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1.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 241-254, 2024.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010671

ABSTRACT

The accumulation and spread of prion-like proteins is a key feature of neurodegenerative diseases (NDs) such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, or Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis. In a process known as 'seeding', prion-like proteins such as amyloid beta, microtubule-associated protein tau, α-synuclein, silence superoxide dismutase 1, or transactive response DNA-binding protein 43 kDa, propagate their misfolded conformations by transforming their respective soluble monomers into fibrils. Cellular and molecular evidence of prion-like propagation in NDs, the clinical relevance of their 'seeding' capacities, and their levels of contribution towards disease progression have been intensively studied over recent years. This review unpacks the cyclic prion-like propagation in cells including factors of aggregate internalization, endo-lysosomal leaking, aggregate degradation, and secretion. Debates on the importance of the role of prion-like protein aggregates in NDs, whether causal or consequent, are also discussed. Applications lead to a greater understanding of ND pathogenesis and increased potential for therapeutic strategies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Prions , Neurodegenerative Diseases/pathology , Amyloid beta-Peptides , Alzheimer Disease , alpha-Synuclein , tau Proteins , Parkinson Disease
2.
Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae ; (6): 571-580, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008104

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the changes in plasma amyloid-β (Aβ) level and their relationship with white matter microstructure in the patients with amnesic mild cognitive impairment(aMCI) and vascular mild cognitive impairment (vMCI).Methods A total of 36 aMCI patients,20 vMCI patients,and 34 sex and age matched healthy controls (HC) in the outpatient and inpatient departments of the First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University were enrolled in this study.Neuropsychological scales,including the Mini-Mental State Examination,the Montreal Cognitive Assessment,and the Activity of Daily Living Scale,were employed to assess the participants.Plasma samples of all the participants were collected for the measurement of Aβ42 and Aβ40 levels.All the participants underwent magnetic resonance scanning to obtain diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data.The DTI indexes of 48 white matter regions of each individual were measured (based on the ICBM-DTI-81 white-matter labels atlas developed by Johns Hopkins University),including fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD).The cognitive function,plasma Aβ42,Aβ40,and Aβ42/40 levels,and DTI index were compared among the three groups.The correlations between the plasma Aβ42/40 levels and DTI index of aMCI and vMCI patients were analyzed.Results The Mini-Mental State Examination and the Montreal Cognitive Assessment scores of aMCI and vMCI groups were lower than those of the HC group (all P<0.001).There was no significant difference in the Activity of Daily Living Scale score among the three groups (P=0.654).The plasma Aβ42 level showed no significant difference among the three groups (P=0.227).The plasma Aβ40 level in the vMCI group was higher than that in the HC group (P=0.014),while it showed no significant difference between aMCI and HC groups (P=1.000).The plasma Aβ42/40 levels in aMCI and vMCI groups showed no significant differences from that in the HC group (P=1.000,P=0.105),while the plasma Aβ42/40 level was lower in the vMCI group than in the aMCI group (P=0.016).The FA value of the left anterior limb of internal capsule in the vMCI group was lower than those in HC and aMCI groups (all P=0.001).The MD values of the left superior corona radiata,left external capsule,left cingulum (cingulate gyrus),and left superior fronto-occipital fasciculus in the vMCI group were higher than those in HC (P=0.024,P=0.001,P=0.003,P<0.001) and aMCI (P=0.015,P=0.004,P=0.019,P=0.001) groups,while the MD values of the right posterior limb of internal capsule (P=0.005,P=0.001) and left cingulum (hippocampus) (P=0.017,P=0.031) in the aMCI and vMCI groups were higher than those in the HC group.In the aMCI group,plasma Aβ42/40 level was positively correlated with FA of left posterior limb of internal capsule (r=0.403,P=0.015) and negatively correlated with MD of the right fonix (r=-0.395,P=0.017).In the vMCI group,plasma Aβ42/40 level was positively correlated with FA of the right superior cerebellar peduncle and the right anterior limb of internal capsule (r=0.575,P=0.008;r=0.639,P=0.002),while it was negatively correlated with MD of the right superior cerebellar peduncle and the right anterior limb of internal capsule (r=-0.558,P=0.011;r=-0.626,P=0.003).Conclusions Plasma Aβ levels vary differently in the patients with aMCI and vMCI.The white matter regions of impaired microstructural integrity differ in the patients with different dementia types in the early stage.The plasma Aβ levels in the patients with aMCI and vMCI are associated with the structural integrity of white matter,and there is regional specificity between them.


Subject(s)
Humans , Diffusion Tensor Imaging , White Matter/diagnostic imaging , Cognitive Dysfunction , Outpatients , Cognition , Amyloid beta-Peptides
3.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 817-835, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007793

ABSTRACT

Extracellular deposition of β-amyloid (Aβ) and intracellular hyperphosphorylated tau are the predominant pathological changes in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Increasing evidence demonstrates a critical role of a variety of small GTPases, namely Ras-related proteins (Rabs), in the pathogenesis of AD. As crucial regulators of intracellular membrane trafficking, alteration in Rab protein expression and function represents one of the primary factors contributing to the abnormal membrane trafficking in AD. Additionally, the Rab GTPases are also involved in the development of Aβ, tau and other pathological changes associated with AD. In this article, we conduct a comprehensive review on the primary functions of multiple Rab proteins and their involvement in the pathogenesis of AD.


Subject(s)
Humans , Alzheimer Disease , rab GTP-Binding Proteins/metabolism , Amyloid beta-Peptides/metabolism , tau Proteins/metabolism
4.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 740-766, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007788

ABSTRACT

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive cognitive impairment. The main hypotheses about the pathogenesis of AD include the hypothesis of β-amyloid protein, the hypothesis of abnormal phosphorylation of Tau protein, and the hypothesis of neuroinflammation. In recent years, environmental pollutants have been considered as an important factor in causing neurological dysfunction. Common environmental pollutants include heavy metals, pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, microplastics, and air pollutants, all of which have been proven to have neurotoxicity. In this review, we not only discussed epidemiological and animal experimental studies that link environmental pollution with AD, but also summarized the mechanisms of action of relevant toxins, providing insights for studying the interrelationships between environmental pollutants and AD.


Subject(s)
Animals , Alzheimer Disease/chemically induced , Environmental Pollutants/toxicity , Neurodegenerative Diseases , Plastics , Amyloid beta-Peptides/metabolism
5.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 1775-1788, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010640

ABSTRACT

Deficiencies in the clearance of peripheral amyloid β (Aβ) play a crucial role in the progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Previous studies have shown that the ability of blood monocytes to phagocytose Aβ is decreased in AD. However, the exact mechanism of Aβ clearance dysfunction in AD monocytes remains unclear. In the present study, we found that blood monocytes in AD mice exhibited decreases in energy metabolism, which was accompanied by cellular senescence, a senescence-associated secretory phenotype, and dysfunctional phagocytosis of Aβ. Improving energy metabolism rejuvenated monocytes and enhanced their ability to phagocytose Aβ in vivo and in vitro. Moreover, enhancing blood monocyte Aβ phagocytosis by improving energy metabolism alleviated brain Aβ deposition and neuroinflammation and eventually improved cognitive function in AD mice. This study reveals a new mechanism of impaired Aβ phagocytosis in monocytes and provides evidence that restoring their energy metabolism may be a novel therapeutic strategy for AD.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Alzheimer Disease , Amyloid beta-Peptides , Monocytes , Cognition , Energy Metabolism , Phagocytosis
6.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 1289-1308, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010604

ABSTRACT

The physiological functions of endogenous amyloid-β (Aβ), which plays important role in the pathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD), have not been paid enough attention. Here, we review the multiple physiological effects of Aβ, particularly in regulating synaptic transmission, and the possible mechanisms, in order to decipher the real characters of Aβ under both physiological and pathological conditions. Some worthy studies have shown that the deprivation of endogenous Aβ gives rise to synaptic dysfunction and cognitive deficiency, while the moderate elevation of this peptide enhances long term potentiation and leads to neuronal hyperexcitability. In this review, we provide a new view for understanding the role of Aβ in AD pathophysiology from the perspective of physiological meaning.


Subject(s)
Humans , Alzheimer Disease/pathology , Amyloid beta-Peptides/metabolism , Long-Term Potentiation , Synaptic Transmission/physiology , Hippocampus
7.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 261-272, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971551

ABSTRACT

The extracellular domain (p75ECD) of p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR) antagonizes Aβ neurotoxicity and promotes Aβ clearance in Alzheimer's disease (AD). The impaired shedding of p75ECD is a key pathological process in AD, but its regulatory mechanism is largely unknown. This study was designed to investigate the presence and alterations of naturally-occurring autoantibodies against p75ECD (p75ECD-NAbs) in AD patients and their effects on AD pathology. We found that the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) level of p75ECD-NAbs was increased in AD, and negatively associated with the CSF levels of p75ECD. Transgenic AD mice actively immunized with p75ECD showed a lower level of p75ECD and more severe AD pathology in the brain, as well as worse cognitive functions than the control groups, which were immunized with Re-p75ECD (the reverse sequence of p75ECD) and phosphate-buffered saline, respectively. These findings demonstrate the impact of p75ECD-NAbs on p75NTR/p75ECD imbalance, providing a novel insight into the role of autoimmunity and p75NTR in AD.


Subject(s)
Mice , Animals , Alzheimer Disease/pathology , Receptor, Nerve Growth Factor , Amyloid beta-Peptides , Autoantibodies , Mice, Transgenic
8.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1673-1681, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970639

ABSTRACT

This study employed bibliometrics tools to review the studies of traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) treatment of Alzheimer's disease(AD) in recent ten years, aiming to explore the research status, hotspots, and future trends in this field at home and abroad. The relevant literature published from January 1, 2012 to August 15, 2022 was retrieved from Web of Science and CNKI. CiteSpace 6.1R2 and VOSviewer 1.6.15 were used for the visual analysis of authors, countries, institutions, keywords, journals, etc. A total of 2 254 Chinese articles and 545 English articles were included. The annual number of articles published showed a rising trend with fluctuations. The country with the largest number of relevant articles published and the largest centrality was China. SUN Guo-jie and WANG Qi were the authors publishing the most Chinese articles and English articles, respectively. Hubei University of Chinese Medicine and Beijing University of Chinese Medicine published the most articles in Chinese and English, respectively. Journal of Ethnopharmacology and Neuroscience Letters published the articles with the highest cited frequency and the highest centrality. According to the keywords, the research on TCM treatment of AD mainly focused on the mechanism of action and treatment methods. Metabolomics, intestinal flora, oxidative stress, tau hyperphosphorylation, β-amyloid(Aβ), inflammatory cytokines, and autophagy were the focuses of the research on mechanism of action. Acupuncture, clinical effect, kidney deficiency and phlegm stasis, and dredging governor vessel to revitalize mind were the hotspots of clinical research. This research field is still in the stage of exploration and development. Exchanges and cooperation among institutions should be encouraged to carry out more high-quality basic research on TCM treatment of AD, obtain high-level evidence, and clarify the pathogenesis and prescription mechanism.


Subject(s)
Humans , Alzheimer Disease/drug therapy , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Acupuncture Therapy , Medicine , Amyloid beta-Peptides
9.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 1117-1130, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982468

ABSTRACT

Resveratrol (RES), a natural polyphenolic phytochemical, has been suggested as a putative anti-aging molecule for the prevention and treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD) by the activation of sirtuin 1 (Sirt1/Sir2). In this study, we tested the effects of RES and Sirt1/Sir2 on sleep and courtship memory in a Drosophila model by overexpression of amyloid precursor protein (APP), whose duplications and mutations cause familial AD. We found a mild but significant transcriptional increase of Drosophila Sir2 (dSir2) by RES supplementation for up to 17 days in APP flies, but not for 7 days. RES and dSir2 almost completely reversed the sleep and memory deficits in APP flies. We further demonstrated that dSir2 acts as a sleep promotor in Drosophila neurons. Interestingly, RES increased sleep in the absence of dSir2 in dSir2-null mutants, and RES further enhanced sleep when dSir2 was either overexpressed or knocked down in APP flies. Finally, we showed that Aβ aggregates in APP flies were reduced by RES and dSir2, probably via inhibiting Drosophila β-secretase (dBACE). Our data suggest that RES rescues the APP-induced behavioral deficits and Aβ burden largely, but not exclusively, via dSir2.


Subject(s)
Animals , Alzheimer Disease/metabolism , Amyloid beta-Peptides , Amyloid beta-Protein Precursor/metabolism , Drosophila/physiology , Drosophila Proteins/metabolism , Resveratrol/pharmacology , Sirtuin 1 , Sleep
10.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 881-892, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982411

ABSTRACT

Mutations in genes encoding amyloid precursor protein (APP) and presenilins (PSs) cause familial forms of Alzheimer's disease (AD), a neurodegenerative disorder strongly associated with aging. It is currently unknown whether and how AD risks affect early brain development, and to what extent subtle synaptic pathology may occur prior to overt hallmark AD pathology. Transgenic mutant APP/PS1 over-expression mouse lines are key tools for studying the molecular mechanisms of AD pathogenesis. Among these lines, the 5XFAD mice rapidly develop key features of AD pathology and have proven utility in studying amyloid plaque formation and amyloid β (Aβ)-induced neurodegeneration. We reasoned that transgenic mutant APP/PS1 over-expression in 5XFAD mice may lead to neurodevelopmental defects in early cortical neurons, and performed detailed synaptic physiological characterization of layer 5 (L5) neurons from the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of 5XFAD and wild-type littermate controls. L5 PFC neurons from 5XFAD mice show early APP/Aβ immunolabeling. Whole-cell patch-clamp recording at an early post-weaning age (P22-30) revealed functional impairments; although 5XFAD PFC-L5 neurons exhibited similar membrane properties, they were intrinsically less excitable. In addition, these neurons received smaller amplitude and frequency of miniature excitatory synaptic inputs. These functional disturbances were further corroborated by decreased dendritic spine density and spine head volumes that indicated impaired synapse maturation. Slice biotinylation followed by Western blot analysis of PFC-L5 tissue revealed that 5XFAD mice showed reduced synaptic AMPA receptor subunit GluA1 and decreased synaptic NMDA receptor subunit GluN2A. Consistent with this, patch-clamp recording of the evoked L23>L5 synaptic responses revealed a reduced AMPA/NMDA receptor current ratio, and an increased level of AMPAR-lacking silent synapses. These results suggest that transgenic mutant forms of APP/PS1 overexpression in 5XFAD mice leads to early developmental defects of cortical circuits, which could contribute to the age-dependent synaptic pathology and neurodegeneration later in life.


Subject(s)
Mice , Animals , Alzheimer Disease/pathology , Amyloid beta-Peptides/metabolism , Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate/metabolism , Amyloid beta-Protein Precursor/metabolism , Mice, Transgenic , Neurons/metabolism , Receptors, AMPA/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal
11.
Chinese journal of integrative medicine ; (12): 448-458, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982293

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying the beneficial effect of electroacupuncture (EA) in experimental models of Alzheimer's disease (AD) in vivo.@*METHODS@#Senescence-accelerated mouse prone 8 (SAMP8) mice were used as AD models and received EA at Yingxiang (LI 20, bilateral) and Yintang (GV 29) points for 20 days. For certain experiments, SAMP8 mice were injected intravenously with human fibrin (2 mg). The Morris water maze test was used to assess cognitive and memory abilities. The changes of tight junctions of blood-brain barrier (BBB) in mice were observed by transmission electron microscope. The expressions of fibrin, amyloid- β (Aβ), and ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule 1 (IBa-1) in mouse hippocampus (CA1/CA3) were detected by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), Western blot or immunohistochemical staining. The expression of fibrin in mouse plasma was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The expressions of tight junction proteins zonula occludens-1 and claudin-5 in hippocampus were detected by qRT-PCR and immunofluorescence staining. Apoptosis of hippocampal neurons was detected by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining.@*RESULTS@#Fibrin was time-dependently deposited in the hippocampus of SAMP8 mice and this was inhibited by EA treatment (P<0.05 or P<0.01). Furthermore, EA treatment suppressed the accumulation of Aβ in the hippocampus of SAMP8 mice (P<0.01), which was reversed by fibrin injection (P<0.05 or P<0.01). EA improved SAMP8 mice cognitive impairment and BBB permeability (P<0.05 or P<0.01). Moreover, EA decreased reactive oxygen species levels and neuroinflammation in the hippocampus of SAMP8 mice, which was reversed by fibrin injection (P<0.05 or P<0.01). Mechanistically, EA inhibited the promoting effect of fibrin on the high mobility group box protein 1 (HMGB1)/toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE)/nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) signaling pathways (P<0.01).@*CONCLUSION@#EA may potentially improve cognitive impairment in AD via inhibition of fibrin/A β deposition and deactivation of the HMGB1/TLR4 and RAGE/NADPH signaling pathways.


Subject(s)
Mice , Humans , Animals , NADP/metabolism , Toll-Like Receptor 4 , HMGB1 Protein/metabolism , Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products/metabolism , Blood-Brain Barrier/metabolism , Neuroinflammatory Diseases , Electroacupuncture , Alzheimer Disease/therapy , Hippocampus/metabolism , Amyloid beta-Peptides/metabolism
12.
Chinese journal of integrative medicine ; (12): 413-423, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982289

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the specific pharmacological molecular mechanisms of Kai Xin San (KXS) on treating Alzheimer's disease (AD) based on network pharmacology and experimental validation.@*METHODS@#The chemical compounds of KXS and their corresponding targets were screened using the Encyclopedia of Traditional Chinese Medicine (ETCM) database. AD-related target proteins were obtained from MalaCards database and DisGeNET databases. Key compounds and targets were identified from the compound-target-disease network and protein-protein interaction (PPI) network analysis. Functional enrichment analysis predicted the potential key signaling pathways involved in the treatment of AD with KXS. The binding affinities between key ingredients and targets were further verified using molecular docking. Finally, the predicted key signaling pathway was validated experimentally. Positioning navigation and space search experiments were conducted to evaluate the cognitive improvement effect of KXS on AD rats. Western blot was used to further examine and investigate the expression of the key target proteins related to the predicted pathway.@*RESULTS@#In total, 38 active compounds and 469 corresponding targets of KXS were screened, and 264 target proteins associated with AD were identified. The compound-target-disease and PPI networks identified key active ingredients and protein targets. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis suggested a potential effect of KXS in the treatment of AD via the amyloid beta (A β)-glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta (GSK3 β)-Tau pathway. Molecular docking revealed a high binding affinity between the key ingredients and targets. In vivo, KXS treatment significantly improved cognitive deficits in AD rats induced by Aβ1-42, decreased the levels of Aβ, p-GSK3β, p-Tau and cyclin-dependent kinase 5, and increased the expressions of protein phosphatase 1 alpha (PP1A) and PP2A (P<0.05 or P<0.01).@*CONCLUSION@#KXS exerted neuroprotective effects by regulating the Aβ -GSK3β-Tau signaling pathway, which provides novel insights into the therapeutic mechanism of KXS and a feasible pharmacological strategy for the treatment of AD.


Subject(s)
Rats , Animals , Alzheimer Disease/drug therapy , Amyloid beta-Peptides , Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 beta , Network Pharmacology , Molecular Docking Simulation , Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3/therapeutic use , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use
13.
Journal of Zhejiang University. Medical sciences ; (6): 485-498, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009910

ABSTRACT

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a multifactorial and heterogenic disorder. MiRNA is a class of non-coding RNAs with 19-22 nucleotides in length that can regulate the expression of target genes in the post-transcriptional level. It has been found that the miRNAome in AD patients is significantly altered in brain tissues, cerebrospinal fluid and blood circulation, as compared to healthy subjects. Experimental studies have suggested that expression changes in miRNA could drive AD onset and development via different mechanisms. Therefore, targeting miRNA expression to regulate the key genes involved in AD progression is anticipated to be a promising approach for AD prevention and treatment. Rodent AD models have demonstrated that targeting miRNAs could block biogenesis and toxicity of amyloid β, inhibit the production and hyper-phosphorylation of τ protein, prevent neuronal apoptosis and promote neurogenesis, maintain neural synaptic and calcium homeostasis, as well as mitigate neuroinflammation mediated by microglia. In addition, animal and human studies support the view that miRNAs are critical players contributing to the beneficial effects of cell therapy and lifestyle intervention to AD. This article reviews the most recent advances in the roles, mechanisms and applications of targeting miRNA in AD prevention and treatment based on rodent AD models and human intervention studies. The potential opportunities and challenges in clinical application of targeting miRNA for AD patients are also discussed.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , MicroRNAs/genetics , Alzheimer Disease/prevention & control , Amyloid beta-Peptides , Apoptosis , Microglia
14.
Chinese Journal of Cellular and Molecular Immunology ; (12): 701-707, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009420

ABSTRACT

Objective To explore the effect of knocking down Rho-associated coiled-coil kinase (ROCK2) gene on the cognitive function of amyloid precursor protein/presenilin-1 (APP/PS1) double transgenic mice and its mechanism. Methods APP/PS1 double transgenic mice were randomly divided into AD model group (AD group), ROCK2 gene knock-down group (shROCK2 group), ROCK2 gene knock-down control group (shNCgroup), and wild-type C57BL/6 mice of the same age served as the wild-type control (WT group). Morris water maze and Y maze were employed to test the cognitive function of mice. Neuron morphology was detected by Nissl staining. Immunofluorescence histochemical staining was used to detect the expression of phosphorylated dynamin-related protein 1 (p-Drp1) and mitochondrial fusion 1 (Mfn1). Western blot analysis was used to detect the expression ROCK2, cleaved-caspase-3 (c-caspase-3), B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl2), Bcl2-related protein X (BAX), p-Drp1, mitochondrial fission 1 (Fis1), optic atrophy 1 (OPA1), Mfn1 and Mfn2. Results Compared with AD group mice, the expression of ROCK2 in shROCK2 group mice was significantly reduced; the cognitive function was significantly improved with the number of neurons in the hippocampal CA3 and DG areas increasing, and nissl bodies were deeply stained; the expression of c-caspase-3 and BAX was decreased, while the expression of Bcl2 was increased; the expression of mitochondrial division related proteins p-Drp1 and Fis1 were decreased, while the expression of mitochondrial fusion-related proteins OPA1, Mfn1 and Mfn2 were increased. Conclusion Knock-down of ROCK2 gene can significantly improve the cognitive function and inhibit the apoptosis of nerve cells of APP/PS1 mice. The mechanism may be related to promoting mitochondrial fusion and inhibiting its division.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Alzheimer Disease/pathology , Amyloid beta-Peptides/metabolism , Amyloid beta-Protein Precursor , Apoptosis/genetics , bcl-2-Associated X Protein , Caspase 3 , Cognition , Disease Models, Animal , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Transgenic , Mitochondrial Dynamics/genetics
15.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 4039-4045, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008599

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to investigate the mechanism of Psoraleae Fructus in improving the learning and memory ability of APP/PS1 mice by serum metabolomics, screen the differential metabolites of Psoraleae Fructus on APP/PS1 mice, and reveal its influence on the metabolic pathway of APP/PS1 mice. Thirty 3-month-old APP/PS1 mice were randomly divided into a model group and a Psoraleae Fructus extract group, and another 15 C57BL/6 mice of the same age were assigned to the blank group. The learning and memory ability of mice was evaluated by the Morris water maze and novel object recognition tests, and metabolomics was used to analyze the metabolites in mouse serum. The results of the Morris water maze test showed that Psoraleae Fructus shortened the escape latency of APP/PS1 mice(P<0.01), and increased the number of platform crossing and residence time in the target quadrant(P<0.01). The results of the novel object recognition test showed that Psoraleae Fructus could improve the novel object recognition index of APP/PS1 mice(P<0.01). Eighteen differential metabolites in serum were screened out by metabolomics, among which the levels of arachidonic acid, tryptophan, and glycerophospholipid decreased after drug administration, while the levels of glutamyltyrosine increased after drug administration. The metabolic pathways involved included arachidonic acid metabolism, glycerophospholipid metabolism, tryptophan metabolism, linoleic acid metabolism, α-linolenic acid metabolism, and glycerolipid metabolism. Therefore, Psoraleae Fructus can improve the learning and memory ability of APP/PS1 mice, and its mechanism may be related to the effects in promoting energy metabolism, reducing oxidative damage, protecting central nervous system, reducing neuroinflammation, and reducing Aβ deposition. This study is expected to provide references for Psoraleae Fructus in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease(AD) and further explain the mechanism of Psoraleae Fructus in the treatment of AD.


Subject(s)
Mice , Animals , Amyloid beta-Protein Precursor/genetics , Mice, Transgenic , Arachidonic Acid , Tryptophan , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Alzheimer Disease/genetics , Maze Learning , Glycerophospholipids , Disease Models, Animal , Amyloid beta-Peptides/metabolism
16.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 4015-4026, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008597

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of aqueous extract of Corni Fructus on β-amyloid protein 25-35(Aβ_(25-35))-induced brain injury and neuroinflammation in Alzheimer's disease(AD) mice to provide an experimental basis for the treatment of AD by aqueous extract of Corni Fructus. Sixty C57BL/6J male mice were randomly divided into a sham group, a model group, a positive control group(huperizine A, 0.2 mg·kg~(-1)), a low-dose aqueous extract of Corni Fructus group(1.3 g·kg~(-1)), a medium-dose aqueous extract of Corni Fructus group(2.6 g·kg~(-1)), and a high-dose aqueous extract of Corni Fructus group(5.2 g·kg~(-1)). The AD model was induced by lateral ventricular injection of Aβ_(25-35) in mice except for those in the sham group, and AD model mice were treated with corresponding drugs by gavage for 24 days. The behavioral test was performed one week before animal dissection. Hematoxylin-eosin(HE) staining was performed to observe the morphology of neurons in the hippocampal region. Flow cytometry was used to detect the apoptosis level of primary hippocampal cells in mice. ELISA kits were used to detect the levels of β-amyloid protein 1-42(Aβ_(1-42)) and phosphorylated microtubule-associated protein Tau(p-Tau) in mouse brain tissues. Immunofluorescence and Western blot were used to detect the expression of related proteins in mouse brain tissues. MTT assay was used to detect the effect of compounds in aqueous extract of Corni Fructus on Aβ_(25-35)-induced N9 cell injury. Molecular docking was employed to analyze the interactions of caffeic acid, trans-p-hydroxy cinnamic acid, isolariciresinol-9'-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, esculetin, and(+)-lyoniresinol with β-amyloid precursor protein(APP), interleukin-6(IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α). Aqueous extract of Corni Fructus could improve the learning and memory abilities of Aβ_(25-35)-induced mice by increasing the duration of the autonomous activity, the rate of autonomous alternation, the preference coefficient, and the discrimination coefficient, and reduce Aβ_(25-35)-induced brain injury and neuroinflammation in mice by increasing the expression levels of interleukin-10(IL-10) and B-cell lymphoma-2(Bcl-2) in brain tissues, decreasing the expression levels of Aβ_(1-42), p-Tau, IL-6, TNF-α, cysteine aspartate-specific protease 3(caspase-3), cysteine aspartate-specific protease 9(caspase-9), and Bcl-2-associated X protein(Bax), and decreasing the number of activated glial cells in brain tissues. The results of cell experiments showed that esculetin and(+)-lyoniresinol could improve Aβ_(25-35)-induced N9 cell injury. Molecular docking results showed that caffeic acid, trans-p-hydroxy cinnamic acid, isolariciresinol-9'-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, esculetin, and(+)-lyoniresinol had good binding affinity with APP and weak binding affinity with IL-6 and TNF-α. Aqueous extract of Corni Fructus could ameliorate cognitive dysfunction and brain damage in Aβ_(25-35)-induced mice by reducing the number of apoptotic cells and activated glial cells in the brain and decreasing the expression level of inflammatory factors. Caffeic acid, trans-p-hydroxy cinnamic acid, isolariciresinol-9'-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, esculetin, and(+)-lyoniresinol may be the material basis for the anti-AD effect of aqueous extract of Corni Fructus.


Subject(s)
Mice , Male , Animals , Alzheimer Disease/drug therapy , Amyloid beta-Peptides/metabolism , Cornus/metabolism , Neuroinflammatory Diseases , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Interleukin-6 , Aspartic Acid , Cysteine/therapeutic use , Molecular Docking Simulation , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Brain Injuries , Peptide Hydrolases , Disease Models, Animal , Mice, Transgenic
17.
Med. leg. Costa Rica ; 39(2)dic. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, SaludCR | ID: biblio-1405586

ABSTRACT

Resumen La proteína precursora del β- Amiloide (β-APP) es una glicoproteína de membrana y un componente habitual de las neuronas. Tiene funciones en el crecimiento y la adhesión celular tras un traumatismo. Es transportada mediante transporte rápido axonal anterógrado y se acumula dentro de las neuronas cuando se daña citoesqueleto. Este proceso es activo, es decir consume energía. El β-APP no es específico de los traumatismos. Se acumula en cualquier circunstancia en la que se dañen los axones, tal como la hipoxia, alteraciones metabólicas, y cualquier otra causa de edema cerebral y aumento de la presión intracraneal que puedan conducir a un daño axonal difuso (DAI) En el presente estudio estudiamos la expresión de esta proteína en casos de traumatismo cráneo-encefálico con diferente evolución cronológica El daño del citoesqueleto producido por la proteólisis, junto con la alteración de las quinasas y las fosfatasas, aumentan la permeabilidad de la membrana, lo que provoca la entrada de calcio en la célula que, a su vez, activa la calmodulina que hace que los neurofilamentos se compacten, los microtúbulos desaparezcan y se rompa la espectrina. Esta disrupción del citoesqueleto tiene como consecuencia que las sustancias que se transportan a su través, se acumulen, sobre todo en las zonas afectadas por el DAI. Al final de todo este proceso, los axones se rompen, lo que se conoce como axotomía secundaria. El estudio de la acumulación del β-APP es útil para valorar la extensión del DAI y para determinar el tiempo de supervivencia tras el traumatismo o cualquier otro daño cerebral.


Abstract β-Amyloid Precursor Protein (β-APP) is a membrane glycoprotein and a common component of neurons. It is involved in adhesion and cell growth processes after traumatic events. It is carried by anterograde fast axonal transport, and it accumulates inside neurons when the cytoskeleton is damaged. This is a vital biochemical process that consumes energy. β-APP is not specific of traumatic events. It accumulates in any case of axonal damage, whatever its cause may be, like hypoxia, metabolic disorders, and any other circumstances that lead to brain swelling and intracranial pressure rising and in consequence to Diffuse Axonal Injury (DAI). In this study we review the expression of this protein in cases of traumatic brain injury with different chronological evolution. The damage of cytoskeleton due to proteolysis in addition to the disturbance of kinases and phosphatases increase the permeability of the membrane. Calcium gets into the cell and activates calmodulin, thus neurofilaments compact, microtubules disappear and spectrin breaks. This disruption of the cytoskeleton has as consequence that the transported substances accumulate in the most affected areas by DAI. At the end of this process axon breaks, which is known as secondary axotomy. The study of the accumulation of β-APP is useful to assess the extent of DAI and to determine the time elapsed after trauma or another insult to CNS.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Amyloid beta-Peptides/chemistry , Diffuse Axonal Injury , Craniocerebral Trauma , Forensic Medicine
18.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 80(1): 23-29, Jan. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360138

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: Validation of cognitive instruments for detection of Alzheimer's disease (AD) based on correlation with diagnostic biomarkers allows more reliable identification of the disease. Objectives: To investigate the accuracy of the Brief Cognitive Screening Battery (BCSB) in the differential diagnosis between AD, non-AD cognitive impairment (both defined by cerebrospinal fluid [CSF] biomarkers) and healthy cognition, and to correlate CSF biomarker results with cognitive performance. Methods: Overall, 117 individuals were evaluated: 45 patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or mild dementia within the AD continuum defined by the AT(N) classification [A+T+/-(N)+/]; 27 non-AD patients with MCI or mild dementia [A-T+/-(N)+/-]; and 45 cognitively healthy individuals without CSF biomarker results. All participants underwent evaluation using the BCSB. Results: The total BCSB and delayed recall (DR) scores of the BCSB memory test showed high diagnostic accuracy, as indicated by areas under the ROC curve (AUC): 0.89 and 0.87, respectively, for discrimination between AD and non-AD versus cognitively healthy controls. Similarly, total BCSB and DR displayed high accuracy (AUC-ROC curves of 0.89 and 0.91, respectively) for differentiation between AD and controls. BCSB tests displayed low accuracy for differentiation between AD and non-AD. The CSF levels of biomarkers correlated significantly, though weakly, with DR. Conclusions: Total BCSB and DR scores presented good accuracy for differentiation between patients with a biological AD diagnosis and cognitively healthy individuals, but low accuracy for differentiating AD from non-AD patients.


RESUMO Antecedentes: A validação de testes cognitivos para identificação da doença de Alzheimer (DA) definida por biomarcadores aumenta a confiabilidade diagnóstica. Objetivos: Investigar a acurácia da Bateria Breve de Rastreio Cognitivo (BBRC) no diagnóstico diferencial entre DA, comprometimento cognitivo não-DA (ambos diagnósticos definidos por biomarcadores no líquido cefalorraquidiano-LCR) e indivíduos cognitivamente saudáveis, e investigar correlações entre desempenho nos testes e concentrações dos biomarcadores no LCR. Métodos: No total, 117 indivíduos foram avaliados. Quarenta e cinco pacientes com comprometimento cognitivo leve (CCL) ou demência leve com diagnóstico do continuum de DA definido pela classificação AT(N) [A+T+/-(N)+/-], 27 pacientes com CCL ou demência leve não-DA [A-T+/-(N)+/-], e 45 controles cognitivamente saudáveis sem estudo de biomarcadores no LCR. Os participantes foram submetidos à BBRC. Resultados: O escore total da BBRC e a evocação tardia (ET) no teste de memória da BBRC apresentaram elevada acurácia diagnóstica na diferenciação entre DA e não-DA versus controles, indicada pelas áreas sob a curva ROC (AUC) de 0,89 e 0,87, respectivamente. De modo semelhante, o escore total da BBRC e a ET mostraram elevadas acurácias (AUC-ROC de 0,89 e 0,91, respectivamente) para o diagnóstico diferencial entre DA e controles. A acurácia da BBRC foi baixa na diferenciação entre DA e não-DA. Os níveis dos biomarcadores no LCR se correlacionaram de forma significativa, embora fraca, com ET. Conclusões: Os escores totais da BCSB e a ET apresentaram boa acurácia na diferenciação entre pacientes com diagnóstico biológico de DA e controles cognitivamente saudáveis, mas baixa acurácia para diferenciar DA de não-DA.


Subject(s)
Humans , Dementia/diagnosis , Alzheimer Disease/psychology , Cognitive Dysfunction/diagnosis , Cognitive Dysfunction/psychology , Biomarkers/cerebrospinal fluid , Case-Control Studies , Amyloid beta-Peptides , tau Proteins/cerebrospinal fluid , Cognition
19.
Chinese Medical Sciences Journal ; (4): 320-330, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970694

ABSTRACT

Objective To study the effects of TYRO protein kinase-binding protein (TYROBP) deficiency on learning behavior, glia activation and pro-inflammatory cycokines, and Tau phosphorylation of a new Alzheimer's disease (AD) mouse model carrying a PSEN1 p.G378E mutation.Methods A new AD mouse model carrying PSEN1 p.G378E mutation was built based on our previously found AD family which might be ascribed to the PSEN1 mutation, and then crossed with TYROBP deficient mice to produce the heterozygous hybrid mice (PSEN1G378E/WT; Tyrobp+/-) and the homozygous hybrid mice (PSEN1G378E/G378E; Tyrobp-/-). Water maze test was used to detect spatial learning and memory ability of mice. After the mice were sacrificed, the hippocampus was excised for further analysis. Immunofluorescence was used to identify the cell that expresses TYROBP and the number of microglia and astrocyte. Western blot was used to detect the expression levels of Tau and phosphorylated Tau (p-Tau), and ELISA to measure the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Results Our results showed that TYROBP specifically expressed in the microglia of mouse hippocampus. Absence of TYROBP in PSEN1G378E mutation mouse model prevented the deterioration of learning behavior, decreased the numbers of microglia and astrocytes, and the levels of interleukin-6, interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α in the hippocampus (all P < 0.05). The ratios of AT8/Tau5, PHF1/Tau5, pT181/Tau5, pT231/Tau5 and p-ERK/ERK were all higher in homozygous hybrid mice (PSEN1G378E/G378E; Tyrobp-/- mice) compared with PSEN1G378E/G378E mice (all P < 0.05). Conclusions TYROBP deficiency might play a protective role in the modulation of neuroinflammation of AD. However, the relationship between neuroinflammation processes involving microglia and astrocyte activation, and release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and p-Tau pathology needs further study.


Subject(s)
Mice , Animals , Alzheimer Disease/genetics , Neuroinflammatory Diseases , Hippocampus/pathology , Mutation , Cytokines/pharmacology , Disease Models, Animal , tau Proteins/pharmacology , Amyloid beta-Peptides/metabolism , Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/pharmacology
20.
Chinese journal of integrative medicine ; (12): 176-184, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922568

ABSTRACT

Due to its complex pathogenesis and lack of effective therapeutic methods, Alzheimer's disease (AD) has become a severe public health problem worldwide. Recent studies have discovered the function of central nervous system lymphatic drainage, which provides a new strategy for the treatment of AD. Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) has been considered as a cure for AD for hundreds of years in China, and its effect on scavenging β-amyloid protein in the brain of AD patients has been confirmed. In this review, the mechanism of central nervous system lymphatic drainage and the regulatory functions of CHM on correlation factors were briefly summarized. The advances in our understanding regarding the treatment of AD via regulating the central lymphatic system with CHM will promote the clinical application of CHM in AD patients and the discovery of new therapeutic drugs.


Subject(s)
Humans , Alzheimer Disease/drug therapy , Amyloid beta-Peptides , Brain , China , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use
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