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Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e18637, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364416


Abstract The therapeutic drugs to treat Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections have toxic side effects and there has been an emergence of drug-resistant strains. Therefore, the search for new treatments for HSV infections is mounting. In the present study, semi-solid formulations containing a crude hydroethanolic extract (CHE) from Schinus terebinthifolia were developed. Skin irritation, cutaneous permeation, and in vivo therapeutic efficacy of the formulations were investigated. Treatment with the ointment formulations did not result in any signs of skin irritation while the emulsions increased the thickness of the epidermis in Swiss mice. The cutaneous permeation test indicated that the CHE incorporated in the formulations permeated through the skin layers and was present in the epidermis and dermis even 3 h after topical application. In vivo antiviral activity in BALB/c mice treated with the CHE ointments was better than those treated with the CHE emulsions and did not significantly differ from an acyclovir-treated group. Taken together, this suggests that the incorporation of CHE in the ointment may be a potential candidate for the alternative topical treatment of herpetic lesions.

Pharmaceutical Preparations/analysis , Simplexvirus/classification , Herpesvirus 1, Human/classification , Anacardiaceae/adverse effects , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Acyclovir/antagonists & inhibitors , Efficacy , Emulsions/adverse effects
Braz. j. oral sci ; 20: e213736, jan.-dez. 2021. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1253012


Although Spondias mombin L. extract has an excellent antimicrobial effect against oral microorganisms, it should be clarified how it affects enamel surface properties. Aim: To evaluate the color change, wettability/contact angle, surface roughness and morphology of bovine enamel submitted to the Spondias mombin L. extract. Methods: Thirty bovine teeth were distributed into the following groups: 0.12% chlorhexidine digluconate, 1:32 Spondias mombin L. extract and distilled water. Color change (CC) was evaluated after immerging specimens into the solutions for 14 days. Surface roughness (Ra) was measured using a roughness meter; wettability/contact angles (CA) were determined by the sessile drop method, and scanning electron microscopy images were obtained to characterize the morphology (SMA). The pH of the solutions was evaluated using a pHmeter. The Ra, CA, and CC data were parametric (Kolmogorov-Smirnov; p>0.05). Two-way ANOVA (for Ra and CA) and one-way ANOVA (for CC) with Tukey's posthoc tests at a significance level of 5% were used. SMA was analyzed descriptively. Results: The Spondias mombin L. extract revealed an acidic pH, and when in contact with the bovine teeth, it increased the wettability, but it did not cause statistically significant differences in the Ra. Spondias mombin L. extract caused the highest color change. The SEM images showed differences in the specimens' surface submitted to the extract compared to the other groups. Conclusion: Spondias mombin L. extract provided negative effects on bovine enamel's surface, including a high color change and a more wettable substrate

Animals , Cattle , Surface Properties , Anacardiaceae , Dental Enamel , Phytotherapy , Mouthwashes
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888030


The present study determined the quantitative markers of total proanthocyanidins in the purification of the industrial waste Choerospondias axillaris pericarp based on the comparison results of high-performance liquid chromatography(HPLC) and mass spectrometry(MS) and optimized the purification process with two stable procyanidins as markers. The adsorption and desorption of five different macroporous adsorption resins, the static adsorption kinetics curve of NKA-Ⅱ resin, the maximum sample load, and the gradient elution were investigated. The UPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS was employed for qualitative analysis of the newly-prepared total proanthocyanidins of C. axillaris pericarp. As revealed by the results, NKA-Ⅱ resin displayed strong adsorption and desorption toward total proanthocyanidins. The sample solution(50 mg·mL~(-1)) was prepared from 70% ethanol crude extract of C. axillaris pericarp dissolved in water and 7-fold BV of the sample solution was loaded, followed by static adsorption for 12 h. After 8-fold BV of distilled water and 6-fold BV of 10% ethanol were employed to remove impurities, the solution was eluted with 8-fold BV of 50% ethanol, concentrated, and dried under reduced pressure, and purified total proanthocyanidin powder was therefore obtained. Measured by vanillin-hydrochloric acid method, the purity and transfer rate of total proanthocyanidins were 47.67% and 59.92%, respectively, indicating the feasibi-lity of the optimized process. UPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS qualitative analysis identified 16 procyanidins in C. axillaris total proanthocyanidins. The optimized purification process is simple in operation and accurate in component identification, and it can be applied to the process investigation of a class of components that are difficult to be separated and purified. It can also provide technical support and research ideas for the comprehensive utilization of industrial waste.

Adsorption , Anacardiaceae , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Plant Extracts , Proanthocyanidins/analysis , Resins, Synthetic , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
Braz. J. Vet. Res. Anim. Sci. (Online) ; 57(2): e162109, mai. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1122173


This survey evaluated mombin leaves (Spondias mombin L.) decoction efficiency as an antiseptic during post-surgery period on cats submitted to orchiectomy and ovariosalpingohisterectomy. For this purpose, 45 castrated mongrels cats were divided into three groups, the first group as a positive control using 0.5% chlorhexidine-alcohol solution, the second a negative control group using sterile distilled water and, finally, the test group using mombin leaves decocted with a concentration of 100 mg/mL. All animals, independent of age and sex, had visibly healed in most cases in a similar time. Animals treated with mombin leaves decoction presented a significant reduction of bacterial growth. In addition, the animals treated in the test group had better surgical wound healing. All isolated bacterial strains presented inhibition halo for chlorhexidine and for Spondias mombin L. Thus, the decoction of Spondias mombin L. leaves proved antiseptic efficacy in the surgical wounds of cats submitted to orchiectomy and ovariosalpingohisterectomy.(AU)

Foi avaliada a eficiência do decocto das folhas de cajá (Spondias mombin L.) como antisséptico no pós-cirúrgico de gatos submetidos à orquiectomia e ovariosalpingohisterectomia. Para tal, foram submetidos à castração 45 gatos sem raça definida, divididos em três grupos. O primeiro grupo como controle positivo com Solução Alcoólica de Clorexidine a 0,5%; segundo grupo controle negativo com água destilada estéril; e o grupo teste com o decocto de cajá à concentração de 100 mg/mL. Todos os animais, independentemente da idade e sexo, tiveram cicatrização visível em tempo similar. Animais tratados com o decocto apresentaram uma redução significativa do crescimento bacteriano. Além disso, observou-se uma melhor cicatrização das feridas cirúrgicas dos animais tratados no grupo teste. Todas as estirpes bacterianas isoladas apresentaram halo de inibição para clorexidine e para Spondias mombin L. Portanto, o decocto das folhas da Spondias mombin L. apresentou eficácia antisséptica nas feridas cirúrgicas de gatos submetidos à orquiectomia e ovariosalpingohisterectomia.(AU)

Animals , Cats , Castration/veterinary , Anacardiaceae , Anti-Infective Agents, Local/therapeutic use , Plants, Medicinal , Surgical Wound Infection/prevention & control , Orchiectomy/veterinary , Ovariectomy/veterinary , Hysterectomy/veterinary
Braz. J. Vet. Res. Anim. Sci. (Online) ; 57(1): e157580, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1122151


Essential oil (EO) from Brazilian red pepper leaves contains antimicrobial compounds that control Gram-positive bacteria in the rumen content, improving the efficiency of ruminal fermentation. The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the effects of the Brazilian red pepper leaves EO (Schinus terebinthifolius) as a substitute for monensin on performance, occurrence of coccidiosis by Eimeria ssp., carcass characteristics and meat composition of feedlot lambs. Forty-four lambs, 16 males (12 ½ Dorper × ½ Santa Inês and 4 Santa Inês) and 28 females (16 ½ Dorper × ½ Santa Inês and 12 Santa Inês), with 21.4 ± 1.05 kg of initial body weight (BW), were used in a randomized complete block design. The experiment lasted 56 days, divided into 2 periods of 28 days each. The treatments were defined by the inclusion of 8 ppm of monensin (MON), and the doses 0.14% (14EO), 0.28% (28EO) and 0.42% (42EO) of red pepper leaves essential oil (EO). At the end of 56 days, 32 lambs were slaughtered for the measurement of carcass parameters and meat composition. There was no interaction among treatments and periods for average daily gain (ADG), dry matter intake (DMI), feed efficiency (FE) and oocyst of Eimeria ssp. in feces. The treatments did not affect the ADG, DMI and FE; however, the monensin inclusion decreased the oocyst of Eimeria ssp. (P = 0.01). There was a tendency (P = 0.06) of increase in hot carcass yield for lambs fed 28EO compared to 14EO. In addition, the cold carcass yield was higher (P = 0.02) in the animals fed 28EO and 42EO. The subcutaneous fat thickness was not affected by the experimental diets; however, there was a tendency for lambs from 28EO and 42EO treatments to present higher body wall thickness (P = 0.07) and Longissimus muscle area (P = 0.07) when compared to MON. The higher doses of red pepper leaves EO increased the percentage of crude protein (P < 0.01) and mineral matter (P = 0.02) in the chemical composition of meat. Although the performance of lambs did not change, the inclusion of 0.28 and 0.42% red pepper leaves EO improve the carcass characteristics and change the meat composition, demonstrating the potential of the use of this additive in confined lamb diets. However, the monensin has greater potential to control coccidiosis in feedlot lambs compared with red pepper leaves EO.(AU)

O óleo essencial das folhas da aroeira possui compostos antimicrobianos que controlam a população de bactérias gram-positivas presentes no conteúdo ruminal, melhorando a eficiência do processo de fermentação. Os objetivos do presente estudo foram avaliar os efeitos do óleo essencial das folhas da aroeira (Schinus terebinthifolius) em substituição a monensina sobre o desempenho, ocorrência de coccidiose por Eimeria ssp., características de carcaça e da carne de cordeiros confinados. Quarenta e quatro cordeiros, 16 machos (12 ½ Dorper × ½ Santa Inês e 4 Santa Inês) e 28 fêmeas (16 ½ Dorper × ½ Santa Inês e 12 Santa Inês), com 21,4 ± 1,05 kg de peso inicial, foram utilizados em delineamento de blocos completos ao acaso. O experimento teve duração de 56 dias, divididos em 2 períodos de 28 dias cada. Os tratamentos foram definidos pela inclusão de 8 ppm de monensina sódica (MON) e as doses 0,14% (14OE), 0,28% (28OE) e 0,42% (42OE) do óleo essencial (OE) das folhas da aroeira. Ao final dos 56 dias, 32 animais foram abatidos para a mensuração dos parâmetros de carcaça e análise química da carne. Não houve interação entre tratamento e período experimental para ganho médio diário (GMD), consumo de matéria seca (CMS), eficiência alimentar (EA) e ocorrência de coccidiose. Não houve efeito das dietas experimentais sobre GMD, CMS e EA, entretanto, a inclusão de monensina reduziu o número de oocistos de Eimeria ssp. (P = 0,01). Houve tendência de aumento no rendimento de carcaça quente (P = 0,06) para os cordeiros alimentados com 28OE comparados com o tratamento 14OE. Além disso, o rendimento de carcaça fria foi maior (P = 0,02) para os animais alimentados com 28OE e 42OE. A espessura de gordura subcutânea não foi afetada pelas dietas experimentais, entretanto, houve tendência dos cordeiros dos tratamentos 28OE e 42OE apresentarem maior espessura de parede corporal (P = 0,07) e área de olho de lombo (P = 0,07) quando comparados a MON. As maiores doses de OE das folhas de aroeira aumentaram a porcentagem de proteína bruta (P < 0,01) e matéria mineral (P = 0,02) na composição química da carne dos cordeiros. Apesar de não alterar o desempenho dos cordeiros, a inclusão de 0,28 e 0,42% de OE das folhas de aroeira foi capaz de alterar as características de carcaça e composição química da carne, demonstrando o potencial de utilização desse aditivo em dietas para cordeiros confinados. Entretanto, a monensina possui maior capacidade de controlar a coccidiose em cordeiros confinados quando comparado ao OE das folhas da aroeira.(AU)

Animals , Sheep , Anacardiaceae , Ionophores , Animal Feed/analysis , Plant Extracts
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63: e20200111, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132215


Abstract Anticarsia gemmatalis is one of the main pests of the soybean crop, being controlled mainly with agrochemicals. The environmental and health risks, as well as the development of resistance by the pests, has led to the search for alternative control measures, aiming to use more eco-friendly procedures. The objective of this research was to evaluate the chemical composition and the bioactivity of Schinus molle and Schinus terebinthifolia essential oils (EOs) on A. gemmatalis. The major compound in both EOs was α-pinene (60.04 wt.% for S. molle and 38.49 wt.% for S. terebinthifolia). Bioassays were carried out with third instar larvae, with five replicates and each replicate with ten larvae, totaling 50 larvae per treatment. The oils were incorporated in the artificial diet (0.1, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0% v/v). The controls were: water, Tween-80® 0.5% v/v, and novaluron 0.075% v/v. According to the Probit method, the S. terebinthifolia EO presented a LC50 of 1.74% v/v (1.58-1.97% v/v); it was not possible to determine the LC50 for the S. molle EO. The mortality percentage after 24 and 48 h was 52% and 30% at 2.0% v/v for S. terebinthifolia and S. molle oil, respectively. After 72 h, the mortality rate for S. molle EO have not changed; for S. terebinthifolia EO it increased to 70%; the larvae treated with the chemical control (synthetic insecticide) had a mortality of 100%.

Animals , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Anacardiaceae/chemistry , Lepidoptera/drug effects , Biological Assay , Lethal Dose 50
Diagn. tratamento ; 24(4): [153-157], out - dez. 2019. fig, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1049386


Contexto e objetivos: Aroeira é o nome popular de árvores da família Anacardiaceae, que inclui plantas sensibilizantes como a poison ivy norte-americana (Toxicodendron radicans), o cajueiro (Anacardium occidentale) e a mangueira (Mangifera indica). Este estudo procura caracterizar o conhecimento sobre as aroeiras e a frequência de manifestações clínicas em camponeses. Desenho e local: Foi realizado estudo retrospectivo e prospectivo com pacientes e acompanhantes residentes em ampla área rural de cerrado no Centro-Oeste paulista. Métodos: A frequência e a relação causal entre a exposição a aroeiras, comuns na região, e a dermatite eczematosa típica foi pesquisada. Para a avaliação, foi utilizado um questionário específico. Resultados: Todos os 39 entrevistados conheciam aroeiras (100%) e 17 deles (43,58%) relataram ter se aproximado ou descansado sob essas árvores. Mais da metade deles (56,41% ou 22 indivíduos) relataram dermatites que relacionaram às arvores. Os demais entrevistados não desenvolveram reações, mas conheciam pessoas que o fizeram (43,59%). Três pacientes, ou 7,69% da amostra, apresentavam lesões de padrão eczematoso, creditando-as ao contato com aroeiras-bravas (Lithraea molleoides). Discussão: Devido à alta frequência com que essas árvores são encontradas no campo (cerrado brasileiro) e aos dados obtidos, percebemos também uma alta frequência de sensibilização nas áreas rurais. Conclusões: É imperativo que as campanhas de orientação e alerta sejam desenvolvidas para aumentar a conscientização sobre riscos potenciais, de modo que o contato com essas árvores seja evitado, evitando condições alérgicas que podem ser tão extensas quanto graves.

Public Health , Retrospective Studies , Anacardiaceae , Dermatitis, Contact , Toxicity , Hypersensitivity
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 35(5): 1575-1587, sept./oct. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1049056


Several technologies have been developed to controlAedes aegypti, mainly studies on isolated plant molecules. The Schinus terebinthifolius (Raddi) (Anacardiaceae), popularly known as pink pepper is a plant widely used in reforestation of degraded areas and its fruits are used as condiments. The objective of this work was to investigate the potential of essential oils (EOs) and fractions (FRs) obtained from fresh fruits and leaves of S. terebinthifolius. The EOs were obtained by hydrodistillation (2 hours), fractionated on a chromatographic column using as the stationary phase silica gel 60 (0.063-0.2mm), mobile phases: n-hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and methanol and chemically evaluated by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometer (GC/MS). EOs and FRs were tested against larvae of the third stage and pupae of Ae. aegypti by Immersion Test at concentrations ranging from 500.00 to 0.003 mg mL-1 (v/v). The hexane FRs obtained from fruits and leaves were the ones that showed the greatest activity on the larvae (LC99.9= 0.60 mg mL-1 and LC99.9 0.64 mg mL-1, respectively) and pupae (LC99,9 = 2.51 mg mL-1 and 2.61 mg mL-1, respectively). These results were confirmed by the anticholinesterase activity where the hexane (fruit and leaf) FRs presented the highest inhibitory potential on the acetylcholinesterase enzyme (0.156 mg mL-1 and 0.312 mg mL-1, respectively), suggesting the likely mechanism of action. The larvicidal potential can be explained by the presence of the major compounds bicyclogermacrene and germacrene D in the hexane FRs, indicating in this way that they may replace or even act in synergisms with conventional chemical larvicides. In this way the present study opens the field for new researches, aiming the development of products with the compounds bicyclogermacrene and germacrene D, as an alternative in the control of this culicide.

Diversas tecnologias têm sido desenvolvidas para o controle do Aedes aegypti, destacando pesquisas com moléculas isoladas de plantas. A Schinus terebinthifolius (Raddi) (Anacardiaceae), conhecida popularmente como pimenta rosa é uma planta muito utilizada no reflorestamento de áreas degradadas e seus frutos são utilizados como condimentos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar o potencial dos óleosessenciais (OEs) e frações (FRs) obtidos dos frutos e folhas frescos de S. terebinthifolius. Os OEs foram obtidos por hidrodestilação (2 horas), fracionados em coluna cromatográfica utilizando como fase estacionária sílica gel 60 (0,063-0,2mm), fases móveis: n-hexano, diclorometano, acetato de etila e metanol e avaliados quimicamente por cromatografia gasosa acoplada à espectrometria de massas (CG/EM). Os OEs e FRs foram testados frente a larvas do terceiro estádio e pupas do Ae. aegypti pelo Teste de Imersão em concentrações que variaram de 500,00 à 0,003 mg/mL (v/v). As FRs hexano obtidas dos frutos e folhas, foram as que apresentaram maior atividade sobre as larvas (CL99,9= 0,60 mg mL-1 e CL99,9 0,64 mg mL-1, respectivamente) e pupas (CL99,9= 2,51mg mL-1 e 2,61 mg mL-1, respectivamente). Estes resultados foram confirmados pela atividade anticolinesterase onde as FRs hexano (fruto e folha), foram as que apresentaram maior potencial inibitório sobre a enzima acetilcolinesterase (0,156 mg mL-1 e 0,312 mg mL-1, respectivamente), sugerindo desta forma o provável mecanismo de ação. O potencial larvicida encontrado pode ser explicado pela presença dos compostos majoritários biciclogermacreno e germacreno D nas FRs hexano, indicando desta forma, queestes possam vir a substituir, ou até mesmo agir em sinergismos com os larvicidas químicos convencionais. Desta forma o presente estudo abre campo para novas pesquisas, visando o desenvolvimento de produtos com os compostos bicyclogermacrene e germacrene D, como alternativa no controle deste culicídeo.

Oils, Volatile , Aedes , Anacardiaceae
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 35(2): 540-560, mar./apr. 2019. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1048609


Studies on the drying kinetics of medicinal, aromatic and spice plants are a necessary step towards establishing the combination of drying parameters that would not qualitatively and quantitatively alter the quality of the fresh product. The purpose of this study was to investigate the drying kinetics of Brazilian peppertree (Schinus terebinthifolius) leaves and to verify whether the theoretical diffusion and the semi-empirical Lewis drying models were capable of accurately predicting the drying curves of the product at 35, 40, and 45°C, with a dry air mass flow rate of 0.731 kg s-1 m-2. Leaves were collected at 0800 h, 1200 h and 1700 h. The goodness of fit between experimental and predicted values was based on the correlation coefficient, root mean square error, mean absolute percentage error, mean bias error, and fit index. Residual plot analysis was also considered in the selection of the most effective drying model. Temperature had a pronounced effect on mass transfer and drying rate decreased continuously during the course of drying. Leaf collection time had little influence on the drying kinetics. Effective moisture diffusivity was found to increase with temperature. The results indicated that the Lewis model was considered a better predictor of the thin-layer drying behaviour of Brazilian peppertree leaves than the theoretical model based on Fick's second law of diffusion.

Estudos sobre a cinética da secagem de plantas medicinais, aromáticas e condimentares são necessários para o estabelecimento de parâmetros operacionais de secagem de forma a não alterar significativamente a qualidade e o perfil fitoquímico dessas plantas. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi investigar a cinética da secagem das folhas da aroeira-vermelha (Schinus terebinthifolius), além de verificar se o modelo teórico de difusão e o modelo semi-empírico de Lewis são capazes de predizer com acurácia as curvas de secagem do produto a 35, 40 e 45°C, com fluxo de ar seco de 0,731 kg s-1 m-2. As folhas foram coletadas às 8:00, 12:00 e 17:00 h. O grau de adequação dos valores obtidos pelas curvas de secagem àqueles obtidos experimentalmente foi avaliado empregando-se o coeficiente de determinação, a raiz do erro quadrático médio, o erro percentual absoluto médio, o viés médio e o índice de ajuste. A análise da dispersão dos resíduos também foi utilizada na escolha do modelo de predição mais efetivo. Observou-se que a temperatura tem efeito significativo na transferência de massa e a taxa de secagem diminuiu continuamente ao longo da secagem. O horário de coleta das folhas não teve influência significativa sobre a cinética da secagem. A difusividade efetiva da água aumentou com o aumento da temperatura. Os resultados evidenciaram que o modelo de Lewis descreve com maior grau de acurácia a secagem de folhas de aroeira-vermelha que o modelo teórico baseado na Segunda Lei de Difusão de Fick.

Plants, Medicinal , Anacardiaceae , Kinetics
Natural Product Sciences ; : 354-357, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786423


Toxicodendron vernicifluum, also called as Rhus verniciflua is a deciduous tree belonging to Anacardiaceae family. Two new caffeoyl threonate esters, rhuseols A (1) and B (2), together with 5-O-(E)-caffeoylquinic acid methyl ester (3) were isolated from the leaves of T. vernicifluum. The structures of isolated compounds were established by using 1D and 2D NMR in combination with HR-ESI-MS. Compounds 1 – 3 showed DPPH radical scavenging effects with IC₅₀ values of 47.9, 107.8 and 15.4 µM, respectively. Taken together, these compounds might contribute to the antioxidant properties of the leaves of T. vernicifluum, which will be useful for various oxidative stress mediated diseases.

Anacardiaceae , Antioxidants , Esters , Humans , Oxidative Stress , Rhus , Toxicodendron , Trees
Asia Pacific Allergy ; (4): e25-2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-750186


BACKGROUND: The Pink peppercorn belongs to the same Anacardiaceae family as cashew and pistachio. However, the cross-reactivity of pink peppercorn with cashew and pistachio has yet to be studied. To date, there has been a single case report of anaphylaxis to pink peppercorn in a cashew and pistachio allergic individual. OBJECTIVE: We aim to demonstrate cross-sensitization to pink peppercorn in cashew and/or pistachio allergic children. METHODS: A small descriptive cohort study looking at cross-sensitization of pink peppercorn in cashew and/or pistachio allergic children was conducted. Children with a history of reaction to pistachio and/or cashew nut underwent skin prick tests to the pink peppercorn species Schinus terebinthifolius to determine cross-sensitization. RESULTS: Out of the 21 cashew and/or pistachio allergic subjects, 16 (76.2%) demonstrated cross-sensitization to pink peppercorn. None of the subjects had any knowledge of previous exposure or allergic reactions to pink peppercorn. DISCUSSION: This study demonstrates potential cross-reactivity between pink peppercorn and cashew and pistachio. While an oral food challenge to pink peppercorn would have been important in demonstrating clinical cross-reactivity, this was not performed due to ethical constraints. We hope to increase the awareness of pink peppercorn as a potential and hidden source of allergen and encourage further studies to demonstrate the clinical cross-reactivity and to better delineate the major allergen involved.

Anacardiaceae , Anacardium , Anaphylaxis , Child , Cohort Studies , Cross Reactions , Food Hypersensitivity , Hope , Humans , Hypersensitivity , Nuts , Pistacia , Skin
Braz. J. Vet. Res. Anim. Sci. (Online) ; 56(3): e153845, out. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1046820


Essential oil (EO) from Brazilian red pepper fruit contains compounds with antimicrobial activity, and could be possible substitutes for the antibiotics commonly used in ruminant nutrition. The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the effects of the Brazilian red pepper fruit EO (Schinus terebinthifolius) as a substitute for monensin on performance, carcass characteristics and meat of lambs fed high concentrate diets. Forty-eight lambs were used, 24 males (20 ½ Dorper × ½ Santa Inês and 4 Santa Inês) and 24 females (24 ½ Dorper × ½ Santa Inês), with 21.54 ± 0.88 kg of initial body weight (BW) and 78 ± 2.4 days of age, in a randomized complete block design. The experiment lasted 56 days, divided into 2 periods of 28 days each. The treatments were defined by the inclusion in diets of 8 ppm of monensin (MON), and the doses 0.14% (14EO), 0.28% (28EO) and 0.42% (42EO) of red pepper fruit EO. The additives were included in a base diet with a 10:90 of forage to concentrate ratio. At the end of 56 days, 32 animals were slaughtered for the measurement of carcass parameters and meat composition. There was no interaction among treatments and periods for average daily gain (P = 0.08), DM intake (P = 0.36), feed efficiency (P = 0.24) and oocyst of Eimeria ssp. in feces (P = 0.46). The treatments did not affect (P > 0.05) the average daily gain (ADG), dry matter intake (DMI) and feed efficiency. Lambs fed diets containing monensin had less (P < 0.01) oocyst/g compared with the diet 14EO. There was no effect of diets on carcass characteristics. The treatments with higher doses of the Brazilian red pepper fruit EO had reduced mineral content of meat compared to monensin. The red pepper fruit EO demonstrated the potential to replace monensin in feedlot lambs fed high concentrate diets, maintaining performance and carcass characteristics. However, the monensin has greater capacity to control coccidiosis in feedlot lambs.

Os óleos essenciais (OE) dos frutos de aroeira possuem compostos com atividade antimicrobiana, sendo possíveis substitutos aos antibióticos comumente utilizados na nutrição de ruminantes. Os objetivos do presente estudo foram avaliar os efeitos da inclusão do óleo essencial de aroeira fruta (Schinus terebinthifolius) como substituto da monensina sobre o desempenho, características de carcaça e da carne de cordeiros alimentados com dietas contendo elevado teor de concentrado. Foram utilizados 48 cordeiros, 24 machos (20 ½ Dorper × ½ Santa Inês e 4 Santa Inês) e 24 fêmeas (24 ½ Dorper × ½ Santa Inês), com peso inicial de 21,54 ± 0,88 kg e 78 ± 2,4 dias de idade, em delineamento de blocos completos casualizados. O experimento teve duração de 56 dias, divididos em 2 períodos de 28 dias cada. Os tratamentos foram definidos pela inclusão na dieta de 8 ppm de monensina sódica (MON) e as doses de 0,14% (14EO), 0,28% (28EO) e 0,42% (42EO) de óleo essencial dos frutos da aroeira. As dietas experimentais foram compostas por 10% de volumoso e 90% de concentrado. Ao final dos 56 dias, 32 animais foram abatidos para a mensuração dos parâmetros de carcaça e análise química da carne. Não houve interação entre tratamento e período para o ganho médio diário (P = 0,08), consumo de MS (P = 0,36), eficiência alimentar (P = 0,24) e contagem de oocistos de Eimeria ssp. (P = 0,46). Não houve efeito (P > 0,05) dos tratamentos no ganho de peso médio diário (GMD), consumo de matéria seca (CMS) e eficiência alimentar (EA). Cordeiros alimentados com dietas contendo monensina tiveram menor (P < 0,01) contagem de oocistos/g de fezes comparado com a dieta 14OE. Não houve efeito das dietas sobre as características de carcaça. A inclusão de 0,28 e 0,42% de OE de aroeira fruto reduziram a concentração de matéria mineral da carne dos cordeiros comparados ao tratamento MON. O OE dos frutos da aroeira demonstrou capacidade de substituir a monensina, apresentando resultados similares com relação ao desempenho e características de carcaça. Entretanto, a monensina apresentou maior capacidade no controle de coccidiose

Animals , Oils, Volatile/administration & dosage , Sheep/immunology , Monensin/analogs & derivatives , Anacardiaceae/enzymology
J. appl. oral sci ; 27: e20180514, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1012510


Abstract Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the effect of Myracrodruon urundeuva All. and Qualea grandiflora Mart. leaves hydroalcoholic extracts on viability and metabolism of a microcosm biofilm and on enamel demineralization prevention. Methodology: Microcosm biofilm was produced on bovine enamel using inoculum from pooled human saliva mixed with McBain saliva, under 0.2% sucrose exposure, for 14 days. The biofilm was daily-treated with the extracts for 1 min. At the end, it was analyzed with respect to viability by fluorescence, CFU counting and extracellular polysaccharides (phenol-sulphuric acid colorimetric assay) and lactic acid (enzymatic assay) production. The demineralization was measured by TMR. The data were compared using ANOVA or Kruskal-Wallis (p<0.05). Results: M. urundeuva All. at 100, 10 and 0.1 μg/mL and Q. grandiflora Mart. at 100 and 0.1 μg/mL reduced biofilm viability similarly to positive control (chlorhexidine) and significantly more than the negative-vehicle control (35% ethanol). M. urundeuva at 1000, 100 and 0.1 μg/mL were able to reduce both lactobacilli and mutans streptococci CFU counting, while Q. grandiflora (1000 and 1.0 μg/mL) significantly reduced mutans streptococci CFU counting. On the other hand, the natural extracts were unable to significantly reduce extracellular polysaccharides and lactic acid productions neither the development of enamel carious lesions. Conclusions: The extracts showed antimicrobial properties on microcosm biofilm, however, they had no effect on biofilm metabolism and caries protection.

Animals , Male , Cattle , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Tooth Demineralization/prevention & control , Biofilms/drug effects , Anacardiaceae/chemistry , Myrtales/chemistry , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Polysaccharides, Bacterial/metabolism , Saliva/chemistry , Streptococcus mutans/drug effects , Microradiography/methods , Colony Count, Microbial , Cariostatic Agents/pharmacology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Reproducibility of Results , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Lactic Acid/metabolism , Dental Enamel/drug effects , Dental Enamel/microbiology , Microbial Viability/drug effects , Lactobacillus/drug effects
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 34(6 Supplement 1): 90-96, nov./dec. 2018.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-968857


Some essential oils are rich in nematicidal compounds and can be used for the management of plant-parasitic nematodes. Laboratory and field studies aiming to evaluate the efficiency of this compounds are necessary. The objective of this research was to assess the nematicidal potential of essential oils from leaves of Ageratum fastigiatum and Callistemon viminalis, and green and mature fruits of Schinus terebinthifolius on the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne javanica. In laboratory, the essential oil of S. terebinthifolius green fruits reduced hatching by more than 80% and increased juvenile mortality by 300% when compared to Tween 20 + water. In the field, none of the essential oils controlled M. javanica in lettuce. In conclusion, the essential oil of S. terebinthifolius green fruits reduces the egg hatching and kills J2 of M. javanica in laboratory. In an infested field with an average of 555 J2/100 cm3 of soil, the application of the essential oils of S. terebinthifolius, C. viminalis and A. fastigiatum does not control M. javanica in lettuce.

Alguns óleos essenciais são ricos em compostos nematicidas e poderiam ser usados no manejo de fitonematoides. Estudos laboratoriais e de campo que visam avaliar a eficiência desses compostos são necessários. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar o potencial nematicida de óleos essenciais de folhas de Ageratum fastigiatum e Callistemon viminalis e frutos verdes e maduros de Schinus terebinthifolius sobre o nematoide de galhas Meloidogyne javanica. Em laboratório, o óleo essencial de frutos verdes de S. terebinthifolius reduziu mais de 80% a eclosão e aumentou em 300% a mortalidade de juvenis em comparação com Tween 20 + água. No campo, nenhum óleo essencial controlou M. javanica em alface. Em conclusão, o óleo de frutos verdes de S. terebinthifolius reduz a eclosão e mata J2 de M. javanica em laboratório. Em campo com infestação média de 555 J2/100 cm3 de solo, a aplicação dos óleos essenciais de S. terebinthifolius, C. viminalis e A. fastigiatum não controla M. javanica em alface.

Tylenchoidea , Oils, Volatile , Lettuce , Anacardiaceae , Ageratum , Antinematodal Agents
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 34(2): 326-332, mar./apr. 2018. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-966642


A aggravating problems in forest management is weed interference, which is a factor that modifies adaptation and reduces plant growth. The use of herbicides is an indispensable practice to mitigate these effects in reforestation areas. This study aimed to evaluate the selectivity of glyphosate and imazapyr in native plants of the Brazilian Cerrado, such as: Schinus terebinthifolia (Anacardiaceae), Peltophorum dubium (Fabaceae) and Handroanthus albus (Bignoniaceae). The trial was carried out in a greenhouse at Unit of Aquidauana/UEMS. Experimental design was completely randomized, with seven treatments and five replications. Selectivity of the herbicides in the seedlings of these species was evaluated at 7, 14, 21, 28 and 60 days after application (DAA) of the herbicides, by means of a percentage scale of notes, where 0% corresponds to no injury and 100% corresponds to plant death. At the same time, for the weed control evaluation, visual analysis was also performed at 7, 14, 21, 28 and 60 DAA of the herbicides, where 100% was considered plant death and 0% no injury to weed. Imazapyr herbicide, when applied in the initial post-emergence in its lower level, it is selective to the tree species, but in the other concentrations it can affect differently the survival of them. Glyphosate herbicide was the least selective to the tree species in its different concentrations, causing phytotoxic effects with changes in the seedlings morphology. The results of this study could help in the integrated management of weeds and contribute to the efficient herbicide use in planting forest species in the Cerrado.

Um dos problemas mais agravantes no manejo florestal é a interferência que as plantas daninhas podem causar no desenvolvimento e crescimento das plantas. O uso de herbicidas é uma prática indispensável para atenuar esses efeitos em áreas de reflorestamento. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a seletividade dos herbicidas glyphosate e imazapyr em mudas de espécies nativas do Cerrado brasileiro, tais como: Schinus terebinthifolia (Anacardiaceae), Peltophorum dubium (Fabaceae) e Handroanthus albus (Bignoniaceae). O experimento foi conduzido em Casa de Vegetação, na Unidade Universitária de Aquidauana/UEMS. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com sete tratamentos e cinco repetições. A seletividade dos herbicidas nas mudas destas espécies foi avaliada aos 7, 14, 21, 28 e 60 dias após aplicação (DAA) dos herbicidas, por meio de uma escala percentual de notas, em que 0% corresponde a nenhuma injúria e 100% corresponde a morte da planta. Paralelamente, para a avaliação do controle das plantas daninhas também foi realizada analise visual aos 7, 14, 21, 28 e 60 dias após aplicação (DAA) dos herbicidas, através da avaliação visual de controle, onde 100% consideram-se morte da daninha e 0% nenhuma injúria à planta daninha. O herbicida imazapyr aplicado em pós-emergência inicial em sua menor dosagem é seletivo as espécies arbóreas, mas em maiores concentrações pode afetar sua sobrevivência de forma diferenciada nas espécies. O herbicida glyphosate foi o menos seletivo às espécies arbóreas em suas diferentes concentrações, causando intoxicações às mudas com alterações em sua morfologia. Os resultados deste trabalho podem auxiliar no manejo integrado de plantas daninhas e contribuir para o uso eficiente de herbicidas em plantios de espécies florestais no cerrado.

Grassland , Anacardiaceae , Tabebuia , Herbicides
Bauru; s.n; 2018. 132 p. tab, graf, ilus.
Thesis in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-906807


The objective of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial and anti-caries effects of two plant extracts. The first chapter dealt with a review of the literature whose objective was to discuss the antimicrobial potential of Brazilian natural agents on the biofilm related to dental caries and gingivitis/periodontal disease. The research of the articles was carried out using PubMed. We found a total of 23 papers. Most of the studies were performed using planktonic microorganisms or under clinical trials. Nineteen articles were focused on cariogenic bacteria. From these nineteen articles, eleven were also about periodontopathogenic bacteria. Four studies addressed only periodontopathogenic bacteria. The most tested Brazilian natural agents were green propolis, essential oils of Lippia sidoides and Copaifera sp. Most of the tested agents showed similar results when compared to positive control (essential oils and extracts) or better effect than negative control (green propolis). More studies involving protocols closer to the clinical condition and the use of response variables that allows understanding the mechanism of action of natural agents are necessary before the incorporation of these natural agents into dental products. The second chapter aimed to test the effect of the hydroalcoholic extracts of Myracrodruon urundeuva All. and Qualea grandiflora Mart. leaves on the viability of the microcosm biofilm and on the prevention of enamel demineralization. The microcosm biofilm was produced on bovine enamel, using human saliva pool mixed with McBain saliva (0.2% sucrose) for 14 days. The biofilm was treated daily with the extracts for 1 min. M. urundeuva at 100, 10 and 0.1 µg/ml and Q. grandiflora at 100 and 0.1 µg/ml reduced cell viability similarly to the positive control and significantly more than negative control. M. urundeuva at 1000, 100 and 0.1 µg/ml were able to reduce the counting formation unit-CFU counting of lactobacilli sp. and Streptococcus mutans, while Q. grandiflora at 1000 and 1.0 µg/ml significantly reduced the S. mutans CFU counting. On the other hand, the natural extracts did not reduce the production of extracellular polyssacharides, lactic acid and the development of enamel caries lesions. The third chapter aimed to evaluate the effect of hydroalcoholic extracts of M. urundeuva and Q. grandiflora (alone or combined) on the viability of S. mutans biofilm and the prevention of enamel demineralization. S. mutans strain (ATCC 21175) was reactivated in BHI broth. Minimum inhibitory concentration, minimum bactericidal concentration, minimum biofilm inhibitory concentration and minimum biofilm eradication concentration were determined to choose the concentrations to be tested under the biofilm model. S. mutans biofilm (5x105 CFU/ml) was produced on bovine enamel using McBain saliva with 0.2% sucrose for 3 days. The biofilm was treated daily with the extracts for 1 min. M. urundeuva (isolated or combined) at concentrations equal or higher than 0.625 mg/ml was able to reduce the bacteria viability, whereas Q. grandiflora extract alone showed antimicrobial effect at 5 mg/ml only (p<0.05). On the other hand, none of the extracts was able to reduce the development of enamel caries lesions. Despite the tested natural extracts have antimicrobial effect; they are unable to prevent caries in enamel.(AU)

O objetivo foi avaliar os efeitos antimicrobiano e anti-cárie de dois extratos de plantas. O primeiro capítulo se referiu a uma revisão da literatura cujo objetivo foi discutir o potencial antimicrobiano dos agentes naturais brasileiros sobre o biofilme relacionado à cárie dentária e à gengivite/doença periodontal. A pesquisa dos artigos foi realizada usando o PubMed. Foram encontrados 23 trabalhos. A maioria dos estudos foi realizada utilizando microorganismos na fase planctônica ou ensaios clínicos. Dezenove artigos foram focados em bactérias cariogênicas. Dos dezenove artigos, onze também eram sobre bactérias periodontopatogênicas. Quatro estudos abordaram apenas bactérias periodontopatogênicas. Os agentes naturais brasileiros mais testados foram própolis verde, óleos essenciais de Lippia sidoides e Copaifera sp. Os agentes testados apresentaram resultados similares quando comparados ao controle positivo (óleos essenciais e extratos) ou melhor efeito que o controle negativo (própolis verde). Mais estudos próximos da condição clínica e o uso de variáveis de resposta que permitam entender o mecanismo de ação são necessários, para permitir a incorporação desses agentes naturais em produtos odontológicos. O segundo capítulo teve como objetivo testar o efeito dos extratos hidroalcoólicos de Myracrodruon urundeuva All. e Qualea grandiflora Mart. sobre a viabilidade do biofilme microcosmo e na prevenção da desmineralização do esmalte. O biofilme microcosmo foi produzido em esmalte bovino, utilizando pool de saliva humana misturada à saliva de McBain (0,2% de sacarose) durante 14 dias. O biofilme foi tratado diariamente com os extratos durante 1 min. M. urundeuva a 100, 10 e 0,1 µg/ml e Q. grandiflora a 100 e 0,1 µg/ml reduziram a viabilidade dos microrganismos de forma semelhante ao controle positivo e significativamente maior do que o controle negativo. M. urundeuva a 1000, 100 e 0,1 µg/ml foi capaz de reduzir a contagem de Unidade formadora de colônia-UFC para Lactobacilos totais e Streptococcus mutans, enquanto a Q. grandiflora a 1000 e 1,0 µg/ml reduziu significativamente a contagem de UFC para S. mutans. Os extratos naturais não conseguiram reduzir a produção de polissacarídeos extracelulares-PEC, ácido lático e o desenvolvimento da lesão cariosa em esmalte. O terceiro capítulo teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito dos extratos hidroalcoólicos de M. urundeuva. e Q. grandiflora (sozinhos ou combinados) sobre a viabilidade do biofilme de S. mutans e na prevenção da desmineralização do esmalte. Cepa de S. mutans (ATCC 21175) foi reativada em caldo BHI. Concentração inibitória mínima, concentração bactericida mínima, concentração inibitória mínima de biofilme e concentração de erradicação mínima de biofilme foram determinadas para escolher as concentrações a serem testadas sob o modelo de biofilme. O biofilme de S. mutans (5x105 CFU/ml) foi produzido em esmalte bovino, utilizando saliva de McBain com 0,2% de sacarose durante 3 dias. O biofilme foi tratado diariamente com os extratos durante 1 min. M. urundeuva (isolada ou combinada) nas concentrações iguais ou superiores a 0,625 mg/ml foi capaz de reduzir a viabilidade das bactérias, enquanto que o extrato da Q. grandflora apresentou efeito antimicrobiano somente a 5 mg/ml (p<0,05). Nenhum dos extratos reduziu o desenvolvimento da lesão da cárie. Apesar dos extratos naturais terem efeito antimicrobiano, são incapazes de prevenir o desenvolvimento da lesão cariosa em esmalte.(AU)

Humans , Animals , Cattle , Anacardiaceae/chemistry , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Biofilms/drug effects , Dental Enamel/microbiology , Magnoliopsida/chemistry , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Tooth Demineralization/prevention & control , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Microradiography , Reproducibility of Results , Saliva/microbiology , Streptococcus mutans/drug effects , Streptococcus mutans/growth & development , Time Factors
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 32: e42, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889494


Abstract: Based on aroeira's (Myracrodruon urundeuva) antimicrobial activity and a future trend to compose intracanal medication, the aim of this study was to assess in vivo inflamatory tissue response to the extracts by edemogenic and histological analysis containing inactivated facultative and anaerobic microorganisms. For edema quantification, eighteen animals were divided into three groups (n = 3, periods: 3 and 6 hours) and 0.2 mL of 1% Evans blue per 100 g of body weight was injected into the penile vein under general anesthesia. After 30 min the animals received a subcutaneous injection in the dorsal region of aqueous or ethanolic extract of aroeira or saline (control) containing inactivated bacteria. Samples were collected, immersed in formamide for 72h, and evaluated by spectrophotometry (630 m). For histological analysis, polyethylene tubes with the extracts were implanted in the dorsal of 30 male rats. Analysis of the fibrous capsule and inflammatory infiltrate were performed after 7 and 30 days. The aqueous extract group induced less edema in both postoperative periods compared to the other groups, but the differences were not significant (p > 0.05). Tissue repair was significantly better after 30 days than after 7 days (p < 0.01). The aqueous solution showed less inflammatory response than the ethanolic solution (p < 0.05), with tendency for better results than control after 7 days. After 30 days, the response to both extracts was similar to control. The aqueous and ethanolic aroeira extracts containing inactivated microorganisms showed a trend for better results than saline, even when associated with microorganisms, and facilitated the tissue repair process.

Animals , Male , Rats , Anacardiaceae/chemistry , Edema/prevention & control , Gram-Negative Bacteria/drug effects , Gram-Positive Bacteria/drug effects , Inflammation/prevention & control , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Subcutaneous Tissue/microbiology , Edema/pathology , Gram-Negative Bacteria/classification , Gram-Positive Bacteria/classification , Inflammation/pathology , Rats, Wistar , Subcutaneous Tissue/drug effects , Subcutaneous Tissue/pathology , Time Factors
Natural Product Sciences ; : 272-283, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741630


The root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita caused a serious damage to many plants. The phenolic components of the leaves of Schinus terebinthifolius were investigated as potential nematicidal agents for M. incognita. Nine compounds were isolated and characterized as viz., 1,2,3,4,6-pentagalloyl glucose (1), kaempferol-3-O-α-L-rhamnoside (Afzelin) (2), quercetin-3-O-α-L-rhamnoside (Quercetrin) (3), myricetin (4), myricetin-3-O-α-L-rhamnoside (Myricetrin) (5), methylgallate (6), protocatechuic acid (7), quercetin (8), and gallic acid (9) using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Compound 1 showed pronounced nematicidal activity compared to Oxamyl as a positive control. It showed the lowest eggs-hatchability (34%) and the highest mortality in nematode population (21% after 72 hours of treatment) at a concentration of 200 µg/mL. It exhibited the best suppressed total nematode population, root galling and number of eggmasses in infected tomato plants. The total carbohydrates and proteins were also significantly induced by 1 with reduction in total phenolics and increase in defense-related proteins. Thus, compound 1 could be a promising, more safe and effective natural nematicidal agent for the control of root-knot nematodes.

Anacardiaceae , Carbohydrates , Gallic Acid , Glucose , Lycopersicon esculentum , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Mortality , Phenol , Quercetin , Spectrum Analysis , Tylenchoidea
Hig. aliment ; 31(272/273): 42-46, 30/10/2017.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-875915


Frutos menos exigentes quanto ao seu crescimento, acabam por se tornar cultivos atraentes em regiões mais secas, como é o caso da região Nordeste. Com tal característica, merecem destaque os frutos de cajá e umbu-cajá, inseridos na categoria de tropicais, sendo estes de grande interesse dos consumidores e, consequentemente, das indústrias. O presente estudo teve por objetivo, avaliar as qualidades físico-químicas e microbiológicas das polpas de umbu-cajá e cajá comercializadas no município de Mossoró, RN. As amostras foram obtidas, de modo aleatório, em supermercados da cidade e transportadas ao Laboratório para realização das análises. Tomando como base a legislação vigente, constata-se que os valores obtidos às análises físico- -químicas e microbiológicas das polpas de cajá, apresentaram-se adequados. No entanto, as divergências para os dados do umbu-cajá mostram a necessidade de uma legislação para fixação de padrões do fruto.(AU)

Anacardiaceae , Food Samples , Fruit/microbiology , Food Quality Standards , Frozen Foods , Chemical Phenomena
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 33(5): 1321-1331, sept./oct. 2017. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-966372


Myracrodruon urundeuva Fr. All. is a medicinal plant of the Caatinga biome, in brazilian northeast. This region is characterized by prolonged dry periods but little is known about the plants mechanisms to tolerate low water availability during their initial phase of growth and establishment seedling. The objective of this project was to evaluate morphological and anatomic characteristics of M. urundeuva seedlings submitted to different water levels in the soil. In a first experiment, the diaspores were sown in trays containing soil taken from the place of occurrence of the species. The substratum was moistened with water to reach 10 to 60% of the soil water retention capacity, with 5% intervals. In a second experiment, the diaspores were sown in the substratum kept at 60% of its water retention capacity for 15 days for the total seedling emergence since this is the most favorable condition for the species as identified during the first phase of this experiment. After that period, plant watering was suspended and the seedling kept in substrata at 60, 30, 25, 20, 15, and 10% of their water holding capacity for an additional period of 10 days, both experiments performed in protected environment. The increasing reduction in water availability led to a reduction in the number of leaves, the leaf area and leaflet thickness, the number of stomata in the leaf and in the cotyledon, the root length and the diameter of the central root. Characteristics such as the stem length, length, width and thickness of the cotyledon were not modified by the hydric stress.

Myracrodruon urundeuva Fr. All. é uma espécie medicinal da Caatinga. Este bioma apresenta períodos de grande seca, mas pouco se sabe sobre os mecanismos de tolerância destas plantas à falta de água no início do seu desenvolvimento e estabelecimento da plântula. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar as características morfoanatômicas de plântulas M. urundeuva submetidas a diferentes níveis de água no solo. Em um primeiro experimento, os diásporos foram semeados em terra coletada no local de ocorrência da espécie, em bandejas. O substrato foi umedecido com água em condições de 10 a 60% da capacidade de retenção, com intervalos de 5%. Num segundo experimento, os diásporos foram semeados no substrato mantido umedecido a 60% da capacidade de retenção de água por 15 dias, para a total emergência das plântulas, por ser esta a condição mais favorável à espécie identificada na primeira etapa do trabalho. Após este período, as regas foram interrompidas e as mudas foram mantidas em substrato umedecido com 60; 30; 25; 20; 15 e 10% de capacidade de retenção por mais 10 dias, ambos experimentos realizados em ambiente protegidos. Concluiu-se que redução progressiva da água disponível no solo fez diminuir o número de folhas; área foliar e espessura do folíolo; o número de estômatos da folha e no cotilédone, o comprimento da raiz e o diâmetro do cilindro central da raiz de M. urundeuva. Características como comprimento de caule, comprimento, largura e espessura do cotilédone não foram modificadas pela condição de estresse hídrico do ambiente.

Anacardiaceae , Dehydration , Seedlings