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Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 319-324, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982162


Lung cancer is the most common in incidence and mortality worldwide. With the development of next generation sequencing (NGS) detection technology, more and more patients with rare anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) fusion mutations were detected. A case of advanced lung adenocarcinoma with rare COX7A2L-ALK (C2:A20) fusion detected by NGS was reported in Peking Union Medical College Hospital, and all cases with rare ALK fusion mutations were searched from medical datebase from January 1, 2014 to March 31, 2021, to investigate the treatment of rare ALK fusion mutations with ALK inhibitors. The best response of the patient was assessed as partial response (PR) with Ceritinib treatment. By literature review, 22 cases of rare ALK fusion were reported in 19 articles. Combined with this case, 23 cases were analyzed. The objective response rate (ORR) was 82.6% (19/23) and disease control rate (DCR) was 95.7% (22/23) for rare ALK fusions patients treated with ALK inhibitors. Lung adenocarcinoma patients with rare ALK fusion could benefit from ALK inhibitors.

Humans , Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase/genetics , Lung Neoplasms/diagnosis , Crizotinib , Adenocarcinoma of Lung/genetics , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Oncogene Proteins, Fusion/genetics
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 147-155, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928792


BACKGROUND@#At present, the research progress of targeted therapy for epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene mutations in lung adenocarcinoma is very rapid, which brings new hope for the treatment of advanced lung adenocarcinoma patients. However, the specific imaging and pathological features of EGFR and ALK gene mutations in adenocarcinoma are still controversial. This study will further explore the correlation between EGFR, ALK gene mutations and imaging and pathological features in invasive lung adenocarcinoma.@*METHODS@#A total of 525 patients with lung adenocarcinoma who underwent surgery in our center from January 2018 to December 2019 were included. According to the results of postoperative gene detection, the patients were divided into EGFR gene mutation group, ALK gene mutation group and wild group, and the EGFR gene mutation group was divided into exon 19 and exon 21 subtypes. The pathological features of the mutation group and wild group, such as histological subtype, lymph node metastasis, visceral pleural invasion (VPI) and imaging features such as tumor diameter, consolidation tumor ratio (CTR), lobulation sign, spiculation sign, pleural retraction sign, air bronchus sign and vacuole sign were analyzed by univariate analysis and multivariate Logistic regression analysis to explore whether the gene mutation group had specific manifestations.@*RESULTS@#EGFR gene mutation group was common in women (OR=2.041, P=0.001), with more pleural traction sign (OR=1.506, P=0.042), and had little correlation with lymph node metastasis and VPI (P>0.05). Among them, exon 21 subtype was more common in older (OR=1.022, P=0.036), women (OR=2.010, P=0.007), and was associated with larger tumor diameter (OR=1.360, P=0.039) and pleural traction sign (OR=1.754, P=0.029). Exon 19 subtype was common in women (OR=2.230, P=0.009), with a high proportion of solid components (OR=1.589, P=0.047) and more lobulation sign (OR=2.762, P=0.026). ALK gene mutations were likely to occur in younger patients (OR=2.950, P=0.045), with somking history (OR=1.070, P=0.002), and there were more micropapillary components (OR=4.184, P=0.019) and VPI (OR=2.986, P=0.034) in pathology.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The EGFR and ALK genes mutated adenocarcinomas have specific imaging and clinicopathological features, and the mutations in exon 19 or exon 21 subtype have different imaging features, which is of great significance in guiding the clinical diagnosis and treatment of pulmonary nodules.

Aged , Female , Humans , Adenocarcinoma of Lung/genetics , Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase/genetics , ErbB Receptors/genetics , Genes, erbB-1 , Lung Neoplasms/pathology , Mutation , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods
Chinese Journal of Pathology ; (12): 28-32, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935466


Objective: To investigate the clinicopathological features, molecular characteristics, differential diagnosis and prognosis of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-translocation renal cell carcinoma. Methods: Two cases of ALK-translocation renal cell carcinoma diagnosed from January 2011 to December 2020 were retrospectively analyzed to characterize their morphological features, immunohistochemical expression and prognosis. Multiple molecular studies including fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and next-generation sequencing were performed to characterize the genetic alterations. Results: Two patients included one male and one female, with 59 and 57 years old, respectively. Morphologically, case 1 resembled collecting duct carcinoma or renal medullary carcinoma, which demonstrated tubular, microcapsule and reticular structures, with a remarkable myxoid background and lymphocytes infiltration; case 2 resembled Xp11.2 translocation renal cell carcinoma or type 2 papillary renal cell carcinoma, which demonstrated tubular papillary and focal solid structures, with flocculent cytoplasm and many foamy histiocytes, but without myxoid background and lymphocytes infiltration. Immunohistochemistry showed strongly positive expression of ALK. CK7, E-cadherin, vimentin, PAX8 and CD10 showed various degrees of expression, and other antibodies were nonreactive. A variety of molecular assays showed definite ALK gene translocation, with rare VCL-ALK gene fusion (VCL exon and 16-ALK exon 20) in case 1, and EML4-ALK gene fusion (EML4 exon and 2-ALK exon 20) in case 2. Conclusions: ALK-translocation renal cell carcinoma is rare with various morphological features, and is easy to miss and misdiagnose. The characteristic ALK expression and molecular detection of ALK translocation are helpful for diagnosing this type of renal cell carcinoma.

Female , Humans , Male , Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase/genetics , Carcinoma, Renal Cell/genetics , In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence , Kidney Neoplasms/genetics , Lung Neoplasms , Oncogene Proteins, Fusion/genetics , Retrospective Studies
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 673-676, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922240


Lung cancer is a malignant tumor with high incidence rate and mortality rate in China and even the whole world, of which non-small cell lung cancer accounts for about 80%. Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene mutation accounts for about 5%. Alectinib, ALK-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (ALK-TKI), has great performance in clinical. The early detection and treatment of adverse drug reactions can greatly improve clinical benefits. This paper reports a patient of ALK positive non-small cell lung cancer was admited to Baotou Central Hospital in April 2020. The diagnosis and treatment was retrospectively analyzed, and the literature was reviewed.

Humans , Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase/genetics , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Carbazoles/therapeutic use , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/secondary , Lung Neoplasms/pathology , Mutation , Piperidines/therapeutic use , Pleural Neoplasms/secondary , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
Rev. cuba. hematol. inmunol. hemoter ; 36(2): e1189, abr.-jun. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1149902


Introducción: La leucemia mieloide aguda (LMA) es un grupo heterogéneo de desórdenes clonales con una gran variabilidad en términos de patogénesis, características morfológicas, genéticas e inmunofenotípicas. Las mutaciones en el gen NPM1 representan una de las más comunes en las LMA y está asociada con una respuesta clínica favorable. Por citogenética, la inversión del cromosoma 16 define el subgrupo de las LMA de factor de unión al grupo con un pronóstico favorable. Objetivo: Describir un caso con diagnóstico de LMA en los cuales el estudio molecular del gen NPM1 y de la inv(16) fueron positivos. Caso clínico: A nivel molecular, la hibridación in situ fluorescente fue positivo a la inv(16) y por biología molecular fue positivo tanto a la inv(16) como al gen NPM1-A, elementos de baja frecuencia de aparición. Se le administró a la paciente un esquema de poliquimioterapia no intensiva para mejorarla clínicamente. Después de una mejoría clínica inicial, la paciente comenzó con complicaciones y falleció. Conclusiones: La coexistencia de estas dos mutaciones es muy poco frecuente en pacientes con LMA, y a pesar de ser de buen pronóstico la paciente falleció a los pocos días de tratamiento(AU)

Introduction: Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a heterogeneous group of clonal disorders with great variability in terms of pathogenesis, morphological, genetic and immunophenotypic characteristics. NPM1 mutations represent one of the most common in AML and are associated with favorable clinical response. By cytogenetics, chromosome 16 inversion defines, with a favorable prognosis, the core‐binding factor for the subgroup of AMLs Objective: To describe a AML case in which the molecular study of the NPM1 gene and the chromosome 16 inversion were positive. Clinical case: At the molecular level, fluorescent in situ hybridization was positive for chromosome 16 inversion and, by molecular biology, it was positive for both chromosome 16 inversion and for the NPM1-A gene, elements with a low frequency of appearance. The patient was administered a non-intensive combination as part of a chemotherapy regimen to improve her clinical status. After initial clinical improvement, the patient began with complications and died. Conclusions: The coexistence of these two mutations is very rare in patients with AML. Despite presenting a good prognosis, the patient died after a few days of treatment(AU)

Humans , Female , Chromosomes, Human, Pair 16/genetics , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/diagnosis , Mutation/genetics , In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence/methods , Drug Therapy, Combination , Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase/genetics
Journal of Peking University(Health Sciences) ; (6): 246-254, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-942169


OBJECTIVE@#To explore the valuable predictors for evaluating progression-free survival (PFS) in patients with lung adenocarcinoma, we analyzed the potential roles of standardized uptake value (SUV)-derived parameters from 18F-FDG PET/CT, combining with the gene mutation states of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK), and other clinical characteristics.@*METHODS@#Data of 84 lung adenocarcinoma patients pre-treated, who underwent 18F-FDG PET/CT scans, EGFR gene mutations test, ALK rearrangement assay and other relative tests, were retrospectively collected. Then a series of clinical parameters including EGFR/ALK mutation status and SUV-derived features [maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax), average of standardized uptake value (SUVmean), metabolic tumor volume (MTV), and total lesion glycolysis (TLG)] were evaluated. Best possible cutoff points for all measuring parameters were calculated using receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analysis. Survival analysis was performed using Cox proportional hazards model to determine the prognostic markers for progression-free survival (PFS). Survival curves were obtained through Log-rank test and Kaplan-Meier curve.@*RESULTS@#The median follow-up period was 31 months (24 to 58 months). It was found that SUVmax (≥3.01), SUVmean (≥2.25), MTV (≥25.41 cm3), and TLG (≥55.02) of the primary tumors were significantly associated with PFS in univariate Cox proportional hazards regression. Then regardless of age, gender, co-morbidity, EGFR/ALK mutation status, and treatment program, TLG (≥ 55.02, HR=4.965, 95%CI: 1.360-18.133), TNM stage (Ⅲ/Ⅳ, HR=7.811, 95%CI: 2.977-20.489), pro-gastrin releasing peptide (proGRP) (≥45.65 ng/L, HR=4.070, 95%CI: 1.442-11.487), tissue polypeptide antigen (TPA) (≥68.20 U/L, HR=6.996, 95%CI: 1.458-33.574), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) (≥82.50 IU/L, HR=4.160, 95%CI: 1.416-12.219) and ratio of activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTTR) (≥1.16: HR=4.58, 95%CI: 1.913-10.946) showed the independently relevant to PFS through multivariate Cox proportional hazards analysis. The EGFR mutant (P=0.343) and ALK rearrangement (P=0.608) were not significant either in survival analysis.@*CONCLUSION@#High SUV-derived parameters (SUVmax, SUVmean, MTV and TLG) might provide prognostic value to some extent. Especially, TLG, and other clinical features [TNM stage, proGRP, TPA, ALP, and aPTTR] could be independently and significantly associated with PFS of lung adenocarcinoma patients. However, EGFR/ALK gene status could not be effectively relevant to PFS in lung adenocarcinoma patients.

Humans , Adenocarcinoma of Lung/genetics , Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase/genetics , ErbB Receptors/genetics , Fluorodeoxyglucose F18 , Genes, erbB-1 , Lung Neoplasms/genetics , Mutation , Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography , Prognosis , Radiopharmaceuticals , Retrospective Studies , Tumor Burden
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 78(6): 385-394, Dec. 2018. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-976135


The prevalence of relevant oncogenic drivers in lung adenocarcinoma varies in our region and data on clinical outcomes is scarce. The objective of the study was to describe the prevalence of KRAS, BRAF and EGFR mutations and ALK translocations in patients with advanced lung adenocarcinoma, and to depict the clinical outcome according to treatment strategies. Patients with adequate tumor biopsy sampling were included. KRAS, BRAF and EGFR mutations were studied by Sanger sequencing. ALK translocations were studied by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and immunohistochemistry (IH) with antibodies against ALK with clones D5F3 and 5A4. Informed consent was signed by 118 patients and 84 (72%) with complete molecular analysis were included. KRAS mutations were detected in 16 samples (19%), EGFR in 11 (13%), 9 of them conferring sensitivity to EGFR inhibitors, and BRAF mutations in 1 (1%). ALK translocations were detected in 3 samples (4%). Median follow-up was 42.4 [interquartile range (IQR): 27.0-64.2] months. Globally, median overall survival was 10.3 [IQR: 5.6-20.2] months. Median survival was 10.8 [IQR: 6.0-20.3] months in the group of patients without detectable molecular alteration, 9.6 [IQR: 3.7-16.1] months in KRAS mutant population (HR: 1.08; p = 0.82) and 32.5 [IQR: 19.6-38.4] months in patients with ALK translocations or sensitizing EGFR mutated tumors treated with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (HR: 0.27; p = 0.03). In conclusion, the prevalence of molecular alterations and outcomes in our population is similar to that reported in other studies in Western countries.

La prevalencia de alteraciones en oncogenes en adenocarcinoma de pulmón varía en nuestra región. El objetivo fue describir la prevalencia de mutaciones en KRAS, BRAF y EGFR y las translocaciones de ALK en pacientes con adenocarcinoma de pulmón y estudiar la supervivencia de acuerdo a subtipos moleculares. Se incluyeron pacientes con biopsias adecuadas para el estudio. Se evaluó el estado mutacional de KRAS, BRAF y EGFR por secuenciación con la técnica de Sanger. Las translocaciones de ALK se estudiaron por hibridación in situ por fluorescencia (FISH) e inmunohistoquimica (IHQ) contra ALK (clones D5F3 y 5A4). De 118 pacientes evaluados, se incluyeron 84 (72%) con análisis molecular completo. Se detectaron mutaciones de KRAS en 16 muestras (19%), EGFR en 11 (13%), y BRAF en 1 muestra (1%). Se detectaron rearreglos de ALK en 3 muestras (4%). La mediana de seguimiento de los pacientes fue de 42.4 [rango intercuatilo (RIC): 27.0-64.2] meses. Globalmente, la mediana de supervivencia en la población fue 10.3 [RIC: 5.6-20.2] meses y fue de 10.8 [RIC: 6.0 20.3] meses en pacientes sin alteraciones moleculares detectables. La mediana de supervivencia de los pacientes con mutación en KRAS fue de 9.6 [RIC: 3.7-16.1] meses (HR: 1.08; p = 0.82) y 32.5 [RIC: 19.6-38.4] meses en el grupo con rearreglos de ALK o mutaciones en EGFR tratados con inhibidores de tirosina quinasa (HR: 0.27; p = 0.03). En conclusión, la prevalencia de alteraciones moleculares en nuestra población fue similar a otros países occidentales.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Adenocarcinoma/genetics , Adenocarcinoma/pathology , Lung Neoplasms/genetics , Lung Neoplasms/pathology , Mutation , Argentina/epidemiology , Biopsy , Immunohistochemistry , Adenocarcinoma/mortality , Prospective Studies , In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence , Statistics, Nonparametric , Genes, erbB-1/genetics , Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf/genetics , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase/genetics , Lung Neoplasms/mortality