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1.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 274-279, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971136

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To analyze the distribution and drug resistance of pathogens in oral mucositis associated with chemotherapy in hospitalized patients with malignant hematopathy, so as to provide scientific evidences for rational selection of antibiotics and infection prevention and control.@*METHODS@#From July 2020 to June 2022, 167 patients with malignant hematopathy were treated with chemical drugs in the Department of Hematology, Hainan Hospital, and secretions from oral mucosal infected wounds were collected. VITEK2 COMPECT automatic microbial identification system (BioMerieux, France) and bacterial susceptibility card (BioMerieux) were used for bacterial identification and drug susceptibility tests.@*RESULTS@#A total of 352 strains of pathogens were isolated from 167 patients, among which 220 strains of Gram-positive bacteria, 118 strains of Gram-negative bacteria and 14 strains of fungi, accounted for 62.50%, 33.52% and 3.98%, respectively. The Gram-positive bacteria was mainly Staphylococcus and Streptococcus, while Gram-negative bacteria was mainly Klebsiella and Proteus. The resistance of main Gram-positive bacteria to vancomycin, ciprofloxacin and gentamicin was low, and the resistance to penicillin, cefuroxime, ampicillin, cefotaxime, erythromycin and levofloxacin was high. The main Gram-negative bacteria had low resistance to gentamicin, imipenem and penicillin, but high resistance to levofloxacin, cefotaxime, cefuroxime, ampicillin and vancomycin. The clinical data of oral mucositis patients with oral ulcer (severe) and without oral ulcer (mild) were compared, and it was found that there were statistically significant differences in poor oral hygiene, diabetes, sleep duration less than 8 hours per night between two groups (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#Gram-positive bacteria is the main pathogen of oral mucositis in patients with malignant hematopathy after chemotherapy. It is sensitive to glycopeptide antibiotics and aminoglycosides antibiotics. Poor oral hygiene, diabetes and sleep duration less than 8 hours per night are risk factors for oral mucositis with oral ulcer (severe).


Subject(s)
Humans , Vancomycin/therapeutic use , Cefuroxime , Levofloxacin , Oral Ulcer/drug therapy , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Anti-Bacterial Agents/adverse effects , Ampicillin , Penicillins , Cefotaxime , Gram-Positive Bacteria , Gram-Negative Bacteria , Gentamicins , Stomatitis/drug therapy
2.
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1529127

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To green synthesise gold nanoparticles using curcumin and to analyse its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial activity among oral pathogens. Material and Methods: Biosynthesised Curcumin Gold nanoparticles (CuAuNP) were evaluated by UV-visible spectrophotometer (UV-Vis), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), and evaluation of antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antibacterial activity against oral pathogens. Results: Synthesized CuAuNP were characterized using UV-visible spectrophotometry and showed peak absorption at 530nm. CuAuNp showed a 90.3% maximum scavenging ability of DPPH at a concentration of 50 μg/mL. CuAuNP exhibited 79.6 % of the highest anti-inflammatory activity at 50μg/mL than the standard drug diclofenac. TEM image clearly showed uniformly dispersed spherical-shaped gold nanoparticles with a size of about 20 nm. The biosynthesized nanoparticle was tested for its antimicrobial effect, and it showed a potent effect against S. aureus, E. faecalis, and C. albicans at 100µg/ mL. Enterococcus faecalis has a maximum zone of inhibition of 14 mm at 100µg/ mL of CuAuNp. Among gram-positive bacteria, a maximum zone of inhibition of 12 mm at 100µg/ mL was seen in S. aureus compared to S mutans. Candida albicans showed a maximum zone of inhibition of 18 mm at 25 μg/mL of CuAuNp. Conclusion: Curcumin-mediated gold nanoparticles with 20 nm size were effective and had strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity at 50µg/ mL, antimicrobial action inhibiting microbes at 100µg/mL concentration that can be used in treating various Oral mucosal lesions.


Subject(s)
Curcumin/adverse effects , Metal Nanoparticles/adverse effects , Anti-Infective Agents/adverse effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/adverse effects , Ascorbic Acid , Spectrophotometry , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission/instrumentation , Gram-Positive Bacteria , Antioxidants/adverse effects
5.
Evid. actual. práct. ambul ; 25(3): e002144, 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UNISALUD, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1398442

ABSTRACT

Lograr un adecuado nivel de anticoagulación con antagonistas orales de la vitamina K suele ser un desafío frecuente en la práctica clínica, dado que su estrecho rango terapéutico suele verse afectado por diversas interacciones farmacológicas,alimentos y condiciones clínicas. A partir de un caso de un paciente anticoagulado que presenta una hemorragia gastro-intestinal posterior a realizar un tratamiento antibiótico, la autora de este artículo revisó la evidencia sobre el riesgo desangrado secundario a la interacción entre este tipo de anticoagulantes y antibióticos orales. Su conclusión tras realizar una búsqueda bibliográfica y seleccionar la mejor evidencia disponible, es que existe un aumento del riesgo relativo desangrado en pacientes anticoagulados que reciben antibióticos, por lo que deberían evitarse aquellos antibióticos con conocido potencial de interacción. Si ello no fuera posible, se recomienda monitorizar el estado de anticoagulación con dosaje de la razón internacional normatizada (RIN) posterior a la introducción del antibiótico. (AU)


Achieving an adequate level of anticoagulation with oral vitamin K antagonists is often a frequent challenge in clinical practice, given that their narrow therapeutic range is often affected by various drug interactions, food, and clinical conditions. Based on a case of an anticoagulated patient who presented gastrointestinal bleeding after antibiotic treatment, the authorof this article reviewed the evidence on the risk of secondary bleeding due to the interaction between this type of anticoagulants and oral antibiotics. Their conclusion, after performing a literature search and selecting the best available evidence, is that there is an increased relative risk of bleeding in anticoagulated patients receiving antibiotics, so antibiotics with known potential for interaction should be avoided. If it weren't possible, it is recommended to monitor the anticoagulation status with International Normalized Ratio (INR) dosing after the introduction of the antibiotic. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Vitamin K/antagonists & inhibitors , Warfarin/adverse effects , Hemorrhage/chemically induced , Acenocoumarol/adverse effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/adverse effects , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , Warfarin/pharmacology , Warfarin/pharmacokinetics , Risk Factors , Risk Assessment , International Normalized Ratio , Drug Interactions , Acenocoumarol/pharmacology , Acenocoumarol/pharmacokinetics , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anticoagulants/pharmacology , Anticoagulants/pharmacokinetics
6.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1316-1326, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928058

ABSTRACT

This study was aimed to explore the effect of Zingiberis Rhizoma extract on rats with antibiotic-associated diarrhea(AAD), and reveal the modulation of gut microbiota during alleviation of AAD. AAD rat model was successfully established by exposing rats to appropriate antibiotic mixed solution. Peficon(70 mg·kg~(-1)·d~(-1)) was used as positive control, then rats were treated with 200 mg·kg~(-1)·d~(-1) and 400 mg·kg~(-1)·d~(-1) of Zingiberis Rhizoma extract for low and high dosage groups of Zingiberis Rhizoma extract, respectively. The weight changes of the rats were observed, and the degree of diarrhea were evaluated by fecal score, 120 min fecal weight and fecal water content. Colon tissues for histopathological examination were stained with hematoxylin and eosin(HE), and 16 S rRNA sequencing analysis of gut microbiota was performed. The results showed that compared with the model group, the degree of diarrhea, indicated by fecal water content, fecal score, and 120 min fecal weight of positive control group, Zingiberis Rhizoma low-dose group and Zingiberis Rhizoma high-dose group were significantly ameliorated. And the treatment of Zingiberis Rhizoma could significantly improve the pathological condition of colon tissue in AAD rats, especially the high dose of Zingiberis Rhizoma. In addition, 16 S rRNA sequencing analysis of gut microbiota showed that the diversity and abundance of gut microbiota were significantly improved and the reco-very of gut microbiota was accelerated after given high-dose of Zingiberis Rhizoma, while no significant changes of alterations were observed after given Pefikon. Of note, compared with the pefikon group, the abundance and diversity of gut microbiota in Zingi-beris Rhizoma high-dose group were significantly elevated. At the phylum level, the abundance of Firmicutes in AAD rats increased and the abundance of Proteobacteria was decreased after the Zingiberis Rhizoma intervention. At the genus level, the abundance of Bacillus spp., Lachnoclostridium and Escherichia coli-Shigella were decreased, and the abundance of Lactobacillus spp., Trichophyton spp., and Trichophyton spp., etc., were increased. While compared with the AAD model group, there was no significant difference of gut microbiota after given Peficon. The results showed that Zingiberis Rhizoma exerted beneficial health effects against AAD, and positively affected the microbial environment in the gut of rats with AAD.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Anti-Bacterial Agents/adverse effects , Diarrhea/drug therapy , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Ginger , Plant Extracts , Rhizome
7.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e20075, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1403710

ABSTRACT

Abatsract Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an important nosocomial pathogen and its clinical importance is mainly related to nosocomial infections. Increased rates of bacterial resistance in recent years has led WHO to publish a global priority list to guide research and discovery of new antibiotics, where P. aeruginosa is among the group of bacteria for which there is a critical level of priority for new drugs to be discovered. In this context, isoeugenol appears as an interesting alternative and the objective of this study was to investigate its action against P. aeruginosa. Isoeugenol presented significant antibacterial activity, with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 64µg/mL and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of 128µg/mL, and was considered bactericidal against this species. Molecular docking revealed interactions that suggest that isoeugenol may bind to the enzyme Penicillin-Binding Protein 3 and interfere with the bacterial cell wall synthesis process. This study reinforces the antibacterial potential of this compound and emphasizes that more studies are needed in order to better investigate its mechanism of antibacterial action.


Subject(s)
Pseudomonas aeruginosa/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/adverse effects , Bacteria/classification , World Health Organization , Microbial Sensitivity Tests/instrumentation , Penicillin-Binding Proteins/agonists , Reference Drugs , Molecular Docking Simulation/methods
8.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 38(4): 488-494, ago. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388282

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: La neutropenia febril en niños con patología oncohematològica requiere un tratamiento empírico precoz y adecuado. Esta revisión sistemática se realizó para evaluar si piperacilina/tazobactam (PTZ) monoterapia es más efectiva y segura que los comparadores, en niños con episodios de neutropenia febril de causa oncológica. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se realizó una búsqueda bibliográfica en Embase, MEDLINE utilizando los términos de búsqueda (('febrile neutropenia' OR hemato oncology OR haemato oncology OR 'immunocompromised host' OR 'immunocompromised patient' OR 'chemotherapy-induced febrile neutropenia') AND (piperacillin OR tazobactam OR 'piperacillin plus tazobactam' OR 'piperacillin/tazobactam' OR 'piperacillin-tazobactam' OR tazocin OR 'piperacillin-tazobactam drug combination')). El criterio de valoración de eficacia fue la incidencia de fracaso terapéutico. El punto final de seguridad fue la ausencia de cualquier efecto adverso (EA). RESULTADOS: Se identificaron 1.388 estudios, de los cuales se incluyeron 11 que cumplían los criterios de elegibilidad. Los estudios presentaron notable homogeneidad ( I 2 0%) y no se detectó sesgo de publicación (p 0,36). El riesgo de fracaso terapéutico de PTZ no fue mayor que en los comparadores (RR global: 0,94; IC95% 0,83 a 1,07) como tampoco lo fue, la incidencia de EA. CONCLUSIONES: El riesgo de fracaso terapéutico no fue superior para la PTZ como monoterapia frente a los comparadores


BACKGROUND: Febrile neutropenia in children with onco-hematological diseases is an important cause of morbidity and mortality and requires early and adequate empirical treatment. This systematic review was conducted to evaluate if piperacillin/ tazobactan (PTZ) monotherapy leads to a lower incidence of therapeutic failures than comparators. METHODS: A literature search was carried out in Embase, and MEDLINE databases using the search terms ('febrile neutropenia' OR hemato oncology OR haemato oncology OR 'immunocompromised host' OR 'immunocompromised patient' OR 'chemotherapy-induced febrile neutropenia') AND (piperacillin OR tazobactam OR 'piperacillin plus tazobactam' OR 'piperacillin/tazobactam' OR 'piperacillin-tazobactam' OR tazocin OR 'piperacillin-tazobactam drug combination')), Efficacy endpoint was treatment failure rate. The safety end-point was absence of any adverse effects (AE). RESULTS: Eleven studies were included. No heterogeneity was detected ( I 2 0%). The risk of failure was not superior for piperacillin/tazobactan to comparators (Global RR: 0.94; IC95% 0.83 a 1.07). Rates of adverse events were similar among studies. No publication bias was detected (p 0.36). CONCLUSIONS: This systematic review and meta-analysis showed that treating episodes of febrile neutropenia in oncology pediatric patients, the risk of failure for PTZ was not superior to comparators. Adverse events were similar to the comparators.


Subject(s)
Humans , Neoplasms/complications , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Neutropenia/drug therapy , Piperacillin/adverse effects , Immunocompromised Host , Penicillanic Acid/adverse effects , Drug Therapy, Combination , Anti-Bacterial Agents/adverse effects , Neutropenia/chemically induced
9.
Rev. medica electron ; 43(3): 855-867, 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1289823

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Clostridium difficile es una bacteria relacionada con la colitis, asociada a antibióticos y a la diarrea adquirida en pacientes hospitalizados. Sin embargo, su comportamiento ha cambiado en los últimos años, hasta el punto de ser considerada un problema de salud mundial. Su curso clínico varía desde casos asintomáticos, colitis, hasta complicaciones que ponen en peligro la vida del paciente. Dentro de los factores de riesgo descritos se encuentra la enfermedad inflamatoria intestinal, especialmente la colitis ulcerativa idiopática. El caso reportado versa sobre la presentación de esta infección asociada a un brote de colitis ulcerativa en un paciente joven, sin antecedentes de enfermedad inflamatoria intestinal, consumo de antibióticos ni hospitalización (AU).


ABSTRACT Clostridium difficile is a bacterium related to antibiotic-associated colitis and to diarrhea acquired in hospitalized patients. However, its behavior has changed in recent years to the point of being considered as a global health problem. Its clinical course ranges from asymptomatic cases, colitis, to complications with risk for the patient's life. The inflammatory bowel disease, especially idiopathic ulcerative colitis is found among the described risk factors. The case reported deals with the presentation of this infection associated to an outbreak of ulcerative colitis in a young patient, with no previous history of inflammatory bowel disease, consumption of antibiotics or hospitalization (AU).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Colitis, Ulcerative/diagnosis , Clostridioides difficile/virology , Diarrhea/complications , Infections/complications , Infections/transmission , Inpatients , Anti-Bacterial Agents/adverse effects
10.
Dermatol. argent ; 27(2): 75-77, abr-jun 2021. il
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1367369

ABSTRACT

La ulceración esofágica por ingestión de doxiciclina es una de las causas más frecuentes de lesión esofágica. Ha sido subdiagnosticada y escasamente reconocida en dermatología. El dolor retroesternal, la odinofagia de aparición brusca y el antecedente de ingesta de doxiciclina u otros fármacos son características que facilitan su diagnóstico. Puede presentar complicaciones serias, como hemorragias, estenosis y mediastinitis.


Esophageal ulceration due to ingestion of doxycycline is one of the most frequent causes of esophageal injury. It has been underdiagnosed and scarcely recognized in dermatology. Retrosternal pain, sudden odynophagia and a history of doxycycline or other drugs intake are some of the characteristics that lead to diagnosis. It may cause severe complications such as bleeding, stenosis and mediastinitis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Ulcer/chemically induced , Doxycycline/adverse effects , Esophageal Diseases/chemically induced , Anti-Bacterial Agents/adverse effects , Ulcer/diagnosis , Ulcer/drug therapy , Omeprazole/administration & dosage , Esophageal Diseases/diagnosis , Esophageal Diseases/drug therapy , Capsule Endoscopy , Anti-Ulcer Agents/administration & dosage
11.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 25(1): 79-85, jan-abr. 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1151426

ABSTRACT

Introdução: O diagnóstico da hanseníase possui números significativos que causam preocupação à saúde pública. Os casos de resistência medicamentosa nessa doença se iniciaram em meados dos anos 60 e diante do problema, a Organização Mundial da Saúde instituiu em 1981 a poliquimioterapia, associação dos antibióticos rifampicina, dapsona e clofazimina, tratamento atual de escolha. A resistência aos fármacos na hanseníase é reportada pela literatura, desvelando um obstáculo à sua eliminação. Apresentamos nessa revisão os principais aspectos da resistência medicamentosa no tratamento para hanseníase e seus impactos. Metodologia: Revisão sistemática sobre os aspectos da resistência medicamentosa utilizando a pesquisa exploratória como metodologia de abordagem. Foram pesquisados os termos resistência medicamentosa, hanseníase, recidiva, alterações genéticas e os operadores booleanos "and" e "or" na busca. Resultados e discussão: A dificuldade de tomar a medicação corretamente foi um dos principais fatores que acarretaram resistência do bacilo Mycobacterium leprae aos fármacos. Homens de países norte e sul-americanos e asiáticos foram os mais atingidos por episódios de resistência. A resistência medicamentosa é uma das principais causas de recidivas em hanseníase. O principal fármaco causador de resistência medicamentosa descrito nos trabalhos foi a dapsona (46,6%) e a maioria das alterações genéticas encontradas estão no gene rpoB; 23,2% dos registros relatados foram de resistência secundária aos fármacos e, também, sete casos de resistência múltipla a esses medicamentos. Conclusão: Os principais aspectos da resistência medicamentosa na hanseníase são os equívocos ao ingerir os medicamentos e as alterações genéticas na bactéria. Os impactos causados estão na dificuldade de refazer o tratamento, a possibilidade de nova transmissão e o aparecimento de sintomas mais graves.


Introduction: The diagnosis of leprosy has significant numbers causing public health concern. Reports of drug resistance in this disease begun in the mid-1960s and due to this problem, the World Health Organization instituted a multidrug therapy with rifampicin, dapsone, and clofazimine antibiotic association in 1981, which is currently the first-choice treatment for leprosy. Cases of drug resistance have been reported in literature, revealing an obstacle to the eradication of the disease. This paper has the purpose of presenting the key aspects and impacts of drug resistance in the treatment for leprosy. Methods: Systematic review of the drug resistance aspects using exploratory research as an approach methodology. The authors searched the terms drug resistance, leprosy, recurrence, genetic alterations, and the Boolean operators "and" and "or" between them. Results and discussion: The difficulty in taking the medication correctly was one of the key factors that led to drug resistance for Mycobacterium leprae. Men from North and South American, as well as from Asian countries, were the most affected by episodes of resistance. Drug resistance is one of the main causes of leprosy recurrences. Dapsone was the most frequently identified drug resistance in the studies (46.6%), while most of the genetic alterations were found in the rpoB gene; 23.2% of the cases were from secondary resistance episodes, and seven cases of multiple resistance were reported. Conclusion: The misconceptions when taking the treatment and the Mycobacterium leprae genetic alterations have been described as the key aspects of drugs resistance in leprosy and the impacts caused are the difficulty in redoing the treatment, the possibility of new transmission, and the appearance of more severe symptoms.


Subject(s)
Drug Resistance/drug effects , Drug Resistance, Bacterial/drug effects , Mycobacterium leprae/drug effects , Rifampin/adverse effects , Bacteria/genetics , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Clofazimine/adverse effects , Fluoroquinolones/adverse effects , Dapsone/adverse effects , Drug Therapy, Combination/adverse effects , Leprosy/drug therapy , Anti-Bacterial Agents/adverse effects
12.
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 764-769, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922144

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Lung cancer (LC) is the leading cause of cancer death. Patients treated with chemotherapy are at risk of developing chemotherapy-induced febrile neutropenia (FN), a potentially life-threatening complication. The aims of this study were (1) to characterize FN admissions of patients with LC in a pulmonology department, and (2) to determine associations between patient profiles, first-line antibiotic failure (FLAF) and mortality.@*METHODS@#Retrospective observational case-series, based on the analysis of medical records of LC patients that required hospitalization due to chemotherapy-induced FN.@*RESULTS@#A total of 42 cases of FN were revised, corresponding to 36 patients, of which 86.1% were male, with a mean age of 66.71±9.83 years. Most patients had a performance status (PS) equal or less than 1, and metastatic disease was present in 40.5% (n=17). Respiratory tract infections accounted for 42.9% (n=18) of FN cases, and multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus was the most isolated agent. The mortality rate was 16.7% (n=7), and the FLAF was 26.2% (n=11). Mortality was associated with a PS≥2 (P=0.011), infection by a Gram-negative agent (P=0.001) and severe anemia (P=0.048). FLAF was associated with longer hospitalizations (P=0.020), PS≥2 (P=0.049), respiratory infections (P=0.024), and infection by a Gram-negative (P=0.003) or multidrug-resistant agent (P=0.014).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Lower PS, severe anemia, and infections by Gram-negative or multi-resistant agents seem to be associated with worse outcomes in FN patients.


Subject(s)
Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Anti-Bacterial Agents/adverse effects , Hospitalization , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Retrospective Studies
13.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 19: eMD5703, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249746

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Betalactams are the most frequent cause of hypersensitivity reactions to drugs mediated by a specific immune mechanism. Immediate reactions occur within 1 to 6 hours after betalactam administration, and are generally IgE-mediated. They clinically translate into urticaria, angioedema and anaphylaxis. Non-immediate or delayed reactions occur after 1 hour of administration. These are the most common reactions and are usually mediated by T cells. The most frequent type is the maculopapular or morbilliform exanthematous eruption. Most individuals who report allergies to penicillin and betalactams can tolerate this group of antibiotics. To make diagnosis, a detailed medical history is essential to verify whether it was an immediate or non-immediate reaction. Thereafter, in vivo and/or in vitro tests for investigation may be performed. The challenging test is considered the gold standard method for diagnosis of betalactam hypersensitivity. The first approach when suspecting a reaction to betalactam is to discontinue exposure to the drug, and the only specific treatment is desensitization, which has very precise indications. The misdiagnosis of penicillin allergy affects the health system, since the "penicillin allergy" label is associated with increased bacterial resistance, higher rate of therapeutic failure, prolonged hospitalizations, readmissions, and increased costs. Thus, it is essential to develop strategies to assist the prescription of antibiotics in patients identified with a label of "betalactam allergy" at hospitals, and to enhance education of patients and their caregivers, as well as of non-specialist physicians.


RESUMO Os beta-lactâmicos constituem a causa mais frequente de reações de hipersensibilidade a fármacos mediadas por mecanismo imunológico específico. As reações imediatas ocorrem em 1 até 6 horas após a administração do beta-lactâmico, sendo geralmente IgE-mediadas. Elas se traduzem clinicamente por urticária, angioedema e anafilaxia. As reações não imediatas ou tardias ocorrem após 1 hora da administração. São as reações mais comuns, sendo geralmente mediadas por células T. O tipo mais frequente é o exantema maculopapular ou morbiliforme. A maioria dos indivíduos que refere alergia aos beta-lactâmicos pode tolerar esse grupo de antibióticos. No diagnóstico, uma história clínica detalhada é fundamental para verificar se a reação foi do tipo imediato ou não imediato. A partir daí, podem ser realizados testes in vivo e/ou in vitro para investigação. O teste de provocação é considerado o método padrão-ouro no diagnóstico de hipersensibilidade aos beta-lactâmicos. A primeira conduta diante da suspeita de uma reação ao beta-lactâmico é suspender a exposição ao medicamento, e o único tratamento específico é a dessensibilização, que possui indicações bem precisas. O diagnóstico equivocado de alergia à penicilina afeta o sistema de saúde, pois o rótulo de "alergia à penicilina" está associado a aumento da resistência bacteriana, maior índice de falha terapêutica, hospitalizações prolongadas, readmissões e aumento dos custos. Assim, torna-se fundamental elaborar estratégias com o objetivo de auxiliar na prescrição de antibióticos em pacientes com rótulo de "alergia aos beta-lactâmicos" nos hospitais e melhorar a educação dos pacientes e seus responsáveis, além de médicos não especialistas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Drug Hypersensitivity/diagnosis , Drug Hypersensitivity/etiology , Anaphylaxis , Penicillins/adverse effects , beta-Lactams/adverse effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/adverse effects
14.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2021. 98 p. tab, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1390944

ABSTRACT

Os sistemas toxina-antitoxinas (TA) compreendem um conjunto de genes que são amplamente difundidos em procariotos. No cromossomo, os sistemas podem estar envolvidos na indução de morte celular em resposta a condições estressantes, indução de persistência, formação de biofilme, colonização de novos nichos, manutenção da mobilidade bacteriana e virulência de bactérias patogênicas. Em E. coli K12, 36 sistemas TA foram descritos, dos quais o do tipo II é o mais abundante e estudado. Dentre as oito toxinas pesquisadas nesse trabalho, o gene da toxina HipA está presente em 76 das 100 cepas de ExPEC estudadas. Apesar da abundância de hipA em ExPEC e em diversos genomas bacterianos, a participação dos sistemas hipA/B na indução da persistência ainda não é clara. Portanto, o sistema hipA/B de duas cepas ExPEC isoladas de infecção sanguínea foi deletado, e estas foram avaliadas quando a indução da persistência bacteriana na presença de antibióticos, formação de biofilme, resistência ao soro e sobrevivência em macrófagos. O sistema TA hipA/B não influenciou no fenótipo de resistência ao soro humano e na sobrevivência intracelular em macrófagos, no entanto, participou da indução da persistência por ciprofloxacino em um isolado (EC182); e da formação de biofilme em superfície de vidro do isolado (EC273)


Toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems comprise a set of genes that are widespread in prokaryotes. On the chromosome, the systems may be involved in the induction of cell death in response to stressful conditions, persistence induction, biofilm formation, colonization of new niches, maintenance of bacterial mobility and virulence. In E. coli K12, 36 TA systems have been described, of which type II is the most abundant. Among the eight toxins searched in this work, hipA is present in 76 bacteria of the 100 ExPEC strains studied. Despite the abundance of hipA in ExPEC and in several bacterial genomes, the participation of hipA/B modules in the persistence is still unclear. Therefore, hipA/B system of two ExPEC strains isolated from blood infection was deleted and consequently evaluated in bacterial persistence induced by antibiotics, serum resistance and macrophage survival. Despite the fact that, the TA hipA/B system did not influence the phenotype of resistance to human serum and intracellular survival in macrophages. Herein, we described that hipA/B was important for persistence induction in one isolate (EC182); and may participate in the biofilm formation on the glass surface in the other studied strain (EC273)


Subject(s)
Toxin-Antitoxin Systems , Biofilms , Extraintestinal Pathogenic Escherichia coli/classification , Anti-Bacterial Agents/adverse effects
15.
J. vasc. bras ; 20: e20210122, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1351011

ABSTRACT

Abstract Candida is a rare cause of infected aortic aneurysms. We report the case of a diabetic patient with end stage kidney disease who underwent repair of a leaking abdominal aortic aneurysm. He was on long-term antibiotic treatment for malignant otitis externa. Candida albicans was isolated from the culture of the excised aneurysm wall. An infected aortic aneurysm due to Candida has not been previously reported in a patient with malignant otitis externa. This case report aims to highlight that Candida should be suspected as a cause of infected aortic aneurysms in patients with debilitation and chronic immunosuppression. Management of such cases can be extremely challenging, especially in resource-poor settings, and we will be touching upon the advantages and disadvantages of various treatment options.


Resumo A cândida é uma causa rara de aneurismas da aorta infecciosos. Relatamos o caso de um paciente diabético com doença renal terminal, que foi submetido a reparo de aneurisma da aorta abdominal com vazamento. Ele estava em tratamento de longo prazo com antibióticos para otite externa maligna. A Candida albicans foi isolada da cultura da parede do aneurisma que sofreu a excisão. Não há relatos prévios de aneurisma da aorta infeccioso causado por cândida em pacientes com otite externa maligna. Este relato de caso visa reforçar que a cândida deve ser uma das suspeitas de causa de aneurisma da aorta infeccioso em pacientes debilitados e com imunossupressão crônica. O manejo desses casos pode ser extremamente desafiador, principalmente em contextos em que os recursos são escassos, e mencionaremos as vantagens e desvantagens das diversas opções de tratamento.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Otitis Externa/complications , Aneurysm, Infected/complications , Aortic Aneurysm, Abdominal/complications , Aneurysm, Infected/etiology , Candida albicans/pathogenicity , Aortic Aneurysm, Abdominal/therapy , Immune Tolerance/immunology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/adverse effects
16.
Rev. Asoc. Méd. Argent ; 133(3): 26-29, sept. 2020. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1425281

ABSTRACT

La diarrea clostridial es una enfermedad aguda con compromiso colónico que puede poner en riesgo la vida de un paciente. Su agente etiológico es el Clostridium difficile y se ha asociado al uso indiscriminado y por largo plazo de antibióticos de amplio espectro. Su cuadro clínico es variable, puede ir desde un cuadro de diarrea hasta la perforación colónica, que puede determinar la realización de una colectomía de urgencia o incluso provocar la muerte del enfermo. El diagnóstico de certeza se realiza mediante la detección de la toxina clostridial en materia fecal, por técnicas de inmunoensayo enzimático. La terapéutica se realiza con metronidazol o vancomicina por vía oral. El tratamiento quirúrgico está indicado ante la presencia de megacolon tóxico o perforación intestinal, y en aquellos pacientes con toxicidad sistémica con fracaso de la terapéutica médica. (AU)


Clostridial diarrhea is an acute disease with colonic involvement that can be life-threatening for a patient. Its etiologic agent is the Clostridium difficile and it has been associated with the indiscriminate and long-term use of broad-spectrum antibiotics. Its clinical picture varies from a picture of diarrhea to colonic perforation that can determine the performance of an emergency colectomy or even the death of the patient. The certainty diagnosis is carried out by detecting clostridial toxin in fecal matter by enzyme immunoassay techniques. The therapy is carried out with metronidazole or vancomycin orally. Surgical treatment is indicated in the presence of toxic mega colon, intestinal perforation or in those patients with systemic toxicity with failure of medical therapy. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Enterocolitis, Pseudomembranous/chemically induced , Clostridioides difficile/pathogenicity , Anti-Bacterial Agents/adverse effects , Enterocolitis, Pseudomembranous/diagnosis , Enterocolitis, Pseudomembranous/therapy , Diagnostic Imaging , Metronidazole/administration & dosage
17.
Rev. cuba. estomatol ; 57(3): e2945, jul.-set. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1126522

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: Los selladores endodónticos desempeñan un papel crucial en la obturación, dado que dichos materiales, no solo actúan en el momento de su aplicación, sino que continúan haciéndolo con posterioridad, protegiendo al periodonto apical contra los organismos microbianos presentes. Precisamente, una de las propiedades deseadas en los selladores endodónticos es que posean acción antimicrobiana, para eliminar las bacterias remanentes después de la irrigación e instrumentación. Objetivo: Realizar una revisión sistemática del efecto antibacteriano de diferentes selladores endodónticos más utilizados en odontología contra Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis). Métodos: Esta revisión sistemática se llevó a cabo siguiendo los lineamientos PRISMA. La búsqueda se realizó en las bases de datos PubMed y Science Direct. Se revisaron los artículos de estudios antimicrobianos in vitro de selladores endodónticos y se excluyeron aquellos de fuente secundaria, como los de revisión de la literatura, así como artículos sobre cementos para otros usos. Desarrollo: Los cementos a base de hidróxido de calcio, resina o biocerámicos son biocompatibles y presentan algún porcentaje de actividad antimicrobiana; sin embargo, se puede apreciar que existe variabilidad en los resultados obtenidos en los estudios incluidos en la revisión, debido al uso de condiciones diferentes para la evaluación antibacteriana, excepto en los selladores endodónticos a base de silicona, los cuales tuvieron, de forma consistente, un efecto antibacterial nulo contra E. faecalis. Conclusión: De acuerdo a la bibliografía revisada, los selladores AH Plus, AH 26, TotalFill, BC Sealer y MTA Fillapex exhibieron efecto antimicrobiano, sin embargo, algunos de ellos mostraron escasa actividad contra E. faecalis(AU)


ABSTRACT Introduction: Endodontic sealers play a crucial role in sealing, for they not only act at the moment of their application, but continue to do so later, protecting the apical periodontium against microbial organisms. One of the properties desired in endodontic sealers is precisely their antimicrobial action against bacteria remaining after irrigation and instrumentation. Objective: Carry out a systematic review about the antibacterial effect of the endodontic sealers most commonly used in dental practice against Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis). Methods: The systematic review was based on PRISMA guidelines. The search was conducted in the databases PubMed and Science Direct. Papers were reviewed which dealt with in vitro antimicrobial studies about endodontic sealers, excluding secondary sources such as literature reviews and papers about cements used for other purposes. Discussion: Cements based on calcium hydroxide, resin or bioceramic are biocompatible and display some percentage of antimicrobial activity. However, variability was observed in the results obtained by the studies in the review, due to the use of different conditions for antibacterial evaluation, except for silicone-based endodontic sealers, which consistently displayed no antibacterial activity against E. faecalis. Conclusion: According to the bibliography reviewed, the sealers AH Plus, AH 26, TotalFill, BC Sealer and MTA Fillapex had an antimicrobial effect. However, some of them displayed scant activity against E. faecalis(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Pit and Fissure Sealants/therapeutic use , Root Canal Therapy/methods , Dental Cements/therapeutic use , Anti-Bacterial Agents/adverse effects , Review Literature as Topic , Databases, Bibliographic
18.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 79(4): 263-265, July-Aug. 2020. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1137976

ABSTRACT

Resumo Paciente do sexo feminino, 19 anos, com queixa de diplopia, náusea e vômito de início súbito. Ao exame físico, a paciente apresentava rotação da cabeça para a esquerda e limitação da adução do olho direito, sugerindo paresia do músculo reto medial. Ausência de ptose palpebral ou paresia de outra musculatura ocular extrínseca e sem outras alterações na avaliação oftalmológica. Foi relatado pelo paciente o uso de Metronidazol, duas doses de 500 mg, no mesmo dia em que os sintomas começaram. A ressonância magnética do crânio foi solicitada. O resultado mostrou um cisto da glândula pineal, estando os outros aspectos dentro da normalidade. A paresia do músculo reto medial e diplopia persistiram por 14 dias, mesmo após a suspensão do antibiótico, optando, assim, por iniciar a corticoterapia oral, evoluindo com boa resposta clínica, melhora dos sintomas e regressão da paresia muscular.


Abstract Female patient, 19 years old, with a complaint of diplopia, nausea and vomiting of sudden onset. Upon physical examination, the patient presented herself with the head position rotated to the left and limitation of adduction of the right eye, suggesting paresis of the medial rectus muscle. Absence of palpebral ptosis or paresis of other extrinsic musculature of the eye, and without other alterations in the ophthalmological evaluation. It was reported by the patient the use of Metronidazole, two doses of 500 mg, the same day the symptoms started. The magnetic resonance imaging of the skull was requested. The result showed a cyst of the pineal gland, the other aspects being within normality. The paresis of the medial rectus muscle and diplopia persisted for 14 days, even after the antibiotic was discontinued, thus opting to initiate oral corticosteroid therapy, evolving with good clinical response, improvement of symptoms and regression of muscular paresis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Oculomotor Nerve Diseases/chemically induced , Diplopia/chemically induced , Metronidazole/adverse effects , Metronidazole/toxicity , Anti-Bacterial Agents/adverse effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/toxicity , Administration, Oral
19.
Acta odontol. latinoam ; 33(1): 6-13, June 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1130726

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Dental enamel defects (DED) are lesions that occur due several factors. Proper care is needed to promote their treatment and prevention. The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of DED in permanent teeth of children who used antimicrobial drugs in the first four years of life. This is a crosssectional study carried out in a Primary Health Care (PHC) service, which included children from six to 12 years of age. DED were evaluated by oral examination, and data on the use of antimicrobials in early childhood were collected based on medical records. Data were analyzed with the chisquare test and Fisher's exact test. The sample included 144 children. In relation to DED, 50% (72) and 20.1% (29) presented opacity and hypoplasia, respectively. Amoxicillin was the most frequently prescribed drug, followed by sulfamethoxazole + trimethoprim. Among the children, 78.5% (113) were prescribed antimicrobial drugs at least once during the first 4 years of life, and 55% (79) of them presented some type of DED. There was no statistically significant association between the variables analyzed. In conclusion, there was high prevalence of children with DED, and amoxicillin was the most commonly prescribed antibiotic.


RESUMO Os defeitos do esmalte dentário (DED) são lesões que ocorrem devido a vários fatores e é necessária atenção para promover seu tratamento e prevenção. O objetivo foi avaliar a ocorrência de DED em dentes permanentes de crianças que usaram antimicrobianos nos primeiros quatro anos de vida. Tratase de um estudo transversal realizado em um serviço de Atenção Primária à Saúde (APS), que incluiu crianças de seis a 12 anos de idade. A DED foi avaliada por dados de exames bucais, e os dados sobre o uso de antimicrobiano na primeira infância foram coletados com base em prontuários médicos. A análise foi realizada com o teste do quiquadrado e o teste exato de Fisher. A amostra foi composta por 144 crianças. Em relação ao DED, 50%(72) e 20,1%(29) apresentaram opacidade e hipoplasia, respectivamente. A amoxicilina foi o medicamento prescrito com mais freqüência, seguido pelo sulfametoxazol+ trimetoprim. Entre as crianças, 78,5%(113) receberam medica mentos antimicrobianos pelo menos uma vez nos primeiros 4 anos de vida e 55%(79) deles apresentaram algum tipo de DED. Não houve associação estatisticamente significante entre as variáveis analisadas. Em conclusão, houve uma alta prevalência de crianças com DED e a amoxicilina foi o antibiótico mais comumente prescrito.


Subject(s)
Child , Female , Humans , Male , Tooth, Deciduous/abnormalities , Dental Caries , Dental Enamel/abnormalities , Dental Enamel/drug effects , Dental Enamel Hypoplasia/chemically induced , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Primary Health Care , Prevalence , Dental Enamel Hypoplasia/epidemiology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/adverse effects
20.
Rev. cuba. estomatol ; 57(1): e2967, ene.-mar. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1126487

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: El té verde (Camellia sinensis) y el propóleo presentan flavonoides, que inhiben el crecimiento, metabolismo y la coagregación del Streptococcus mutans, principal agente causal de la caries dental. Objetivo: Evaluar la actividad antibacteriana in vitro del extracto etanólico del té verde (Camellia sinensis) al 10 por ciento y 20 por ciento comparado con extracto etanólico de propóleo al 10 por ciento y 20 por ciento, frente al crecimiento de cepas de Streptococcus mutans (ATCC 25175). Métodos: Estudio experimental in vitro, longitudinal, prospectivo y comparativo. El universo estuvo constituido por 90 discos de difusión y la muestra por 15 discos embebidos en té verde (Camellia sinensis) o propóleo a diferentes concentraciones, clorhexidina acuosa al 0,12 por ciento y agua destilada. El tamaño de muestra se calculó por fórmula de comparación de medias, después de realizar un estudio piloto. Se colocaron los discos de difusión embebidos en las sustancias sobre agar Mueller Hinton, sembrado con Streptococcus mutans (ATCC 25175), haciendo medición del ancho de los halos inhibitorios a las 24 y 48 h. Se aplicaron pruebas de comparación no paramétricas de Kruskal Wallis y la prueba rangos de Wilcoxon. Resultados: El máximo ancho de halo inhibitorio logrado por clorhexidina acuosa al 0,12 por ciento, extracto etanólico de té verde (Camellia sinensis) al 20 por ciento y extracto etanólico de propóleo al 20 por ciento fue a las 24 h con valores de 10,64 mm ± 0,924 mm, 6,82 mm ± 0,982 mm y 8,36 mm ± 1,286 mm, respectivamente. El extracto etanólico de té verde (Camellia sinensis) al 20 por ciento, presentó diferencias estadísticamente significativas respecto al extracto etanólico de propóleo al 20 por ciento, tanto a las 24 h (p= 0,013), como a las 48 h (p= 0,011). Conclusiones: Frente al crecimiento de cepas de Streptococcus mutans (ATCC 25175), el extracto etanólico de propóleo al 20 por ciento presenta mayor actividad antibacteriana respecto al extracto etanólico de té verde (Camellia sinensis) al 10 por ciento y 20 por ciento, actividad que disminuye con el paso del tiempo(AU)


ABSTRACT Introduction: Green tea (Camellia sinensis) and propolis contain flavonoids which inhibit the growth, metabolism and co-aggregation of Streptococcus mutans, the main causative agent of dental caries. Objective: Evaluate the antibacterial activity in vitro of 10 percent and 20 percent green tea (Camellia sinensis) ethanolic extract versus 10 percent and 20 percent propolis ethanolic extract against the growth of Streptococcus mutans (ATCC 25175) strains. Methods: An in vitro experimental prospective longitudinal comparative study was conducted. The study universe was 90 diffusion disks and the sample was 15 disks soaked up in green tea (Camellia sinensis) or propolis at various concentrations, 0.12 percent aqueous chlorhexidine and distilled water. Sample size was estimated by the comparison of means formula after conducting a pilot study. The diffusion disks soaked up in the substances were placed on Mueller Hinton agar planted with Streptococcus mutans (ATCC 25175) and the width of the inhibition haloes was measured at 24 h and 48 h. Nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis comparison tests and the Wilcoxon rank test were performed. Results: The maximum width of the inhibition halo achieved by 0.12 percent aqueous chlorhexidine, 20 percent green tea (Camellia sinensis) ethanolic extract, and 20 percent propolis ethanolic extract at 24 h was 10.64 mm ± 0.924 mm, 6.82 mm ± 0.982 mm and 8.36 mm ± 1.286 mm, respectively. The 20 percent green tea (Camellia sinensis) ethanolic extract showed statistically significant differences with respect to the 20 percent propolis ethanolic extract, both at 24 h (p= 0.013) and at 48 h (p= 0.011). Conclusions: The 20 percent propolis ethanolic extract displays greater antibacterial activity against the growth of Streptococcus mutans (ATCC 25175) strains than the 10 percent and 20 percent green tea (Camellia sinensis) ethanolic extract. This activity decreases with the passing of time(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Propolis/therapeutic use , Streptococcus mutans/cytology , Chlorhexidine/therapeutic use , Camellia sinensis/adverse effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/adverse effects , Prospective Studies , Longitudinal Studies
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