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1.
Rev. colomb. anestesiol ; 49(4): e201, Oct.-Dec. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1341237

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction Prostatectomy is the standard treatment for patients with clinically localized prostate cancer. Currently, robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP) is widely used for its advantages, as it provides better visualization, precision, and reduced tissue manipulation. However, RARP requires a multidisciplinary approach in which anesthesia and analgesia management are especially important. Objective This study aims to describe our experience delivering anesthesia for the first cases of patients undergoing RARP in a teaching hospital in Bogotá, Colombia. Methodology An observational study was conducted. We included all patients undergoing RARP from September 2015 to December 2019 at Fundación Santa Fe de Bogotá. All patients with incomplete data were excluded. Patient demographics were recorded, and significant perioperative events were reviewed. Results A total of 301 patients were included. At our institution, the mean age for patients undergoing RARP was 61.4 ± 6.7 years. The mean operative time was 205 ± 43 min and mean blood loss was 300 [200400] mL. Only 6 (2%) patients required transfusion. Age and BMI were not associated with clinical outcomes. Conclusions An adequate perioperative approach in RARP is important to minimize complications, which in this study and in this institution were infrequent.


Resumen Introducción La prostatectomía es el tratamiento estándar para pacientes con cáncer de próstata localizado. Actualmente, la prostatectomía radical asistida por robot es ampliamente utilizada por sus ventajas en visualización, precisión y manipulación de los tejidos. Sin embargo, este abordaje requiere un manejo multidisciplinario, pues el enfoque analgésico y anestésico es fundamental para optimizar los desenlaces. Objetivo Describir los primeros casos de prostatectomía radical asistida por robot realizadas en un hospital universitario de cuarto nivel en Bogotá, Colombia. Metodología Estudio observacional en el cual se incluyeron todos los pacientes sometidos a prostatectomía radical asistida por robot (PRAR) en el hospital Fundación Santa Fe de Bogotá entre septiembre de 2015 y diciembre de 2019. Se excluyeron los pacientes con historia clínica incompleta. Se registraron los datos demográficos y se revisaron los eventos perioperatorios importantes. Resultados Se analizaron 301 pacientes. La edad media de pacientes sometidos a PRAR fue 61,4 ± 6,7 años. El tiempo quirúrgico promedio fue 205 ± 43 minutos y la pérdida sanguínea media fue 300 [200-400] mL. Solo 6 pacientes (2 %) requirieron transfusión. La edad y el IMC no mostraron una asociación relevante con los desenlaces clínicos. Conclusiones El adecuado abordaje perioperatorio en PRAR es importante para minimizar las complicaciones, las cuales en este estudio y en esta institución fueron infrecuentes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prostatectomy , Natural Orifice Endoscopic Surgery , Robotic Surgical Procedures , Anesthesia, General , Prostatic Neoplasms , Observational Studies as Topic , Analgesia
2.
Rev. cuba. anestesiol. reanim ; 20(2): e687, 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1289354

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La decisión de realizar la inducción anestésica con propofol o tiopental en la paciente obstétrica para operación cesárea es un tema controvertido, con resultados contradictorios entre las investigaciones. Objetivo: Presentar los resultados que se publicaron en la literatura nacional e internacional sobre el uso del propofol como agente anestésico en la inducción de la anestesia general en la operación cesárea electiva. Métodos: Se realizó una revisión no sistemática de la bibliografía basada en artículos que se publicaron en bases de datos indexadas en Infomed como Hinari, Ebsco, Scielo, Pubmed, Cubmed, Cocrhane; en idioma español e inglés, durante los últimos diez años, utilizando palabras clave como: (inducción anestésica OR anestesia general OR) AND (propofol OR) AND (operación cesárea OR cesárea OR). Desarrollo: Se destacaron artículos donde se comparan los resultados del uso del propofol contra el tiopental y otros barbitúricos durante la inducción anestésica en cuanto a variables hemodinámicas, efectos adversos, calidad anestésica y desenlaces neonatales como el estado físico, capacidad de adaptación neurológica y gases arteriales. Conclusiones: El propofol es el agente más común para la inducción anestésica en la paciente obstétrica que necesita cesárea electiva. Este presenta resultados adecuados maternos y fetales, y menor incidencia de efectos adversos(AU)


Introduction: The decision to perform anesthetic induction with propofol or thiopental in obstetric patients for cesarean section is a controversial issue, with contradictory oncomes among investigations. Objective: To present the results published in the national and international literature about the use of propofol as an anesthetic agent in the induction of general anesthesia in elective cesarean section. Methods: A nonsystematic review of the bibliography was carried out, with a focus on articles in Spanish and English published, during the last ten years, in databases indexed in Infomed, such as Hinari, Ebsco, Scielo, Pubmed, Cubmed, Cocrhane, using keywords such as (inducción anestésica [anesthetic induction] OR anestesia general [general anesthesia] OR) AND (propofol OR) AND (operación cesárea [cesarean section] OR cesárea [cesarean] OR). Development: Articles were highlighted if they compared the results of propofol usage against thiopental and other barbiturates during anesthetic induction in terms of hemodynamic variables, adverse effects, anesthetic quality and neonatal outcomes such as physical state, neurological adaptation capacity and arterial gases. Conclusions: Propofol is the commonest agent for anesthetic induction in obstetric patients requiring elective caesarean section. This presents adequate maternal and fetal outcomes, as well as a lower incidence of adverse effects(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Propofol , Cesarean Section , Anesthesia, General
3.
Rev. colomb. anestesiol ; 49(2): e201, Apr.-June 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1251498

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction The analysis of the electrical activity of the brain using scalp electrodes with electroencephalography (EEG) could reveal the depth of anesthesia of a patient during surgery. However, conventional EEG equipment, due to its price and size, are not a practical option for the operating room and the commercial units used in surgery do not provide access to the electrical activity. The availability of low-cost portable technologies could provide for further research on the brain activity under general anesthesia and facilitate our quest for new markers of depth of anesthesia. Objective To assess the capabilities of a portable EEG technology to capture brain rhythms associated with the state of consciousness and the general anesthesia status of surgical patients anesthetized with propofol. Methods Observational, cross-sectional study that reviewed 10 EEG recordings captured using OpenBCI portable low-cost technology, in female patients undergoing general anesthesia with propofol. The signal from the frontal electrodes was analyzed with spectral analysis and the results were compared against the reports in the literature. Results The signal captured with frontal electrodes, particularly α rhythm, enabled the distinction between resting with eyes closed and with eyes opened in a conscious state, and sustained anesthesia during surgery. Conclusions It is possible to differentiate a resting state from sustained anesthesia, replicating previous findings with conventional technologies. These results pave the way to the use of portable technologies such as the OpenBCI tool, to explore the brain dynamics during anesthesia.


Resumen Introducción El análisis de la actividad eléctrica cerebral mediante electrodos ubicados sobre el cuero cabelludo con electroencefalografía (EEG) podría permitir conocer la profundidad anestésica de un paciente durante cirugía. Sin embargo, los equipos de EEG convencionales, por su precio y tamaño, no son una alternativa práctica en quirófanos y los equipos comerciales usados en cirugía no permiten acceder a la actividad eléctrica. Disponer de tecnologías portables y de bajo costo aumentaría el número de investigaciones sobre la actividad cerebral bajo anestesia general y facilitaría la búsqueda de nuevos marcadores para la profundidad anestésica. Objetivo Evaluar la capacidad de una tecnología EEG portable de adquirir ritmos cerebrales relacionados con el estado consciente y el estado de anestesia general de pacientes en cirugía anestesiados con propofol. Métodos Estudio observacional de corte transversal en el que se analizaron datos de 10 registros EEG obtenidos mediante tecnología portable y de bajo costo OpenBCI, de pacientes de sexo femenino que fueron sometidas a anestesia general con propofol. La señal obtenida de los electrodos frontales se analizó mediante análisis espectral y se contrastaron los resultados con lo descrito en la literatura. Resultados La señal obtenida con electrodos frontales, especialmente el ritmo α, permitió diferenciar el reposo con ojos cerrados y ojos abiertos en estado consciente, del estado de mantenimiento de la anestesia durante cirugía. Conclusiones Se logra la diferenciación de estado de reposo y de mantenimiento de la anestesia replicando hallazgos previos de tecnologías convencionales. Estos resultados abren la posibilidad de utilizar las tecnologías portables como el OpenBCI para investigar la dinámica cerebral durante la anestesia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Spectrum Analysis , Technology , Electroencephalography , Anesthesia, General , Brain Mapping , Propofol , Observational Studies as Topic
4.
Rev. cuba. anestesiol. reanim ; 20(1): e656, ene.-abr. 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1156370

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La hipertensión arterial pulmonar es una enfermedad con una baja incidencia en la gestante, aunque trae consigo una alta mortalidad una vez presentada. Un diagnóstico oportuno y un manejo perioperatorio adecuado minimizan el riesgo de desenlace fatal tanto para la madre como el feto. Objetivo: Describir el comportamiento de la hipertensión arterial pulmonar en la gestante a término y su conducción anestésica. Presentación del caso: Paciente de 23 años, antecedentes de salud, edad gestacional de 35.2 semanas. Luego de presentar dolor de espalda y ardor en el pecho relacionado con el esfuerzo, palpitaciones, disnea y bloqueo de rama derecha en electrocardiograma, se ingresa en UTI con sospecha de tromboembolismo pulmonar, el cual queda descartado tras diagnóstico confirmatorio de hipertensión pulmonar después de realizar angio TAC y ecocardiografía. Se decide realizar cesárea programada bajo técnica regional peridural, sin complicaciones tanto para la madre como el niño. Después de 2 días bajo vigilancia intensiva se traslada a su centro hospitalario de cabecera. Conclusiones: La vía del parto, así como una elección adecuada de la técnica anestésica, puede ser la diferencia entre el éxito y la fatalidad. Las técnicas regionales suelen recomendarse por encima de la técnica de anestesia general siempre que no se presenten contraindicaciones(AU)


Introduction: Pulmonary arterial hypertension is a disease with low incidence in the pregnant woman, although it brings about high mortality once presented. Timely diagnosis and adequate perioeprative management minimize the risk of fatal outcome for both mother and fetus. Objective: To describe pulmonary arterial hypertension and its anesthetic management in the term pregnant woman. Case presentation: 23-year-old female patient, with health history and gestational age of 35.2 weeks. After presenting back pain and chest burning associated with exertion, palpitations, dyspnea and right bundle branch block in the electrocardiogram, the patient was admitted to the intensive care unit with suspected pulmonary thromboembolism, which was ruled out due to the confirmatory diagnosis of pulmonary hypertension after performing computerized tomography angiography and echocardiography. Scheduled cesarean section was decided to be perform using the regional peridural technique, without complications for both the mother and the child. After two days under intensive surveillance, she was transferred to her primary hospital. Conclusions: The route of delivery, as well as an adequate choice of the anesthetic technique, can be the difference between success and fatality. Regional techniques are usually recommended over the general anesthesia technique, as long as there are no contraindications(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Young Adult , Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension/complications , Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension/diagnostic imaging , Anesthesia, General/methods , Pregnancy Complications/prevention & control , Cesarean Section/methods
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880839

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To evaluate the effect of general anesthesia on postoperative melatonin secretion in 4-to 6-year-old children with snoring.@*METHODS@#Twenty children with snoring aged 4-6 years of either gender (ASA grade Ⅰ and Ⅱ) were selected for adenoidectomy.Before, during and 3 days after the operation, salivary melatonin levels of the children were measured at 11 selected time points (T1-T11).The illumination intensity and body temperature of the children were recorded at each time point of measurement.The sleep time of the children in 3 days after the operation was recorded, and postoperative pain scores (FLACC) and Riker and Rehabilitation Quality Rating Scale-15(QoR-15) scores were assessed.Sleep Apnea Life Quality Evaluation Questionnaire (OSA-18) was used to evaluate postoperative recovery of the children at 28 days after the operation.The incidence of major adverse events of the children during hospitalization was recorded.@*RESULTS@#No significant difference was found in baseline salivary melatonin level among the 20 children before the operation.Salivary melatonin level at 7 am after the operation (T8) was significantly lowered as compared with that before the surgery (T4)(@*CONCLUSIONS@#In preschool children with snoring, general anesthesia affects but does not inhibit melatonin secretion on the first night after surgery, and minor surgeries under general anesthesia in the morning do not cause significant changes in melatonin secretion to cause disturbance of the circadian rhythm in these children.


Subject(s)
Anesthesia, General/adverse effects , Bodily Secretions , Child , Child, Preschool , Circadian Rhythm , Humans , Melatonin , Snoring
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-877666

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To observe the protective effect of electroacupuncture (EA) at Neiguan (PC 6) on pulmonary function during one-lung ventilation (OLV) in patients with lobectomy, and explore its action mechanism.@*METHODS@#Sixty patients with lobectomy were randomly divided into an observation group and a control group, 30 cases in each one. The patients in the control group were treated with general anesthesia, and OLV was given when surgery began; when the surgery finished, air was removed from the thoracic cavity and two-lung ventilation was performed. On the basis of the treatment in the control group, the patients in the observation group were treated with EA (disperse-dense wave, 2 Hz/100 Hz of frequency) at Neiguan (PC 6) 30 min before anesthesia induction until the end of the surgery. The pulmonary function indexes [arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO@*RESULTS@#Compared with T@*CONCLUSION@#EA at Neiguan (PC 6) has protective effects on lung injury induced by OLV after lobectomy, and its mechanism may be related to the improvement of oxidative stress and inflammatory response.


Subject(s)
Anesthesia, General , Electroacupuncture , Humans , Lung , Lung Injury , One-Lung Ventilation
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-877550

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To compare the clinical effect between electroacupuncture (EA) at Neima point and Neiguan (PC 6) and epidural nerve block for preemptive analgesia in patients undergoing thoracic surgery.@*METHODS@#Sixty patients with elective radical esophagectomy were randomly divided into a group A, a group B and a control group, 20 cases in each group. The patients in the group A were treated with injection of 20 mL 0.375% ropivacaine at epidural space 30 min before anesthesia induction, followed by normal anesthesia during operation; the patients in the group B were treated with 30 min EA at bilateral Neima point and Neiguan (PC 6) before anesthesia induction, followed by normal anesthesia during operation; the patients in the control group were treated with general anesthesia alone. Patient-controlled intravenous analgesia was applied for all the patients. The mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) were recorded at the following time points: before acupuncture/epidural puncture (T@*RESULTS@#The MAP at T@*CONCLUSION@#The preemptive analgesia of EA at Neima point and Neiguan (PC 6) and epidural nerve block could both provide effective perioperative analgesia for thoracic surgery. The EA could better maintain intraoperative hemodynamics and has less physiological disturbance.


Subject(s)
Anesthesia, General , Electroacupuncture , Epidural Space , Humans , Nerve Block , Thoracic Surgery
8.
Rev. méd. Minas Gerais ; 31: 31102, 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1291246

ABSTRACT

INTRODUÇÃO: A consulta pré-anestésica é de extrema importância para o médico anestesiologista no planejamento do manejo das vias aéreas de pacientes sob o efeito de anestesia geral com intubação orotraqueal (IOT). OBJETIVO: Avaliar a sensibilidade, especificidade, valor preditivo positivo/negativo (VPP/VPN) de testes de predição de IOT difícil (Escore de Wilson - EW, e Teste de Mallampati modificado - TMM), em pacientes submetidos à anestesia geral, em hospital filantrópico do interior de Minas Gerais. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Estudo descritivo transversal, por meio de fichas pré-anestésicas e transoperatórias, de pacientes submetidos à anestesia geral com IOT, entre os meses de janeiro (2019) e março (2020). RESULTADOS: Dos 440 pacientes, 56,1% necessitaram de IOT: média de idade de 49,9 anos (desvio padrão 18,6). A maioria foi classificada: TMM classe I e II; pontuação 0 a 2 no EW; distância esternomentoniana >12,5 cm, sugerindo IOT fácil. Apenas o TMM apresentou correlação com IOT difícil (p=0,045). Sensibilidade e especificidade dos testes respectivamente: TMM (54,6%;75,9%); EW (36,4% e 79,7%); baixo VPP (TMM: 9,5%; EW: 7,7%) e alto VPN (TMM: 97,3%; EW: 96,4%). Curva ROC: área sob a curva foi de TMM = 0,68; EW = 0,60. CONCLUSÃO: Apesar do TMM apresentar correlação significativa com a IOT difícil, não foi possível definir o melhor teste preditor. Ressaltamos que a sensibilidade e o VPP, de ambas as avaliações, ficaram abaixo daquilo que seria considerado adequado para um teste de rastreio e predição.


Introduction: A pre-anesthetic appointment is extremely important for the anesthesiologist when planning the management of the airways of patients under the effect of general anesthesia with orotracheal intubation (OTI). Objective: To evaluate the sensitivity, specificity, positive/ negative predictive value (PPV/NPV) of difficult OTI prediction tests (Wilson risk-sum ­ WRS, and Modified Mallampati Test - MMT) in patients undergoing general anesthesia in a philanthropic hospital in the countryside of the state of Minas Gerais. Materials and methods: Descriptive cross-sectional study using pre-anesthetic and transoperative records of patients submitted to general anesthesia with OTI between the months of January (2019) and March (2020). Results: Of the 440 patients, 56.1% required OTI: average age of 49.9 years (standard deviation 18.6). Most classified: MMT class I and II; score 0 to 2 on the WRS; sternomental distance greater than 12.5 cm, suggesting easy OTI. Only MMT showed statistical significance with difficult OTI (p=0.045). Sensitivity and specificity of the tests respectively: MMT (54.6%; 75.9%) WRS (36.4% and 79.7%) low PPV (MMT: 9.5%; WRS: 7.7%) and high NPV (MMT: 97.3%; WRS: 96.4%). ROC Curve: area under the curve was MMT = 0,68; WRS = 0,60. Conclusion: Although the MMT has a significant correlation with the difficult OTI, it was not possible to define the best predictor test. We emphasize that the sensitivity and PPV of both evaluations were below what would be considered adequate for a screening and prediction test.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Sensitivity and Specificity , Intubation, Intratracheal , Laryngoscopy/methods , Surgical Procedures, Operative , Predictive Value of Tests , ROC Curve , Anesthesia, General/methods
9.
Chinese Journal of Stomatology ; (12): 231-237, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879314

ABSTRACT

In recent years, dental treatments of the outpatient children under general anesthesia has gradually developed as a relatively mature behavior management model. Due to the limited operating time and the large patient flow of children in outpatient clinics, higher requirements of management are proposed both in anesthesia and dental treatment phases. The Society of Sedation and Analgesia of the Chinese Stomatological Association organized experts to formulate a guideline of dental treatments of children under general anesthesia in outpatient clinic. The guideline would provide operable implementing criteria for the entire process including general anesthesia in the dental clinics, basic clinical conditions, types of oral diagnosis and treatment, evaluation and preparation before diagnosis and treatment, anesthesia implementation and monitoring, management during the recovery period, common complications and key points of treatments. This guideline will play an important role in the rapid development of the safe and comfort dental treatments of children under general anesthesia in China.


Subject(s)
Anesthesia, Dental , Anesthesia, General , Child , China , Conscious Sedation , Humans , Pediatric Dentistry
10.
Rev. ecuat. pediatr ; 21(3): 1-9, 31 Diciembre 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1146530

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La máscara laríngea es el equipamiento con el objetivo de aumentar la calidad, seguridad, cuidado, sin embargo, a pesar de tener uso universal y alta eficacia para la ventilación no está exenta de complicaciones. El objetivo de la presente Investigación fue identificar la frecuencia de complicaciones con el uso de mascara laríngea en los hospitales públicos Vicente Corral Moscoso y José Carrasco en la ciudad de Cuenca. Métodos: Es un estudio observacional, descriptivo, prospectivo, en 220 pacientes pediátricos, ASA I , II y III intervenidos en cirugías electivas y emergentes bajo anestesia general en un intervalo de tiempo de 30 a 240 minutos, de todas las especialidades médicas quirúrgicas del año 2018 ,se utilizaron los diferentes tipos de máscara. La muestra se obtuvo aplicando la fórmula para población desconocida (n = (Z2 x p x q)/ e2), nivel de confianza (Z): 95%. (1.96) Margen de error (e): 5% Probabilidad de ocurrencia del evento (p): 15% Probabilidad de no ocurrencia del evento (q): 85%. Resultados: 220 casos ingresados al estudio. El índice de complicaciones laríngeas es 5.9% , frecuentemente la tos y secreción sanguinolenta, asociándose factores como mascara clásica, edad (2-5 años), tiempo mayor de 60 minutos, mayor número de intentos, ASA> I, estado nutricional sobrepeso, e insertar en formación. Conclusión: La máscara laríngea es validada como dispositivo en anestesia pediátrica por aprendizaje rápido, baja tasa de fracaso, menores complicaciones y utilidad en vías aéreas difíciles, Es insuficiente la evidencia para respaldar el uso de un determinado dispositivo por encima de otro


Introduction: The laryngeal mask is the equipment with the aim of increasing quality, safety, care, however, despite having universal use and high efficacy for ventilation, it is not without complications. The objective of this research was to identify the frequency of complications with the use of a laryngeal mask in the Vicente Corral Moscoso and José Carrasco public hospitals in the city of Cuenca. Methods: It is an observational, descriptive, prospective study in 220 pediatric patients, ASA I, II and III who underwent elective and emergent surgeries under general anesthesia in a time interval of 30 to 240 minutes, of all surgical medical specialties of the year 2018, the different types of mask were used. The sample was obtained by applying the formula for unknown population (n = (Z2 x p x q) / e2), confidence level (Z): 95%. (1.96) Margin of error (e): 5% Probability of occurrence of the event (p): 15% Probability of non-occurrence of the event (q): 85%. Results: 220 cases entered the study. The rate of laryngeal complications is 5.9%, frequently cough and bloody discharge, associating factors such as classic mask, age (2-5 years), time greater than 60 minutes, greater number of attempts, ASA> I, nutritional status, overweight, and insert in formation. Conclusion: The laryngeal mask is validated as a device in pediatric anesthesia due to rapid learning, low failure rate, fewer complications and usefulness in difficult airways. The evidence is insufficient to support the use of a certain device over another.


Subject(s)
Humans , Laryngeal Masks , Airway Management , Anesthesia, General , Child
11.
Rev. colomb. anestesiol ; 48(4): e204, Oct.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1144315

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: The use of ultrasound in regional anesthesia has become a standard technique to improve nerve block accuracy and reduce associated complications. The literature reports a good correlation between the distance from the skin to the dura mater or the ligamentum flavum measured on ultrasound and the conventional technique of "loss of resistance". Latin American populations have not been included in the studies conducted so far but, because of differences in physical build, it is important to determine whether this correlation is maintained in the various populations. This paper offers new information about the role of ultrasound in determining the distance to the ligamentum flavum and recognizing the proximity of the dura mater to avoid accidental puncture of this structure in Latin American populations. Objective: To determine correlation and concordance in estimating the distance from the skin to the epidural space between the loss of resistance technique and ultrasound measurement. Methodology: Observational study conducted in 52 pediatric patients who received general anesthesia plus epidural analgesia for acute perioperative pain management between July 2014 and November 2015 to assess correlation and concordance between loss of resistance and ultrasound measurement of distance to the epidural space. Results: There is a correlation between distances measured using the two techniques, which appears to be higher as patient age increases. As for concordance, the study found that 0.43 cm should be added to the ultrasound measurement to achieve agreement with the distance obtained using the loss of resistance technique; however, the interval between the two measurements is 1.15 cm. Conclusions: A correlation was found between the measurement taken from the skin to the epidural space using ultrasound and the measurement obtained with the traditional needle puncture and loss of resistance technique. Although concordance was not as expected and the distance measured with ultrasound may be smaller than the real measurement with the needle, ultrasound offers good guidance regarding proximity to the epidural space.


Resumen Introducción: El uso del ultrasonido en la anestesia regional se ha convertido en una técnica estándar para mejorar la precisión de los bloqueos nerviosos y disminuir las complicaciones relacionadas con dicha anestesia. La literatura informa que hay una buena correlación entre la distancia entre la duramadre o el ligamento amarillo y la piel según el ultrasonido y la técnica convencional de "pérdida de resistencia". Los estudios realizados hasta ahora no han incluido población latinoamericana y, debido a las diferencias en la contextura física, es importante determinar si esta correlación se mantiene en varias poblaciones. Con este trabajo se aporta nueva información sobre la utilidad del ultrasonido para determinar la distancia al ligamento amarillo y advertir la cercanía de la duramadre con el fin de evitar la punción accidental de esta estructura en población latina. Objetivo: Determinar la correlación y concordancia en la estimación de la distancia de la piel al espacio epidural entre la técnica de pérdida de resistencia y la medición por ultrasonido. Metodología: Se llevó a cabo un estudio observacional en 52 pacientes pediátricos, que recibieron anestesia general más analgesia epidural para manejo del dolor agudo perioperatorio entre julio de 2014 y noviembre de 2015. Se evaluó la correlación y la concordancia de la distancia medida al espacio epidural entre la técnica de pérdida de resistencia y la distancia por ultrasonido. Resultados: Existe una correlación entre la distancia obtenida mediante las dos técnicas de medición que parece aumentar a medida que aumenta la edad de los pacientes. En cuanto a la concordancia se encontró que a la medida tomada por ultrasonido se le debería sumar 0,43 cm para que concuerde con la distancia tomada por pérdida de resistencia; no obstante, el intervalo entre ambas medidas es de 1,15 cm. Conclusiones: Encontramos una correlación entre la medida tomada desde la piel hasta el espacio epidural por ultrasonido y la tomada por la técnica tradicional de punción con aguja y pérdida de resistencia. Aunque la concordancia que hallamos no fue la esperada, y la medición del ultrasonido puede ser menor a la medición real encontrada con la aguja, es una buena guía para advertir la cercanía del espacio epidural.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Analgesia, Epidural , Pediatrics , Skin , Ultrasonics , Ultrasonography , Epidural Space , Anesthesia, General , Nerve Block
12.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 46(6): 1010-1018, Nov.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134262

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose To compare the effect of general anesthesia (GA) and regional anesthesia (RA) on f-URS outcomes and surgeon comfort. Material and Methods The study was conducted between June 2017 to January 2018 and data collection was applied in a prospective, randomized fashion. 120 patients participated in the study and were divided into RA group (n=56) and GA group (n=64). Demographic, operative and post-operative parameters of patients were analysed. The end point of this study was the effect of two anesthesia regimens on the comfort of the surgeon, and the comparability of feasibility and safety against perioperative complications. Results The study including 120 randomized patients, 14 patients were excluded from the study and completed with 106 patients (45 in RA group and 61 in GA group). No difference was detected between the two groups in terms of preoperative data. During the monitorization of operative vital signs, 3 patients in RA group experienced bradycardia, and this finding was significant when compared with GA group (p=0.041). Additionally, 2 patients in RA group experienced mucosal tears and 1 patient experienced hemorrhage during the operation, but no complications were observed in the GA group (p=0.041). Postoperative surgeon comfort evaluation revealed statistically significant results in favor of GA group (p=0.001). Conclusions Both GA and RA are equally effective and safe anesthesia methods for f-URS procedures. However, RA group showed significantly increased likelihood of bradycardia and mucosal injury during surgery, and significantly decreased surgeon comfort during surgery.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Lithotripsy, Laser/adverse effects , Anesthesia, Conduction , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Anesthesia, General , Middle Aged
14.
Rev. cuba. anestesiol. reanim ; 19(3): e629, sept.-dic. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1138880

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Las náuseas y vómitos posoperatorios son una secuela no deseada durante la etapa de recuperación anestésica. Objetivo: Evaluar la utilidad de la dexametasona en comparación con el ondansetrón para la prevención de las náuseas y vómitos posoperatorios después de procedimientos quirúrgicos ginecológicos mayores, bajo anestesia general orotraqueal. Método: Se realizó un estudio observacional analítico, prospectivo, en 84 pacientes mayores de 19 años, en el Hospital Clínico Quirúrgico Miguel Enríquez desde octubre de 2018 hasta septiembre de 2019, divididas de forma secuencial, en orden de llegada a la unidad quirúrgica, en dos grupos. Al grupo 1 se le administró dexametasona (4 mg endovenosa); al grupo 2 (4 mg de ondansetrón), 30 min antes de finalizar la cirugía. Resultados: Predominó de forma significativa el riesgo medio de náuseas y vómitos posoperatorios en los pacientes con edades comprendidas entre 41 y 50 años. Predominó la condición de excelente y buena (pgt;0,05) en cuanto a la efectividad del tratamiento profiláctico. La cefalea prevaleció de forma significativa en el grupo 2. La mayor parte de las pacientes no presentó eventos adversos. Conclusiones: El ondansetrón y la dexametasona son útiles para la profilaxis de las náuseas y vómitos posoperatorios en pacientes intervenidas de cirugía mayor ginecológica, bajo anestesia general orotraqueal por lo que se considera un tratamiento seguro, con eventos adversos leves y de fácil control(AU)


Introduction: Postoperative nausea and vomiting are an unwanted sequel during the anesthetic recovery stage. Objective: To evaluate the usefulness of dexamethasone compared with ondansetron for the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting after major gynecological surgical procedures, under general orotracheal anesthesia. Method: A prospective, analytical and observational study was carried out with 84 patients older than 19 years of age, at Miguel Enríquez Hospital Clinical-Surgical Hospital, from October 2018 to September 2019, divided sequentially, in order of arrival at the surgical unit, into two groups. The group 1 was administered dexamethasone (4 mg intravenously), and the group 2 was administered ondansetron (4 mg), 30 min before the end of the surgery. Results: The average risk of postoperative nausea and vomiting prevailed significantly among patients aged 41-50 years. Excellent and good conditions predominated (pgt;0.05) in terms of effectiveness of prophylactic treatment. Headache prevailed significantly in the group 2. Most of the patients did not present adverse events. Conclusions: Ondansetron and dexamethasone are useful for postoperative nausea and vomiting prophylaxis among patients who received major gynecological surgery, under general orotracheal anesthesia, a reason why it is considered a safe treatment, with mild adverse events and easy control(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Ondansetron/therapeutic use , Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting/drug therapy , Anesthesia, General , Gynecologic Surgical Procedures , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Prospective Studies , Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting/prevention & control
15.
An. Fac. Cienc. Méd. (Asunción) ; 53(3): 153-158, 20201201.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1178003

ABSTRACT

El Síndrome de Treacher Collins (STC) constituye un reto para el anestesiólogo por malformaciones craneofaciales que complican el manejo de su vía aérea e intubación. Presentamos el caso de una paciente (8 años) con diagnóstico de STC que debía someterse a una cirugía de colocación de implante de conducción ósea bajo anestesia general. Presentaba un antecedente de intubación difícil, marcada micrognatia y distancia tiromentoniana de 2 cm. Se planteó un esquema de intubación en dos etapas secuenciales. En la primera etapa se realizó una evaluación de la vía aérea (visualización de la glotis) bajo sedación con dexmedetomidina, remifentanilo y propofol. Al visualizar la glotis se pasó a la segunda etapa para realizar la intubación posterior a la inducción anestésica. El manejo exitoso se fundamentó en una sedación adecuada y la utilización de un videolaringoscopio con pala curva para la evaluación previa de la vía aérea y posterior intubación sin complicaciones.


Treacher Collins Syndrome (TCS) constitutes a challenge for the anesthesiologist due to craniofacial malformations that make management of the airway and intubation difficult. We present a case of a patient (8-year-old) diagnosed with TCS who had to undergo surgery for the placement of a bone conduction implant under general anesthesia. She had a history of difficult intubation, marked micrognathia and a thyromental distance of 2 cm. An intubation scheme in two sequential stages was proposed. In the first stage, an evaluation of the airway (visualization of the glottis) was carried out under sedation with dexmedetomidine, remifentanil and propofol. When the glottis was visualized, we proceeded to the second stage to carry out intubation after anesthetic induction. The successful management of this case was based on adequate sedation and the use of a video laryngoscope with a curved blade for prior evaluation of the airway and subsequent intubation without complications.


Subject(s)
Dexmedetomidine , Anesthesia , Anesthesia, General , Congenital Abnormalities , Diagnosis
16.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 86(4): 419-426, July-Aug. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132624

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction Music has been used for several years as a relaxation method to reduce stress and anxiety. It is a painless, safe, inexpensive and practical nonpharmacologic therapeutic modality, widely used all over the world. Objectives We aimed to evaluate the effect of music therapy on intraoperative awareness, patient satisfaction, awakening pain and waking quality in patients undergoing elective septorhinoplasty under general anesthesia. Methods This randomized, controlled, prospective study was conducted with 120 patients undergoing septorhinoplasty within a 2 months period. The patients were randomly selected and divided into two groups: group music (music during surgery) and control group (without music during surgery). All patients underwent standard general anesthesia. Patients aged 18-70 years who would undergo a planned surgery under general anesthesia were included. Patients who had emergency surgery, hearing or cognitive impairment, were excluded from the study. Results A total of 120 patients were enrolled, and separated into two groups. There were no statistically significant differences between the groups in terms of demographic characteristics, anesthesia and surgery durations (p > 0.05). In the music group, sedation agitation scores were lower than those in the control group at the postoperative period (3.76 ± 1.64 vs. 5.11 ± 2.13; p < 0.001). In addition; in patients of the music group, the pain level (2.73 ± 1.28 vs. 3.61 ± 1.40) was lower (p < 0.001), requiring less analgesic drugs intake. Conclusion Music therapy, which is a nonpharmacologic intervention, is an effective method, without side effects, leading to positive effects in the awakening, hemodynamic parameters and analgesic requirements in the postoperative period. It is also effective in reducing the anxiety and intraoperative awareness episodes of surgical patients.


Resumo Introdução A música tem sido usada há vários anos como um método de relaxamento para reduzir o estresse e a ansiedade. É um método de tratamento não farmacológico, seguro, barato e prático, amplamente usado em todo o mundo. Objetivo Avaliar o efeito da musicoterapia no despertar intraoperatório, na satisfação do paciente, na dor ao despertar e na qualidade de vigília em pacientes submetidos à rinosseptoplastia eletiva sob anestesia geral. Método Estudo prospectivo, randomizado e controlado feito com 120 pacientes submetidos a rinosseptoplastia em 2 meses. Os pacientes foram selecionados aleatoriamente e divididos em dois grupos: musicoterapia (música durante a cirurgia) e controle (sem música durante a cirurgia). Todos os pacientes foram submetidos a anestesia geral padrão. Pacientes entre 18 e 70 anos que seriam submetidos a cirurgia planejada sob anestesia geral foram incluídos. Pacientes submetidos a cirurgia de emergência, apresentavam deficiência auditiva ou cognitiva foram excluídos do estudo. Resultados Foram incluídos no estudo 120 pacientes, divididos nos dois grupos. Não houve diferenças estatisticamente significantes entre os grupos em relação às características demográficas, anestesia e duração da cirurgia (p > 0,05). No grupo musicoterapia, os escores de agitação da sedação foram menores do que no grupo controle no período pós-operatório (3,76 ± 1,64 vs. 5,11 ± 2,13; p < 0,001). Além disso, nos pacientes do grupo musicoterapia, o nível de dor (2,73 ± 1,28 vs. 3,61 ± 1,40) foi menor (p < 0,001) e a necessidade de analgésicos foi menor no pós-operatório. Conclusão A musicoterapia, uma intervenção não farmacológica, é um método eficaz, sem efeitos colaterais, que leva a efeitos positivos no despertar, nos parâmetros hemodinâmicos e nas necessidades analgésicas no pós-operatório, além de reduzir a ansiedade por estresse, a dor e a chance de despertar durante a cirurgia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Music , Music Therapy , Anxiety , Pain, Postoperative , Prospective Studies , Anesthesia, General
17.
Medwave ; 20(6): e7950, 31-07-2020.
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1119716

ABSTRACT

El objetivo de este artículo es revisar las características del SARS-CoV-2, los aspectos clínico-epidemiológicos de COVID-19 y las implicaciones que tienen para los anestesiólogos al realizar procedimientos generadores de aerosoles. Se realizó una búsqueda en las bases de datos PubMed, Scopus, SciELO y Web of Science hasta el 9 de abril de 2020, utilizando las palabras: "COVID-19 or COVID19 or SARS-CoV-2 and anesthesiology or anesthesia". Se incluyeron 48 artículos con información sobre el manejo del paciente en el perioperatorio o en la unidad de cuidados intensivos ante la sospecha o confirmación de infección por SARS-CoV-2. En general, se recomienda el aplazamiento de las cirugías electivas por no más de seis a ocho semanas, de acuerdo a las condiciones clínicas de los pacientes. En el caso de cirugías de urgencia o emergencia, se revisan tópicos del sistema de protección personal así como las estrategias recomendadas para la realización de los procedimientos.


The purpose of this article is to review the characteristics of SARS-CoV-2, the clinical-epidemiological aspects of COVID-19, and the implications anesthesiologists when performing aerosol-generating procedures. A search of PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus, SciELO, and Web of Science databases was performed until April 9, 2020, using the words: "COVID-19 or COVID19 or SARS-CoV-2 and anesthesiology or anesthesia". Forty-eight articles with information on the management of the patient in the perioperative period or the intensive care unit when suspected or confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection were included. In general, the postponement of elective surgeries for no more than 6 to 8 weeks, depending on the clinical condition of the patients is recommended. In the case of urgent or emergency surgeries, we review the use of personal protection gear, as well as the recommended strategies for carrying out the procedure.


Subject(s)
Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Anesthesiology/standards , Occupational Diseases/prevention & control , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Respiration, Artificial/standards , Surgical Procedures, Operative/methods , Elective Surgical Procedures , Aerosols , Pandemics , Symptom Assessment/methods , Personal Protective Equipment , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/transmission , Intensive Care Units , Intubation, Intratracheal/methods , Intubation, Intratracheal/standards , Anesthesia, Conduction/methods , Anesthesia, Epidural/methods , Anesthesia, General/methods , Anesthesia, Spinal/methods , Anesthesiology/organization & administration , Nerve Block/methods
18.
Rev. cuba. anestesiol. reanim ; 19(1): e525, ene.-abr. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1093129

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El cáncer es la segunda causa de muerte en el mundo y en Cuba. Su estrategia de tratamiento implica fármacos oncoespecíficos y cirugía; y diariamente aumentan los pacientes intervenidos quirúrgicamente lo que conlleva a un periodo perioperatorio y la administración de múltiples medicamentos anestésicos. Objetivo: Describir los principales factores relacionados con la anestesia que, durante el perioperatorio, influyen en la recurrencia oncológica. Desarrollo: El estrés quirúrgico y la anestesia general, con la subsecuente respuesta neuroendocrina e inflamatoria, por sí mismos, limitan la respuesta inmune y alteran el balance entre el potencial metastásico del tumor y antimetastásico de las defensas, lo cual representa un mecanismo plausible en el incremento de las metástasis y recurrencia oncológica. Conclusiones: La proliferación del cáncer y recidiva tumoral en el contexto quirúrgico asociado a la anestesia, es un tema relativamente nuevo y por tanto es necesario realizar estudios con mayor alcance que validen este fenómeno. No obstante, el efecto inmunosupresor que produce el estrés perioperatorio, fármacos anestésicos como opioides y halogenados pueden ser la clave para explicar este fenómeno. La anestesia general endovenosa total libre de opioides y adecuada analgesia regional contribuyen a disminuir este efecto(AU)


Introduction: Cancer is the second cause of death worldwide and in Cuba. Its treatment strategy involves oncospecific drugs and surgery. Every day, the number of patients who undergo surgery increases, which leads to a perioperative period and the administration of multiple anesthetic medications. Objective: To describe the main factors related to anesthesia and that, during the perioperative period, influence oncological recurrence. Development: Surgical stress and general anesthesia, with the subsequent neuroendocrine and inflammatory response, by themselves, limit the immune response and alter the balance between the metastatic potential of the tumor and the antimetastatic defense, which represents a plausible mechanism for increased metastasis and oncological relapse. Conclusions: The proliferation of cancer and tumor relapse in the surgical context associated with anesthesia is a relatively new issue and it is therefore necessary to carry out studies with greater scope that validate this phenomenon. However, the immunosuppressive effect produced by perioperative stress, as well as anesthetic drugs such as opioids and halogenated drugs, can be the key to explaining this phenomenon. Total intravenous opioid-free general anesthesia and adequate regional analgesia contribute to diminish this effect(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Recurrence , Perioperative Period/methods , Analgesics, Opioid/therapeutic use , Anesthesia, General/methods , Ketamine/therapeutic use , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/prevention & control
19.
Rev. colomb. anestesiol ; 48(1): 40-44, Jan.-Mar. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1092918

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Heart failure represents a public health problem involving high morbidity and mortality. For advanced stages of the disease the use of ventricular assist devices (VADs) has been implemented as destination therapy. The perioperative management of patients with VADs may result in multiple challenges, with optimal pain management being one of those challenges. Objective: To describe the use of erector spinae plain (ESP) block as a rescue analgesia technique in a patient undergoing HeartMate 3 type VAD implantat. Methods: Case report and subject review. Results: The case discussed is a patient with ischemic cardiomyopathy and severe ventricular dysfunction, undergoing a HeartMate 3 type VAD implant as destination therapy, under general anesthesia and postoperative analgesia protocol with fentanyl and acetaminophen. During the postoperative period the patient developed acute pain of severe intensity (visual analogue scale [VAS]: 8-10/10), that led to the use of a regional rescue technique-ESP block-that showed satisfactory results with optimal analgesia control (VAS: 1-3/10). Conclusion: The ESP block was a safe and effective option as part of a postoperative analgesia strategy for a patient with a HeartMate 3 type VAD implant.


Resumen Introducción: la insuficiencia cardiaca representa un problema de salud pública con alta morbimortalidad. En estadios avanzados se ha implementado el uso de dispositivos de asistencia ventricular (DAV) como terapia destino. El manejo perioperatorio de pacientes con DAV puede generar múltiples retos, dentro de los cuales se destaca el manejo óptimo del dolor. Objetivo: describir el uso del bloqueo del plano del musculo erector de la espina (ESP) como técnica analgésica de rescate en un paciente llevado a implante de DAV tipo HeartMate 3. Métodos: reporte de caso y revisión de tema. Resultados: se presenta el caso de un paciente con cardiopatía isquémica y disfunción ventricular severa, que fue llevado a un implante de DAV tipo HeartMate 3 como terapia destino, bajo anestesia general y protocolo de analgesia postoperatoria con fentanil y acetaminofén. Durante el posoperatorio presentó dolor agudo de intensidad severa (Escala Visual Análoga: 8-10/10), por lo que se aplicó una técnica regional de rescate: bloqueo ESP, la cual mostró resultados satisfactorios con control analgésico óptimo (Escala Visual Análoga: 1-3/10). Conclusiones: el bloqueo ESP fue una opción segura y efectiva como parte de una estrategia analgésica postoperatoria para un paciente con implante de un DAV tipo HeartMate 3.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Postoperative Period , Heart-Assist Devices , Equipment and Supplies , Analgesia , Anesthesia, General , Indicators of Morbidity and Mortality , Myocardial Ischemia , Ventricular Dysfunction , Acute Pain , Acetaminophen , Cardiomyopathies
20.
Rev. colomb. anestesiol ; 48(1): 3-11, Jan.-Mar. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1092914

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) are common issues arising after general anesthesia, for which several independent risk factors (RF) have been described. Objective: To determine the accumulated incidence of PONV during the first 24hours of the postoperative period. Methods: A cohort observational, prospective study was conducted that included all the adults undergoing cholecystectomy under balanced general anesthesia at the EsSalud Talara Hospital from October 2014 until December 2016. The presence of PONV during the first 24hours after surgery was assessed, and univariate, bivariate, and logistic regression analyses were conducted. Results: A total of 244 patients were included, most of them with 2 RFs in the Apfel scale, that represented an accumulated incidence of PONV of 0.51 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.45-0.57) during the observation period, notwithstanding the fact that 85.25% received antiemetic prophylaxis. The logistic regression analysis identified that being a female (odds ratio [OR] 3.30,95% CI 1.66-6.55, P = 0.0007) and previous PONV or motion sickness (OR 2.67, 95% CI 1.25-5.68, P = 0.011) were independent RFs for PONV. The administration of antiemetic prophylaxis and the presence of PONV (P = 0.92) were found to be independent. Conclusion: The high cumulative incidence of PONV could be the result of the type of surgery, the use of volatile anesthetic agents, and errors in the antiemetic pharmacological prophylaxis.


Resumen Introducción: Las náuseas y vómitos posoperatorios (NVPO) son problemas comunes que aparecen luego de la anestesia general, para los que se han descrito varios factores independientes de riesgo. Objetivo: Determinar la incidencia acumulada de NVPO durante las primeras 24 horas del periodo posoperatorio. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio observacional prospectivo de cohorte que incluyó a todos los adultos sometidos a colecistectomía bajo anestesia general balanceada en el Hospital EsSalud Talara desde octubre de 2014 hasta diciembre de 2016. Se evaluó la presencia de NVPO durante las primeras 24 horas posoperatorias y se ejecutaron análisis univariado, bivariado y de regresión logística. Resultados: Se incluyeron 244 pacientes, la mayoría con dos factores de riesgo en la escala de Apfel, que presentaron una incidencia acumulada de NVPO de 0.51 (IC 95% 0.45-0.57) en el periodo de observación, a pesar de que el 85.25% recibió profilaxis antiemética. El análisis de regresión logística identificó la presencia de sexo femenino (OR 3.30, IC 95% 1.66-6.55, p = 0.0007) y la historia de NVPO previos o cinetosis (OR 2.67, IC 95% 1.25-5.68, p = 0.011) como factores de riesgo independientes para NVPO. Se halló independencia entre la presencia de profilaxis antiemética y la presencia de NVPO (p=0.92). Conclusiones: La alta incidencia acumulada de NVPO pudiera ser ocasionada por el tipo de cirugía, uso de anestésicos volátiles y falencias en la profilaxis farmacológica antiemética.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Cholecystectomy , Regression Analysis , Risk Factors , Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting , Anesthesia, General , Postoperative Period , Motion Sickness , Prospective Studies , Cohort Studies , Anesthetics , Antiemetics
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