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Biosci. j. (Online) ; 39: e39001, 2023. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1425129


Molecular markers are important tools in the characterization of plant genetic diversity and can provide support for conservation strategies for endangered populations. The different molecular techniques involve the evaluation of many individuals; therefore, it is crucial to have fast, efficient, and inexpensive methods for DNA extraction. Given the importance of the Aroeira (Myracrodruon urundeuva Fr. All.) it is pertinent to optimize a protocol that allows the obtainment of intact and pure DNA, aiming to assist conservation strategies for this species that is threatened with extinction. Thus, this study aimed to compare five DNA extraction methods: Dellaporta et al. (1983), Doyle and Doyle (1987) modified, Ferreira and Grattapaglia (1995), Romano and Brasileiro (2015), and Khanuja et al. (1999) and optimize the most efficient protocol for M. urundeuva. The modified DNA extraction protocol proposed by Doyle and Doyle (1987), using 100 mg of leaf tissue and 6 µl of ß-mercaptoethanol was the protocol that presented the sharpest bands after DNA electrophoresis and after the reactions of amplification employing Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Therefore, it is suggested to use the protocol described by Doyle and Doyle (1987) modified for the extraction of DNA from young M. urundeuva leaves to carry out techniques involving molecular markers.

DNA/isolation & purification , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Anacardiaceae , Cetrimonium
Int. j. morphol ; 40(3): 781-788, jun. 2022. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385681


SUMMARY: High-intensity physical exercises can cause oxidative stress and muscle damage. Several medicinal plants have been used as antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agents. The present study evaluated high-intensity resistance exercise (HIRE) associated with Schinus Terebentifholius ethanolic extract (EE) on oxidative parameters and muscle damage in Wistar rats. Animals were divided into 04 groups (n=10/group): 1. Control (CG) - animals that did not undergo HIRE and were treated with vehicle (distilled water, orally); 2. Acute exercise (AE) - animals submitted to acute exercise session; 3. Exercise + vehicle (EV) - animals that underwent HIRE and were treated with vehicle and 4. Exercise + extract (EX) animals administered with Schinus terebenthifolius EE (100mg/Kg, orally) and submitted to the exercise session. Schinus terebenthifolius EE showed high in vitro antioxidant activity (13.88 ± 0.36 mg/mL). Before the experimental period, lactate was measured at pre and post moments of AE (p<0.0001) and EX (p<0.0001) groups. After the acute session, the following were evaluated: oxidative stress {malondialdehyde (MDA), sulfhydryl groups (SH) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP)}, muscle damage (creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). In the in vivo analyses of the EX group compared to AE and EV groups, respectively: hepatic (MDA: p<0.0001 and SH: p=0.0033, in both; FRAP: p=0.0011 and p=0.0047), muscle (MDA, SH and FRAP: p<0.0001, in both; CK: p=0.0001 and p<0.0001; LDH: p<0.0001, in both), serum levels (MDA: p=0.0003, p=0.0012, SH: p=0.0056, p=0.0200, FRAP: p=0.0017 and p=0.0165) were significant. There was no significant difference in ALT and AST markers. It could be concluded that Schinus terebenthifolius EE associated with HIRE attenuated oxidative stress and muscle damage in rats.

RESUMEN: Los ejercicios físicos de alta intensidad pueden causar estrés oxidativo y daño muscular. Varias plantas medicinales se han utilizado como agentes antioxidantes y antiinflamatorios. El presente estudio evaluó el ejercicio de resistencia de alta intensidad (HIRE) asociado con el extracto etanólico (EE) de Schinus terebentifholius sobre los parámetros oxidativos y el daño muscular en ratas Wistar. Los animales se dividieron en 4 grupos (n=10/grupo): 1. Control (GC) - animales que no se sometieron a HIRE y fueron tratados con vehículo (agua destilada, por vía oral); 2. Ejercicio agudo (AE) - animales sometidos a sesión de ejercicio agudo; 3. Ejercicio + vehículo (EV) - animales que se sometieron a HIRE y fueron tratados con vehículo y 4. Ejercicio + extracto (EX) animales administrados con Schinus terebenthifolius EE (100 mg/kg, por vía oral) y sometidos a la sesión de ejercicio. Schinus terebenthifolius EE mostró una alta actividad antioxidante in vitro (13,88 ± 0,36 mg/mL). Antes del período experimental, se midió el lactato en los momentos pre y post de los grupos AE (p<0,0001) y EX (p<0,0001). Tras la sesión aguda, se evaluaron: el estrés oxidativo malondialdehído (MDA), grupos sulfhidrilo (SH) y poder antioxidante reductor férrico (FRAP), daño muscular (creatina quinasa (CK) y lactato deshidrogenasa (LDH)), alanina aminotransferasa (ALT) y aspartato aminotransferasa (AST). En los análisis in vivo del grupo EX frente a los grupos AE y EV, respectivamente: hepático (MDA: p<0,0001 y SH: p=0,0033, en ambos; FRAP: p=0,0011 y p=0,0047), muscular (MDA, SH y FRAP: p<0,0001, en ambos; CK: p=0,0001 y p<0,0001; LDH: p<0,0001, en ambos), niveles séricos (MDA: p=0,0003, p=0,0012, SH: p=0,0056, p=0,0200, FRAP: p=0,0017 y p=0,0165) fueron significativas. No hubo diferencia significativa en los marcadores ALT y AST. Se podría concluir que Schinus terebenthifolius EE asociado con HIRE atenuó el estrés oxidativo y el daño muscular en ratas.

Animals , Rats , Plant Extracts/administration & dosage , Exercise , Anacardiaceae , Antioxidants/administration & dosage , Physical Endurance , Plants, Medicinal , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Biomarkers , Rats, Wistar , Oxidative Stress , Dietary Supplements , Antioxidants/pharmacology
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 21(3): 343-351, mayo 2022. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1396913


Leaf and fruit decoctions of Schinus areira L. from northwest Argentina were investigated here. Phenolic compounds and organic acids were analyzed by HPLC. Antioxidant capacity and α-glucosidase inhibition were determined by using in vitro tests. The general toxicity was assessed against Artemia salina nauplii. Hyperoside and 3 O-caffeoylquinic acid in leaf decoctions; gallic acid and catechin in fruit decoction were the major phenolic compounds. Malic and citric acids were the main organic acid quantified in the leaf and fruit decoctions, respectively. Fruit decoction had a relatively important content of shikimic acid, precursor of Tamiflu. Leaf decoction presents a greater richness in bioactive compounds with antiradical activity against DPPH●, O2●-and ●NO radicals. S. areira leaves and fruits had α-glucosidase inhibitory activity comparable to hyperoside and acarbose. Fruit decoction was not eco-toxic; leaf decoction showed significant eco-toxic activity and could be chosen for the search of other bioactive compounds with pharmacological activity.

Se investigaron decocciones de hojas y frutos de Schinus areira L. del noroeste de Argentina. Compuestos fenólicos y ácidos orgánicos se analizaron mediante HPLC. Capacidad antioxidante e inhibición de α-glucosidasa se determinaron in vitro. Se evaluó toxicidad general con Artemia salina. Los principales compuestos fenólicos fueron hiperósido y ácido 3 O-cafeoilquínico en hojas y ácido gálico y catequina en frutos. Los principales ácidos orgánicos cuantificados fueron málico en hojas y cítrico en frutos. Ácido shikímico, precursor del Tamiflu está presente en decocción de frutos con un contenido relativamente importante. La de hojas presenta una mayor riqueza en compuestos bioactivos con actividad antirradicalaria frente a DPPH●, O2●-y ●NO. Las hojas y frutos de S. areira tenían una actividad inhibidora de la α-glucosidasa comparable a la de hiperósido y acarbosa. La decocción de frutas no fue eco-tóxica, pero sí la de hojas que podría ser fuente de compuestos bioactivos con actividad farmacológica.

Plant Extracts/chemistry , Anacardiaceae/chemistry , Antioxidants/chemistry , Plant Extracts/toxicity , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Organic Acids/analysis , Phenolic Compounds , Glycoside Hydrolase Inhibitors , Fruit/chemistry
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 38: e38048, Jan.-Dec. 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1396142


Nematicidal substances have been identified from plants and are potentially useful for the management of plant-parasitic nematodes. Cabralea canjerana, (Meliaceae) and Schinus terebinthifolius (Anacardiaceae) produce bioactive compounds during their secondary metabolism and little is known about the effect of such substances on plant-parasitic nematodes. In the present study, we assessed the effect of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of C. canjerana and S. terebinthifolius at 1% (m:v) and purified substances from C. canjerana (gedunin, ocotillone, cabraleadiol, a mixture of ocotillone + cabraleadiol and a mixture of shoreic acid + eichlerianic acid) on hatching and mortality of Meloidogyne incognita juveniles. Aqueous extracts of C. canjerana fruits and seeds reduced hatching by 70.3 to 95.7%. Aqueous extracts of S. terebinthifolius fruits killed 42.8 to 77.1% of juveniles. The purified substances of C. canjerana inhibited the hatching of M. incognita from 57 to 90% and did not increase the mortality of juveniles. Therefore, C. canjerana extracts and its purified substances reduce M. incognita hatching and aqueous extracts of S. terebinthifolius kill J2 of this nematode.

Plant Extracts/toxicity , Anacardiaceae , Nematoda , Antinematodal Agents
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e20417, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1403712


Abstract Schinus terebinthifolia Raddi green fruits essential oil (EO) was evaluated regarding its phytochemical profile, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities, and toxicity. Gas chromatography with mass spectrometry was applied to identify its constituents, thereafter the minimum inhibitory concentration, minimum bactericidal and fungicidal concentrations, and its antibiofilm activity were evaluated. The EO cytotoxicity was assessed in tumor and non-tumor human cells, and in vivo toxicity was evaluated in a Galleria mellonella model. The major constituents of S. terebinthifolia EO were alpha-phellandrene and beta-phellandrene. The EO had a weak activity against all strains of Candida albicans (MIC 1000µg/mL) and had no activity against non-albicans strains, bacteria, and C. albicans biofilm. Cytostatic activity against all tumor cell lines was shown. Additionally, cell viability remained at EO concentrations up to 62.5 µg/mL. At 16 mg/mL, 50% hemolysis was observed, and it had low toxicity in vivo. Overall, the S. terebinthifolia EO was characterized by low antimicrobial and antibiofilm activities, with no evidence of toxicity to human tumor and non-tumor cells

Oils, Volatile/analysis , Anacardiaceae/anatomy & histology , Fruit/classification , Plants, Medicinal/adverse effects , Toxicity , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry/methods
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e18637, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364416


Abstract The therapeutic drugs to treat Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections have toxic side effects and there has been an emergence of drug-resistant strains. Therefore, the search for new treatments for HSV infections is mounting. In the present study, semi-solid formulations containing a crude hydroethanolic extract (CHE) from Schinus terebinthifolia were developed. Skin irritation, cutaneous permeation, and in vivo therapeutic efficacy of the formulations were investigated. Treatment with the ointment formulations did not result in any signs of skin irritation while the emulsions increased the thickness of the epidermis in Swiss mice. The cutaneous permeation test indicated that the CHE incorporated in the formulations permeated through the skin layers and was present in the epidermis and dermis even 3 h after topical application. In vivo antiviral activity in BALB/c mice treated with the CHE ointments was better than those treated with the CHE emulsions and did not significantly differ from an acyclovir-treated group. Taken together, this suggests that the incorporation of CHE in the ointment may be a potential candidate for the alternative topical treatment of herpetic lesions.

Pharmaceutical Preparations/analysis , Simplexvirus/classification , Herpesvirus 1, Human/classification , Anacardiaceae/adverse effects , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Acyclovir/antagonists & inhibitors , Efficacy , Emulsions/adverse effects
Braz. j. oral sci ; 20: e213736, jan.-dez. 2021. ilus
Article in English | BBO, LILACS | ID: biblio-1253012


Although Spondias mombin L. extract has an excellent antimicrobial effect against oral microorganisms, it should be clarified how it affects enamel surface properties. Aim: To evaluate the color change, wettability/contact angle, surface roughness and morphology of bovine enamel submitted to the Spondias mombin L. extract. Methods: Thirty bovine teeth were distributed into the following groups: 0.12% chlorhexidine digluconate, 1:32 Spondias mombin L. extract and distilled water. Color change (CC) was evaluated after immerging specimens into the solutions for 14 days. Surface roughness (Ra) was measured using a roughness meter; wettability/contact angles (CA) were determined by the sessile drop method, and scanning electron microscopy images were obtained to characterize the morphology (SMA). The pH of the solutions was evaluated using a pHmeter. The Ra, CA, and CC data were parametric (Kolmogorov-Smirnov; p>0.05). Two-way ANOVA (for Ra and CA) and one-way ANOVA (for CC) with Tukey's posthoc tests at a significance level of 5% were used. SMA was analyzed descriptively. Results: The Spondias mombin L. extract revealed an acidic pH, and when in contact with the bovine teeth, it increased the wettability, but it did not cause statistically significant differences in the Ra. Spondias mombin L. extract caused the highest color change. The SEM images showed differences in the specimens' surface submitted to the extract compared to the other groups. Conclusion: Spondias mombin L. extract provided negative effects on bovine enamel's surface, including a high color change and a more wettable substrate

Animals , Cattle , Surface Properties , Anacardiaceae , Dental Enamel , Phytotherapy , Mouthwashes
Rev. biol. trop ; 69(3)sept. 2021.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1387667


Abstract Introduction: The fruit of the yellow mombin (Spondias mombin L.) is notable due to its sensory and functional qualities. However, there is little knowledge regarding the genetic diversity of this species, and this would aid the implantation of the cultivation of the fruit as a crop, since current production is based on extractivism. Objective: Evaluate the diversity and genetic structure of natural populations of S. mombin in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil, through microsatellite molecular markers in order to assist in the implementation of conservation strategies and the collection of genetic resources. Methods: A total of 139 S. mombin individuals were sampled in ten natural populations. PCR amplifications were performed with seven fluorescence-marked microsatellite primers. Genetic diversity was evaluated by the number of alleles, expected (He) and observed heterozygosity (Ho), polymorphic information content (PIC), fixation index (ƒ), rare and exclusive alleles. The genetic structure was evaluated using AMOVA, UPGMA dendrogram and Bayesian statistical analysis. Results: 46 alleles were amplified, which had an average of 6.6 alleles per locus. He was higher than Ho and f was positive, indicating the presence of inbreeding. The PIC ranged from 0.048 to 0.700, and only two loci were poorly informative. We found 27 rare alleles and 16 unique alleles. The largest component of variation was intrapopulational (90.64 %). The estimated gene flow was 1.99, which indicates that there is no genetic isolation between populations, and justifies the FST value (0.0963). The ten populations were grouped into two groups, and two populations constituted an isolated group. The Mantel test demonstrated that the genetic structure is not related to the geographic distance between populations. Conclusion: There is genetic diversity in the populations of S. mombin, which must be conserved in situ or ex situ, due to the diversity they present and because they are promising sources for collection of germplasm.

Resumen Introducción: El fruto amarillo del jobo o yuplón (Spondias mombin L.) destaca por sus cualidades sensoriales y funcionales. Sin embargo, existe poco conocimiento sobre la diversidad genética de esta especie, lo que ayudaría a la implantación del cultivo del fruto como cultivo, ya que la producción actual se basa en el extractivismo. Objetivo: Evaluar la diversidad y estructura genética de poblaciones naturales de S. mombin en el estado de Mato Grosso, Brasil, a través de marcadores moleculares microsatélites para ayudar en la implementación de estrategias de conservación y recolección de recursos genéticos. Métodos: Se muestrearon un total de 139 individuos de S. mombin en diez poblaciones naturales. Las amplificaciones por PCR se realizaron con siete cebadores de microsatélites marcados con fluorescencia. La diversidad genética se evaluó por el número de alelos, heterocigosidad esperada (He) y observada (Ho), contenido de información polimórfica (PIC), índice de fijación (ƒ), alelos raros y exclusivos. La estructura genética se evaluó mediante AMOVA, dendrograma UPGMA y análisis estadístico bayesiano. Resultados: Se amplificaron 46 alelos, los cuales tenían un promedio de 6.6 alelos por locus. Fue más alto que Ho y f positivo, lo que indica la presencia de endogamia. El PIC osciló entre 0.048 y 0.700, y solo dos loci fueron poco informativos. Encontramos 27 alelos raros y 16 alelos únicos. El mayor componente de variación fue intrapoblacional (90.64 %). El flujo de genes estimado fue de 1.99, lo que indica que no hay aislamiento genético entre poblaciones y justifica el valor de FST (0.0963). Las diez poblaciones se agruparon en dos grupos y dos poblaciones constituyeron un grupo aislado. La prueba de Mantel demostró que la estructura genética no está relacionada con la distancia geográfica entre poblaciones. Conclusión: Existe diversidad genética en las poblaciones de S. mombin, la cual debe ser conservada in situ o ex situ, por la diversidad que presentan y porque son fuentes promisorias para la recolección de germoplasma.

Anacardiaceae/genetics , Conservational Biological Control
Rev. biol. trop ; 69(2)jun. 2021.
Article in English | LILACS, SaludCR | ID: biblio-1387644


Abstract Introduction: Spondias tuberosa is a tree endemic to the semiarid region of Brazil with fruticulture potential. Objective: To estimate the diversity and genetic structure of S. tuberosa accessions from four areas of the semiarid region of Brazil, in order to facilitate conservation genetic resources studies in this species. Methods: DNA was extracted, using the CTAB 2x method, from leaf samples of 24 accessions of S. tuberosa available in the germplasm bank at Embrapa Semiárido, Brazil. Ten microsatellite loci were used in this study. Results: The UPGMA dendrogram, generated with a Jaccard coefficient similarity matrix, contains four groups at a 0.44 cutoff point. The similarity coefficient ranged from 0.30 to 0.84, indicating great divergence among the accessions. A Bayesian analysis conducted with the software Structure suggests there are two subpopulations, one formed by accessions from the Januária region and another by accessions from the Juazeiro, Uauá and Petrolina regions. The ΦST value of 0.12 for the analysis of molecular variance indicates moderate genetic differentiation among the four populations, suggesting that the genetic variability is moderately structured in function of region. Conclusions: Together, the analyses indicate that the genetic diversity of S. tuberosa is not uniformly distributed in the studied regions. Thus, germplasm from a greater number of populations should be collected to increase the germplasm bank genetic diversity of the species.

Resumen Introducción: Spondias tuberosa es un árbol endémico de la región semiárida de Brasil con potencial frutícola. Objetivo: Estimar la diversidad y caracterizar la estructura genética de accesiones de S. tuberosa en cuatro áreas del semiárido brasileño, para así facilitar estudios de conservación de recursos genéticos de esta especie. Metodología: El ADN fue extraído utilizando el método CTAB 2x a partir de muestras de hojas de 24 accesiones de S. tuberosa disponibles en el banco de germoplasma de Embrapa Semiárido, Brasil. Diez loci de microsatélites fueron usados en este estudio. Resultados: El dendrograma UPGMA generado con una matriz de similitud de coeficientes de Jaccard, formó cuatro grupos con punto de corte en 0.44. El coeficiente de similitud osciló entre 0.30 y 0.84, indicando una gran divergencia entre las accesiones. El análisis Bayesiano realizado en el software Structure sugiere la existencia de dos subpoblaciones, una formada por las accesiones de la región de Januária y otra derivada de las regiones de Juazeiro, Uauá y Petrolina. El valor de ΦST de 0.12 derivado del análisis molecular de la varianza indica moderada variación genética entre las cuatro poblaciones, sugiriendo que la variabilidad genética se estructura moderadamente en función de la región. Conclusiones: Los análisis en conjunto indican que la diversidad genética de S. tuberosa no se encuentra distribuida uniformemente en las regiones estudiadas. Por lo tanto, se debe recolectar germoplasma de un mayor número de poblaciones para aumentar la diversidad genética del banco actual de la especie.

Anacardiaceae/genetics , Brazil
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2923-2930, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888030


The present study determined the quantitative markers of total proanthocyanidins in the purification of the industrial waste Choerospondias axillaris pericarp based on the comparison results of high-performance liquid chromatography(HPLC) and mass spectrometry(MS) and optimized the purification process with two stable procyanidins as markers. The adsorption and desorption of five different macroporous adsorption resins, the static adsorption kinetics curve of NKA-Ⅱ resin, the maximum sample load, and the gradient elution were investigated. The UPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS was employed for qualitative analysis of the newly-prepared total proanthocyanidins of C. axillaris pericarp. As revealed by the results, NKA-Ⅱ resin displayed strong adsorption and desorption toward total proanthocyanidins. The sample solution(50 mg·mL~(-1)) was prepared from 70% ethanol crude extract of C. axillaris pericarp dissolved in water and 7-fold BV of the sample solution was loaded, followed by static adsorption for 12 h. After 8-fold BV of distilled water and 6-fold BV of 10% ethanol were employed to remove impurities, the solution was eluted with 8-fold BV of 50% ethanol, concentrated, and dried under reduced pressure, and purified total proanthocyanidin powder was therefore obtained. Measured by vanillin-hydrochloric acid method, the purity and transfer rate of total proanthocyanidins were 47.67% and 59.92%, respectively, indicating the feasibi-lity of the optimized process. UPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS qualitative analysis identified 16 procyanidins in C. axillaris total proanthocyanidins. The optimized purification process is simple in operation and accurate in component identification, and it can be applied to the process investigation of a class of components that are difficult to be separated and purified. It can also provide technical support and research ideas for the comprehensive utilization of industrial waste.

Adsorption , Anacardiaceae , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Plant Extracts , Proanthocyanidins/analysis , Resins, Synthetic , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
Braz. J. Vet. Res. Anim. Sci. (Online) ; 57(2): e162109, mai. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | VETINDEX, LILACS | ID: biblio-1122173


This survey evaluated mombin leaves (Spondias mombin L.) decoction efficiency as an antiseptic during post-surgery period on cats submitted to orchiectomy and ovariosalpingohisterectomy. For this purpose, 45 castrated mongrels cats were divided into three groups, the first group as a positive control using 0.5% chlorhexidine-alcohol solution, the second a negative control group using sterile distilled water and, finally, the test group using mombin leaves decocted with a concentration of 100 mg/mL. All animals, independent of age and sex, had visibly healed in most cases in a similar time. Animals treated with mombin leaves decoction presented a significant reduction of bacterial growth. In addition, the animals treated in the test group had better surgical wound healing. All isolated bacterial strains presented inhibition halo for chlorhexidine and for Spondias mombin L. Thus, the decoction of Spondias mombin L. leaves proved antiseptic efficacy in the surgical wounds of cats submitted to orchiectomy and ovariosalpingohisterectomy.(AU)

Foi avaliada a eficiência do decocto das folhas de cajá (Spondias mombin L.) como antisséptico no pós-cirúrgico de gatos submetidos à orquiectomia e ovariosalpingohisterectomia. Para tal, foram submetidos à castração 45 gatos sem raça definida, divididos em três grupos. O primeiro grupo como controle positivo com Solução Alcoólica de Clorexidine a 0,5%; segundo grupo controle negativo com água destilada estéril; e o grupo teste com o decocto de cajá à concentração de 100 mg/mL. Todos os animais, independentemente da idade e sexo, tiveram cicatrização visível em tempo similar. Animais tratados com o decocto apresentaram uma redução significativa do crescimento bacteriano. Além disso, observou-se uma melhor cicatrização das feridas cirúrgicas dos animais tratados no grupo teste. Todas as estirpes bacterianas isoladas apresentaram halo de inibição para clorexidine e para Spondias mombin L. Portanto, o decocto das folhas da Spondias mombin L. apresentou eficácia antisséptica nas feridas cirúrgicas de gatos submetidos à orquiectomia e ovariosalpingohisterectomia.(AU)

Animals , Cats , Castration/veterinary , Anacardiaceae , Anti-Infective Agents, Local/therapeutic use , Plants, Medicinal , Surgical Wound Infection/prevention & control , Orchiectomy/veterinary , Ovariectomy/veterinary , Hysterectomy/veterinary
Braz. J. Vet. Res. Anim. Sci. (Online) ; 57(1): e157580, 2020. tab
Article in English | VETINDEX, LILACS | ID: biblio-1122151


Essential oil (EO) from Brazilian red pepper leaves contains antimicrobial compounds that control Gram-positive bacteria in the rumen content, improving the efficiency of ruminal fermentation. The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the effects of the Brazilian red pepper leaves EO (Schinus terebinthifolius) as a substitute for monensin on performance, occurrence of coccidiosis by Eimeria ssp., carcass characteristics and meat composition of feedlot lambs. Forty-four lambs, 16 males (12 ½ Dorper × ½ Santa Inês and 4 Santa Inês) and 28 females (16 ½ Dorper × ½ Santa Inês and 12 Santa Inês), with 21.4 ± 1.05 kg of initial body weight (BW), were used in a randomized complete block design. The experiment lasted 56 days, divided into 2 periods of 28 days each. The treatments were defined by the inclusion of 8 ppm of monensin (MON), and the doses 0.14% (14EO), 0.28% (28EO) and 0.42% (42EO) of red pepper leaves essential oil (EO). At the end of 56 days, 32 lambs were slaughtered for the measurement of carcass parameters and meat composition. There was no interaction among treatments and periods for average daily gain (ADG), dry matter intake (DMI), feed efficiency (FE) and oocyst of Eimeria ssp. in feces. The treatments did not affect the ADG, DMI and FE; however, the monensin inclusion decreased the oocyst of Eimeria ssp. (P = 0.01). There was a tendency (P = 0.06) of increase in hot carcass yield for lambs fed 28EO compared to 14EO. In addition, the cold carcass yield was higher (P = 0.02) in the animals fed 28EO and 42EO. The subcutaneous fat thickness was not affected by the experimental diets; however, there was a tendency for lambs from 28EO and 42EO treatments to present higher body wall thickness (P = 0.07) and Longissimus muscle area (P = 0.07) when compared to MON. The higher doses of red pepper leaves EO increased the percentage of crude protein (P < 0.01) and mineral matter (P = 0.02) in the chemical composition of meat. Although the performance of lambs did not change, the inclusion of 0.28 and 0.42% red pepper leaves EO improve the carcass characteristics and change the meat composition, demonstrating the potential of the use of this additive in confined lamb diets. However, the monensin has greater potential to control coccidiosis in feedlot lambs compared with red pepper leaves EO.(AU)

O óleo essencial das folhas da aroeira possui compostos antimicrobianos que controlam a população de bactérias gram-positivas presentes no conteúdo ruminal, melhorando a eficiência do processo de fermentação. Os objetivos do presente estudo foram avaliar os efeitos do óleo essencial das folhas da aroeira (Schinus terebinthifolius) em substituição a monensina sobre o desempenho, ocorrência de coccidiose por Eimeria ssp., características de carcaça e da carne de cordeiros confinados. Quarenta e quatro cordeiros, 16 machos (12 ½ Dorper × ½ Santa Inês e 4 Santa Inês) e 28 fêmeas (16 ½ Dorper × ½ Santa Inês e 12 Santa Inês), com 21,4 ± 1,05 kg de peso inicial, foram utilizados em delineamento de blocos completos ao acaso. O experimento teve duração de 56 dias, divididos em 2 períodos de 28 dias cada. Os tratamentos foram definidos pela inclusão de 8 ppm de monensina sódica (MON) e as doses 0,14% (14OE), 0,28% (28OE) e 0,42% (42OE) do óleo essencial (OE) das folhas da aroeira. Ao final dos 56 dias, 32 animais foram abatidos para a mensuração dos parâmetros de carcaça e análise química da carne. Não houve interação entre tratamento e período experimental para ganho médio diário (GMD), consumo de matéria seca (CMS), eficiência alimentar (EA) e ocorrência de coccidiose. Não houve efeito das dietas experimentais sobre GMD, CMS e EA, entretanto, a inclusão de monensina reduziu o número de oocistos de Eimeria ssp. (P = 0,01). Houve tendência de aumento no rendimento de carcaça quente (P = 0,06) para os cordeiros alimentados com 28OE comparados com o tratamento 14OE. Além disso, o rendimento de carcaça fria foi maior (P = 0,02) para os animais alimentados com 28OE e 42OE. A espessura de gordura subcutânea não foi afetada pelas dietas experimentais, entretanto, houve tendência dos cordeiros dos tratamentos 28OE e 42OE apresentarem maior espessura de parede corporal (P = 0,07) e área de olho de lombo (P = 0,07) quando comparados a MON. As maiores doses de OE das folhas de aroeira aumentaram a porcentagem de proteína bruta (P < 0,01) e matéria mineral (P = 0,02) na composição química da carne dos cordeiros. Apesar de não alterar o desempenho dos cordeiros, a inclusão de 0,28 e 0,42% de OE das folhas de aroeira foi capaz de alterar as características de carcaça e composição química da carne, demonstrando o potencial de utilização desse aditivo em dietas para cordeiros confinados. Entretanto, a monensina possui maior capacidade de controlar a coccidiose em cordeiros confinados quando comparado ao OE das folhas da aroeira.(AU)

Animals , Sheep , Anacardiaceae , Ionophores , Animal Feed/analysis , Plant Extracts
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63: e20200111, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132215


Abstract Anticarsia gemmatalis is one of the main pests of the soybean crop, being controlled mainly with agrochemicals. The environmental and health risks, as well as the development of resistance by the pests, has led to the search for alternative control measures, aiming to use more eco-friendly procedures. The objective of this research was to evaluate the chemical composition and the bioactivity of Schinus molle and Schinus terebinthifolia essential oils (EOs) on A. gemmatalis. The major compound in both EOs was α-pinene (60.04 wt.% for S. molle and 38.49 wt.% for S. terebinthifolia). Bioassays were carried out with third instar larvae, with five replicates and each replicate with ten larvae, totaling 50 larvae per treatment. The oils were incorporated in the artificial diet (0.1, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0% v/v). The controls were: water, Tween-80® 0.5% v/v, and novaluron 0.075% v/v. According to the Probit method, the S. terebinthifolia EO presented a LC50 of 1.74% v/v (1.58-1.97% v/v); it was not possible to determine the LC50 for the S. molle EO. The mortality percentage after 24 and 48 h was 52% and 30% at 2.0% v/v for S. terebinthifolia and S. molle oil, respectively. After 72 h, the mortality rate for S. molle EO have not changed; for S. terebinthifolia EO it increased to 70%; the larvae treated with the chemical control (synthetic insecticide) had a mortality of 100%.

Animals , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Anacardiaceae/chemistry , Lepidoptera/drug effects , Biological Assay , Lethal Dose 50
Diagn. tratamento ; 24(4): [153-157], out - dez. 2019. fig, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1049386


Contexto e objetivos: Aroeira é o nome popular de árvores da família Anacardiaceae, que inclui plantas sensibilizantes como a poison ivy norte-americana (Toxicodendron radicans), o cajueiro (Anacardium occidentale) e a mangueira (Mangifera indica). Este estudo procura caracterizar o conhecimento sobre as aroeiras e a frequência de manifestações clínicas em camponeses. Desenho e local: Foi realizado estudo retrospectivo e prospectivo com pacientes e acompanhantes residentes em ampla área rural de cerrado no Centro-Oeste paulista. Métodos: A frequência e a relação causal entre a exposição a aroeiras, comuns na região, e a dermatite eczematosa típica foi pesquisada. Para a avaliação, foi utilizado um questionário específico. Resultados: Todos os 39 entrevistados conheciam aroeiras (100%) e 17 deles (43,58%) relataram ter se aproximado ou descansado sob essas árvores. Mais da metade deles (56,41% ou 22 indivíduos) relataram dermatites que relacionaram às arvores. Os demais entrevistados não desenvolveram reações, mas conheciam pessoas que o fizeram (43,59%). Três pacientes, ou 7,69% da amostra, apresentavam lesões de padrão eczematoso, creditando-as ao contato com aroeiras-bravas (Lithraea molleoides). Discussão: Devido à alta frequência com que essas árvores são encontradas no campo (cerrado brasileiro) e aos dados obtidos, percebemos também uma alta frequência de sensibilização nas áreas rurais. Conclusões: É imperativo que as campanhas de orientação e alerta sejam desenvolvidas para aumentar a conscientização sobre riscos potenciais, de modo que o contato com essas árvores seja evitado, evitando condições alérgicas que podem ser tão extensas quanto graves.

Public Health , Retrospective Studies , Anacardiaceae , Dermatitis, Contact , Toxicity , Hypersensitivity
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 35(5): 1575-1587, sept./oct. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1049056


Several technologies have been developed to controlAedes aegypti, mainly studies on isolated plant molecules. The Schinus terebinthifolius (Raddi) (Anacardiaceae), popularly known as pink pepper is a plant widely used in reforestation of degraded areas and its fruits are used as condiments. The objective of this work was to investigate the potential of essential oils (EOs) and fractions (FRs) obtained from fresh fruits and leaves of S. terebinthifolius. The EOs were obtained by hydrodistillation (2 hours), fractionated on a chromatographic column using as the stationary phase silica gel 60 (0.063-0.2mm), mobile phases: n-hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and methanol and chemically evaluated by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometer (GC/MS). EOs and FRs were tested against larvae of the third stage and pupae of Ae. aegypti by Immersion Test at concentrations ranging from 500.00 to 0.003 mg mL-1 (v/v). The hexane FRs obtained from fruits and leaves were the ones that showed the greatest activity on the larvae (LC99.9= 0.60 mg mL-1 and LC99.9 0.64 mg mL-1, respectively) and pupae (LC99,9 = 2.51 mg mL-1 and 2.61 mg mL-1, respectively). These results were confirmed by the anticholinesterase activity where the hexane (fruit and leaf) FRs presented the highest inhibitory potential on the acetylcholinesterase enzyme (0.156 mg mL-1 and 0.312 mg mL-1, respectively), suggesting the likely mechanism of action. The larvicidal potential can be explained by the presence of the major compounds bicyclogermacrene and germacrene D in the hexane FRs, indicating in this way that they may replace or even act in synergisms with conventional chemical larvicides. In this way the present study opens the field for new researches, aiming the development of products with the compounds bicyclogermacrene and germacrene D, as an alternative in the control of this culicide.

Diversas tecnologias têm sido desenvolvidas para o controle do Aedes aegypti, destacando pesquisas com moléculas isoladas de plantas. A Schinus terebinthifolius (Raddi) (Anacardiaceae), conhecida popularmente como pimenta rosa é uma planta muito utilizada no reflorestamento de áreas degradadas e seus frutos são utilizados como condimentos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar o potencial dos óleosessenciais (OEs) e frações (FRs) obtidos dos frutos e folhas frescos de S. terebinthifolius. Os OEs foram obtidos por hidrodestilação (2 horas), fracionados em coluna cromatográfica utilizando como fase estacionária sílica gel 60 (0,063-0,2mm), fases móveis: n-hexano, diclorometano, acetato de etila e metanol e avaliados quimicamente por cromatografia gasosa acoplada à espectrometria de massas (CG/EM). Os OEs e FRs foram testados frente a larvas do terceiro estádio e pupas do Ae. aegypti pelo Teste de Imersão em concentrações que variaram de 500,00 à 0,003 mg/mL (v/v). As FRs hexano obtidas dos frutos e folhas, foram as que apresentaram maior atividade sobre as larvas (CL99,9= 0,60 mg mL-1 e CL99,9 0,64 mg mL-1, respectivamente) e pupas (CL99,9= 2,51mg mL-1 e 2,61 mg mL-1, respectivamente). Estes resultados foram confirmados pela atividade anticolinesterase onde as FRs hexano (fruto e folha), foram as que apresentaram maior potencial inibitório sobre a enzima acetilcolinesterase (0,156 mg mL-1 e 0,312 mg mL-1, respectivamente), sugerindo desta forma o provável mecanismo de ação. O potencial larvicida encontrado pode ser explicado pela presença dos compostos majoritários biciclogermacreno e germacreno D nas FRs hexano, indicando desta forma, queestes possam vir a substituir, ou até mesmo agir em sinergismos com os larvicidas químicos convencionais. Desta forma o presente estudo abre campo para novas pesquisas, visando o desenvolvimento de produtos com os compostos bicyclogermacrene e germacrene D, como alternativa no controle deste culicídeo.

Oils, Volatile , Aedes , Anacardiaceae
Hig. aliment ; 33(288/289): 1224-1228, abr.-maio 2019. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1482133


O Brasil é o maior produtor de frutas in natura, dentre os frutos produzidos está a Spondias purpúrea L. bastante consumida in natura tal como parte de outros produtos. Desta forma, objetivou-se elaborar a polpa de ciriguela e avaliar suas características físico-químicas, compostos fenólicos e antioxidantes. Os frutos foram despolpados e realizadas as análises físico-químicas (conforme IAL), os compostos fenólicos e antioxidantes foram determinados por espectrofotometria. A polpa apresentou pH de 3,5, acidez de 0,76% em ácido cítrico, 14,74ºBrix de sólidos solúveis, 28,76 mg/100g de vitamina C, 800 EAG mg/100 g de compostos fenólicos e 26,19 mg/ml de antioxidantes. Com os resultados obtidos, evidencia-se que a polpa de ciriguela tem benefícios não apenas nutricionais como é uma boa fonte de compostos fenólico e antioxidante.

Anacardiaceae/chemistry , Antioxidants/analysis , Phenolic Compounds/analysis , Chemical Phenomena , Phytochemicals
Hig. aliment ; 33(288/289): 1234-1238, abr.-maio 2019. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1482135


O objetivo do presente trabalho foi obter e caracterizar de polpa de cajá-umbu atomizada por spray-dryer. A cajá-umbu madura passaram pelas etapas de seleção, lavagem, sanitização, enxágue e despolpamento, obtendo-se assim a polpa. Para atomização por spray dryer adicionou-se 15% de maltodextrina e atomizou em três temperaturas de entrada (100, 120 e 160ºC). A polpa de cajá-umbu in natura e atomizadas foram submetidas a análise de umidade, atividade de água (aw), cinzas, sólidos solúveis, acidez, pH, vitamina C e carotenoides. A polpa in natura apresentou maiores teores de carotenoides (16,58 µg·g-1) demonstrando que a atomização influência nos carotenoides, já a polpa atomizada, apresentou menor teor de umidade com o aumento da temperatura de secagem e reduziu a aw. Para obtenção do pó de cajá-umbu indica-se o uso da temperatura de 120°C.

Anacardiaceae/chemistry , Food Preservation/methods , Chemical Phenomena , Nebulizers and Vaporizers , Carotenoids , Hot Temperature
Hig. aliment ; 33(288/289): 2887-2891, abr.-maio 2019. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1482479


As barras de cereais se tornaram uma alternativa prática e saudável no setor de alimentos, por apresentarem boas características funcionais e de alto valor nutritivo. Visando a produção de um alimento saudável, de baixo teor calórico, ao aproveitamento sustentável e valorização de produtos da agricultura familiar, utilizando matérias-primas regionais como: o mel, a polpa de umbu e a farinha de mandioca. O objetivo foi observar a influência da umidade sobre as características organolépticas. Verificou que as formulações apresentam em sua maioria vida de prateleira satisfatória, atendendo o limite definido pela legislação, que estabelece o máximo de 15% de umidade para produtos à base de cereais. Entretanto, a formulação 3v apresentou 8,63% de umidade que conferiu melhor crocância a barra de cereal, aliada a essa característica está a diminuição da umidade.

Anacardiaceae , Food Preservation , Manihot , Honey/analysis , Candy
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 35(2): 540-560, mar./apr. 2019. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1048609


Studies on the drying kinetics of medicinal, aromatic and spice plants are a necessary step towards establishing the combination of drying parameters that would not qualitatively and quantitatively alter the quality of the fresh product. The purpose of this study was to investigate the drying kinetics of Brazilian peppertree (Schinus terebinthifolius) leaves and to verify whether the theoretical diffusion and the semi-empirical Lewis drying models were capable of accurately predicting the drying curves of the product at 35, 40, and 45°C, with a dry air mass flow rate of 0.731 kg s-1 m-2. Leaves were collected at 0800 h, 1200 h and 1700 h. The goodness of fit between experimental and predicted values was based on the correlation coefficient, root mean square error, mean absolute percentage error, mean bias error, and fit index. Residual plot analysis was also considered in the selection of the most effective drying model. Temperature had a pronounced effect on mass transfer and drying rate decreased continuously during the course of drying. Leaf collection time had little influence on the drying kinetics. Effective moisture diffusivity was found to increase with temperature. The results indicated that the Lewis model was considered a better predictor of the thin-layer drying behaviour of Brazilian peppertree leaves than the theoretical model based on Fick's second law of diffusion.

Estudos sobre a cinética da secagem de plantas medicinais, aromáticas e condimentares são necessários para o estabelecimento de parâmetros operacionais de secagem de forma a não alterar significativamente a qualidade e o perfil fitoquímico dessas plantas. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi investigar a cinética da secagem das folhas da aroeira-vermelha (Schinus terebinthifolius), além de verificar se o modelo teórico de difusão e o modelo semi-empírico de Lewis são capazes de predizer com acurácia as curvas de secagem do produto a 35, 40 e 45°C, com fluxo de ar seco de 0,731 kg s-1 m-2. As folhas foram coletadas às 8:00, 12:00 e 17:00 h. O grau de adequação dos valores obtidos pelas curvas de secagem àqueles obtidos experimentalmente foi avaliado empregando-se o coeficiente de determinação, a raiz do erro quadrático médio, o erro percentual absoluto médio, o viés médio e o índice de ajuste. A análise da dispersão dos resíduos também foi utilizada na escolha do modelo de predição mais efetivo. Observou-se que a temperatura tem efeito significativo na transferência de massa e a taxa de secagem diminuiu continuamente ao longo da secagem. O horário de coleta das folhas não teve influência significativa sobre a cinética da secagem. A difusividade efetiva da água aumentou com o aumento da temperatura. Os resultados evidenciaram que o modelo de Lewis descreve com maior grau de acurácia a secagem de folhas de aroeira-vermelha que o modelo teórico baseado na Segunda Lei de Difusão de Fick.

Plants, Medicinal , Anacardiaceae , Kinetics
Asia Pacific Allergy ; (4): e25-2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-750186


BACKGROUND: The Pink peppercorn belongs to the same Anacardiaceae family as cashew and pistachio. However, the cross-reactivity of pink peppercorn with cashew and pistachio has yet to be studied. To date, there has been a single case report of anaphylaxis to pink peppercorn in a cashew and pistachio allergic individual. OBJECTIVE: We aim to demonstrate cross-sensitization to pink peppercorn in cashew and/or pistachio allergic children. METHODS: A small descriptive cohort study looking at cross-sensitization of pink peppercorn in cashew and/or pistachio allergic children was conducted. Children with a history of reaction to pistachio and/or cashew nut underwent skin prick tests to the pink peppercorn species Schinus terebinthifolius to determine cross-sensitization. RESULTS: Out of the 21 cashew and/or pistachio allergic subjects, 16 (76.2%) demonstrated cross-sensitization to pink peppercorn. None of the subjects had any knowledge of previous exposure or allergic reactions to pink peppercorn. DISCUSSION: This study demonstrates potential cross-reactivity between pink peppercorn and cashew and pistachio. While an oral food challenge to pink peppercorn would have been important in demonstrating clinical cross-reactivity, this was not performed due to ethical constraints. We hope to increase the awareness of pink peppercorn as a potential and hidden source of allergen and encourage further studies to demonstrate the clinical cross-reactivity and to better delineate the major allergen involved.

Child , Humans , Anacardiaceae , Anacardium , Anaphylaxis , Cohort Studies , Cross Reactions , Food Hypersensitivity , Hope , Hypersensitivity , Nuts , Pistacia , Skin