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1.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(1): 25-33, Jan.-Feb. 2021. tab
Article in English | ID: biblio-1153055

ABSTRACT

The present study provides the first evaluation of the endoparasite profile in dairy cattle from the microregion of São João del-Rei, Minas Gerais, Brazil, including seasonal variations in parasitic infections. Fecal samples were collected directly from rectum of 123 dairy cows and 160 calves on 15 farms. These were kept in insulated boxes and sent for immediate analysis. Using eggs per gram of feces (EPG) we found the following prevalences: Strongyloidea 43.5%, Moniezia sp. 7.6% and both Strongyloides sp. and Trichuris spp. 2.2%, in dairy cows. In calves, the prevalence was Strongyloidea 50.9%, Moniezia sp. 5.6% and Strongyloides sp. 1.9%. The third-stage larvae recovered from coprocultures from cows and calves consisted mainly of Cooperia spp., Haemonchus spp. and Ostertagia spp. EPG counts were significantly higher in calves. Regarding seasonality, the EPG counts and prevalence of Moniezia sp. tended to be higher in the dry period, whereas those of Strongyloidea were higher in the rainy season. Evidence suggests that parasite control and prophylaxis were inadequately managed on the farms studied here. The present parasitological profile correlates with those found by other similar studies, indicating that the main problem is still the inadequate management of parasite control and prophylaxis by farmers.(AU)


O presente estudo representa a primeira avaliação do perfil de endoparasitos em bovinos leiteiros da microrregião de São João del-Rei, Minas Gerais, Brasil, e das variações sazonais das infecções parasitárias. Foram avaliadas amostras fecais de 123 vacas e 160 bezerros de 15 propriedades rurais, coletadas diretamente do reto, mantidas em caixas térmicas isoladas e analisadas imediatamente. A contagem de ovos por grama de fezes (OPG) revelou prevalências de 43,5% de Strongyloidea, 7,6% de Moniezia sp. e 2,2% de Strongyloides sp. e Trichuris spp. em vacas leiteiras. As prevalências de OPG em bezerros foram 50,9% de Strongyloidea, 5,6% de Moniezia sp. e 1,9% de Strongyloides sp. As larvas do terceiro estádio recuperadas de coproculturas de vacas e bezerros foram principalmente de Cooperia spp., Haemonchus spp. e Ostertagia spp. OPG dos parasitos foram significativamente maiores em bezerros. Em relação à sazonalidade, OPG e a prevalência de Moniezia sp. tenderam a ser maiores durante a estação seca, enquanto OPG de Strongyloidea foram maiores na estação chuvosa. Com base nos resultados, é possível concluir que o manejo antiparasitário nas propriedades estudadas não é realizado de maneira plenamente satisfatória. O presente perfil parasitológico se assemelha a outros encontrados em estudos semelhantes, indicando que o maior problema ainda é o manejo antiparasitário inadequado realizado nas propriedades de bovinos leiteiros.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Cattle , Parasitic Diseases, Animal/parasitology , Strongyloidea/isolation & purification , Strongyloides/isolation & purification , Trichuris/isolation & purification , Haemonchus/isolation & purification , Anthelmintics/therapeutic use , Brazil/epidemiology , Dry Season , Rainy Season
2.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 54: e00332021, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1250834

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Parasitic infections are considered a major public health problem due to their associated morbimortality and negative impact on physical and intellectual development, especially in the at-risk pediatric group. Periodic prophylactic administration of antiparasitic agents against soil-transmitted helminths is recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) to control parasitic infections and disease burden. We aimed to evaluate the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in Brazil. METHODS: We performed a systematic review by searching the literature found in the PubMed, LILACS, and SciELO databases, followed by a meta-analysis of the proportions from studies published in English, Portuguese, and/or Spanish from January 2000 to May 2018. This systematic review was registered in the PROSPERO database (CRD42018096214). RESULTS: The prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections (protozoa and/or helminths) in Brazil was 46% (confidence interval: 39-54%), with 99% heterogeneity. Prevalence varied by region: 37%, 51%, 50%, 58%, and 41% in the Southeast, South, Northeast, North, and Central-West regions, respectively. Most studies (32/40) evaluated children (<18 years) and found an average prevalence of 51%. Children also had the highest prevalence in all four regions: Central-West (65%), South (65%), North (58%), Northeast (53%), and Southeast (37%). However, most studies evaluated specific populations, which may have created selection bias. Presumably, this review of intestinal parasitic diseases in Brazil includes the most studies and the largest population ever considered. CONCLUSIONS The prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections is high in Brazil, and anthelmintic drugs should be administered periodically as a prophylactic measure, as recommended by the WHO.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Child , Helminths , Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic/epidemiology , Anthelmintics/therapeutic use , Brazil/epidemiology , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Feces
4.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 28(4): 700-707, Oct.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057997

ABSTRACT

Abstract The aim here is to present data on the efficacy of anthelmintics in sheep flocks in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and to discuss the interpretation of the fecal egg count reduction test (FECRT) for each nematode genus. Fecal eggs counts and pre- and post-treatment coprocultures were performed, the former to evaluate the efficacy of and the latter to determine the overall parasite prevalence. An additional efficacy test was performed at Farm # 1 a year after the initial test. Severe anthelmintic resistance was found for the flocks, with no FECRT sensitivity at any of the 22 farms evaluated. However, an analysis of the infective larvae showed that some drugs were effective against certain parasitic genera; i.e., levamisole was more effective against Haemonchus spp. and moxidectin against Trichostrongylus spp. In the additional FECRT performed at Farm # 1, moxidectin and nitroxynil were ineffective separately, but when applied in combination they were highly effective due to their efficacy against Haemonchus (nitroxynil) and Trichostrongylus (moxidectin), respectively. The use of the FECRT targeting the parasitic nematode species prevalent on farms may make it possible to choose more effective anthelmintics.


Resumo O objetivo deste trabalho foi apresentar dados sobre a eficácia de anti-helmínticos em rebanhos ovinos no Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, e discutir a interpretação do teste de redução da contagem de ovos nas fezes (TRCOF) para cada gênero de nematoide. A contagem de ovos fecais (OPG) e coprocultura pré e pós-tratamento foram realizadas para avaliar a eficácia e a prevalência geral do parasito, respectivamente. Um teste de eficácia adicional foi realizado na Fazenda # 1 após um ano do teste inicial. Resistência anti-helmíntica grave foi encontrada, não havendo sensibilidade no TRCOF em nenhuma das 22 fazendas avaliadas. No entanto, na análise das larvas infectantes observou-se que algumas drogas foram eficazes contra certos gêneros parasitários; por exemplo, o levamisol foi mais eficaz contra Haemonchus spp. e a moxidectina contra Trichostrongylus spp. No TRCOF adicional realizado na Fazenda 1, a moxidectina e o nitroxinil foram ineficazes separadamente, mas quando aplicados em combinação, foram altamente eficazes devido à sua eficácia contra Haemonchus spp. (nitroxinil) e Trichostrongylus spp. (moxidectina), respectivamente. O TRCOF visando às espécies de nematoides parasitas prevalentes nas fazendas pode possibilitar a escolha de anti-helmínticos mais eficazes.


Subject(s)
Animals , Parasite Egg Count , Sheep Diseases/parasitology , Feces/parasitology , Anthelmintics/therapeutic use , Nematoda/drug effects , Drug Resistance , Sheep , Parasitic Sensitivity Tests , Anthelmintics/pharmacology , Nematoda/isolation & purification , Nematoda/classification
5.
Neumol. pediátr. (En línea) ; 14(3): 180-183, sept. 2019. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1087790

ABSTRACT

Hydatid disease is a zoonosis caused by Echinococcus granulosus, and represents a global public health problem. In children the pulmonary location is the most frequent. The hydatid cyst can be asymptomatic and present symptoms when breaking into the bronchial tree or pleura. We present a case of complicated pulmonary hydatid cyst in a 14-year-old girl from Morocco, where this disease is endemic. The initial clinical picture simulated a lung abscess. The management was surgical, associated with albendazole treatment, with a good clinical evolution.


La enfermedad hidatídica es una zoonosis producida por el Echinococcus granulosus, y representa un problema mundial de salud pública. En niños la localización pulmonar es la más frecuente. El quiste hidatídico puede ser asintomático y presentar síntomas al romperse hacia el árbol bronquial o pleura. Presentamos un caso de quiste hidatídico pulmonar complicado en una niña de 14 años residente en Marruecos, donde esta enfermedad es endémica. El cuadro clínico inicial simuló un absceso pulmonar. El manejo fue quirúrgico, asociado a tratamiento con albendazol, con una buena evolución clínica.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Echinococcosis, Pulmonary/surgery , Echinococcosis, Pulmonary/drug therapy , Echinococcosis, Pulmonary/diagnostic imaging , Radiography, Thoracic , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Albendazole/therapeutic use , Anthelmintics/therapeutic use
7.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20180229, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1013304

ABSTRACT

Abstract Sarcoidosis is a rare multisystem chronic inflammatory disease in children. We present a case of a five-year-old child with clinical features mimicking several diseases, including tuberculosis. After failure of treatment based on the suspected diagnosis, an axillary lymph node biopsy showed noncaseating granulomas compatible with sarcoidosis and appropriate treatment was then started.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Child, Preschool , Sarcoidosis/diagnosis , Sarcoidosis/drug therapy , Thiabendazole/therapeutic use , Tuberculosis/diagnosis , Biopsy , Brazil , Prednisolone/therapeutic use , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Diagnosis, Differential , Lymphoma/diagnosis , Anthelmintics/therapeutic use , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use
8.
Gastroenterol. latinoam ; 29(supl.1): S40-S44, 2018. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1117671

ABSTRACT

Fascioliasis is a parasitic disease produced mainly by the fluke Fasciola hepatica. The human infection is mainly due to the accidental intake of metacercariae present in watercress and/or contaminated water. The human disease is uncommon in Chile, despite the high prevalence of animal infection, which affects almost the entire national territory and determines high economic and productive impacts. Human fascioliasis can manifest like acute or chronic phase of the disease (in Chile, the majority in chronic phase) and its identification requires a high index of suspicion, in individuals with abdominal pain, hepatomegaly and eosinophilia, where the epidemiological background of watercress ingestion is usually present. Diagnosis usually requires the integration of egg visualization in stools, serology and imaging studies. The treatment of choice with triclabendazole is usually highly effective and safe.


La fascioliasis es una enfermedad parasitaria producida principalmente por el trematodo Fasciola hepática. La infección en el hombre, quien es un huésped accidental, se debe principalmente a la ingesta de metacercarias presentes en berros y/o aguas contaminadas. La enfermedad en humanos es infrecuente en Chile, a pesar de la alta prevalencia de infección animal, que afecta a casi todo el territorio nacional y determina un alto impacto económico y productivo. La fascioliasis humana puede manifestarse en fase aguda o crónica (en Chile, la mayoría en fase crónica) y su identificación requiere un alto índice de sospecha, en individuos con dolor abdominal, hepatomegalia y eosinofilia, donde el antecedente epidemiológico de ingesta de berros suele estar presente. El diagnóstico, habitualmente requiere la integración de la visualización directa de huevos en las deposiciones, estudios de serología e imágenes. El tratamiento de elección con triclabendazol, habitualmente es altamente efectivo y seguro.


Subject(s)
Humans , Fascioliasis/diagnosis , Fascioliasis/drug therapy , Fasciola hepatica/pathogenicity , Fascioliasis/physiopathology , Fascioliasis/epidemiology , Metacercariae , Triclabendazole/therapeutic use , Liver/parasitology , Anthelmintics/therapeutic use
9.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 26(4): 427-432, Oct.-Dec. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-899296

ABSTRACT

Abstract Gastrointestinal parasites represent an important cause of reduced productivity of sheep worldwide. As anthelmintic are still the main control tool for these parasites, this work evaluated the efficacy of commercially available active principles in 22 sheep flocks in the southern region of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. In each farm 10 sheep were randomly distributed in seven groups with the following treatments: abamectin; albendazole; closantel; levamisole; monepantel; trichlorphon and no anthelmintic (control). All flocks showed resistance to at least three anthelmintics and in 20 farms only two products demonstrated efficacy for parasitic control. In two farms, there was no susceptibility to the six active principles tested. The results of this study provide evidence that the common commercially available anthelmintic are not assuring effective chemical control of gastrointestinal parasitic infections in ovine flocks in the southern region of Rio Grande do Sul. Monepantel, the newest introduced drug in the Brazilian market was not effective in 18% of the flocks tested, confirming that the parasitic resistance can be established quickly after the introduction of new molecules mainly when alternative program of parasite control is not performed.


Resumo As parasitoses gastrintestinais representam importante causa de queda na produtividade na ovinocultura mundial. Como a utilização de anti-helmínticos é, ainda, a principal forma de controle parasitário, o presente estudo avaliou a eficácia de princípios ativos comercialmente disponíveis, em 22 rebanhos ovinos da região Sul do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Em cada propriedade foram utilizados 10 ovinos divididos em sete grupos que receberam os seguintes tratamentos: abamectina; albendazole; closantel; levamisole; monepantel; e triclorfon. Um grupo permaneceu como controle, sem tratamento anti-helmíntico. Nas 22 propriedades do estudo houve resistência, no mínimo, a três anti-helmínticos. Em 20 propriedades apenas dois produtos demonstraram eficácia para o controle parasitário. Em duas propriedades não houve sensibilidade aos seis princípios ativos testados. Os resultados do presente estudo demonstraram que os anti-helmínticos disponíveis no marcado Brasileiro não asseguram um controle parasitário efetivo nos rebanhos ovinos da região Sul do Rio Grande do Sul, incluindo o monepantel que foi ineficaz em 18% dos rebanhos testados, confirmando que a resistência dos parasitos aos princípios ativos pode se estabelecer rapidamente após a introdução de novas moléculas, principalmente quando programas alternativos de controle não são realizados.


Subject(s)
Animals , Sheep Diseases/parasitology , Sheep Diseases/drug therapy , Drug Resistance, Multiple , Helminthiasis, Animal/drug therapy , Anthelmintics/therapeutic use , Brazil , Sheep
10.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 26(3): 323-330, July-Sept. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-899288

ABSTRACT

Abstract Thymol is a monoterpene and acetylation form of this compound can reduce the toxicity and enhance its biological effects. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of thymol and thymol acetate (TA) on egg, larva and adult Haemonchus contortus and the cuticular changes, acute toxicity in mice and the efficacy on sheep gastrointestinal nematodes. In vitro tests results were analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA) and followed by comparison with Tukey test or Bonferroni. The efficacy of in vivo test was calculated by the BootStreet program. In the egg hatch test (EHT), thymol (0.5 mg/mL) and TA (4 mg/mL) inhibited larval hatching by 98% and 67.1%, respectively. Thymol and TA (8 mg/mL) inhibited 100% of larval development. Thymol and TA (800 µg/mL) reduced the motility of adult worms, by 100% and 83.4%, respectively. Thymol caused cuticular changes in adult worm teguments. In the acute toxicity test, the LD50 of thymol and TA were 1,350.9 mg/kg and 4,144.4 mg/kg, respectively. Thymol and TA reduced sheep egg count per gram of faeces (epg) by 59.8% and 76.2%, respectively. In in vitro tests thymol presented better anthelmintic activity than TA. However TA was less toxic and in in vivo test efficacy was similar.


Resumo Timol é um monoterpeno e a acetilação deste composto pode reduzir a toxicidade e potencializar os seus efeitos biológicos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito do timol e acetato de timolila (AT) sobre ovos, larvas e adultos de Haemonchus contortus e suas alterações cuticulares, toxicidade aguda em camundongos e a eficácia sobre nematoides gastrintestinais de ovinos. Os resultados dos testes in vitro foram analisados por análise de variância (ANOVA) e comparados pelo testes de Tukey ou Bonferroni. A eficácia do teste de redução da contagem de ovos nas fezes (RCOF) foi calculada pelo programa BootStreet. No teste de inibição da eclosão de ovos (TEO), timol (0,5 mg/mL) e AT (4 mg/mL) inibiram a eclosão das larvas em 98% e 67,1%, respectivamente. Timol e AT (8 mg/mL) inibiram 100% do desenvolvimento larval. Timol e AT (800 μg/mL) reduziram a motilidade dos nematoides adultos, em 100% e 83,4%, respectivamente. O timol provocou alterações cuticulares nos nematoides adultos. No teste de toxicidade aguda, a DL50 do timol e AT foi de 1.350,9 mg/kg e 4.144,4 mg/kg, respectivamente. Timol e AT reduziram a contagem de ovos por gramas de fezes (OPG) dos ovinos em 59,8% e 76,2%, respectivamente. Nos testes in vitro timol apresentou atividade melhor anti-helmíntica do que AT. Entretanto, AT foi menos tóxico do que o timol e no teste in vivo apresentaram eficácia semelhante.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Mice , Sheep Diseases/parasitology , Sheep Diseases/drug therapy , Thymol/toxicity , Thymol/therapeutic use , Nematoda/drug effects , Nematode Infections/veterinary , Acetylation , Thymol/pharmacology , Sheep , Haemonchus/drug effects , Anthelmintics/therapeutic use , Anthelmintics/pharmacology , Acetates/therapeutic use , Acetates/pharmacology , Nematode Infections/drug therapy
11.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 25(3): 353-358, July-Sept. 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-795083

ABSTRACT

Abstract The anthelmintic efficiency of doramectin, fenbendazole, and nitroxynil, used individually or in combination, was determined by the Fecal Egg Count Reduction (FECR) test and cultivation of larvae of anthelminthic-treated sheep grouped as follows: G1 (doramectin), G2 (fenbendazole), G3 (nitroxynil), G4 (doramectin + fenbendazole), G5 (doramectin + nitroxynil), G6 (fenbendazole + nitroxynil), G7 (doramectin + nitroxynil + fenbendazole), G8 (untreated). In addition to individually used doramectin and fenbendazole, the helminths were also resistant to the combination of doramectin + fenbendazole; nitroxynil + fenbendazole; and doramectin + nitroxynil + fenbendazole, with their FECR rates ranging from 62-83%. The helminths showed possible nitroxynil-resistance, but had low resistance when the drug was administered in combination with doramectin. The evaluation of individual helminth species revealed that fenbendazole was fully effective against Cooperia; doramectin (G1), moderately effective against Haemonchus and insufficiently active against Cooperia; nitroxynil, effective against Haemonchus and insufficiently active against Cooperia. It was concluded from the results that herd nematodes are resistant to doramectin, fenbendazole, and nitroxynil, and that the combined use of the drugs not only fails to significantly improve the anthelmintic efficiency against Haemonchus and Cooperia, but is also cost-ineffective.


Resumo Eficiências da doramectina, fenbendazole e nitroxynil, utilizados individualmente ou associadamente, foram determinadas através do Teste de Redução na Contagem de Ovos nas Fezes (RCOF) e cultivo de larvas. Os grupos experimentais foram os seguintes: G1 (ovinos tratados com doramectina), G2 (fenbendazole), G3 (nitroxynil), G4 (doramectina + fenbendazole), G5 (doramectina + nitroxynil), G6 (fenbendazole + nitroxynil), G7 (doramectina + fenbendazole + nitroxynil) e G8, não tratados. Os helmintos foram considerados resistentes a doramectina e ao fenbendazole isoladamente e às associações doramectina + fenbendazole, fenbendazole + nitroxynil, e doramectina + fenbendazole + nitroxynil, com taxas de RCOF variando de 62-83%. Helmintos foram considerados suspeitos de resistência ao nitroxynil e apresentaram baixa resistência, quando esta droga foi associada à doramectina. Dos tratamentos isolados, o fenbendazole demonstrou total eficácia (100%) contra Cooperia. Doramectina (G1) foi moderadamente efetiva contra Haemonchus e insuficientemente ativa contra Cooperia, e o nitroxynil efetivo contra Haemonchus (93,2%) e insuficientemente ativo contra Cooperia (0%). Concluiu-se neste estudo que os nematódeos do rebanho são resistentes à doramectina, fenbendazole e nitroxynil, e que, ainda que associadas, não devem ser utilizadas no rebanho por não melhorarem a eficiência anti-helmíntica nem a efetividade contra Haemonchus e Cooperia e por não apresentarem custo-benefício justificado.


Subject(s)
Animals , Sheep Diseases/drug therapy , Ivermectin/analogs & derivatives , Fenbendazole/therapeutic use , Anthelmintics/therapeutic use , Nitroxinil/therapeutic use , Parasite Egg Count , Sheep Diseases/parasitology , Ivermectin/therapeutic use , Sheep
12.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 33(3): 346-351, jun. 2016. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-791030

ABSTRACT

La toxocarosis humana es una parasitosis larvaria crónica catalogada dentro de las cinco enfermedades subestimadas más importantes por los CDC. Las larvas pueden diseminarse por vía sistémica y migrar a distintos tejidos (larva migrans visceral) incluyendo el hígado y vesícula biliar. La colecistitis aguda acalculosa (CAA) es una enfermedad rara en niños. El diagnóstico se basa en parámetros clínicos y criterios imagenológicos. Se ha asociado a sepsis, shock, trauma, quemaduras, enfermedades sistémicas graves, anomalías congénitas e infecciones, como también en niños sanos. Presentamos el caso de una toxocarosis infantil con síntomas clínicos y criterios imagenológicos compatibles con una CAA tratado médicamente, y discutir la relación entre ambos cuadros en base a la evidencia publicada.


Human toxocarosis is a chronic larval parasitosis listed as one of the five most important neglected diseases by the CDC. The larvae can spread systemically and migrate to different tissues including liver and gallbladder. Acalculous acute cholecystitis (AAC) is a rare disease in children. The diagnosis is based on clinical parameters and imaging criteria. It has been reported in relation to sepsis, shock, trauma, burns, severe systemic diseases, congenital anomalies, infections and also in healthy children. We report a pediatric case of toxocarosis, with clinical symptoms and imaging criteria compatible with AAC treated medically, and discuss the relationship between toxocarosis and AAC based on published evidence.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Child , Larva Migrans, Visceral/complications , Acalculous Cholecystitis/diagnosis , Acalculous Cholecystitis/parasitology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Albendazole/therapeutic use , Acute Disease , Anthelmintics/therapeutic use
13.
Rev. bras. reumatol ; 56(2): 185-187, Mar.-Apr. 2016.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-780955

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Human toxocariasis is a parasitic zoonosis mainly caused by Toxocara canis or Toxocara catiand is acquired by ingestion of the parasite’s embryonated eggs. Arthralgia and/or arthri-tis were reported in up to 17% of the cases, generally with acute duration (less than 6weeks). However, to our knowledge, chronic polyarthritis, as the isolated presentation ofToxocara infection, was not reported. One of the 5809 patients that was followed up at ourservice (0.017%) had chronic polyarthritis as the single manifestation of toxocariasis and wasdescribed herein. A 3-year-old girl was referred to our service with severe painful chronicpolyarthritis for a period longer than 10 weeks and morning stiffness of 30 min. Dog contactexposure history in the recreational areas of neighborhood was reported. Her exams showedhigh levels of eosinophils in peripheral blood (29%), bone marrow aspirate revealed markedeosinophilia (32%) and Toxocara enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (Elisa) was positive(1:1280). She was treated with paracetamol (40 mg/kg/day) and thiabendazole (25 mg/kg/day)for 10 days, and all manifestations reduced. After eight months of follow-up, she was onclinical and laboratorial remission. In conclusion, we described a case of chronic polyarthri-tis, as isolated manifestation of toxocariasis, mimicking juvenile idiopathic arthritis andleukemia. Importantly, this zoonosis should be considered in patients with arthritis andeosinophilia.


RESUMO A toxocaríase é uma zoonose parasitária causada principalmente pelo Toxocara canis ou peloT. cati. É adquirida pela ingestão de ovos embrionados do parasita. A artralgia e/ou artriteforam relatadas em até 17% dos casos, geralmente com duração aguda (menos de seis sema-nas). No entanto, que se tem conhecimento, a poliartrite crônica como manifestação isoladada infecção por Toxocara ainda não foi descrita na literatura. Um dos 5.809 pacientes acom-panhados em nosso serviço (0,017%) exibiu poliartrite crônica como manifestação únicada toxocaríase e foi descrito neste estudo. Uma menina de três anos foi encaminhada aonosso serviço com poliartrite crônica dolorosa grave por um período superior a 10 semanase rigidez matinal diária de 30 minutos. Foi relatada história de exposição a contato comcão nas áreas de lazer do bairro. Seus exames revelaram níveis elevados de eosinófilos nosangue periférico (29%), o aspirado de medula óssea revelou eosinofilia acentuada (32%)e o ensaio imunoenzimático ligado a enzima (ELISA) para Toxocara foi positivo (1:1.280). Acriança foi tratada com paracetamol (40 mg/kg/dia) e tiabendazol (25 mg/kg/dia) durante10 dias e houve regressão de todas as manifestações. Depois de oito meses de seguimento,a pequena paciente estava em remissão clínica e laboratorial. Em conclusão, descreve-seum caso de poliartrite crônica como manifestação isolada da toxocaríase, que mimetizouuma artrite idiopática juvenil e leucemia. É importante ressaltar que essa zoonose deve serconsiderada em pacientes com artrite e eosinofilia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Female , Arthritis/parasitology , Toxocara/isolation & purification , Toxocariasis/diagnosis , Anthelmintics/therapeutic use , Arthritis/drug therapy , Toxocariasis/drug therapy , Toxocariasis/transmission , Zoonoses , Child, Preschool
14.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 25(1): 3-17, Jan.-Mar. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-777531

ABSTRACT

Abstract Frequent and inappropriate use of all classes of antiparasitic drugs in small ruminants has led to failures in their effectiveness, culminating in a global problem of anthelmintic resistance. Brazil stands out as one of the world’s leaders in publications about anthelmintic resistance, and for having the most numerous reports of this resistance in small ruminants in the Americas. These studies have involved mainly the fecal egg count reduction test (FECRT) and its correlation with field management practices. In vivoeffectiveness testing is conducted in areas where livestock is of greater economic significance, e.g., in the South (sheep) and Northeast (goats), or is important for research and economic centers, such as the Southeast (sheep). The most widely studied species is sheep, for which the widest range of drugs is also evaluated. Despite significant advances achieved in molecular research, laboratory analyses should include knowledge about the reality in the field so that they can become feasible for the producer. Moreover, molecular studies can be underpinned by the analysis of field studies, such as the maintenance of antiparasitic effectiveness over time and the mechanisms involved in this process.


Resumo O uso frequente e inapropriado de todas as classes de antiparasitários em pequenos ruminantes levou a falhas de eficácia, culminando na problemática global de resistência anti-helmíntica. O Brasil destaca-se como sendo um dos pioneiros nas publicações com resistência anti-helmíntica no mundo e por ter o maior número de relatos em pequenos ruminantes na América. Essas pesquisas envolvem principalmente o teste da redução da contagem de ovos nas fezes (TRCOF) e sua correlação com as práticas de manejo utilizadas no campo. Os estudos de testes de eficácia in vivo localizam-se em áreas onde há maior importância dos rebanhos como nas Regiões Sul (ovinos) e Nordeste (caprinos), ou com importância em polos de pesquisa e econômicos, como a região Sudeste (ovinos). Ovina é a espécie mais estudada e com maior gama de drogas avaliadas. Mesmo com grande avanço em pesquisas moleculares, as análises laboratoriais devem envolver o conhecimento da realidade do campo para que possam se tornar viáveis ao produtor. Além disso, a análise dos estudos de campo pode nortear estudos moleculares como, por exemplo, a manutenção da eficácia das drogas ao longo dos anos e os mecanismos envolvidos em tal processo.


Subject(s)
Animals , Sheep Diseases/drug therapy , Drug Resistance , Goat Diseases/drug therapy , Anthelmintics/therapeutic use , Nematoda/drug effects , Nematode Infections/veterinary , Parasite Egg Count/veterinary , Sheep Diseases/parasitology , Ruminants , Brazil , Goats , Sheep , Goat Diseases/parasitology , Nematode Infections/drug therapy
15.
An. bras. dermatol ; 91(1): 109-110, Jan.-Feb. 2016. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-776431

ABSTRACT

Abstract Cutaneous schistosomiasis is a rare clinical manifestation of schistosomiasis, an infectious and parasitic disease, caused in Brazil by the trematode Schistosoma mansoni. The lesions are due to the deposition of eggs or, rarely, adult worms, usually involving the genital and groin areas. Extra-genital lesions occur mainly on the torso as papules of zosteriform appearance. The case of a patient with ectopic cutaneous schistosomiasis is reported in this article, due to the rarity of its occurrence and its difficult clinical diagnosis.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Schistosomiasis mansoni/pathology , Skin Diseases, Parasitic/pathology , Abdominal Wall , Anthelmintics/therapeutic use , Praziquantel/therapeutic use , Schistosomiasis mansoni/etiology , Skin Diseases, Parasitic/etiology , Treatment Outcome
18.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 35(7): 643-648, jul. 2015. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-766197

ABSTRACT

A utilização de anti-helmínticos por longos períodos como principal medida de controle das parasitoses gastrintestinais de ruminantes levou a ineficácia aos levamisol, benzimidazóis e avermectinas. Este estudo descreve a atividade anti-helmíntica in vivo em populações naturais de nematoides trichostrongilídeos de caprinos. Foram selecionados 18 rebanhos provenientes dos biomas Caatinga (n=12) e Mata Atlântica (n=6), do Estado da Bahia, Brasil, criados em pastagens comunais em região semiárida. Grupos de oito a 10 animais foram tratados com albendazol (ABZ), ivermectina (IVM), levamisol (LEV), moxidectina (MOX) e closantel (CLOS). Os resultados do Teste de Redução da Contagem de Ovos nas Fezes indicaram resistência simultânea dos gêneros Haemonchus sp. e Trichostrongylus spp. para o ABZ, IVM, LEV, MOX e CLOS. As percentagens de eficácia variaram de 0-92%, 0-75%, 0-91%, 69-97% e 0-85% para o ABZ, IVM, LEV, MXD e CLOS, respectivamente, no bioma Caatinga e 0-59% para o ABZ e 9-59% para o IVM no bioma Mata Atlântica. Verificou-se nos rebanhos eficácia inferior a 95% para estes anti-helmínticos, com exceção de um único rebanho no qual a eficácia para MOX foi de 97%, o que sugere a presença de NGIs resistentes aos principais classes de anti-helmínticos em rebanhos caprinos destes biomas...


The use of anthelmintic drugs for long periods as the main measure control of gastrointestinal nematodes (GINs) has led to the inefficacy of levamisole, benzimidazoles and macrocyclic lactones. This study describes the in vivo anthelmintic activity against natural trichostrongyle nematodes populations in goats. We selected 18 herds from the Caatinga (n=12) and Mata Atlântica (n=6) biomes, Bahia State, Brazil, raised in communal pastures in semiarid region. Groups of 8 to 10 goats were treated with albendazole (ABZ), ivermectin (IVM), levamisole (LEV), moxidectin (MOX), and closantel (CLOS). The results of the Fecal Egg Count Reduction Test indicated simultaneous resistance of Haemonchus sp. and Trichostrongylus spp. genera against albendazole (ABZ), ivermectin (IVM), levamisole (LEV), moxidectin (MOX), and closantel (CLOS). The efficacy percentages ranged from 0 to 92%, 0 to 75%, 0 to 91%, 69 to 97%, and 0 to 85% for ABZ, IVM, LEV, MXD and CLOS respectively in the Caatinga bioma, and 0 to 59% for ABZ and 9 to 59% for IVM in the Mata Atlântica biome. Most herds showed efficacy lower than 95% for anthelmintics, with the exception of one herd in which the efficacy for MOX was 97%. The results indicated the presence of GINs resistant to main anthelmintics classes in goat herds in these biomes...


Subject(s)
Animals , Anthelmintics/pharmacology , Anthelmintics/therapeutic use , Drug Resistance , Ruminants , Parasite Egg Count/veterinary , Haemonchus/parasitology , Trichostrongylus/parasitology
20.
Med. infant ; 22(2): 98-105, Junio 2015. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-905915

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Analizar la epidemiología, los métodos diagnósticos y los abordajes terapéuticos de la toxocariasis ocular en el Hospital de Pediatría Juan P. Garrahan. Materiales y métodos: Se realizó un estudio observacional y descriptivo en el Servicio de Oftalmología del Hospital de Pediatría J. P. Garrahan analizándose en forma retrospectiva los pacientes con ELISA positivo para IgG anti-Toxocara canis vistos en el laboratorio de Parasitología y evaluados en el servicio de Oftalmología entre enero 2006 a junio de 2013. Resultados: Se incluyeron en el estudio 301 pacientes de los cuales 95 (31,5%), presentaron diagnóstico de toxocariasis ocular (59 niños y 36 niñas) y 206 no tuvieron afección oftálmica por Toxocara canis. El 100% de los pacientes con afección ocular por el parásito presentó algún grado de alteración de la visión. Las formas de toxocariasis ocular que se registraron son: granuloma periférico aislado en 12 pacientes (12,6%), granuloma periférico con pliegue unido a papila en 36 (37,9%), granuloma de polo posterior en 7 (7,4%), endoftalmitis crónica en 3 (3,2%), neurorretinitis subaguda unilateral difusa en 2 (2,1%), desprendimiento de retina en 23 (24,2%) y en 12 (12,6%) forma indeterminada. Conclusiones: El diagnóstico de la toxocariasis ocular en la infancia tiende a hacerse en forma tardía ya que los niños pequeños no suelen manifestar a los padres la disminución visual de un ojo siendo el motivo de consulta más frecuente el estrabismo. El diagnóstico es clínico. La forma oftalmoscópica de presentación más frecuente en nuestro estudio fue el granuloma periférico con pliegue falciforme unido a papila. Oftalmoscopicamente la toxocariasis ocular puede presentarse de formas sumamente disímiles, lo cual hace dificultoso su diagnóstico y obliga a pensar siempre en éste en un niño que presenta inflamación intraocular unilateral. El uso de antiparasitarios en nuestros pacientes fue irregular (AU)


Objective: To assess the epidemiology, diagnostic methods, and treatment approach in ocular toxocariasis at the Pediatric Hospital Juan P. Garrahan. Material and methods: An observational descriptive study was conducted at the Department of Ophthalmology of the Pediatric Hospital Juan P. Garrahan. Patients with a positive ELISA for anti-Toxocara canis IgG seen at the laboratory of parasitology and evaluated at the Department of Ophthalmology between January 2006 and June 2013 were retrospectively analyzed. Results: 301 patients were included in the study of whom 95 (31.5%) had a diagnosis of ocular toxocariasis (59 boys and 36 girls) and in 206 the eyes were not affected by toxocariasis. All patients with ocular toxocariasis had some degree of visual impairment. The forms of ocular toxocariasis found were: isolated peripheral granuloma in 12 patients (12.6%), peripheral granuloma with the fold united to the papilla in 36 (37.9%), posterior pole granuloma in 7 (7.4%), chronic endophthalmitis 3 (3.2%), diffuse unilateral subacute neuroretinitis 2 (2.1%), retinal detachment in 23 (24.2%), and an indeterminate form in 12 (12.6%). Conclusions: The diagnosis of ocular toxocariasis in childhood is often late as children are not able to report vision loss to their parents. Strabism is the most common reason for consult. The diagnosis is clinical. The most frequent ophthalmoscopic presentation was peripheral granuloma with a falciform fold attached to the papilla. Ophthalmoscopically, ocular toxocariasis may present heterogeneously, resulting in a difficult diagnosis. The disease should always be suspected in a child with unilateral intraocular inflammation. The use of antiparasitic agents was variable in our patients (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Anthelmintics/therapeutic use , Endophthalmitis/diagnosis , Eye Infections, Parasitic/diagnosis , Eye Infections, Parasitic/drug therapy , Eye Infections, Parasitic/epidemiology , Granuloma/epidemiology , Toxocara/pathogenicity , Toxocariasis/diagnosis , Toxocariasis/epidemiology , Toxocariasis/therapy , Observational Study , Retrospective Studies , Steroids/therapeutic use
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