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1.
Salud mil ; 41(1): e502, abr. 2022. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UY-BNMED, BNUY | ID: biblio-1531265

ABSTRACT

Primary splenic hydatid cyst is a rare entity even in endemic areas. In most cases it presents asymptomatically being diagnosed by imaging findings. Treatment is multimodal and individualized, being surgical treatment the one that allows an integral solution of the disease. Conventional surgery continues to be the "Gold standard" in its approach. We present the case of a patient with this condition and the resolution approached by the surgical team.


O cisto hidatides esplénico primário é uma entidade rara mesmo em áreas endémicas. Na maioria dos casos apresenta-se de forma assintomática, sendo diagnosticada através de resultados de imagem. O tratamento é multimodal e individualizado, com um tratamento cirúrgico que proporciona uma solução abrangente para a condição. A cirurgia convencional continua a ser a abordagem "padrão de ouro". Apresentamos o caso de um paciente com esta condição e a resolução abordada pela equipa cirúrgica.


El quiste hidático primario esplénico es una entidad poco frecuente aún en áreas endémicas. Se presenta en la mayoría de los casos de forma asintomática, siendo diagnosticado por hallazgo imagenológico. El tratamiento es multimodal e individualizado, siendo el tratamiento quirúrgico el que permite una solución integral de la dolencia. La cirugía convencional sigue siendo el "Gold estándar" en su abordaje. Presentamos el caso de una paciente con esta afección y la resolución abordada por el equipo de cirugía.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Splenic Diseases/surgery , Echinococcosis, Hepatic/surgery , Splenectomy , Splenic Diseases/diagnosis , Albendazole/therapeutic use , Echinococcosis, Hepatic/diagnosis , Anthelmintics/therapeutic use
2.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 31(1): e018321, 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1360923

ABSTRACT

Abstract In swine production, parasites, especially gastrointestinal helminths, generate considerable economic losses. Therefore, effective control measures, such as the use of the correct anthelmintics, are of paramount importance for maintaining profitability. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of the anthelmintic oxibendazole, administered orally, in pigs (non-industrial) naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes. To that end, we selected 18 pigs naturally parasitized by gastrointestinal nematodes, as determined by examination of fecal samples (eggs per gram (EPG > 500) of feces), and divided them into two groups: treated (with a 10-day course of oxibendazole) and control (untreated). After the treatment period, the animals were euthanized. During necropsy, the helminths in the gastrointestinal tract were identified and quantified. The species identified were, in order of occurrence, Ascaris suum, Trichuris suis, Oesophagostomum dentatum, and Hyostrongylus rubidus. In Brazilian swine herds, traditional (non-industrial) production systems can favor the transmission of helminths. We found that treatment with oxibendazole was 100% effective against A. suum and H. rubidus, whereas it was 99.65% effective against O. dentatum and 99.20% effective against T. suis, significantly reducing helminth counts (P < 0.01 for all). We conclude that oxibendazole is effective in controlling the main helminths in swine.


Resumo A presença de parasitoses na suinocultura gera prejuízos econômicos relevantes. Dentre elas, destacam-se as helmintoses gastrintestinais. Sendo assim, medidas de controle efetivas, tais como o uso de anti-helmínticos corretos, são importantes para a lucratividade na criação de suínos. O presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a eficácia do oxibendazol, administrado pela via oral, em suínos (não industrial) naturalmente infectados por nematódeos gastrintestinais, na região de Franca/SP. Para isso, foram selecionados, por meio de exames coproparasitológicos (ovos por grama (OPG > 500) de fezes), 18 suínos naturalmente parasitados por nematódeos gastrintestinais, que foram divididos em dois grupos experimentais: grupo tratado (oxibendazol) e grupo controle. Após o tratamento, os animais foram submetidos à necropsia parasitológica, e os resultados das quantificações de helmintos presentes no trato gastrintestinais indicaram a presença das espécies Ascaris suum, Trichuris suis, Oesophagostomum dentatum e Hyostrongylus rubidus em ordem decrescente de ocorrência. Nos rebanhos suínos brasileiros, os sistemas de produção não tecnificadas podem favorecer a transmissão de helmintos. O tratamento com o oxibendazol obteve eficácia de 100% para as espécies A. suum e H. rubidus, de 99,65% para o O. dentatum e de 99,20% para o T. suis, reduzindo significativamente (P < 0,01) as contagens de helmintos, comprovando que o uso do oxibendazol é eficaz no controle dos principais helmintos de suínos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Swine Diseases/epidemiology , Anthelmintics/therapeutic use , Anthelmintics/pharmacology , Nematoda , Parasite Egg Count/veterinary , Swine , Benzimidazoles , Gastrointestinal Tract , Feces/parasitology
4.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(1): 25-33, Jan.-Feb. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1153055

ABSTRACT

The present study provides the first evaluation of the endoparasite profile in dairy cattle from the microregion of São João del-Rei, Minas Gerais, Brazil, including seasonal variations in parasitic infections. Fecal samples were collected directly from rectum of 123 dairy cows and 160 calves on 15 farms. These were kept in insulated boxes and sent for immediate analysis. Using eggs per gram of feces (EPG) we found the following prevalences: Strongyloidea 43.5%, Moniezia sp. 7.6% and both Strongyloides sp. and Trichuris spp. 2.2%, in dairy cows. In calves, the prevalence was Strongyloidea 50.9%, Moniezia sp. 5.6% and Strongyloides sp. 1.9%. The third-stage larvae recovered from coprocultures from cows and calves consisted mainly of Cooperia spp., Haemonchus spp. and Ostertagia spp. EPG counts were significantly higher in calves. Regarding seasonality, the EPG counts and prevalence of Moniezia sp. tended to be higher in the dry period, whereas those of Strongyloidea were higher in the rainy season. Evidence suggests that parasite control and prophylaxis were inadequately managed on the farms studied here. The present parasitological profile correlates with those found by other similar studies, indicating that the main problem is still the inadequate management of parasite control and prophylaxis by farmers.(AU)


O presente estudo representa a primeira avaliação do perfil de endoparasitos em bovinos leiteiros da microrregião de São João del-Rei, Minas Gerais, Brasil, e das variações sazonais das infecções parasitárias. Foram avaliadas amostras fecais de 123 vacas e 160 bezerros de 15 propriedades rurais, coletadas diretamente do reto, mantidas em caixas térmicas isoladas e analisadas imediatamente. A contagem de ovos por grama de fezes (OPG) revelou prevalências de 43,5% de Strongyloidea, 7,6% de Moniezia sp. e 2,2% de Strongyloides sp. e Trichuris spp. em vacas leiteiras. As prevalências de OPG em bezerros foram 50,9% de Strongyloidea, 5,6% de Moniezia sp. e 1,9% de Strongyloides sp. As larvas do terceiro estádio recuperadas de coproculturas de vacas e bezerros foram principalmente de Cooperia spp., Haemonchus spp. e Ostertagia spp. OPG dos parasitos foram significativamente maiores em bezerros. Em relação à sazonalidade, OPG e a prevalência de Moniezia sp. tenderam a ser maiores durante a estação seca, enquanto OPG de Strongyloidea foram maiores na estação chuvosa. Com base nos resultados, é possível concluir que o manejo antiparasitário nas propriedades estudadas não é realizado de maneira plenamente satisfatória. O presente perfil parasitológico se assemelha a outros encontrados em estudos semelhantes, indicando que o maior problema ainda é o manejo antiparasitário inadequado realizado nas propriedades de bovinos leiteiros.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Cattle , Parasitic Diseases, Animal/parasitology , Strongyloidea/isolation & purification , Strongyloides/isolation & purification , Trichuris/isolation & purification , Haemonchus/isolation & purification , Anthelmintics/therapeutic use , Brazil/epidemiology , Dry Season , Rainy Season
5.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 30(1): e015920, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1156210

ABSTRACT

Abstract The consumption of inadequately thermally treated fish is a public health risk due to the possible propagation of Anisakis larvae. The present study demonstrated the physiological and histopathological changes that accompanied an oral inoculation of crude extracts from fresh and thermally treated Anisakis Type II (L3) in rats. Worms were isolated from a marine fish and examined and identified using light and scanning electron microscopy. The study was performed in 6 rat groups: control (I), garlic oil (GO) inoculated (II), fresh L3 inoculated (III), thermally treated L3 inoculated (IV), fresh L3 + GO inoculated (V), and a thermally treated L3 + GO inoculated (VI) groups. Rats inoculated with fresh and thermally treated L3 showed abnormal liver and kidney functions associated with the destruction of normal architecture. GO produced a protective effect in rat groups inoculated with L3 extracts + GO via the amelioration of liver and kidney functions, which was confirmed by the marked normal structure on histology. Cooking of L3-infected fish induced severe alterations compared to uncooked fish. The administration of garlic before and after fish eating is recommended to avoid the dangerous effect of anisakids, even if they are cooked.


Resumo O consumo de peixe inadequadamente tratado termicamente representa um risco para a saúde pública, com a possibilidade da propagação de larvas de Anisakis. O presente estudo demonstrou as alterações fisiológicas e histopatológicas acompanhadas de inoculação oral de extractos brutos de Anisakis tipo II (L3) frescos e termicamente tratados em ratos. Os vermes foram isolados de um peixe marinho, examinados e identificados por microscopia de luz e eletrônica de varredura. O estudo foi conduzido em 6 grupos de ratos: controle (I), óleo de alho (GO) inoculado (II), L3 fresco inoculado (III), L3 tratado termicamente inoculado (IV), L3 fresco + GO inoculado (V), e um grupo L3 + GO tratado termicamente inoculado (VI). Observou-se que ratos inoculados com L3 fresco e tratados termicamente mostraram funções hepáticas e renais anormais, associadas à destruição da sua arquitetura normal. GO produziu um efeito protector em grupos de ratos inoculados com extractos L3 + GO através da melhoria das funções do fígado e dos rins, o que foi confirmado pela estrutura normal marcada da sua histologia. A cozedura de peixes infectados com L3 induziu alterações mais graves do que os peixes não cozidos. Recomenda-se a administração de alho antes e depois do consumo de peixe, para evitar o efeito perigoso dos anisakids, mesmo que sejam cozidos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Sulfides/pharmacology , Anisakis/drug effects , Anisakiasis/prevention & control , Anisakiasis/drug therapy , Allyl Compounds/therapeutic use , Allyl Compounds/pharmacology , Sulfides/therapeutic use , Food Parasitology , Rats, Wistar , Cooking , Fishes/parasitology , Larva , Anthelmintics/therapeutic use , Anthelmintics/pharmacology
6.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Clín. Méd ; 19(3): 199-204, set 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1391967

ABSTRACT

O objetivo deste artigo foi comparar o uso da ivermectina e do albendazol em pacientes transplantados e relatar os respectivos sucessos terapêuticos nessa população. Foram analisados artigos que abordassem relatos de casos publicados nos últimos 4 anos no PubMed® relacionando os descritores "transplante de órgãos", "estrongiloidíase" e "tratamento". Foram encontrados e analisados dez relatos de caso que abordaram a estrongiloidíase em situa- ção pós-transplante contemplando 13 indivíduos. Desses, cinco (38,5%) utilizaram ambos os medicamentos, dos quais quatro (80%) se curaram, tendo recebido albendazol e ivermectina por via subcutânea (50%) ou albendazol e ivermectina por vias oral/ subcutânea (50%). O paciente que morreu recebeu albendazol e ivermectina por via subcutânea. Sete (53,8%) indivíduos utiliza- ram apenas ivermectina, dos quais três (42,8%) se curaram tendo recebido o medicamento oral (dois pacientes) ou subcutâneo (um paciente); dois (28,6%) morreram recebendo o medicamento via oral, dois (28,6%) usaram profilaticamente via oral e apenas um não manifestou sintomas. Apenas um (7,7%) indivíduo utilizou somente albendazol via oral tendo sobrevivido à infecção. A uti- lização combinada dos medicamentos ivermectina e albendazol parece ter efeito positivo no tratamento da estrongiloidíase. A administração da ivermectina por via subcutânea apresentou resultados promissores, contudo estudos controlados de siner- gia medicamentosa e vias de administração devem ser realizados para efetiva avaliação.


The objective of this article was to compare the use of ivermec- tin and albendazole in transplanted patients and to report the respective therapeutic successes in this population.Articles ad- dressing case reports published in the last 4 years in the PubMed relating the descriptors "organ transplantation", "strongyloidia- sis", and "treatment" were analyzed. Ten case reports addres- sing strongyloidiasis in a post-transplant situation, covering 13 individuals, were found and analyzed. Of these, five (38.5%) used both drugs of which 4 (80%) were cured having received subcu- taneous albendazole and ivermectin (50%) or oral/subcutaneous albendazole and ivermectin (50%). The patient who died received subcutaneous albenzadole and ivermectin. Seven (53.8%) indi- viduals used only ivermectin, of which three (42.8%) were cured having received the oral (2/3) or subcutaneous (1/3) medication, two (28.6%) died receiving the oral medication, and two (28.6%) used oral medication prophylactically, and only one did not show symptoms. Only one (7.7%) individual used only oral albenzadole and survived the infection. The combined use of the drugs iver- mectin and albendazole seems to have a positive effect on the treatment of strongyloidiasis. The administration of subcuta- neous Ivermectin has shown promising results; however, con- trolled studies of drug synergy and administration routes shall be performed for effective evaluation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Strongyloidiasis/drug therapy , Ivermectin/therapeutic use , Albendazole/therapeutic use , Transplant Recipients , Anthelmintics/therapeutic use , Strongyloidiasis/prevention & control , Administration, Oral , Bone Marrow Transplantation , Heart Transplantation , Kidney Transplantation , Pancreas Transplantation , Fatal Outcome , Drug Therapy, Combination , Injections, Subcutaneous
7.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 54: e00332021, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1250834

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Parasitic infections are considered a major public health problem due to their associated morbimortality and negative impact on physical and intellectual development, especially in the at-risk pediatric group. Periodic prophylactic administration of antiparasitic agents against soil-transmitted helminths is recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) to control parasitic infections and disease burden. We aimed to evaluate the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in Brazil. METHODS: We performed a systematic review by searching the literature found in the PubMed, LILACS, and SciELO databases, followed by a meta-analysis of the proportions from studies published in English, Portuguese, and/or Spanish from January 2000 to May 2018. This systematic review was registered in the PROSPERO database (CRD42018096214). RESULTS: The prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections (protozoa and/or helminths) in Brazil was 46% (confidence interval: 39-54%), with 99% heterogeneity. Prevalence varied by region: 37%, 51%, 50%, 58%, and 41% in the Southeast, South, Northeast, North, and Central-West regions, respectively. Most studies (32/40) evaluated children (<18 years) and found an average prevalence of 51%. Children also had the highest prevalence in all four regions: Central-West (65%), South (65%), North (58%), Northeast (53%), and Southeast (37%). However, most studies evaluated specific populations, which may have created selection bias. Presumably, this review of intestinal parasitic diseases in Brazil includes the most studies and the largest population ever considered. CONCLUSIONS The prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections is high in Brazil, and anthelmintic drugs should be administered periodically as a prophylactic measure, as recommended by the WHO.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Child , Helminths , Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic/epidemiology , Anthelmintics/therapeutic use , Brazil/epidemiology , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Feces
9.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 30(2): e025120, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1251385

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study evaluated the resistance status of Haemonchus contortus from sheep flocks in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, through comparison between the fecal egg count reduction test (FECRT) and the larval development test (LDT). For the FECRT, 35 sheep were selected in each of five flocks and divided into groups treated with: benzimidazole, levamisole, ivermectin, monepantel and control. Feces were collected for EPG and fecal cultures. The LDT was performed using thiabendazole (TBZ), levamisole (LEV), ivermectin aglycone (IVM-A) and Zolvix (ZLV). Resistance to all drugs was detected using FECRT in 100% of the flocks, except in relation to ZLV (40% resistant and 20% suspected of resistance). LDT indicated resistance to TBZ and IVM-A in all flocks, to LEV in 80% of flocks and to ZLV in 10%. Total agreement was obtained between the two tests for TBZ and IVM (k = 1.0), while for LEV (k = 0.8) and ZLV (k = 0.9), substantial and almost perfect agreement were obtained, respectively. The concordance between the tests was significant, thus showing that it is possible to use the outcome of the LDT to predict the FECRT, and hence validating the former as a fast diagnostic test for use by sheep farmers in Brazil.


Resumo Este estudo avaliou o status de resistência de Haemonchus contortus em rebanhos ovinos do estado de São Paulo, Brasil, através de um estudo comparativo entre o teste de redução da contagem de ovos nas fezes (TRCOF) e o teste de desenvolvimento larvar (TDL). Para o TRCOF, 35 ovinos foram selecionados em cada um dos cinco rebanhos e divididos em grupos tratados com: benzimidazol, levamisol, ivermectina, monepantel e controle. Fezes foram coletadas para OPG e coproculturas. O TDL foi realizado com tiabendazol-TBZ, levamisol-LEV, ivermectina aglicona-IVM-A e Zolvix-ZLV. Resistência a todos os fármacos foi detectada por meio do TRCOF em 100% dos rebanhos, exceto para ZLV (40% resistentes e 20% suspeitos de resistência). O LDT indicou resistência ao TBZ e IVM-A em todos os rebanhos; em 80% dos rebanhos ao LEV e 10% ao ZLV. Foi obtida concordância total entre os dois testes para TBZ e IVM (k = 1,0), enquanto para LEV (k = 0,8) e ZLV (k = 0,9) foram obtidas concordância substancial e quase perfeita, respectivamente. A concordância entre os testes foi significante, sendo possível usar o resultado do LDT para prever o do TRCOF, validando-se o primeiro como um teste diagnóstico rápido para criadores de ovinos no Brasil.


Subject(s)
Animals , Sheep Diseases/diagnosis , Sheep Diseases/drug therapy , Haemonchiasis/diagnosis , Haemonchiasis/drug therapy , Haemonchiasis/veterinary , Haemonchus , Anthelmintics/therapeutic use , Anthelmintics/pharmacology , Parasite Egg Count/veterinary , Ivermectin/therapeutic use , Brazil , Drug Resistance , Sheep , Feces
10.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 30(4): e013121, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1351879

ABSTRACT

Abstract The objective of this study was to provide the first report of resistance of Haemonchus contortus to monepantel in sheep in Espírito Santo. The study was conducted in a property with history of monepantel use since 2014 and register of low efficacy in studies conducted over the past few years with fecal egg count reduction test. Lambs born on the property (males and females aged approximately 100 days) were selected and after eggs per gram of feces (EPG) analysis on fecal samples, these were divided into two groups: a group treated with monepantel (2.5 mg / Kg) and a control group without anthelmintic treatment. Seven days later, the animals were euthanized to recover parasites from the gastrointestinal tract. The efficacy of the treatment was 61.35% against H. contortus, thus proving that anthelmintic resistance to monepantel was present.


Resumo O objetivo deste estudo foi fornecer o primeiro relato de resistência de Haemonchus contortus ao monepantel em ovinos no Espírito Santo. O estudo foi conduzido em uma propriedade com histórico de uso de monepantel, desde 2014, e registro de baixa eficácia em estudos conduzidos nos últimos anos, utilizando-se testes de redução de contagem de ovos por grama de fezes (OPG). Cordeiros nascidos na propriedade (machos e fêmeas com idade aproximada de 100 dias) foram selecionados e, após contagem de OPG, foram divididos em dois grupos: um grupo tratado com monepantel (2,5 mg / kg) e um grupo controle, sem tratamento com anti-helmíntico. Após 7 dias, os animais foram eutanasiados para a recuperação dos parasitos no trato gastrointestinal. O tratamento apresentou eficácia de 61,35% para H. contortus, comprovando que a resistência anti-helmíntica ao monepantel foi presente.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Sheep Diseases/drug therapy , Haemonchiasis/drug therapy , Haemonchiasis/veterinary , Haemonchus , Anthelmintics/therapeutic use , Anthelmintics/pharmacology , Parasite Egg Count/veterinary , Brazil , Drug Resistance , Sheep , Feces , Aminoacetonitrile/analogs & derivatives
11.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 30(2): e005021, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1288689

ABSTRACT

Abstract The aim of this study was to characterize the anthelmintic resistance (AR) of a sheep gastrointestinal nematode population, named Caucaia, from northeastern Brazil. Phenotypic tests performed were: egg hatch (EHT), larval development (LDT) and fecal egg count reduction (FECRT). Benzimidazoles (BZs) genotypic evaluation was by frequency of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) F200Y, F167Y and E198A, and for levamisole (LEV), by frequency of resistance alleles of Hco-acr-8 gene. The primers were designed specifically for Haemonchus contortus. Effective concentrations 50% (EC50) for BZs (EHT), and for macrocyclic lactones (MLs) and LEV (LDT) were 1.02 µg/mL, 1.81 ng/mL and 0.04 µg/mL, respectively. Resistance ratios for MLs and LEV were 0.91 and 3.07, respectively. FECRT efficacies of BZs, MLs, monepantel (MPTL) and LEV were 52.4; 87.0; 94.5 and 99.6%, respectively. qPCR for BZs demonstrated resistance allele frequencies of 0%, 26.24% and 69.08% for SNPs E198A, F200Y and F167Y, respectively. For LEV, 54.37% of resistance alleles were found. There was agreement between EHT, FECRT and qPCR for BZs, and agreement between LDT and qPCR for LEV. Thus, based on higher sensitivity of qPCR, and phenotypic evaluation, the Caucaia population was considered resistant to BZs, MLs, LEV and suspect for MPTL.


Resumo O objetivo deste estudo foi caracterizar a resistência anti-helmíntica (RA) da população de nematoides gastrintestinais de ovinos, denominada Caucaia, do Nordeste brasileiro. Os testes fenotípicos foram: eclosão de ovos (TEO), desenvolvimento larvar (TDL) e redução da contagem de ovos nas fezes (TRCOF). A avaliação genotípica para benzimidazóis (BZs) foi por frequência de polimorfismos de nucleotídeo único (SNPs) F200Y, F167Y e E198A; e para levamisol (LEV), pela frequência alélica para resistência no gene Hco-acr-8. Os "primers" foram específicos para Haemonchus contortus. As concentrações efetivas 50% (CE50) para BZs (TEO) e para lactonas macrocíclicas (LMs) e LEV (TDL) foram 1,02 µg/mL, 1,81 ng/mL e 0,04 µg/mL, respectivamente. Os fatores de resistência para LMs e LEV foram 0,91 e 3,07, respectivamente. As eficácias para BZs, LMs, monepantel (MPTL) e LEV no TRCOF foram 52,4; 87,0; 94,5 e 99,6%, respectivamente. A qPCR para BZs demonstrou frequências de 0%, 26,24% e 69,08% para SNPs E198A, F200Y e F167Y, respectivamente. Para LEV foram encontrados 54,37% de alelos resistentes. Houve concordância entre TEO, TRCOF e qPCR para BZs, e entre TDL e qPCR para LEV. Baseada na maior sensibilidade da qPCR e avaliação fenotípica, a população Caucaia foi considerada resistente a BZs, LMs, LEV e suspeita para MPTL.


Subject(s)
Animals , Sheep Diseases/diagnosis , Sheep Diseases/drug therapy , Haemonchus , Anthelmintics/therapeutic use , Anthelmintics/pharmacology , Nematoda , Parasite Egg Count/veterinary , Brazil , Drug Resistance/genetics , Sheep , Feces
13.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 29(1): e013119, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058018

ABSTRACT

Abstract The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of carvacryl acetate (CVA) and nanoencapsulated CVA (nCVA) on gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep. The CVA was nanoencapsulated with chitosan/gum arabic and the efficacy of nanoencapsulation (EE), yield, zeta potential, nanoparticle morphology and release kinetics at pH 3 and 8 were analyzed. Acute and subchronic toxicity were evaluated in rodents and reduction of egg counts in the faeces (FECRT) of sheep. The sheep were divided into four groups (n = 10): G1, 250 mg/kg CVA; G2, 250 mg/kg nCVA; G3, polymer matrix and G4: 2.5 mg/kg monepantel. EE and nCVA yield were 65% and 57%, respectively. The morphology of the nanoparticles was spherical, size (810.6±286.7 nm), zeta potential in pH 3.2 (+18.3 mV) and the 50% release of CVA at pHs 3 and 8 occurred at 200 and 10 h, respectively. nCVA showed LD50 of 2,609 mg/kg. CVA, nCVA and monepantel reduced the number of eggs per gram of faeces (epg) by 57.7%, 51.1% and 97.7%, respectively. The epg of sheep treated with CVA and nCVA did not differ from the negative control (P>0.05). Nanoencapsulation reduced the toxicity of CVA; however, nCVA and CVA presented similar results in the FECRT.


Resumo O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficácia do acetato de carvacrila (ACV) e do ACV nanoencapsulado (nACV) sobre nematóides gastrintestinais de ovinos. O ACV foi nanoencapsulado com quitosana/goma arábica e foi analisada a eficácia de nanoencapsulamento (EE), o rendimento, potencial zeta, morfologia das nanopartículas e cinética de liberação em pH 3 e 8. Foram avaliadas as toxicidades aguda e subcrônica em roedores e a redução da contagem de ovos nas fezes (RCOF) de ovinos. Os ovinos foram divididos em quatro grupos (n = 10): G1, 250 mg/kg ACV; G2, 250 mg/kg de nACV; G3, matriz polimérica e G4: 2,5 mg/kg de monepantel. A EE e o rendimento de nACV foram de 65% e 57%, respectivamente. A morfologia das nanopartículas foi esférica, tamanho (810,6±286,7 nm), potencial zeta no pH 3,2 (+18,3 mV) e a liberação de 50% de CVA nos pHs 3 e 8 ocorreu às 200 e 10 h, respectivamente. nACV apresentou DL50 de 2.609 mg/kg. ACV, nACV e o monepantel reduziram a contagem de ovos por grama de fezes (opg) em 57,7%, 51,1% e 97,7%, respectivamente. A contagem de opg de ovelhas tratadas com ACV e nCVA não diferiu do controle negativo (P>0,05). O nanoencapsulamento reduziu a toxicidade do AVC; no entanto, nACV e ACV apresentaram resultados semelhantes na RCOF.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Mice , Rats , Sheep Diseases/parasitology , Monoterpenes/pharmacology , Gastrointestinal Tract/parasitology , Nanocapsules/administration & dosage , Anthelmintics/pharmacology , Nematode Infections/veterinary , Parasite Egg Count , Sheep Diseases/drug therapy , Benzimidazoles/pharmacology , Drug Resistance/drug effects , Sheep/parasitology , Levamisole/pharmacology , Rats, Wistar/blood , Toxicity Tests , Parasitic Sensitivity Tests , Monoterpenes/toxicity , Monoterpenes/therapeutic use , Nanocapsules/toxicity , Nanocapsules/therapeutic use , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Haemonchiasis/drug therapy , Haemonchus/isolation & purification , Haemonchus/drug effects , Helminthiasis, Animal/drug therapy , Anthelmintics/toxicity , Anthelmintics/therapeutic use , Mice , Nematode Infections/drug therapy
14.
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057209

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To report a schistosomal myeloradiculopathy case in a non-endemic area. Case description: A previously healthy 11-year-old boy, stricken by an acute loss of strength on his lower limbs, followed by a loss of strength on his upper limbs and upper body, associated with altered sensitivity of the vesical globe formation. The patient's cerebrospinal fluid analysis showed eosinophilic meningitis, in addition to peripheral eosinophilia. The investigation resulted in a positive serology for Schistosoma mansoni. The treatment included steroids and praziquantel 60mg/kg, with a new dose after a month, as well as physical therapy for rehabilitation. The patient evolved with clinical improvement in the neurological exam, with a medullary section initially at C6, but now at T6. The patient is kept at prednisolone use (30mg/day) and longterm urinary catheter dependence. Comments: The schistosomiasis is endemic in many regions of Brazil; however, it has low incidence in the south of the country. Among its main manifestations, the schistosomal myeloradiculopathy is the most severe ectopic form of the disease, and should be suspected in patients with low back pain, strength and/or sensibility disorder of the lower limbs or urinary tract's disturbance. Early diagnosis and treatment should be done in order to reduce severe neurological sequelae. Treatment includes schistosomiasis drugs, corticosteroids and/or surgery.


RESUMO Objetivo: Relatar um caso de mielorradiculopatia esquistossomótica em área não endêmica. Descrição do caso: Paciente do sexo masculino, 11 anos, previamente hígido, com história aguda de paresia de membros inferiores, que evoluiu para membros superiores e tronco, associada à alteração de sensibilidade e formação de globo vesical. O exame do líquor demonstrava meningite eosinofílica, além de eosinofilia periférica. A investigação resultou em sorologia positiva para Schistosoma mansoni. O tratamento foi realizado com corticoterapia e praziquantel 60 mg/kg, com nova dose após um mês, além de fisioterapia para reabilitação. Evoluiu com melhora clínica no exame neurológico, com nível de secção medular que inicialmente correspondia a C6, encontrando-se atualmente em T6. Mantém uso de prednisolona 30 mg/dia e dependência de sonda vesical de demora. Comentários: A esquistossomose é uma doença endêmica em muitas regiões do Brasil, porém com pouca incidência no Sul do país. Dentre as principais manifestações, a mielorradiculopatia esquistossomótica é a forma ectópica mais grave e deve ser suspeitada na vigência de dor lombar, alteração de força e/ ou sensibilidade de membros inferiores e distúrbio urinário. O diagnóstico e o tratamento devem ser instituídos precocemente para diminuir o risco de sequelas neurológicas graves. O tratamento pode ser realizado com esquistossomicidas, corticosteroides e/ ou cirurgia.


Subject(s)
Schistosoma mansoni/isolation & purification , Neuroschistosomiasis/diagnosis , Neuroschistosomiasis/parasitology , Praziquantel/administration & dosage , Praziquantel/therapeutic use , Schistosoma mansoni/immunology , Steroids/administration & dosage , Steroids/therapeutic use , Brazil/epidemiology , Treatment Outcome , Neuroschistosomiasis/drug therapy , Neuroschistosomiasis/rehabilitation , Drug Therapy, Combination , Eosinophilia/cerebrospinal fluid , Meningitis/immunology , Anthelmintics/administration & dosage , Anthelmintics/therapeutic use
15.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 28(4): 700-707, Oct.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057997

ABSTRACT

Abstract The aim here is to present data on the efficacy of anthelmintics in sheep flocks in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and to discuss the interpretation of the fecal egg count reduction test (FECRT) for each nematode genus. Fecal eggs counts and pre- and post-treatment coprocultures were performed, the former to evaluate the efficacy of and the latter to determine the overall parasite prevalence. An additional efficacy test was performed at Farm # 1 a year after the initial test. Severe anthelmintic resistance was found for the flocks, with no FECRT sensitivity at any of the 22 farms evaluated. However, an analysis of the infective larvae showed that some drugs were effective against certain parasitic genera; i.e., levamisole was more effective against Haemonchus spp. and moxidectin against Trichostrongylus spp. In the additional FECRT performed at Farm # 1, moxidectin and nitroxynil were ineffective separately, but when applied in combination they were highly effective due to their efficacy against Haemonchus (nitroxynil) and Trichostrongylus (moxidectin), respectively. The use of the FECRT targeting the parasitic nematode species prevalent on farms may make it possible to choose more effective anthelmintics.


Resumo O objetivo deste trabalho foi apresentar dados sobre a eficácia de anti-helmínticos em rebanhos ovinos no Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, e discutir a interpretação do teste de redução da contagem de ovos nas fezes (TRCOF) para cada gênero de nematoide. A contagem de ovos fecais (OPG) e coprocultura pré e pós-tratamento foram realizadas para avaliar a eficácia e a prevalência geral do parasito, respectivamente. Um teste de eficácia adicional foi realizado na Fazenda # 1 após um ano do teste inicial. Resistência anti-helmíntica grave foi encontrada, não havendo sensibilidade no TRCOF em nenhuma das 22 fazendas avaliadas. No entanto, na análise das larvas infectantes observou-se que algumas drogas foram eficazes contra certos gêneros parasitários; por exemplo, o levamisol foi mais eficaz contra Haemonchus spp. e a moxidectina contra Trichostrongylus spp. No TRCOF adicional realizado na Fazenda 1, a moxidectina e o nitroxinil foram ineficazes separadamente, mas quando aplicados em combinação, foram altamente eficazes devido à sua eficácia contra Haemonchus spp. (nitroxinil) e Trichostrongylus spp. (moxidectina), respectivamente. O TRCOF visando às espécies de nematoides parasitas prevalentes nas fazendas pode possibilitar a escolha de anti-helmínticos mais eficazes.


Subject(s)
Animals , Parasite Egg Count , Sheep Diseases/parasitology , Feces/parasitology , Anthelmintics/therapeutic use , Nematoda/drug effects , Drug Resistance , Sheep , Parasitic Sensitivity Tests , Anthelmintics/pharmacology , Nematoda/isolation & purification , Nematoda/classification
18.
Neumol. pediátr. (En línea) ; 14(3): 180-183, sept. 2019. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1087790

ABSTRACT

Hydatid disease is a zoonosis caused by Echinococcus granulosus, and represents a global public health problem. In children the pulmonary location is the most frequent. The hydatid cyst can be asymptomatic and present symptoms when breaking into the bronchial tree or pleura. We present a case of complicated pulmonary hydatid cyst in a 14-year-old girl from Morocco, where this disease is endemic. The initial clinical picture simulated a lung abscess. The management was surgical, associated with albendazole treatment, with a good clinical evolution.


La enfermedad hidatídica es una zoonosis producida por el Echinococcus granulosus, y representa un problema mundial de salud pública. En niños la localización pulmonar es la más frecuente. El quiste hidatídico puede ser asintomático y presentar síntomas al romperse hacia el árbol bronquial o pleura. Presentamos un caso de quiste hidatídico pulmonar complicado en una niña de 14 años residente en Marruecos, donde esta enfermedad es endémica. El cuadro clínico inicial simuló un absceso pulmonar. El manejo fue quirúrgico, asociado a tratamiento con albendazol, con una buena evolución clínica.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Echinococcosis, Pulmonary/surgery , Echinococcosis, Pulmonary/drug therapy , Echinococcosis, Pulmonary/diagnostic imaging , Radiography, Thoracic , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Albendazole/therapeutic use , Anthelmintics/therapeutic use
19.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 39(2): 241-246, ene.-jun. 2019. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011436

ABSTRACT

Resumen La anisakiasis es una enfermedad parasitaria zoonótica causada por el consumo de pescados o mariscos crudos o poco cocidos infectados con nematodos de los géneros Anisakis, Pseudoterranova y Contracaecum. Se describe el primer caso de anisakiasis en Colombia y se resume la literatura médica disponible. Una mujer de 52 años de edad consultó por dolor epigástrico agudo de inicio abrupto, náuseas, vómitos, diarrea y urticaria después de consumir pescado. El examen físico reveló sensibilidad moderada en el epigastrio. El examen de laboratorio evidenció leucocitosis, en tanto que la radiografía simple y el electrocardiograma no reflejaron ninguna anormalidad. El diagnóstico se hizo mediante una endoscopia de vías digestivas altas, la cual reveló engrosamiento de la pared gástrica y un parásito en movimiento. Se encontró una larva de Anisakis y se la extrajo por endoscopia, lo que alivió el dolor de la paciente. Clínicamente, la anisakiasis puede presentarse como una enfermedad gástrica, intestinal, en otros sistemas o alérgica. El diagnóstico se hace con base en la elaboración del historial alimentario del paciente y la visualización directa de las larvas; el único tratamiento efectivo consiste en su extracción endoscópica.


Abstract Anisakiasis is a zoonotic parasitic disease caused by consumption of raw or undercooked fish or seafood infected with nematodes of the Anisakis, Pseudoterranova or Contracaecum genera. Here, we describe the first case of anisakiasis in Colombia and summarize the available literature. A 52-year-old female with a history of abrupt-onset sharp epigastric pain, nausea, vomit, diarrhea, and urticaria following fish consumption consulted the health service. The physical examination revealed moderate tenderness of the epigastric region; the laboratory evaluation showed leukocytosis and a simple X-ray and ECG showed no abnormalities. The diagnosis was made by endoscopic examination, which revealed a thickened gastric wall and a moving larval worm. An Anisakis larva was found and extracted endoscopically, which relieved the pain of the patient. Clinically, anisakiasis may present as a gastric, intestinal, extragastrointestinal or allergic disease. Diagnosis and treatment of anisakiasis are made by a dietary history, direct visualization and endoscopic extraction of possible larvae, which is the only effective therapy.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Stomach Diseases/parasitology , Urticaria/etiology , Food Parasitology , Anisakis/isolation & purification , Anisakiasis/diagnosis , Fishes/parasitology , Raw Foods/adverse effects , Stomach Diseases/diagnosis , Stomach Diseases/immunology , Albendazole/therapeutic use , Gastroscopy , Anisakis/growth & development , Anisakiasis/surgery , Anisakiasis/immunology , Anisakiasis/drug therapy , Colombia , Combined Modality Therapy , Raw Foods/parasitology , Larva , Anthelmintics/therapeutic use
20.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20180229, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1013304

ABSTRACT

Abstract Sarcoidosis is a rare multisystem chronic inflammatory disease in children. We present a case of a five-year-old child with clinical features mimicking several diseases, including tuberculosis. After failure of treatment based on the suspected diagnosis, an axillary lymph node biopsy showed noncaseating granulomas compatible with sarcoidosis and appropriate treatment was then started.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Child, Preschool , Sarcoidosis/diagnosis , Sarcoidosis/drug therapy , Thiabendazole/therapeutic use , Tuberculosis/diagnosis , Biopsy , Brazil , Prednisolone/therapeutic use , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Diagnosis, Differential , Lymphoma/diagnosis , Anthelmintics/therapeutic use , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use
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