Diseases
13.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(2): e10098, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1142576

ABSTRACT

We aimed to present an overview of the literature regarding the interaction between physical exercise and APOE gene polymorphism on cognitive function, particularly in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Firstly, this review focused on the effect of the physical exercise on cognitive function, regardless of APOE gene polymorphism. Some studies have shown that a high level of cardiorespiratory fitness is associated with less neuronal damage with an improvement in memory score tests whereas other studies failed to detect any association between physical exercise and cognitive improvement either in healthy individuals or patients with AD. Taken together, standardized protocols and more longitudinal studies are required to provide a better insight into the effects of physical exercise on cognitive function. Although there is no agreement in the literature regarding the effects of physical exercise on cognitive function, it is well established that it improves social interaction and the feeling of well-being, thereby positively contributing to the quality of life of the elderly. Regarding the influence of physical exercise on cognitive function in APOE ε4 allele carriers, the data trend shows that the carriers of allele ε4 for APOE gene were more responsive to the beneficial effects of physical exercise on cognitive function compared with non-carriers. Nevertheless, studies with larger sample sizes will provide more accuracy about this relationship.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Apolipoproteins E/genetics , Exercise , Cognition , Polymorphism, Genetic , Quality of Life , Alleles , Alzheimer Disease/genetics , Genotype
14.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 6224-6230, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921780

ABSTRACT

Alzheimer's disease(AD) patients in China have been surging, and the resultant medical burden and care demand have a huge impact on the development of individuals, families, and the society. The active component compound of Epimedii Folium, Astragali Radix, and Puerariae Lobatae Radix(YHG) can regulate the expression of iron metabolism-related proteins to inhibit brain iron overload and relieve hypofunction of central nervous system in AD patients. Hepcidin is an important target regulating iron metabolism. This study investigated the effect of YHG on the expression of a disintegrin and metalloprotease-17(ADAM17), a key enzyme in the hydrolysis of β amyloid precursor protein(APP) in HT22 cells, by mediating hepcidin. To be specific, HT22 cells were cultured in vitro, followed by liposome-mediated siRNA transfection to silence the expression of hepcidin. Real-time PCR and Western blot were performed to examine the silencing result and the effect of YHG on hepcidin in AD cell model. HT22 cells were randomized into 7 groups: control group, Aβ25-35 induction(Aβ) group, hepcidin-siRNA(siRNA) group, Aβ25-35 + hepcidin-siRNA(Aβ + siRNA) group, Aβ25-35+YHG(Aβ+YHG) group, hepcidin-siRNA+YHG(siRNA+YHG) group, Aβ25-35+hepcidin-siRNA+YHG(Aβ+siRNA+YHG) group. The expression of ADAM17 mRNA in cells was detected by real-time PCR, and the expression of ADAM17 protein by immunofluorescence and Western blot. Immunofluorescence showed that the ADAM17 protein expression was lower in the Aβ group, siRNA group, and Aβ+siRNA group than in the control group(P<0.05) and the expression was lower in the Aβ+siRNA group(P<0.05) and higher in the Aβ+YHG group(P<0.05) than in the Aβ group. Moreover, the ADAM17 protein expression was lower in the Aβ+siRNA group(P<0.05) and higher in the siRNA+YHG group(P< 0.05) than in the siRNA group. The expression was higher in the Aβ+siRNA+YHG group than in the Aβ+siRNA group(P<0.05). The results of Western blot and real-time PCR were consistent with those of immunofluorescence. The experiment showed that YHG induced hepcidin to up-regulate the expression of ADAM17 in AD cell model and promote the activation of non-starch metabolic pathways, which might be the internal mechanism of YHG in preventing and treating AD.


Subject(s)
Humans , ADAM17 Protein , Alzheimer Disease/genetics , Amyloid beta-Peptides , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Hepcidins/genetics , Pueraria
15.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 3052-3057, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888043

ABSTRACT

To study the material basis and mechanism of volatile oil from Alpinia oxyphylla in treating Alzheimer's disease(AD) based on GC-MS and network pharmacology. Ingredients of volatile oil from A.oxyphylla were analyzed by GC-MS. Targets of those ingredients were obtained through Traditional Chinese Medicine Systems Pharmacology Database and Analysis Platform(TCMSP). Relevant targets of AD were obtained through such databases as DrugBank, STITCH, OMIM. Intersection targets of ingredients and diseases were obtained by Online Venny map, and PPI network was established by STRING to screen out core targets. Gene ontology(GO) functional enrichment analysis and KEGG pathway enrichment analysis were performed by DAVID. The "ingredients-target-pathway" network was constructed by software Cytoscape 3.8.1 to screen out potential active ingredients of volatile oil from A.oxyphylla in the treatment of AD. The results showed that a total of 6 active ingredients were screened from the volatile oil of A.oxyphylla by GC-MS, 17 targets corresponding to 6 active ingredients were found in TCMSP database, and 3 448 AD targets were found in DrugBank database. "Ingredients-target-pathway" network and PPI network showed there were 4 potential active ingredients in the treatment of AD and 4 core targets. GO analysis and KEGG analysis showed 34(P<0.05) and 5(P<0.05) pathways, respectively, including nerve ligand receptor interaction, calcium signaling pathway, cholinergic synapse and 5-hydroxytryptaminergic synapse. This suggested that volatile oil from A.oxyphylla could synergistically treat AD by regulating calcium balance, cholinergic balance and phosphorylation. This study provided reference and guidance for further study of volatile oil from A.oxyphylla in the treatment of AD.


Subject(s)
Humans , Alpinia , Alzheimer Disease/genetics , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Molecular Docking Simulation , Oils, Volatile
16.
Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine ; : 64-64, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880301

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#The burden of dementia is growing rapidly and has become a medical and social problem in Japan. Prospective cohort studies have been considered an effective methodology to clarify the risk factors and the etiology of dementia. We aimed to perform a large-scale dementia cohort study to elucidate environmental and genetic risk factors for dementia, as well as their interaction.@*METHODS@#The Japan Prospective Studies Collaboration for Aging and Dementia (JPSC-AD) is a multisite, population-based prospective cohort study of dementia, which was designed to enroll approximately 10,000 community-dwelling residents aged 65 years or older from 8 sites in Japan and to follow them up prospectively for at least 5 years. Baseline exposure data, including lifestyles, medical information, diets, physical activities, blood pressure, cognitive function, blood test, brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and DNA samples, were collected with a pre-specified protocol and standardized measurement methods. The primary outcome was the development of dementia and its subtypes. The diagnosis of dementia was adjudicated by an endpoint adjudication committee using standard criteria and clinical information according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 3rd Revised Edition. For brain MRI, three-dimensional acquisition of T1-weighted images was performed. Individual participant data were pooled for data analyses.@*RESULTS@#The baseline survey was conducted from 2016 to 2018. The follow-up surveys are ongoing. A total of 11,410 individuals aged 65 years or older participated in the study. The mean age was 74.4 years, and 41.9% were male. The prevalence of dementia at baseline was 8.5% in overall participants. However, it was 16.4% among three sites where additional home visit and/or nursing home visit surveys were performed. Approximately two-thirds of dementia cases at baseline were Alzheimer's disease.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The prospective cohort data from the JPSC-AD will provide valuable insights regarding the risk factors and etiology of dementia as well as for the development of predictive models and diagnostic markers for the future onset of dementia. The findings of this study will improve our understanding of dementia and provide helpful information to establish effective preventive strategies for dementia in Japan.


Subject(s)
Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Alzheimer Disease/genetics , Dementia/genetics , Environment , Incidence , Japan/epidemiology , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors
17.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 77(12): 855-859, Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055198

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Alzheimer's disease (AD) has as its main characteristic the deterioration of cerebral functions. Its etiology is still complex and undefined despite the progress made in understanding its neurological, infectious, biochemical, genetic and cytogenetic mechanisms. Considering this, the aim of this study was to investigate the presence of chromosomal alterations in the peripheral blood lymphocytes, and to verify if there was a high frequency of these alterations in patients diagnosed with AD at the University Hospital GetúLio Vargas Outpatient Clinic Araújo Lima in Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil. Among the nine patients in the AD group, only one patient did not have metaphases with chromosomal alterations (2n = 46,XX), while eight patients with AD showed numerical chromosomal alterations, classified as X chromosome aneupLoidy (2n = 45,X) and double aneupLoidy (2n = 44,X,-X,-10; 2n = 44,X,-X,-13 and 2n = 44,X,-X,-21). In the control group, no chromosomal changes were found in the karyotypes of these individuals. Therefore, the karyotypes of patients with AD undergo chromosomal alterations at different levels. These findings are being described for the first time in the population of Amazonas, and they highlight the importance of the inclusion of cytogenetic investigations in the routine management of patients with AD.


RESUMO Doença de Alzheimer (DA) tem como principal característica a deterioração das funções cerebrais. Quanto a sua etiologia ainda é complexa e indefinida, apesar do progresso alcançado na compreensão de seus mecanismos neurológicos, infecciosos, bioquímicos, genéticos e citogenéticos. Considerando isto, nós investigamos a presença de alterações cromossômicas nos Linfócitos de sangue periférico e verificamos se há uma alta frequência dessas alterações em pacientes já diagnosticados com doença de Alzheimer no Hospital Universitário Getulio Vargas / Ambulatório Araújo Lima, Manaus / Amazonas / Brasil. Assim, dos 09 pacientes do grupo DA, somente 01 paciente não apresentou metáfases com alterações cromossômicas (2n = 46,XX) enquanto que 08 pacientes com DA apresentaram alterações cromossômicas numéricas, sendo classificadas como aneupLoidia do cromossomo X (2n = 45,X) e aneupLoidia dupLa (2n = 44,X,-X,-10; 2n = 44,X,-X,-13 e 2n = 44,X,-X,-21). No grupo controle, não foram encontradas aLterações cromossômicas nos cariótipos desses indivíduos. Estes achados para a popuLação do Amazonas/ BrasiL estão sendo descritos pela primeira vez. Os cariótipos de pacientes com DA sofrem aLterações cromossômicas em diferentes níveis e demonstraram a importância das investigações citogenéticas no manejo rotineiro de pacientes com DA.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Chromosome Aberrations , Alzheimer Disease/genetics , Brazil , Lymphocytes , Case-Control Studies , Cytogenetic Analysis , Chromosomes, Human, X/genetics , Abnormal Karyotype , Alzheimer Disease/psychology , Cognitive Dysfunction/psychology , Aneuploidy
18.
Rev. invest. clín ; 71(4): 246-254, Jul.-Aug. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1289693

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background Schizophrenia (SCZ) and dementia, often related, are two of the most common neuropsychiatric diseases; epidemiological studies have shown that SCZ patients present a 2-fold increased risk for dementia compared to non-schizophrenic individuals. We explored the presence of rare and novel damaging gene variants in patients diagnosed with late-onset dementia of Alzheimer’s type (DAT) or SCZ. Methods We included 7 DAT and 12 SCZ patients and performed high-depth targeted sequencing of 184 genes. Results We found novel and rare damaging variants in 18 genes in these Mexican patients. Carriers of these variants showed extreme phenotypes, including, treatment-resistant SCZ or cognitive decline. Furthermore, we found a variation on ABCC1 as a possible link between psychosis and cognitive impairment. Discussion As an exploratory analysis, we report some interesting variations that should be corroborated in larger sample size studies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Schizophrenia/physiopathology , Dementia/physiopathology , Alzheimer Disease/physiopathology , Cognitive Dysfunction/physiopathology , Phenotype , Schizophrenia/genetics , Genetic Variation , Multidrug Resistance-Associated Proteins/genetics , Dementia/genetics , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Alzheimer Disease/genetics , Cognitive Dysfunction/genetics , Mexico
19.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 76(4): 241-246, Apr. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888385

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: The objective of this study was to characterize the conventional lipid profile, oxLDL levels and ApoE polymorphism in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and in elderly individuals without cognitive impairment. Methods: Eighty elderly individuals were selected and the levels of oxLDL were determined using the ELISA kit, and ApoE gene polymorphism was investigated using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Results: Significantly reduced levels of oxLDL were observed in patients with AD compared to the control group. A higher frequency of the ApoE ε4 allele was observed in patients with AD compared to controls. No difference was observed for total cholesterol, HDL-C, and LDL-C levels between the two groups, while triglyceride levels were higher in controls compared with patients with AD. Conclusion: The data analyzed together did not reveal significant differences in lipid profiles, including oxLDL levels. However, the importance of lipid changes in the genesis of the disease cannot be ruled out. Nevertheless, the ApoE ε4 allele was significantly more frequent in patients with Alzheimer's dementia in agreement with previous findings in the literature, but this genetic component did not change the levels of oxLDL.


RESUMO Objetivo: O objetivo deste estudo foi caracterizar o perfil lipídico convencional, os níveis de LDL-ox e o polimorfismo da ApoE em pacientes com doença de Alzheimer (DA) e em indivíduos idosos sem comprometimento cognitivo. Métodos: Foram selecionados oitenta indivíduos idosos. Os níveis de LDL-ox foram determinados usando o kit ELISA e a investigação do polimorfismo do gene da ApoE por PCR-RFLP. Resultados: Níveis significativamente reduzidos de LDL-ox foram observados em pacientes com DA comparado ao grupo controle. Uma maior frequência do alelo ε4 da ApoE foi observada nos pacientes com DA em relação aos controles. Nenhuma diferença foi observada para os níveis de colesterol total, HDL-C e LDL-C entre os dois grupos, enquanto níveis de triglicérides foram mais altos em controles comparados aos pacientes com DA. Conclusão: Os dados analisados em conjunto não revelaram diferenças significativas no perfil lipídico, incluindo os níveis de LDL-ox. No entanto, não se pode excluir a importância de alterações lipídicas na gênese da doença. Não obstante, o alelo ε4 da ApoE foi signicativamente mais frequente nos pacientes com demência de Alzheimer em concordância com achados prévios da literatura, mas esse componente genético não interferiu nos níveis de LDL-ox.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Apolipoproteins E/genetics , Polymorphism, Genetic/genetics , Alzheimer Disease/blood , Lipoproteins, LDL/blood , Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Case-Control Studies , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Alzheimer Disease/genetics , Lipids/blood
20.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 75(9): 649-656, Sept. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888324

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia. In the last 15 years, a new theory has proposed the autoimmune mechanism as a trigger for AD. Studies on the association between AD and inflammatory biomarkers have yielded controversial results. Interleukin-10 (IL-10), an anti-inflammatory mediator, has been pointed out as one of the main cytokines associated with the occurrence of AD. Moreover, treatment that increases IL-10 levels could be a potential therapy for AD, since this cytokine acts on amyloid and pro-inflammatory molecule reduction. Based on the current literature, this study reviews evidence regarding the role of IL-10 polymorphisms in the context of AD, which has been shown to be of paramount importance for attenuating neuroinflammation, cognitive dysfunction and neurodegeneration.


RESUMO A doença de Alzheimer (DA) é a forma mais comum de demência. Nos últimos 15 anos, uma nova teoria propõe um mecanismo autoimmune como o gatilho para a DA. Associações entre DA e biomarcadores inflamatórios têm sido registradas, contudo com resultados controversos. A interleucina-10 (IL-10), um mediador anti-inflamatório, tem sido apontada como uma das principais citocinas associadas com a ocorrência de DA. Além disso, os tratamentos que aumentam os níveis de IL-10 podem ser uma terapia potencial para DA, uma vez que esta citocina atua sobre a redução de substância amiloide e de moléculas pró-inflamatórias. Baseando-se em literaturas atuais, este estudo revisa evidências relacionadas com o papel da IL-10 e seus polimorfismos no contexto da DA, o qual se mostrou ser de fundamental importância para atenuar a neuroinflamação, a disfunção cognitiva e a neurodegeneração.


Subject(s)
Humans , Polymorphism, Genetic , Interleukin-10/genetics , Alzheimer Disease/genetics , Biomarkers , Disease Progression , Alzheimer Disease/immunology
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