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Braz. J. Anesth. (Impr.) ; 73(4): 393-400, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1447619


Abstract Background Reliable devices that quantitatively monitor the level of neuromuscular blockade after neuromuscular blocking agents' administration are crucial. Electromyography and acceleromyography are two monitoring modalities commonly used in clinical practice. The primary outcome of this study is to compare the onset of neuromuscular blockade, defined as a Train-Of-Four Count (TOFC) equal to 0, as measured by an electromyography-based device (TetraGraph) and an acceleromyography-based device (TOFscan). The secondary outcome was to compare intubating conditions when one of these two devices reached a TOFC equal to 0. Methods One hundred adult patients scheduled for elective surgery requiring neuromuscular blockade were enrolled. Prior to induction of anesthesia, TetraGraph electrodes were placed over the forearm of patients' dominant/non-dominant hand based on randomization and TOFscan electrodes placed on the contralateral forearm. Intraoperative neuromuscular blocking agent dose was standardized to 0.5−1 of rocuronium. After baseline values were obtained, objective measurements were recorded every 20 seconds and intubation was performed using video laryngoscopy once either device displayed a TOFC = 0. The anesthesia provider was then surveyed about intubating conditions. Results Baseline TetraGraph train-of-four ratios were higher than those obtained with TOFscan (Median: 1.02 [0.88, 1.20] vs. 1.00 [0.64, 1.01], respectively, p < 0.001). The time to reach a TOFC = 0 was significantly longer when measured with TetraGraph compared to TOFscan (Median: 160 [40, 900] vs. 120 [60, 300] seconds, respectively, p < 0.001). There was no significant difference in intubating conditions when either device was used to determine the timing of endotracheal intubation. Conclusions The onset of neuromuscular blockade was longer when measured with TetraGraph than TOFscan, and a train-of-four count of zero in either device was a useful indicator for adequate intubating conditions. Clinical trial number and registry URL NCT05120999,

Humans , Adult , Neuromuscular Nondepolarizing Agents , Neuromuscular Blockade , Neuromuscular Blocking Agents , Prospective Studies , Neuromuscular Monitoring , Rocuronium , Androstanols , Anesthetics
Clinics ; 75: e1701, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1133407


OBJECTIVE: Female sex, body mass index (BMI), and neuromuscular blocking agents are risk factors of perioperative hypersensitivity reactions. This study aimed to investigate the effect of rocuronium on serum tryptase concentrations during general anesthesia in overweight and obese women. METHODS: The study was conducted in two groups: Group I (n=66) underwent volatile anesthesia with rocuronium and group II (n=60) underwent volatile anesthesia without any muscle relaxant. Serum tryptase concentration (STC) measurements were performed at baseline (STC 0) and postoperatively (STC 1). NCT04035707 RESULTS: The highest median value of STC 0 was seen in obese patients (3.44 μg L-1) and it was significantly higher than in overweight (p=0.01) and underweight patients (p=0.03). The maximum STC 0 was observed in overweight patients (20.4 μg L-1). In group I, STC 0 in obese patients presented the highest median value (4.49 μg L-1), and was significantly higher than in overweight patients (p=0.03), and had significantly higher STC 1 than patients with normal BMI (p=0.04). STC 0 and STC 1 in overweight and obese female patients did not differ significantly between groups. STC 1 did not correlate with rocuronium doses. In group I, BMI positively correlated with the duration of rocuronium infusion (rho=0.37) and STC 1 positively correlated with BMI (rho=0.32). CONCLUSION: Excess weight and obesity predispose to higher preoperative serum tryptase values. Postoperative STC is not linked to rocuronium doses. BMI is the main determinant factor of STC during combined volatile general anesthesia.

Humans , Female , Neuromuscular Nondepolarizing Agents , Rocuronium , Body Weight , Body Mass Index , Tryptases , Androstanols/adverse effects , Anesthesia, General/adverse effects
Rev. Col. Bras. Cir ; 44(1): 41-45, Jan.-Feb. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-842644


ABSTRACT Objective: to determine the ED90 (minimum effective dose in 90% of patients) of sugammadex for the reversal of rocuronium-induced moderate neuromuscular blockade (NMB) in patients with grade III obesity undergoing bariatric surgery. Methods: we conducted a prospective study with the biased coin up-and-down sequential design. We chosen the following doses: 2.0mg/Kg, 2.2mg/Kg, 2.4mg/Kg, 2.6mg/Kg, 2.8mg/Kg. The complete reversal of rocuronium-induced NMB considered a T4/T1 ratio ≥0.9 as measured by TOF. After induction of general anesthesia and calibration of the peripheral nerve stimulator and accelerometer, we injected rocuronium 0.6mg/kg. We administered propofol and remifentanil by continuous infusion, and intermittent boluses of rocuronium throughout the procedure. Results: we evaluated 31 patients, of whom 26 had displayed successful reversal of the NMB with sugammadex, and failure in five. The mean time to complete moderate NMB reversal was 213 seconds (172-300, median 25-75%). The ED90 of sugammadex calculated by regression was 2.39mg/kg, with a 95% confidence interval of 2.27-2.46 mg/kg. Conclusion: the ED90 of sugammadex in patients with grade III obesity or higher was 2.39mg/kg.

RESUMO Objetivos: determinar a ED90 (dose mínima eficaz em 90% dos pacientes) de sugamadex para a reversão de bloqueio neuromuscular (BNM) moderado induzido pelo rocurônio em pacientes com obesidade grau III submetidos à cirurgia bariátrica. Métodos: estudo prospectivo com o método de projeção sequencial para cima e para baixo da moeda enviesada. As seguintes doses foram escolhidas: 2,0mg/kg-1, 2,2mg/kg-1, 2,4mg/kg-1, 2,6mg/kg-1, 2,8mg/kg-1. A reversão completa de BNM induzido por rocurônio considerou uma relação T4/T1 ≥0,9 na medida do TOF. Após a indução da anestesia geral e calibração do estimulador de nervo periférico e acelerômetro, rocurônio 0,6mg/kg-1 foi injetado. Infusão contínua de propofol e remifentanil, e bolus intermitente de rocurônio foram injetados durante todo o procedimento. Resultados: trinta e um pacientes foram avaliados, 26 dos quais bem-sucedidos e cinco sem reversão completa do BNM moderado promovido pelo sugamadex. O tempo médio para completar reversão de BNM foi 213 segundos (172 a 300 segundos; mediana, 25-75%). O ED90 de sugamadex calculado pela regressão foi de 2,39mg/kg-1 com um intervalo de confiança de 95% (2,27 a 2,46mg/kg-1). Conclusão: o ED90 de sugamadex em pacientes com obesidade grau III ou superior foi 2,39mg/kg-1.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Neuromuscular Nondepolarizing Agents/therapeutic use , Neuromuscular Blockade , gamma-Cyclodextrins/administration & dosage , Bariatric Surgery , Androstanols/therapeutic use , Obesity/surgery , Prospective Studies , Sugammadex , Rocuronium , Middle Aged
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 67(1): 1-5, Jan.-Feb. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-843365


Abstract Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of intracerebroventricularly administered rocuronium bromide on the central nervous system, determine the seizure threshold dose of rocuronium bromide in rats, and investigate the effects of rocuronium on the central nervous system at 1/5, 1/10, and 1/100 dilutions of the determined seizure threshold dose. Methods: A permanent cannula was placed in the lateral cerebral ventricle of the animals. The study was designed in two phases. In the first phase, the seizure threshold dose of rocuronium bromide was determined. In the second phase, Group R 1/5 (n = 6), Group 1/10 (n = 6), and Group 1/100 (n = 6) were formed using doses of 1/5, 1/10, and 1/100, respectively, of the obtained rocuronium bromide seizure threshold dose. Results: The rocuronium bromide seizure threshold value was found to be 0.056 ± 0.009 µmoL. The seizure threshold, as a function of the body weight of rats, was calculated as 0.286 µmoL/kg-1. A dose of 1/5 of the seizure threshold dose primarily caused splayed limbs, posturing, and tremors of the entire body, whereas the dose of 1/10 of the seizure threshold dose caused agitation and shivering. A dose of 1/100 of the seizure threshold dose was associated with decreased locomotor activity. Conclusions: This study showed that rocuronium bromide has dose-related deleterious effects on the central nervous system and can produce dose-dependent excitatory effects and seizures.

Resumo Justificativa: O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar os efeitos do brometo de rocurônio administrado intracerebroventricularmente sobre o sistema nervoso central, determinar a dose do limiar convulsivo de rocurônio em ratos e investigar os efeitos de rocurônio no sistema nervoso central em diluições de 1/5, 1/10 e 1/100 da dose do limiar convulsivo determinada. Métodos: Uma cânula permanente foi colocada no ventrículo lateral do cérebro dos animais. O estudo foi projetado em duas fases. Na primeira, a dose do limiar convulsivo do brometo de rocurônio foi determinada. Na segunda, o Grupo R 1/5 (n = 6), o Grupo 1/10 (n = 6) e Grupo 1/100 (n = 6) foram formados com doses de 1/5, 1/10 e 1/100, respectivamente, da dose do limiar convulsivo de brometo de rocurônio obtida. Resultados: Descobrimos que o valor do limiar convulsivo de brometo de rocurônio é 0,056 ± 0,009 µmoL. O limiar convulsivo, como uma função do peso corporal dos ratos, foi calculado como 0,286 µmoL/kg-1. Uma dose de 1/5 da dose do limiar convulsivo causou principalmente abertura postural dos membros e tremores em todo o corpo, enquanto uma dose de 1/10 da dose do limiar convulsivo causou agitação e tremores. Uma dose de 1/100 da dose do limiar convulsivo foi associada à diminuição da atividade locomotora. Conclusões: Este estudo mostrou que o brometo de rocurônio tem efeitos deletérios relacionados com a dose sobre o sistema nervoso central e pode produzir efeitos excitatórios dependentes da dose e convulsões.

Animals , Female , Dihydrotestosterone/pharmacology , Central Nervous System/drug effects , Neuromuscular Nondepolarizing Agents/pharmacology , Epilepsy/drug therapy , Random Allocation , Rats, Wistar , Neuromuscular Nondepolarizing Agents/administration & dosage , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Rocuronium , Injections, Intraventricular , Androstanols/administration & dosage , Locomotion/drug effects
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 66(4): 430-432,
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-787610


Abstract A case is reported in which a 3-days old neonate with a giant ovarian cyst was scheduled for surgery. The patient received a dose of sugammadex to reverse a rocuronium-induced neuromuscular block. A fast and efficient recovery from neuromuscular block was achieved within 90 s. No adverse events or other safety concerns were observed. Furthermore, a review of the literature on the use of sugammadex in neonates was performed.

Resumo Relato do caso de uma criança recém-nascida de três dias de idade com um cisto ovariano gigante programada para a cirurgia. A paciente recebeu uma dose de sugamadex para reverter o bloqueio neuromuscular induzido por rocurônio. Uma recuperação rápida e eficiente do bloqueio neuromuscular foi obtida dentro de 90 segundos. Não foram observados efeitos adversos ou outros problemas de segurança. Além disso, uma revisão da literatura sobre o uso de sugamadex em recém-nascidos foi feita.

Humans , Female , Infant, Newborn , Ovarian Cysts/surgery , Neuromuscular Nondepolarizing Agents/therapeutic use , Neuromuscular Blockade/methods , gamma-Cyclodextrins/therapeutic use , Androstanols/therapeutic use , Ovary/surgery , Drainage/methods , Treatment Outcome , Sugammadex , Rocuronium
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1477-1482, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-290050


<p><b>BACKGROUND</b>The antagonistic actions of anticholinesterase drugs on non-depolarizing muscle relaxants are theoretically related to the activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in the neuromuscular junction (NMJ). However, till date the changes of AChE activity in the NMJ during sepsis have not been directly investigated. We aimed to investigate the effects of sepsis on the antagonistic actions of neostigmine on rocuronium (Roc) and the underlying changes of AChE activity in the NMJ in a rat model of cecal ligation and puncture (CLP).</p><p><b>METHODS</b>A total of 28 male adult Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized to undergo a sham surgery (the sham group, n = 12) or CLP (the septic group, n = 16). After 24 h, the time-response curves of the antagonistic actions of 0.1 or 0.5 μmol/L of neostigmine on Roc (10 μmol/L)-depressed diaphragm twitch tension were measured. Meanwhile, the activity of AChE in the NMJ was detected using a modified Karnovsky and Roots method. The mRNA levels of the primary transcript and the type T transcript of AChE (AChET) in the diaphragm were determined by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Four of 16 rats in the septic group died within 24 h. The time-response curves of both two concentrations of neostigmine in the septic group showed significant upward shifts from those in the sham group (P < 0.001 for 0.1 μmol/L; P = 0.009 for 0.5 μmol/L). Meanwhile, the average optical density of AChE in the NMJ in the septic group was significantly lower than that in the sham group (0.517 ± 0.045 vs. 1.047 ± 0.087, P < 0.001). The AChE and AChETmRNA expression levels in the septic group were significantly lower than those in the sham group (P = 0.002 for AChE; P = 0.001 for AChET).</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>Sepsis strengthened the antagonistic actions of neostigmine on Roc-depressed twitch tension of the diaphragm by inhibiting the activity of AChE in the NMJ. The reduced content of AChE might be one of the possible causes of the decreased AChE activity in the NMJ.</p>

Animals , Male , Rats , Acetylcholinesterase , Metabolism , Androstanols , Pharmacology , Cecum , Wounds and Injuries , Cholinesterase Inhibitors , Pharmacology , Diaphragm , Metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Ligation , Neostigmine , Pharmacology , Neuromuscular Junction , Neuromuscular Nondepolarizing Agents , Pharmacology , Punctures , Random Allocation , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Sepsis
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 48(4): 370-376, 4/2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-744355


Myocardial ischemia, as well as the induction agents used in anesthesia, may cause corrected QT interval (QTc) prolongation. The objective of this randomized, double-blind trial was to determine the effects of high- vs conventional-dose bolus rocuronium on QTc duration and the incidence of dysrhythmias following anesthesia induction and intubation. Fifty patients about to undergo coronary artery surgery were randomly allocated to receive conventional-dose (0.6 mg/kg, group C, n=25) or high-dose (1.2 mg/kg, group H, n=25) rocuronium after induction with etomidate and fentanyl. QTc, heart rate, and mean arterial pressure were recorded before induction (T0), after induction (T1), after rocuronium (just before laryngoscopy; T2), 2 min after intubation (T3), and 5 min after intubation (T4). The occurrence of dysrhythmias was recorded. In both groups, QTc was significantly longer at T3 than at baseline [475 vs 429 ms in group C (P=0.001), and 459 vs 434 ms in group H (P=0.005)]. The incidence of dysrhythmias in group C (28%) and in group H (24%) was similar. The QTc after high-dose rocuronium was not significantly longer than after conventional-dose rocuronium in patients about to undergo coronary artery surgery who were induced with etomidate and fentanyl. In both groups, compared with baseline, QTc was most prolonged at 2 min after intubation, suggesting that QTc prolongation may be due to the nociceptive stimulus of intubation.

Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Androstanols/administration & dosage , Anesthesia, General/methods , Coronary Vessels/surgery , Electrocardiography/drug effects , Intubation/adverse effects , Neuromuscular Nondepolarizing Agents/administration & dosage , Anesthetics, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/epidemiology , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/etiology , Arterial Pressure/drug effects , Double-Blind Method , Etomidate/therapeutic use , Fentanyl/therapeutic use , Heart Rate/drug effects , Intubation/methods , Laryngoscopy , Statistics, Nonparametric
Anaesthesia, Pain and Intensive Care. 2015; 19 (2): 163-165
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-166449


Sugammadex is a relatively new drug used to reverse the effects of rocuronium, a nondepolarizing muscle relaxing agent to hasten emergence from general anesthesia. Unlike neostigmine and atropine, its use is not associated with re-curarization or cardiac arrhythmias. Sugammadex carries a small risk of allergic reactions including anaphylactic shock. We present a case report of a 67 years old woman who underwent an urgent operation for small bowel operation. Due to atrial fibrillation [AF] the anesthesiologist administered Sugammadex just before skin closure. Soon after the injection, peak inspiratory pressures [PIP] increased precipitously followed by hypotension and increasing tachycardia. For anticipated cardioversion, the chest was exposed and it revealed urticarial. There was severe bronchospasm on auscultation. Treatment of anaphylactic shock was initiated, the patient improved dramatically and fully recovered. This case is presented to alert practitioners to the importance of a sudden rise in PIP after Sugammadex administration in the early diagnosis of an anaphylactic reaction, and to suggest that due to the risk of anaphylaxis, it may be advisable to initiate sugammadex only when the patient can be fully exposed without compromising the sterility of the operating field

Humans , Female , Aged , Androstanols , Anaphylaxis , Hypersensitivity
Acta cir. bras ; 29(12): 807-811, 12/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-731022


PURPOSE: To compare the effects of sugammadex and neostigmine, used to antagonize the effects of rocuronium, on the QTc interval. METHODS: This study used 10 adult New Zealand white rabbits of 2.5-3.5 kg randomly divided into two groups: sugammadex group (Group S, n:5) and neostigmine group (Group N, n:5). For general anesthesia administering 2 mg/kg iv propofol and 1 mcg/kg iv fentanyl, 0.6 mg/kg iv rocuronium was given. Later to provide reliable airway for all experimental animals V-Gel Rabbit was inserted. The rabbits were manually ventilated by the same anesthetist. After the V-Gel Rabbit was inserted at 2, 5, 10, 20, 25, 27, 30 and 40 minutes measurements were repeated and recorded. At 25 minutes after induction Group N rabbits were given 0.05 mg/kg iv neostigmine + 0.01 mg/kg iv atropine. Group S were administered 2 mg/kg iv sugammadex. RESULTS: Comparing the QTc interval in the rabbits in Group S and Group N, in the 25th, 27th and 30th minute after muscle relaxant antagonist was administered the QTc interval in the neostigmine group rabbits was significantly increased (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: While sugammadex, administered to antagonize the effect of rocuronium, did not significantly affect the QTc interval, neostigmine+atropine proloned the QTc interval. .

Animals , Male , Rabbits , Anesthesia, General/methods , Cholinesterase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Heart/drug effects , Neostigmine/pharmacology , gamma-Cyclodextrins/pharmacology , Anesthesia Recovery Period , Androstanols/antagonists & inhibitors , Arterial Pressure/drug effects , Electrocardiography/drug effects , Heart Rate/drug effects , Models, Animal , Random Allocation , Time Factors
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 64(4): 281-285, Jul-Aug/2014. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-720476


A 58-year-old female without cardiovascular risk factors, was going to be operated to repair the rotator cuff. Induction and interscalene brachial plexus block were uneventful, but after her placement for surgery the patient started with severe bronchospasm, hypotension, cutaneous allergic reaction and ST elevation on the electrocardiogram. An anaphylactic shock was suspected and treated but until the perfusion of nitroglycerina was started no electrocardiographic changes resolved. After necessary diagnostic test the final diagnosis was variant I of Kounis syndrome due to cefazolin and rocuronium. Ephinephrine is the cornerstone of treatment for anaphylaxis but should we use it if the anaphylactic reaction is also accompanied by myocardial ischemia? The answer is that we should not use it because myocardial ischemia in this syndrome is caused by vasospasm, so it would be more useful drugs such as nitroglycerin. But what if we do not know if it is a Kounis syndrome or not? In this article we report our experience that maybe could help you in a similar situation.

Paciente do sexo feminino, 58 anos, sem fator de risco cardiovascular, submetida a cirurgia para reparação do manguito rotador. A indução do bloqueio do plexo braquial interescalênico foi feita sem intercorrência, mas, após seu posicionamento para a cirurgia, a paciente apresentou broncoespasmo grave, hipotensão, reação alérgica cutânea e elevação do segmento ST ao eletrocardiograma. Houve suspeita de choque anafilático que foi tratado, mas até que a perfusão de nitroglicerina fosse iniciada não houve resolução das alterações eletrocardiográficas. Após teste diagnóstico necessário, o diagnóstico final foi de variante tipo I da síndrome de Kounis por causa de cefazolina e rocurônio. Epinefrina é a base sólida do tratamento para anafilaxia, mas devemos usá-la se a reação anafilática também for acompanhada de isquemia miocárdica? A resposta é que não devemos usá-la, porque a isquemia miocárdica nessa síndrome é causada por vasoespasmo; portanto, drogas como a nitroglicerina seriam mais úteis. Porém, e quando não sabemos se é ou não uma síndrome de Kounis? Neste artigo relatamos nossa experiência que, talvez, possa ajudar em uma situação similar.

Paciente del sexo femenino, 58 años de edad, sin factor de riesgo cardiovascular, sometida a cirugía para la reparación del manguito rotador. La inducción del bloqueo del plexo braquial interescalénico fue realizada sin intercurrencias, pero después de su posicionamiento para la cirugía, la paciente presentó broncoespasmo grave, hipotensión, reacción alérgica cutánea y elevación del segmento ST al electrocardiograma. Hubo sospecha de choque anafiláctico que fue tratado, pero hasta que la perfusión de nitroglicerina se iniciase no hubo resolución de las alteraciones electrocardiográficas. Después del test diagnóstico necesario, el diagnóstico final fue de variante tipo i del síndrome de Kounis debido a la cefazolina y al rocuronio. La epinefrina es la base sólida del tratamiento para la anafilaxia, pero ¿debemos usarla si la reacción anafiláctica también viene seguida de isquemia miocárdica? La respuesta es que no debemos usarla porque la isquemia miocárdica en ese síndrome está causada por el vasoespasmo; por tanto, fármacos como la nitroglicerina serían más útiles. Sin embargo, ¿y cuando no sabemos si es o no un síndrome de Kounis? En este artículo, relatamos nuestra experiencia que, tal vez, pueda ayudarle a usted a hacer frente a una situación similar.

Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Anaphylaxis/diagnosis , Coronary Vasospasm/drug therapy , Myocardial Ischemia/drug therapy , Nitroglycerin/administration & dosage , Androstanols/adverse effects , Cefazolin/adverse effects , Coronary Vasospasm/diagnosis , Coronary Vasospasm/etiology , Electrocardiography , Myocardial Ischemia/diagnosis , Myocardial Ischemia/etiology , Rotator Cuff/surgery , Syndrome , Vasodilator Agents/administration & dosage
Rev. chil. anest ; 43(1): 16-22, jun.2014. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-780377


El aumento universal en la prevalencia de obesidad ha causado que los anestesiólogos se vean frecuentemente enfrentados a anestesiar pacientes obesos. Pese a esto aún existen dudas respecto a cómo dosificar las drogas en estos pacientes. La literatura recomienda dosificar el rocuronio en obesos en base al peso ideal (IBW, iniciales del inglés Ideal Body Weight) pero esta sugerencia está basada más bien en la prudencia que en la evidencia. Se decidió explorar con análisis de sobrevida (análisis tiempo-evento), la duración del rocuronio en obesos al ser dosificado por peso ideal (IBW) y por peso real (TBW, iniciales del inglés de peso corporal total). Al administrar el rocuronio en base al peso real (TBW) se observó una prolongación en su duración de acción con un acortamiento de su latencia en relación con la dosificación en base al peso ideal (IBW). Hubo una marcada prolongación de la duración de acción y el índice de recuperación tanto al dosificar por peso real como peso ideal. Debido a esta sensibilidad aumentada al rocuronio en pacientes obesos recomendamos dosificarlo en base al peso ideal, excepto si se necesita intubar rápidamente...

The universal increase in prevalence of obesity has caused that anesthesiologist are frequently encountered with anesthetizing obese patients. There stills exists doubt on how to dosage drugs to these patients. Literature recommends dosing rocuronium in the obese based on ideal weight (IBW), being this suggestion based more on prudence than on evidence. Randomized control trial was designed for obese patients scheduled for bariatric surgery to study the pharmacodynamics of rocuronium in this population. Patients were randomly assigned into two groups: rocuronium dosage 0.6 mg•kg-1 for real weight (TBW) or rocuronium dosage of 0.6mg•kg-1 for ideal weight (IBW). Ideal weight was calculated according to Lemmens formula. The reference group was the dosage based on IBW. Previous calibration, evaluating the first twitch of train-of-four (T1), we registered onset time, clinical duration, recovery index, level of muscle relaxation to which the first reinforcement was administered and clinical duration of rocuronium reinforcement. A total of 100 patients were part of the study: 54 in group TBW and 46 in group IBW. When administering rocuronium based on real weight (TBW) a prolongation in clinical duration was found: Medium (IQR*); 79.5 (67 - 105) minutes versus 44.5(33 - 63.5 minutes) in the IBW group (p < 0.001) with a decrease in latency in the TBW group 120 (90-150secs.) versus the IBW group 180 (120 - 270 secs.) (p < 0.001). There were no differences in the recovery index between both levels of dosing. There was a marked prolongation of both clinical duration and recovery index in both groups, as supported in some literature. Based on the evidence, we recommend to dose rocuronium in obese patients based on ideal weight, with the exception of cases were quick intubation is required...

Humans , Male , Adult , Female , Middle Aged , Androstanols/administration & dosage , Body Weight , Neuromuscular Nondepolarizing Agents/administration & dosage , Obesity
Annals Abbassi Shaheed Hospital and Karachi Medical and Dental College. 2014; 19 (2): 79-84
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-168086


To assess the effect on intubating conditions and haemodynamic response on intubation of two different induction agents etomidate and thiopental sodium with rocuronium during rapid sequence induction. This prospective quasi experimentalstudy was conducted in Department Of Anaesthesia, SICU and Pain Management, Dow Medical College, Civil Hospital Karachi and Abbasi Shaheed Hospital Karachi Medical and Dental College over a period of one year. Total 120 American Society of Anaesthesiologists [ASA] physical class I and II, adult patients of either gender, aged between 18 to 60 years, undergoing elective surgery were allocated randomly into two equal groups to receive either intravenous thiopental sodium [Group NTR] or etomidate[Group NER] for rapid sequence induction. Group NER was given nalbuphine 0.1 mg/kg, induction agent etomidate 3 mg/kg with muscle relaxant rocuronium 1.0 mg/kg while in group NTR induction agent thiopental sodium was given in the dose of 4 mg/kg with nalbuphine and rocuronium in the same doses. After sixty seconds, laryngoscopy was done. Intubating condition was assessed using the criteria of Cooper and colleagues: ease of intubation, condition of vocal cords and response to intubation. Cardiovascular response on intubation in terms of systolic and diastolic blood pressure and heart rate was evaluated at 0,1, 3 and 5 minutes. Demographic data were comparable between the groups. Intubating conditions which were assessed in terms of ease of laryngoscopy, condition of vocal cords at intubation and intubation response coughing, bucking and diaphragmatic movement were significantly better in the group NER [p<0.05]. Similarly, arterial blood pressure remained close to base line in NER group but there was significant fall in both systolic and diastolic blood pressure in group NTR. However, there was no significant difference in change in the heart rate in the groups. Etomidate-rocuronium is better than thiopental-rocuronium in terms of intubating conditions and haemodynamic stability during rapid sequence induction in non-septic surgical patients in emergency department

Humans , Male , Female , Etomidate/pharmacology , Thiopental/pharmacology , Androstanols/pharmacology , Prospective Studies , Nalbuphine , Laryngoscopy
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 821-824, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-253252


<p><b>BACKGROUND</b>Recurarization has previously been described in the context of acute normovolemic hemodilution. The aim of this study was to investigate the impairment of recovery of neuromuscular function after re-transfusion of intraoperative salvaged blood in patients treated with rocuronium.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>We enrolled 50 patients undergoing general anesthesia for lumbar surgery. Intraoperative blood salvage (IBS) was used in 30 patients (group I); the remaining 20 comprised a control group (group C). Anesthesia was induced with fentanyl, midazolam, propofol and rocuronium. Rocuronium was infused to maintain neuromuscular blockade during surgery. Blood was collected from the operative field and re-transfused in the post-anesthesia care unit (PACU). Neuromuscular function was monitored using the train-of-four ratio (TOFr). Once the train-of-four ratio exceeded 90 in the PACU, neuromuscular function was evaluated every 5 minutes for 30 minutes. The TOFr and incremental recovery of TOFr from baseline were recorded. Salvaged blood was re-transfused at the beginning of the evaluation for patients in group I, and afterwards for patients in group C. Blood gas analysis was assessed before anesthesia and in the PACU.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Incremental recovery of TOFr from baseline was significantly less in group I than controls at 25 minutes (6.1 ± 3.2 vs. 9.1 ± 3.2, respectively; P = 0.001) and 30 minutes (7.1 ± 3.2 vs. 10.0 ± 2.2, respectively; P = 0.001). There were no significant differences in gas exchange between the groups.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>In patients who had received a rocuronium infusion during anesthesia, re-transfusion of salvaged blood significantly impaired recovery of neuromuscular function recovery in the PACU, but without significant impairment of respiratory function.</p>

Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Androstanols , Therapeutic Uses , Anesthesia, General , Methods , Blood Gas Analysis , Muscle, Skeletal , Neuromuscular Blocking Agents , Therapeutic Uses
Rev. argent. anestesiol ; 71(1): 54-60, ene.-mar. 2013. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-712386


Introducción: El bloqueo neuromuscular residual es causa de complicaciones postoperatorias. Objetivo: Identificar la eficacia del sugammadex para revertir el bloqueo neuromuscular con rocuronio, en procederes de larga duración, cuando éste se administra en forma de bolos versus infusión continua. Método: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo exploratorio en una serie de 10 pacientes para tratamiento quirúrgico de más de dos horas, de forma electiva con anestesia general en el Hospital General Universitario de Alicante, España, entre los meses de noviembre y diciembre del 2010. La inducción y el mantenimiento del bloqueo neuromuscular se realizaron mediante bolos (B) o infusión continua (IC), quedando los pacientes divididos en dos grupos. Se compararon los grupos según el tiempo de recuperación mediante la prueba de U-Mann Whitney. Resultados: Existió homogeneidad entre los grupos en cuanto a edad, peso corporal y estado físico según la ASA II – III. La mediana del tiempo quirúrgico para el grupo B fue de 3:55 horas versus 4:20 horas en el grupo de infusión continua. Para alcanzar el cociente T4/T1 > 90%, la mediana del tiempo de recuperación fue de 75.0 minutos para el grupo IC, mientras en el grupo que se utilizaron bolos se observó un tiempo de 140.0 minutos; las diferencias entre ambos grupos resultaron ser estadísticamente significativas (p = 0,008). Conclusiones: La reversión del bloqueo neuromuscular de larga duración inducido por rocuronio fue más rápida cuando el sugammadex se administró en infusión continua en nuestro grupo de pacientes.

Androstanols/administration & dosage , Androstanols/antagonists & inhibitors , Neuromuscular Blockade/methods , gamma-Cyclodextrins/administration & dosage , gamma-Cyclodextrins/pharmacology , Anesthesia Recovery Period , Anesthesia, General/methods , Drug Administration Routes , Postoperative Complications , Time Factors
SJA-Saudi Journal of Anaesthesia. 2013; 7 (2): 146-150
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-130480


This survey aimed to assess the extent of practice of the Middle Eastern anesthesiologists in the use of neuromuscular blocking agents [NMB] in 2012. We distributed an electronic survey among 577 members of the Triple-M Middle Eastern Yahoo anesthesia group, enquiring about their practice in the use of neuromuscular blocking agents. Questions concerned the routine "first choice" use of NMB, choice for tracheal intubation, the use of neuromuscular monitoring [NMT], type of NMB used in difficult airway, frequency of using suxamethonium, cisatracurium, rocuronium and sugammadex, observed side effects of rocuronium, residual curarization, and the reversal of residual curarization of rocuronium. A total of 71 responses from 22 Middle Eastern institutions were collected. Most of the Middle Eastern anesthesiologists were using cisatracurium and rocuronium frequently for tracheal intubation [39% and 35%, respectively]. From the respondents, 2/3 were using suxamethonium for tracheal intubation in difficult airway, 1/3 were using rocuronium routinely and 17% have observed hypersensitivity reactions to rocuronium, 54% reported residual curarization from rocuronium, 78% were routinely using neostigmine to reverse the rocuronium, 21% used sugammadex occasionally, and 35% were using NMT routinely during the use of NMB. We believe that more could be done to increase the awareness of the Middle Eastern anesthesiologists about the high incidence of PROC [>20%] and the need for routine monitoring of neuromuscular function. This could be accomplished with by developing formal training programs and providing official guidelines

Humans , Anesthesiology , Data Collection , Androstanols , Intubation, Intratracheal
Korean Journal of Anesthesiology ; : 33-36, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-85964


BACKGROUND: Neuromuscular blockade of the adductor pollicis muscle may be influenced by hand dominance resulting in conflicting results of several studies. The current study examined whether hand dominance could influence the measurements of neuromuscular blockade with acceleromyography at the adductor pollicis. METHODS: The acceleromyographic responses from 0.6 mg/kg of rocuronium were monitored supramaximally in both hands in 31 patients after induction of anesthesia. Onset, maximum effect, and offset of rocuronium were measured and compared in both hands. The train-of-four (TOF) ratios to 0.9 were recorded in all patients. RESULTS: In total, 27 patients were right-handed and 4 patients were left-handed. The mean supramaximal threshold or initial TOF ratio was not different between dominant and nondominant hands. No statistically significant differences were found between 716 paired TOF ratios in both hands. A correlation was seen between the dominant and nondominant hand (Nondominant = 0.931.Dominant + 1.714, R = 0.929). The analysis by the Bland-Altman plot showed an excellent agreement with a bias of 1.6% and limits of agreement of -21.2 to 24.5%. CONCLUSIONS: Dominant and nondominant hands can be used interchangeably for neuromuscular monitoring at the adductor pollicis.

Humans , Androstanols , Anesthesia , Bias , Hand , Muscles , Neuromuscular Blockade , Neuromuscular Monitoring
Korean Journal of Anesthesiology ; : 306-311, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-100104


BACKGROUND: Sudden loss of airway in patients in the lateral position has always been proven to be difficult to manage with conventional laryngoscopy. We performed a randomized controlled trial to prove the success rate of ventilation and intubation in the lateral position via intubating laryngeal mask airway (ILMA). METHODS: Ninety patients were divided into three groups of 30 patients each, positioned supine, right lateral, and left lateral randomly. Each group comprised of both sexes of American Society of Anesthesiologists grade I and II, aged between 18-55 years with normal airway posted for surgery under general anesthesia. Patients were pre-medicated with fentanyl followed by induction with propofol and neuromuscular blockade with rocuronium. ILMA was inserted and blind tracheal intubation via ILMA was done. The success rate, time taken and the number of adjusting maneuvers used for both procedures were recorded. The data was tabulated and analyzed using ANOVA (analysis of variance), multiple 't' test and chi square. RESULTS: The success rate of intubation (96%) and time taken in insertion and intubation was found to be quite similar in all the three groups. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that the ILMA has an important role to play in the emergency management of airways in patients in the lateral position in terms of ease, success rate and time taken.

Humans , Androstanols , Anesthesia, General , Emergencies , Fentanyl , Intubation , Intubation, Intratracheal , Laryngeal Masks , Laryngoscopy , Neuromuscular Blockade , Propofol , Ventilation