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1.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(1): 85-89, feb. 2023. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1430538

ABSTRACT

Este estudio tuvo como objetivo demostrar la existencia de variaciones morfológicas en el tejido conectivo de la glándula submandibular de ratas obesas expuestas a glutamato monosódico (GMS). Se utilizaron 12 ratas Sprague Dawley machos recién nacidas (6 ratas para el grupo 1, control; 6 ratas para el grupo 2 (GMS), 4 mg/g de glutamato monosódico de peso (5 dosis) mantenidas por 16 semanas respectivamente con una dieta y agua ad libitum. En el estudio se realizó un análisis estereológico e histológico, demostrándose una variación en el tejido conectivo presentando una disminución del volúmen glandular, mayor fibrosis, y disminución de adipocitos a nivel periférico siendo reemplazado por tejido rico en colágeno. Los vasos sanguíneos observados a nivel estereológico no presentan mayores cambios en cuanto a volumen, superficie y área.


SUMMARY: This study aims to demonstrate the existence of morphological variations in the connective tissue of the submandibular gland of obese rats exposed to MSG. Twelve male newborn Sprague Dawley rats were used (6 rats for group 1, control; 6 rats for group 2 (MSG), 4 mg/g of monosodium glutamate of weight (5 doses) maintained for 16 weeks respectively with a diet and water ad libitum. In the study, a stereological and histological analysis was carried out, demonstrating a variation in the connective tissue, presenting a decrease in the glandular volume, greater fibrosis, and a decrease in adipocytes at the peripheral level, being replaced by tissue rich in collagen. Blood cells observed at the stereological level do not present major changes in terms of volume, surface and area, but in the histological study greater vascularization is observed.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Sodium Glutamate/administration & dosage , Submandibular Gland/drug effects , Obesity , Sodium Glutamate/pharmacology , Blood Vessels/drug effects , Body Weight , Fibrosis , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Connective Tissue/drug effects , Animals, Newborn
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982023

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To study the effect of ligustrazine injection on mitophagy in neonatal rats with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) and its molecular mechanism.@*METHODS@#Neonatal Sprague-Dawley rats, aged 7 days, were randomly divided into a sham-operation group with 8 rats, a model group with 12 rats, and a ligustrazine group with 12 rats. The rats in the model group and the ligustrazine group were used to establish a neonatal rat model of HIE by ligation of the left common carotid artery followed by hypoxia treatment, and blood vessels were exposed without any other treatment for the rats in the sham-operation group. The rats in the ligustrazine group were intraperitoneally injected with ligustrazine (20 mg/kg) daily after hypoxia-ischemia, and those in the sham-operation group and the model group were intraperitoneally injected with an equal volume of normal saline daily. Samples were collected after 7 days of treatment. Hematoxylin and eosin staining and Nissl staining were used to observe the pathological changes of neurons in brain tissue; immunohistochemical staining was used to observe the positive expression of PINK1 and Parkin in the hippocampus and cortex; TUNEL staining was used to measure neuronal apoptosis; Western blotting was used to measure the expression levels of the mitophagy pathway proteins PINK1 and Parkin and the autophagy-related proteins Beclin-1, microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3), and ubiquitin-binding protein (P62).@*RESULTS@#Compared with the sham-operation group, the model group had a significant reduction in the number of neurons, an increase in intercellular space, loose arrangement, lipid vacuolization, and a reduction in Nissl bodies. The increased positive expression of PINK1 and Parkin, apoptosis rate of neurons, and protein expression levels of PINK1, Parkin, Beclin1 and LC3 (P<0.05) and the decreased protein expression level of P62 in the hippocampus were also observed in the model group (P<0.05). Compared with the model group, the ligustrazine group had a significant increase in the number of neurons with ordered arrangement and an increase in Nissl bodies, significant reductions in the positive expression of PINK1 and Parkin, the apoptosis rate of neurons, and the protein expression levels of PINK1, Parkin, Beclin1, and LC3 (P<0.05), and a significant increase in the protein expression level of P62 (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Ligustrazine can alleviate hypoxic-ischemic brain damage and inhibit neuronal apoptosis in neonatal rats to a certain extent, possibly by inhibiting PINK1/Parkin-mediated autophagy.


Subject(s)
Rats , Animals , Hypoxia-Ischemia, Brain/metabolism , Animals, Newborn , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Beclin-1 , Autophagy , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases/metabolism , Protein Kinases/metabolism
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981971

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To study the effect of platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB) on pulmonary vascular remodeling in neonatal rats with hypoxic pulmonary hypertension (HPH).@*METHODS@#A total of 128 neonatal rats were randomly divided into four groups: PDGF-BB+HPH, HPH, PDGF-BB+normal oxygen, and normal oxygen (n=32 each). The rats in the PDGF-BB+HPH and PDGF-BB+normal oxygen groups were given an injection of 13 μL 6×1010 PFU/mL adenovirus with PDGF-BB genevia the caudal vein. After 24 hours of adenovirus transfection, the rats in the HPH and PDGF-BB+HPH groups were used to establish a neonatal rat model of HPH. Right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP) was measured on days 3, 7, 14, and 21 of hypoxia. Hematoxylin-eosin staining was used to observe pulmonary vascular morphological changes under an optical microscope, and vascular remodeling parameters (MA% and MT%) were also measured. Immunohistochemistry was used to measure the expression levels of PDGF-BB and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in lung tissue.@*RESULTS@#The rats in the PDGF-BB+HPH and HPH groups had a significantly higher RVSP than those of the same age in the normal oxygen group at each time point (P<0.05). The rats in the PDGF-BB+HPH group showed vascular remodeling on day 3 of hypoxia, while those in the HPH showed vascular remodeling on day 7 of hypoxia. On day 3 of hypoxia, the PDGF-BB+HPH group had significantly higher MA% and MT% than the HPH, PDGF-BB+normal oxygen, and normal oxygen groups (P<0.05). On days 7, 14, and 21 of hypoxia, the PDGF-BB+HPH and HPH groups had significantly higher MA% and MT% than the PDGF-BB+normal oxygen and normal oxygen groups (P<0.05). The PDGF-BB+HPH and HPH groups had significantly higher expression levels of PDGF-BB and PCNA than the normal oxygen group at all time points (P<0.05). On days 3, 7, and 14 of hypoxia, the PDGF-BB+HPH group had significantly higher expression levels of PDGF-BB and PCNA than the HPH group (P<0.05), while the PDGF-BB+normal oxygen group had significantly higher expression levels of PDGF-BB and PCNA than the normal oxygen group (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Exogenous administration of PDGF-BB in neonatal rats with HPH may upregulate the expression of PCNA, promote pulmonary vascular remodeling, and increase pulmonary artery pressure.


Subject(s)
Rats , Animals , Hypertension, Pulmonary , Becaplermin , Animals, Newborn , Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen , Vascular Remodeling , Pulmonary Artery/metabolism , Hypoxia , Oxygen , Cell Proliferation , Myocytes, Smooth Muscle/metabolism
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981881

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the protective effect of artesunate on hypoxic-ischemic brain damage (HIBD) and its mechanism in neonatal rats. Methods 7-day-old neonatal SD rats were randomly divided into sham operation group, model group, artesunate 5 mg/kg group, artesunate 10 mg/kg group, artesunate 20 mg/kg group and dexamethasone 6 mg/kg group, with 18 rats in each group. HIBD models were established in groups except for the sham operation group. The sham operation group only needed to separate the left common carotid artery without ligation and nitrogen-oxygen mixed gas ventilation. Each group was injected with drug intraperitoneally right after surgery and the rats in the sham operation group and the model group were injected with an equal volume of normal saline (once a day for a total of 5 times). One hour after the last injection, the rats in each group were scored for neurological defects. After the rats were sacrificed, the brain water content was measured and the pathological changes of the brain tissues of rats were observed. Terminal-deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated nick end labeling (TUNEL) was used to detect the neuronal cell apoptosis, and ELISA was applied to detect the levels of IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α in brain tissues and peripheral blood of each group of rats. Western blot analysis was adopted to detect the protein expression levels of NLR family pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3), apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing CARD (ASC) and caspase-1 in the rats brain tissues of each group. Results Compared with the model group, the neurological deficit score was decreased; the pathological damage of brain tissues was relieved; the brain water content was significantly reduced; the apoptosis number of hippocampal neurons was decreased significantly; the levels of IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α in brain tissues and peripheral blood were significantly reduced; the protein expression levels of NLRP3, ASC and caspase-1 were significantly lowered in the middle-dose and high-dose artesunate groups and the dexamethasone group. Conclusion Artesunate can improve the neurological function, relieve the brain damage, and alleviate the brain edema in neonatal rats with HIBD. It can protect the HIBD, which may be related to the inhibition of NLRP3 inflammasome activation and reduction of inflammatory cytokine secretion.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Animals, Newborn , Artesunate/pharmacology , Brain/metabolism , Caspases/metabolism , Dexamethasone , Hypoxia-Ischemia, Brain/pathology , Inflammasomes , Interleukin-6/metabolism , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/metabolism , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Water/metabolism
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-941034

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To construct an adenovirus vector expressing artificial splicing factor capable of regulating alternative splicing of Yap1 in cardiomyocytes.@*METHODS@#The splicing factors with different sequences were constructed against Exon6 of YAP1 based on the sequence specificity of Pumilio1. The PCR fragment of the artificially synthesized PUF-SR or wild-type PUFSR was cloned into pAd-Track plasmid, and the recombinant plasmids were transformed into E. coli DH5α for plasmid amplification. The amplified plasmids were digested with Pac I and transfected into 293A cells for packaging to obtain the adenovirus vectors. Cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes were transfected with the adenoviral vectors, and alternative splicing of YAP1 was detected using quantitative and semi-quantitative PCR; Western blotting was performed to detect the signal of the fusion protein Flag.@*RESULTS@#The transfection efficiency of the adenovirus vectors was close to 100% in rat cardiomyocytes, and no fluorescent protein was detected in the cells with plasmid transfection. The results of Western blotting showed that both the negative control and Flag-SR-NLS-PUF targeting the YAPExon6XULIE sequence were capable of detecting the expression of the protein fused to Flag. The results of reverse transcription-PCR and PCR demonstrated that the artificial splicing factor constructed based on the 4th target sequence of YAP1 effectively regulated the splicing of YAP1 Exon6 in the cardiomyocytes (P < 0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#We successfully constructed adenovirus vectors capable of regulating YAP1 alternative splicing rat cardiomyocytes.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Adenoviridae/metabolism , Alternative Splicing , Animals, Newborn , Escherichia coli/metabolism , Genetic Vectors , Myocytes, Cardiac/metabolism , Plasmids , RNA Splicing Factors/metabolism , Transfection
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936282

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effect of palmitic acid (PA) on autophagy in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes (NRCMs) and explore the underlying mechanism.@*METHODS@#NRCMs were isolated and cultured for 24 h before exposure to 10% BSA and 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, or 0.7 mmol/L PA for 24 h. After the treatments, the expressions of Parkin, PINK1, p62, LC3Ⅱ/ LC3Ⅰ, cGAS, STING and p-IRF3/IRF3 were detected using Western blotting and the cell viability was assessed with CCK8 assay, based on which 0.7 mmol/L was selected as the optimal concentration in subsequent experiments. The effects of cGAS knockdown mediated by cGAS siRNA in the presence of PA on autophagy-related proteins in the NRCMs were determined using Western blotting, and the expressions of P62 and LC3 in the treated cells were examined using immunofluorescence assay.@*RESULTS@#PA at different concentrations significantly lowered the expressions of Parkin, PINK1, LC3 Ⅱ/LC3 Ⅰ and LC3 Ⅱ/LC3 Ⅰ+Ⅱ (P < 0.05), increased the expression of p62 (P < 0.05), and inhibited the viability of NRCMs (P < 0.05). Knockdown of cGAS obviously blocked the autophagy-suppressing effect of PA and improved the viability of NRCMs (P < 0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#PA inhibits autophagy by activating the cGAS-STING-IRF3 pathway to reduce the viability of NRCMs.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Animals, Newborn , Autophagy , Myocytes, Cardiac , Nucleotidyltransferases/pharmacology , Palmitic Acid/pharmacology
7.
West Indian med. j ; 69(1): 56-59, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1341862

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: Gestational diabetes mellitus is an increasingly frequent metabolic disorder that is important for both baby and mother. New studies on the development and treatment of the disease are required. Objective: To investigate the effects on offspring's survival and the biochemical values of diabetes mellitus, induced by different doses of two chemical agents among 35 rats with advanced pregnancy. Methods: The rats were randomly divided into five groups, with the rats in Group 1 as the control group. Alloxan was administered intraperitoneally at doses of 40 and 60 mg/kg in Groups 2 and 3, respectively. Streptozotocin was injected intraperitoneally at doses of 40 and 60 mg/kg in Groups 4 and 5, respectively. Deliveries were monitored, and offspring numbers, survival rates and congenital anomalies were recorded. At the end of the study, blood was drawn from one female offspring in each group; glucose, total protein, albumin, triglyceride, cholesterol, calcium and phosphorus levels were measured, and inter-group comparisons were made. Diabetic agents administered at various doses prolonged the duration of pregnancy. Results: Offspring's deaths were most frequent in the alloxan groups. The number of offspring mortalities in the streptozotocin group was higher than that of the control group, but lower than that of the alloxan group. No differences in glucose, total protein, albumin, triglyceride, cholesterol, calcium and phosphorus levels were observed between the groups. These results indicate that the female offspring, born from rats with gestational diabetes mellitus induced by different chemicals, were only clinically affected. No effect of the type of chemicals on the results was found. Conclusion: The use of streptozotocin in the studies on female offspring born from rats with gestational diabetes mellitus is recommended.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Pregnancy , Rats , Pregnancy Complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental , Animals, Newborn , Random Allocation , Rats, Wistar
8.
Acta cir. bras ; 36(11): e361108, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1456244

ABSTRACT

Purpose To evaluate the oxidative stress in swine neonates submitted to hypoxia. Methods Ten large white piglets, healthy newborns, of both sexes, were divided into two groups and submitted to an experimental hypoxia protocol with reduced inspired oxygen fraction. The hypoxia group, composed of six animals, was submitted to oxygen reduction for 180 min. The animals in the control group, n = 4, were handled and evaluated simultaneously, but without oxygen reduction. Results 180 min after the start of the hypoxic insult, a significant difference was observed in the oximetry, and heart rate of the hypoxia group was compared to the control group (p<0.05). There was no significant difference in the oxidative stress analyses. Reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), lipid peroxidation (TBARS), protein carbonyl (PC), and myeloperoxidase (MPO) in the piglets’ brain tissue were analyzed. Conclusions Hypoxia causes adverse effects in swine neonates, although there is a natural physiological resistance of swine neonates to respond to this insult. Analyses of GSH, SOD, CAT, TBARS, MPO, and PC were tabulated and are presented as parameters for further studies to be carried out on an animal model of swine hypoxia.


Subject(s)
Animals , Oxidative Stress/physiology , Hypoxia/physiopathology , Hypoxia/veterinary , Swine , Animals, Newborn , Disease Models, Animal
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879890

ABSTRACT

Neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain damage (HIBD) remains an important cause of neonatal death and disability in infants and young children, but it has a complex mechanism and lacks specific treatment methods. As a new type of programmed cell death, ferroptosis has gradually attracted more and more attention as a new therapeutic target. This article reviews the research advances in abnormal iron metabolism, glutamate antiporter dysfunction, and abnormal lipid peroxide regulation which are closely associated with ferroptosis and HIBD.


Subject(s)
Animals , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Animals, Newborn , Brain , Ferroptosis , Hypoxia-Ischemia, Brain , Neurons
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879868

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To study the effect of human oligodendrocyte precursor cell (hOPC) transplantation in the treatment of white matter injury (WMI).@*METHODS@#Neonatal rats were randomly divided into a sham-operation group, a model group, and a transplantation group (@*RESULTS@#The place navigation test using the Morris water maze showed that the model group had a significantly longer escape latency than the sham-operation group, and compared with the model group, the transplantation group had a significant reduction in escape latency (@*CONCLUSIONS@#Intrathecal hOPC transplantation may alleviate neurological injury and promote remyelination in a rat model of WMI.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Rats , Animals, Newborn , Myelin Sheath , Oligodendrocyte Precursor Cells , Oligodendroglia , White Matter
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879867

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To study the effect of astragaloside IV (AS-IV) on NOD-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome in neonatal rats with hypoxic-ischemic brain damage (HIBD).@*METHODS@#A total of 24 Sprague-Dawley rats, aged 7 days, were randomly divided into a sham-operation group, an HIBD group, and an AS-IV treatment group, with 8 rats in each group. After 24 hours of modeling, brain tissue was collected for hematoxylin-eosin staining, yo-PRO-1 staining, and EthD-2 immunofluorescent staining in order to observe the cerebral protection effect of AS-IV in vivo. HT22 cells were used to prepare a model of oxygen-glycogen deprivation (OGD), and a concentration gradient (50-400 μmol/L) was established for AS-IV. CCK-8 assay was used to measure the viability of HT22 cells. RT-PCR and Western blot were used to observe the effect of different concentrations of AS-IV on the mRNA and protein expression of NLRP3, gasdermin D (GSDMD), caspase-1, and interleukin-1β (IL-1β).@*RESULTS@#Yo-Pro-1 and EthD-2 staining showed that compared with the sham-operation group, the HIBD group had an increase in pyroptotic cells with a small number of necrotic cells, and the AS-IV group had reductions in both pyroptotic and necrotic cells. Compared with the sham-operation group, the HIBD group had significantly higher protein expression levels of NLRP3, IL-1β, caspase-1, and GSDMD (@*CONCLUSIONS@#AS-IV may alleviate HIBD in neonatal rats by inhibiting the expression of NLRP3, GSDMD, caspase-1, and IL-1β.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Animals, Newborn , Brain , Hypoxia-Ischemia, Brain/drug therapy , Inflammasomes , NLR Proteins , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Saponins , Triterpenes
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879850

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To study the effect of different melatonin treatment regimens on long-term behavior and white matter damage in neonatal rats with hypoxic-ischemic brain damage (HIBD), and to seek an optimal melatonin treatment regimen.@*METHODS@#Healthy Sprague-Dawley rats, aged 7 days, were randomly divided into four groups: sham-operation, HIBD, single-dose immediate treatment (SDIT), and 7-day continuous treatment (7DCT), with 8 rats in each group. A neonatal rat model of HIBD was prepared according to the classical Rice-Vannucci method. On day 21 after HIBD, the Morris water maze test was used to evaluate spatial learning and memory abilities. On day 70 after HIBD, immunofluorescence assay was used to measure the expression of neuronal nuclear antigen (NeuN) in the cerebral cortex and the hippocampal CA1 region of neonatal rats, and double-label immunofluorescence was used to measure the expression of myelin basic protein (MBP) and neurofilament 200 (NF200) in the corpus striatum and the corpus callosum.@*RESULTS@#The results of the Morris water maze test showed that the SDIT and 7DCT groups had a significantly shorter mean escape latency than the HIBD group, and the 7DCT group had a significantly shorter mean escape latency than the SDIT group (@*CONCLUSIONS@#Both SDIT and 7DCT can improve long-term behavior and reduce white matter damage in neonatal rats with HIBD, and 7DCT is more effective than SDIT.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Animals, Newborn , Hypoxia-Ischemia, Brain/drug therapy , Melatonin/pharmacology , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , White Matter
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879817

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To study the role of vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) in pulmonary vascular remodeling in neonatal rats with hypoxic pulmonary hypertension (HPH) by regulating survivin (SVV).@*METHODS@#A total of 96 neonatal rats were randomly divided into three groups: HPH+VEGF-A group, HPH group, and control group. Each group was further randomly divided into 3-, 7-, 10-, and 14-day subgroups (@*RESULTS@#The HPH group had a significantly higher mean RVSP than the control and HPH+VEGF-A groups at each time point (@*CONCLUSIONS@#Prophylactic intratracheal administration of exogenous VEGF-A in neonatal rats with HPH can inhibit pulmonary vascular remodeling and reduce pulmonary arterial pressure by upregulating the expression of SVV in the early stage of hypoxia. This provides a basis for the interventional treatment of pulmonary vascular remodeling in neonatal HPH.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Animals, Newborn , Hypertension, Pulmonary/etiology , Hypoxia , Pulmonary Artery , Rats, Wistar , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A , Vascular Remodeling
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878726

ABSTRACT

Objective To explore the effect of dexmedetomidine(Dex)on sevoflurane-induced cognitive impairment in neonatal rats through Wnt signaling pathway. Methods Sixty 7-day-old SD rats were assigned into five groups:control group(without any intervention),Dex group(intraperitoneal injection of 25 μg/kg Dex),sevoflurane group(3% sevoflurane treatment for 4 hours),sevoflurane+Dex group(inhalation of 3% sevoflurane after injection of 25 μg/kg Dex for 4 hours),and sevoflurane+Dex+Wnt inhibitor group(Wnt inhibitor XAV393 and 25 μg/kg Dex were injected and 3% sevoflurane was inhaled for 4 hours).Three weeks later,Morris water maze was used to detect the cognitive function;TdT-mediated dUTP nick end labeling(TUNEL)staining was performed to detect the apoptosis of hippocampal neurons;neuronal nuclei (NeuN) staining was conducted to detect the survival of hippocampal neurons;Western blot was carried out to detect the expression of apoptosis-related proteins.The expression of the factors involved in Wnt/GSK-3β/β-catenin signaling pathway was detected by fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction,and Western blot. Results Compared with the control group,there was no significant difference in the escape latency of Dex group(t=0.304,P=0.768);the escape latency in sevoflurane group(t=5.823,P=0.002),sevoflurane+Dex group(t=3.188,P=0.010),and sevoflurane+Dex+Wnt inhibitor group(t=5.784,P=0.002)was significantly prolonged.Compared with that in the sevoflurane group,the escape latency in sevoflurane+Dex group(t=3.646,P=0.005)was significantly shortened.Compared with that in sevoflurane+Dex group,the escape latency in sevoflurane+Dex+Wnt inhibitor group(t=3.296,P=0.008)was prolonged.Compared with that in the control group,the times of crossing platform in sevoflurane group(t=5.179, P=0.004),sevoflurane+Dex group(t=2.309,P=0.043),and sevoflurane+Dex+Wnt inhibitor group(t=3.871, P=0.003)decreased.Compared with that in sevoflurane group,the times of crossing platform in sevoflurane+Dex group(t=3.296,P=0.008)significantly increased.Compared with that in sevoflurane+Dex group,the times of crossing platform in sevoflurane+Dex+Wnt inhibitor group(t=2.361, P=0.041)reduced.Compared with the control group,there was no significant difference in the number of apoptotic cells in Dex group(t=1.920,P=0.127),and the number of apoptotic cells in sevoflurane group,sevoflurane+Dex group,and sevoflurane+Dex+Wnt inhibitor group increased by 16%(t=13.436,P=0.002),5%(t=7.752, P=0.001),and 11.5%(t=12.612,P=0.002),respectively.Compared with that in the sevoflurane group,the number of apoptotic cells in sevoflurane+Dex group and sevoflurane+Dex+Wnt inhibitor group decreased by 11%(t=8.521,P=0.002)and 5.5%(t=3.123,P=0.036),respectively.Compared with that in the sevoflurane+Dex group,the number of apoptotic cells in sevoflurane+Dex+Wnt inhibitor group increased by 6.5%(t=6.250,P=0.003).Compared with that in the control group,the number of positive cells in 0.15 mm


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Animals, Newborn , Cognitive Dysfunction/chemically induced , Dexmedetomidine/pharmacology , Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 beta , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Sevoflurane/toxicity , Wnt Signaling Pathway , beta Catenin/metabolism
15.
Biol. Res ; 54: 4-4, 2021. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1505794

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Early-life stress in the form of maternal separation can be associated with alterations in offspring neurodevelopment and brain functioning. Here, we aimed to investigate the potential impact of prolonged maternal separation on proteomic profiling of prefrontal cortex, hippocampus and cerebellum of juvenile and young adult rats. A special attention was devoted to proteins involved in the process of cell death and redox state maintenance. METHODS: Long-Evans pups were separated from their mothers for 3 h daily over the first 3 weeks of life (during days 2-21 of age). Brain tissue samples collected from juvenile (22-day-old) and young adult (90-day-old) rats were used for label-free quantitative (LFQ) proteomic analysis. In parallel, selected oxidative stress markers and apoptosis-related proteins were assessed biochemically and by Western blot, respectively. RESULTS: In total, 5526 proteins were detected in our proteomic analysis of rat brain tissue. Approximately one tenth of them (586 proteins) represented those involved in cell death processes or regulation of oxidative stress balance. Prolonged maternal separation caused changes in less than half of these proteins (271). The observed alterations in protein expression levels were age-, sex- and brain region-dependent. Interestingly, the proteins detected by mass spectrometry that are known to be involved in the maintenance of redox state were not markedly altered. Accordingly, we did not observe any significant differences between selected oxidative stress markers, such as the levels of hydrogen peroxide, reduced glutathione, protein carbonylation and lipid peroxidation in brain samples from rats that underwent maternal separation and from the corresponding controls. On the other hand, a number of changes were found in cell death-associated proteins, mainly in those involved in the apoptotic and autophagic pathways. However, there were no detectable alterations in the levels of cleaved products of caspases or Bcl-2 family members. Taken together, these data indicate that the apoptotic and autophagic cell death pathways were not activated by maternal separation either in adolescent or young adult rats. CONCLUSIONS: Prolonged maternal separation can distinctly modulate expression profiles of proteins associated with cell death pathways in prefrontal cortex, hippocampus and cerebellum of juvenile rats and the consequences of early-life stress may last into adulthood and likely participate in variations in stress reactivity.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Rats , Brain/physiopathology , Cell Death , Proteome , Maternal Deprivation , Rats, Long-Evans , Proteomics , Animals, Newborn
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922249

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To study the role of the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1)-proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2 phosphorylation (pPyk2)-matrix metalloproteinases 9 (MMP9) pathway in hyperoxia-induced lung injury in neonatal rats.@*METHODS@#A total of 16 neonatal rats were randomly placed in chambers containing room air (air group) or 95% medical oxygen (hyperoxia group) immediately after birth, with 8 rats in each group. All of the rats were sacrificed on day 8 of life. Hematoxylin and eosin staining was used to observe the pathological changes of lung tissue. ELISA was used to measure the levels of soluble LRP1 (sLRP1) and MMP9 in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). Western blot was used to measure the protein expression levels of LRP1, MMP9, Pyk2, and pPyk2 in lung tissue. RT-PCR was used to measure the mRNA expression levels of LRP1 and MMP9 in lung tissue.@*RESULTS@#The hyperoxia group had significantly higher levels of sLRP1 and MMP9 in serum and BALF than the air group (@*CONCLUSIONS@#The activation of the LRP1-pPyk2-MMP9 pathway is enhanced in hyperoxia-induced lung injury in neonatal rats, which may be involved in the pathogenesis of bronchopulmonary dysplasia.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Animals, Newborn , Hyperoxia/complications , Lung , Lung Injury/etiology , Matrix Metalloproteinase 9/genetics
17.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(4): 1075-1084, July-Aug. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1129787

ABSTRACT

Calves are extremely dependent on colostrum intake for the acquisition of passive immunity. This study aimed to determine the occurrence of diarrhea and respiratory diseases and the impact of Failure of Passive Immune Transfer (FPIT) on the health and zootechnical performance of Holstein dairy calves in individual management. This study has been carried out in five commercial farms in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, from March 2017 to January 2018. In this study, 131 calves were followed from birth to 60 days of age. Total Plasmatic Protein (TPP) has been performed to determine passive immune transfer quality in 53 calves (53/131). A daily clinical follow-up has been accomplished aiming at diagnosing diseases and their incidences, and zootechnical measures such as withers height, width of the croup and weight have been evaluated. FPIT rate was 32.07%, diarrhea occurrence and respiratory diseases were 77.9% and 49.6%, respectively. FPIT increased the chances of calves presenting diarrhea and developing respiratory diseases, but no differences on zootechnical performance were found. The frequency of FPIT is still high and is a factor that corroborated the increased risk for diarrhea and respiratory disease but did not influence the performance of calves in the preweaning phase.(AU)


Bezerras são extremamente dependentes da ingestão de colostro para adquirir imunidade passiva. Este estudo teve o objetivo de determinar os índices de ocorrência de diarreia e de doença respiratória, assim como o impacto da falha na transferência de imunidade passiva (FTIP) no desenvolvimento de doenças e no desempenho zootécnico de bezerras Holandês criadas em sistema individual. O estudo foi desenvolvido em cinco propriedades comerciais no Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, entre março de 2017 e janeiro de 2018. Assim, 131 bezerras foram acompanhadas, do nascimento aos 60 dias de idade. Em 53 animais, foi realizada avaliação de proteínas plasmáticas totais para determinar a qualidade na transferência de imunidade passiva. Acompanhamento clínico diário foi realizado, a fim de diagnosticar doenças e suas incidências, assim como avaliações zootécnicas, como altura de cernelha, largura de garupa, perímetro torácico e peso. O percentual de FTIP foi 32,07%, a ocorrência de diarreias e de doenças respiratórias foi, respectivamente, 77,9% e 49,6%. A FTIP aumentou as chances de as bezerras apresentarem diarreia e doenças respiratórias, mas não alterou o desempenho zootécnico. Conclui-se que a frequência na FTIP ainda é elevada, fator que corroborou o aumento do risco para as diarreias e doença respiratória. Apesar disso, a FTIP não influenciou no desenvolvimento das bezerras na fase de aleitamento.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Cattle , Respiratory Tract Diseases/veterinary , Immunoglobulins , Immunization, Passive , Colostrum , Diarrhea/veterinary , Animals, Newborn/immunology , Brazil
18.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(3): 755-760, June 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1098316

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: The objective of this study was to describe the effects of monosodium glutamate on the collagen of the parotid gland in an obesity model. 18 newborn male Sprague Dawley rats were used (first control group; second group of MSG1: 4 mg/g of monosodium glutamate weight, 5 doses, and third group of MSG2: 4 mg/g of monosodium glutamate, 5 doses, maintained for 8 and 16 weeks respectively). The content and type of collagen were analyzed, in addition to the levels of cholesterol, glucose, triglycerides and uric acid. Monosodium glutamate produced an increase in the obesity rates of the MSG2 group, in addition to an increase in blood cholesterol, glucose and uric acid levels compared to the control group. Type III collagen in the MSG2 group showed a statistically significant increase. Monosodium glutamate induced obesity, in addition to an increase in type III collagen fibers.


RESUMEN: El objetivo de este estudio fue describir los efectos del glutamato monosódico sobre el colágeno de la glándula parótida en un modelo de obesidad. Se utilizaron 18 ratas Sprague Dawley machos recién nacidas (primer grupo control; segundo grupo MSG1: 4 mg/g de peso de glutamato monosódico, 5 dosis, y tercer grupo MSG2: 4 mg/g de glutamato monosódico, 5 dosis, mantenidas durante 8 y 16 semanas respectivamente). Se analizó el contenido y el tipo de colágeno, además de los niveles de colesterol, glucosa, triglicéridos y ácido úrico. El glutamato monosódico produjo un aumento en las tasas de obesidad del grupo MSG2, además de un aumento en los niveles de colesterol en sangre, glucosa y ácido úrico en comparación con el grupo control. El colágeno tipo III en el grupo MSG2 mostró un aumento estadísticamente significativo. La obesidad inducida por glutamato monosódico, además de un aumento en las fibras de colágeno tipo III.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Parotid Gland , Sodium Glutamate/toxicity , Collagen/drug effects , Obesity/chemically induced , Salivary Glands/drug effects , Triglycerides/blood , Uric Acid/blood , Blood Glucose/analysis , Body Weight/drug effects , Cholesterol/blood , Collagen/analysis , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Disease Models, Animal , Animals, Newborn
19.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(2): 387-395, Mar./Apr. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1128267

ABSTRACT

O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar estratégias terapêuticas para o tratamento de infecções broncopulmonares, utilizando a enrofloxacina de ação rápida e sua associação com suporte e fluidoterapia endovenosa ou suporte e solução oral energética e eletrolítica, por meio da mensuração de parâmetros clínicos, hematológicos, bioquímicos e desenvolvimento corporal de neonatos bovinos. Foram utilizadas 35 bezerras da raça Holandesa, monitoradas desde o nascimento até a sexta semana de vida, divididas aleatoriamente nos grupos: grupo CONTROLE; grupo antibiótico; grupo antibiótico + suporte + fluidoterapia endovenosa; grupo antibiótico + suporte + solução oral; e grupo SUPORTE. Os parâmetros zootécnicos foram avaliados do nascimento até a sexta semana de vida, e os parâmetros hematológicos e bioquímicos foram avaliados zero, 24, 72 e 120 horas após diagnóstico da broncopneumonia. Os animais do grupo antibiótico + suporte + solução oral apresentaram menores níveis de eosinófilos e maiores níveis de neutrófilos segmentados em comparação aos animais dos demais grupos. Não houve diferença nos parâmetros zootécnicos avaliados. Neste estudo, o tratamento com antibiótico e solução oral ofereceu aos animais melhor aporte para combater a broncopneumonia, favorecendo o organismo a desenvolver uma resposta imune efetiva diante da infecção.(AU)


The objective of this study was to evaluate therapeutic strategies for treatment of bronchopulmonary infections using fast-acting enrofloxacin and its association with support and endovenous fluid or support and oral energy and electrolytic solution, by measuring clinical, hematological, biochemical and development parameters of bovine neonates. Thirty-five Holstein calves, monitored from birth to six weeks of age, were randomly divided into five groups: control group; antibiotic group; antibiotic group + support + intravenous fluid therapy; antibiotic group + support + oral solution; and support group. The performance parameters were evaluated from birth to the 6th week of age and hematological and biochemical parameters were evaluated 0, 24, 72 and 120 hours after diagnosis of bronchopneumonia. Calves of the antibiotic group + support + oral solution group presented lower levels of eosinophils and higher levels of segmented neutrophils compared to the other groups. There was no difference in performance parameters evaluated. In this study, the treatment with antibiotic and oral solution offered the animals had a better contribution to treat bronchopneumonia, favoring the organism to develop an effective immune response to that infection.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Infant, Newborn , Cattle , Bronchopneumonia/veterinary , Electrolytes/administration & dosage , Enrofloxacin/administration & dosage , Fluid Therapy/veterinary , Animals, Newborn
20.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(2): 411-418, Mar./Apr. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1128328

ABSTRACT

Este trabalho investigou a influência da adiposidade em éguas Crioulas gestantes sobre o peso e o acúmulo de gordura de seus potros do nascimento aos quatro meses de vida. Foram avaliadas 28 éguas Crioulas no terço final de gestação, divididas em dois grupos (normais e obesas) quanto ao peso, à circunferência de pescoço, à altura da crista do pescoço e à gordura subcutânea na base da cauda, bem como quanto à relação dessas medidas com as de seus potros, do parto aos 120 dias de idade. Os filhos de éguas obesas apresentaram maior deposição de gordura na base da cauda, no segundo mês (P<0,05), e na crista do pescoço (P=0,0022), no quarto mês de idade. Houve correlação positiva da altura da crista do pescoço da égua com o peso dos potros ao nascer (P=0,01; r= 0,54) e do peso corporal das éguas com gordura na base da cauda dos potros ao nascimento (P=0,03; r=0,49), além de forte associação entre gordura na base da cauda das éguas obesas com essa medida nos seus potros aos quatro meses (P=0,01; r=0,71). Essa diferença entre os grupos de potros quanto à adiposidade sugere que filhos de éguas obesas são mais propensos a acumular mais gordura já nos primeiros meses de vida.(AU)


This work investigated the influence of adiposity on pregnant Crioulo mares on the weight and fat deposition of their foals from birth to four months of life. Twenty-eight Crioulo mares were evaluated during the final third of gestation, divided into two groups (normal and obese) regarding weight, neck circumference, neck crest height and fat at the tail base, and the relation of these measurements with those of their foals from birth to 120 days old. The obese mares presented higher fat deposition at the tail base in the 2nd month (P< 0.05) and crest of the neck (P= 0.0022) in the 4th month of age. There was positive correlation between height of mare's neck crest and foal weight at birth (P= 0.01, r= 0.54) and body weight of mares between the fat at tail base of foals at birth (P= 0.03, r= 0.49), as well as strong association between fat at the tail base in obese mares with this measurement in their foals at 4 months (P= 0.01, r= 0.71). This difference of adiposity between groups suggests that obese mare's offspring are more likely to accumulate more fat in the first months of life.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Pregnancy , Body Weight , Body Weights and Measures/veterinary , Subcutaneous Fat , Horses/anatomy & histology , Animals, Newborn/anatomy & histology , Adipose Tissue , Heredity , Obesity, Maternal/genetics
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