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1.
Rev. medica electron ; 43(3): 855-867, 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1289823

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Clostridium difficile es una bacteria relacionada con la colitis, asociada a antibióticos y a la diarrea adquirida en pacientes hospitalizados. Sin embargo, su comportamiento ha cambiado en los últimos años, hasta el punto de ser considerada un problema de salud mundial. Su curso clínico varía desde casos asintomáticos, colitis, hasta complicaciones que ponen en peligro la vida del paciente. Dentro de los factores de riesgo descritos se encuentra la enfermedad inflamatoria intestinal, especialmente la colitis ulcerativa idiopática. El caso reportado versa sobre la presentación de esta infección asociada a un brote de colitis ulcerativa en un paciente joven, sin antecedentes de enfermedad inflamatoria intestinal, consumo de antibióticos ni hospitalización (AU).


ABSTRACT Clostridium difficile is a bacterium related to antibiotic-associated colitis and to diarrhea acquired in hospitalized patients. However, its behavior has changed in recent years to the point of being considered as a global health problem. Its clinical course ranges from asymptomatic cases, colitis, to complications with risk for the patient's life. The inflammatory bowel disease, especially idiopathic ulcerative colitis is found among the described risk factors. The case reported deals with the presentation of this infection associated to an outbreak of ulcerative colitis in a young patient, with no previous history of inflammatory bowel disease, consumption of antibiotics or hospitalization (AU).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Colitis, Ulcerative/diagnosis , Clostridioides difficile/virology , Diarrhea/complications , Infections/complications , Infections/transmission , Inpatients , Anti-Bacterial Agents/adverse effects
2.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 25(1): 79-85, jan-abr. 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1151426

ABSTRACT

Introdução: O diagnóstico da hanseníase possui números significativos que causam preocupação à saúde pública. Os casos de resistência medicamentosa nessa doença se iniciaram em meados dos anos 60 e diante do problema, a Organização Mundial da Saúde instituiu em 1981 a poliquimioterapia, associação dos antibióticos rifampicina, dapsona e clofazimina, tratamento atual de escolha. A resistência aos fármacos na hanseníase é reportada pela literatura, desvelando um obstáculo à sua eliminação. Apresentamos nessa revisão os principais aspectos da resistência medicamentosa no tratamento para hanseníase e seus impactos. Metodologia: Revisão sistemática sobre os aspectos da resistência medicamentosa utilizando a pesquisa exploratória como metodologia de abordagem. Foram pesquisados os termos resistência medicamentosa, hanseníase, recidiva, alterações genéticas e os operadores booleanos "and" e "or" na busca. Resultados e discussão: A dificuldade de tomar a medicação corretamente foi um dos principais fatores que acarretaram resistência do bacilo Mycobacterium leprae aos fármacos. Homens de países norte e sul-americanos e asiáticos foram os mais atingidos por episódios de resistência. A resistência medicamentosa é uma das principais causas de recidivas em hanseníase. O principal fármaco causador de resistência medicamentosa descrito nos trabalhos foi a dapsona (46,6%) e a maioria das alterações genéticas encontradas estão no gene rpoB; 23,2% dos registros relatados foram de resistência secundária aos fármacos e, também, sete casos de resistência múltipla a esses medicamentos. Conclusão: Os principais aspectos da resistência medicamentosa na hanseníase são os equívocos ao ingerir os medicamentos e as alterações genéticas na bactéria. Os impactos causados estão na dificuldade de refazer o tratamento, a possibilidade de nova transmissão e o aparecimento de sintomas mais graves.


Introduction: The diagnosis of leprosy has significant numbers causing public health concern. Reports of drug resistance in this disease begun in the mid-1960s and due to this problem, the World Health Organization instituted a multidrug therapy with rifampicin, dapsone, and clofazimine antibiotic association in 1981, which is currently the first-choice treatment for leprosy. Cases of drug resistance have been reported in literature, revealing an obstacle to the eradication of the disease. This paper has the purpose of presenting the key aspects and impacts of drug resistance in the treatment for leprosy. Methods: Systematic review of the drug resistance aspects using exploratory research as an approach methodology. The authors searched the terms drug resistance, leprosy, recurrence, genetic alterations, and the Boolean operators "and" and "or" between them. Results and discussion: The difficulty in taking the medication correctly was one of the key factors that led to drug resistance for Mycobacterium leprae. Men from North and South American, as well as from Asian countries, were the most affected by episodes of resistance. Drug resistance is one of the main causes of leprosy recurrences. Dapsone was the most frequently identified drug resistance in the studies (46.6%), while most of the genetic alterations were found in the rpoB gene; 23.2% of the cases were from secondary resistance episodes, and seven cases of multiple resistance were reported. Conclusion: The misconceptions when taking the treatment and the Mycobacterium leprae genetic alterations have been described as the key aspects of drugs resistance in leprosy and the impacts caused are the difficulty in redoing the treatment, the possibility of new transmission, and the appearance of more severe symptoms.


Subject(s)
Drug Resistance/drug effects , Drug Resistance, Bacterial/drug effects , Mycobacterium leprae/drug effects , Rifampin/adverse effects , Bacteria/genetics , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Clofazimine/adverse effects , Fluoroquinolones/adverse effects , Dapsone/adverse effects , Drug Therapy, Combination/adverse effects , Leprosy/drug therapy , Anti-Bacterial Agents/adverse effects
3.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 19: eMD5703, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249746

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Betalactams are the most frequent cause of hypersensitivity reactions to drugs mediated by a specific immune mechanism. Immediate reactions occur within 1 to 6 hours after betalactam administration, and are generally IgE-mediated. They clinically translate into urticaria, angioedema and anaphylaxis. Non-immediate or delayed reactions occur after 1 hour of administration. These are the most common reactions and are usually mediated by T cells. The most frequent type is the maculopapular or morbilliform exanthematous eruption. Most individuals who report allergies to penicillin and betalactams can tolerate this group of antibiotics. To make diagnosis, a detailed medical history is essential to verify whether it was an immediate or non-immediate reaction. Thereafter, in vivo and/or in vitro tests for investigation may be performed. The challenging test is considered the gold standard method for diagnosis of betalactam hypersensitivity. The first approach when suspecting a reaction to betalactam is to discontinue exposure to the drug, and the only specific treatment is desensitization, which has very precise indications. The misdiagnosis of penicillin allergy affects the health system, since the "penicillin allergy" label is associated with increased bacterial resistance, higher rate of therapeutic failure, prolonged hospitalizations, readmissions, and increased costs. Thus, it is essential to develop strategies to assist the prescription of antibiotics in patients identified with a label of "betalactam allergy" at hospitals, and to enhance education of patients and their caregivers, as well as of non-specialist physicians.


RESUMO Os beta-lactâmicos constituem a causa mais frequente de reações de hipersensibilidade a fármacos mediadas por mecanismo imunológico específico. As reações imediatas ocorrem em 1 até 6 horas após a administração do beta-lactâmico, sendo geralmente IgE-mediadas. Elas se traduzem clinicamente por urticária, angioedema e anafilaxia. As reações não imediatas ou tardias ocorrem após 1 hora da administração. São as reações mais comuns, sendo geralmente mediadas por células T. O tipo mais frequente é o exantema maculopapular ou morbiliforme. A maioria dos indivíduos que refere alergia aos beta-lactâmicos pode tolerar esse grupo de antibióticos. No diagnóstico, uma história clínica detalhada é fundamental para verificar se a reação foi do tipo imediato ou não imediato. A partir daí, podem ser realizados testes in vivo e/ou in vitro para investigação. O teste de provocação é considerado o método padrão-ouro no diagnóstico de hipersensibilidade aos beta-lactâmicos. A primeira conduta diante da suspeita de uma reação ao beta-lactâmico é suspender a exposição ao medicamento, e o único tratamento específico é a dessensibilização, que possui indicações bem precisas. O diagnóstico equivocado de alergia à penicilina afeta o sistema de saúde, pois o rótulo de "alergia à penicilina" está associado a aumento da resistência bacteriana, maior índice de falha terapêutica, hospitalizações prolongadas, readmissões e aumento dos custos. Assim, torna-se fundamental elaborar estratégias com o objetivo de auxiliar na prescrição de antibióticos em pacientes com rótulo de "alergia aos beta-lactâmicos" nos hospitais e melhorar a educação dos pacientes e seus responsáveis, além de médicos não especialistas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Drug Hypersensitivity/diagnosis , Drug Hypersensitivity/etiology , Anaphylaxis , Penicillins/adverse effects , beta-Lactams/adverse effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/adverse effects
4.
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 764-769, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922144

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Lung cancer (LC) is the leading cause of cancer death. Patients treated with chemotherapy are at risk of developing chemotherapy-induced febrile neutropenia (FN), a potentially life-threatening complication. The aims of this study were (1) to characterize FN admissions of patients with LC in a pulmonology department, and (2) to determine associations between patient profiles, first-line antibiotic failure (FLAF) and mortality.@*METHODS@#Retrospective observational case-series, based on the analysis of medical records of LC patients that required hospitalization due to chemotherapy-induced FN.@*RESULTS@#A total of 42 cases of FN were revised, corresponding to 36 patients, of which 86.1% were male, with a mean age of 66.71±9.83 years. Most patients had a performance status (PS) equal or less than 1, and metastatic disease was present in 40.5% (n=17). Respiratory tract infections accounted for 42.9% (n=18) of FN cases, and multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus was the most isolated agent. The mortality rate was 16.7% (n=7), and the FLAF was 26.2% (n=11). Mortality was associated with a PS≥2 (P=0.011), infection by a Gram-negative agent (P=0.001) and severe anemia (P=0.048). FLAF was associated with longer hospitalizations (P=0.020), PS≥2 (P=0.049), respiratory infections (P=0.024), and infection by a Gram-negative (P=0.003) or multidrug-resistant agent (P=0.014).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Lower PS, severe anemia, and infections by Gram-negative or multi-resistant agents seem to be associated with worse outcomes in FN patients.


Subject(s)
Aged , Anti-Bacterial Agents/adverse effects , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Male , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies
5.
Rev. cuba. estomatol ; 57(3): e2945, jul.-set. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1126522

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: Los selladores endodónticos desempeñan un papel crucial en la obturación, dado que dichos materiales, no solo actúan en el momento de su aplicación, sino que continúan haciéndolo con posterioridad, protegiendo al periodonto apical contra los organismos microbianos presentes. Precisamente, una de las propiedades deseadas en los selladores endodónticos es que posean acción antimicrobiana, para eliminar las bacterias remanentes después de la irrigación e instrumentación. Objetivo: Realizar una revisión sistemática del efecto antibacteriano de diferentes selladores endodónticos más utilizados en odontología contra Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis). Métodos: Esta revisión sistemática se llevó a cabo siguiendo los lineamientos PRISMA. La búsqueda se realizó en las bases de datos PubMed y Science Direct. Se revisaron los artículos de estudios antimicrobianos in vitro de selladores endodónticos y se excluyeron aquellos de fuente secundaria, como los de revisión de la literatura, así como artículos sobre cementos para otros usos. Desarrollo: Los cementos a base de hidróxido de calcio, resina o biocerámicos son biocompatibles y presentan algún porcentaje de actividad antimicrobiana; sin embargo, se puede apreciar que existe variabilidad en los resultados obtenidos en los estudios incluidos en la revisión, debido al uso de condiciones diferentes para la evaluación antibacteriana, excepto en los selladores endodónticos a base de silicona, los cuales tuvieron, de forma consistente, un efecto antibacterial nulo contra E. faecalis. Conclusión: De acuerdo a la bibliografía revisada, los selladores AH Plus, AH 26, TotalFill, BC Sealer y MTA Fillapex exhibieron efecto antimicrobiano, sin embargo, algunos de ellos mostraron escasa actividad contra E. faecalis(AU)


ABSTRACT Introduction: Endodontic sealers play a crucial role in sealing, for they not only act at the moment of their application, but continue to do so later, protecting the apical periodontium against microbial organisms. One of the properties desired in endodontic sealers is precisely their antimicrobial action against bacteria remaining after irrigation and instrumentation. Objective: Carry out a systematic review about the antibacterial effect of the endodontic sealers most commonly used in dental practice against Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis). Methods: The systematic review was based on PRISMA guidelines. The search was conducted in the databases PubMed and Science Direct. Papers were reviewed which dealt with in vitro antimicrobial studies about endodontic sealers, excluding secondary sources such as literature reviews and papers about cements used for other purposes. Discussion: Cements based on calcium hydroxide, resin or bioceramic are biocompatible and display some percentage of antimicrobial activity. However, variability was observed in the results obtained by the studies in the review, due to the use of different conditions for antibacterial evaluation, except for silicone-based endodontic sealers, which consistently displayed no antibacterial activity against E. faecalis. Conclusion: According to the bibliography reviewed, the sealers AH Plus, AH 26, TotalFill, BC Sealer and MTA Fillapex had an antimicrobial effect. However, some of them displayed scant activity against E. faecalis(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Pit and Fissure Sealants/therapeutic use , Root Canal Therapy/methods , Dental Cements/therapeutic use , Anti-Bacterial Agents/adverse effects , Review Literature as Topic , Databases, Bibliographic
6.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 79(4): 263-265, July-Aug. 2020. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1137976

ABSTRACT

Resumo Paciente do sexo feminino, 19 anos, com queixa de diplopia, náusea e vômito de início súbito. Ao exame físico, a paciente apresentava rotação da cabeça para a esquerda e limitação da adução do olho direito, sugerindo paresia do músculo reto medial. Ausência de ptose palpebral ou paresia de outra musculatura ocular extrínseca e sem outras alterações na avaliação oftalmológica. Foi relatado pelo paciente o uso de Metronidazol, duas doses de 500 mg, no mesmo dia em que os sintomas começaram. A ressonância magnética do crânio foi solicitada. O resultado mostrou um cisto da glândula pineal, estando os outros aspectos dentro da normalidade. A paresia do músculo reto medial e diplopia persistiram por 14 dias, mesmo após a suspensão do antibiótico, optando, assim, por iniciar a corticoterapia oral, evoluindo com boa resposta clínica, melhora dos sintomas e regressão da paresia muscular.


Abstract Female patient, 19 years old, with a complaint of diplopia, nausea and vomiting of sudden onset. Upon physical examination, the patient presented herself with the head position rotated to the left and limitation of adduction of the right eye, suggesting paresis of the medial rectus muscle. Absence of palpebral ptosis or paresis of other extrinsic musculature of the eye, and without other alterations in the ophthalmological evaluation. It was reported by the patient the use of Metronidazole, two doses of 500 mg, the same day the symptoms started. The magnetic resonance imaging of the skull was requested. The result showed a cyst of the pineal gland, the other aspects being within normality. The paresis of the medial rectus muscle and diplopia persisted for 14 days, even after the antibiotic was discontinued, thus opting to initiate oral corticosteroid therapy, evolving with good clinical response, improvement of symptoms and regression of muscular paresis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Oculomotor Nerve Diseases/chemically induced , Diplopia/chemically induced , Metronidazole/adverse effects , Metronidazole/toxicity , Anti-Bacterial Agents/adverse effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/toxicity , Administration, Oral
7.
Rev. otorrinolaringol. cir. cabeza cuello ; 80(1): 54-62, mar. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1099202

ABSTRACT

La vestibulopatía bilateral es poco frecuente, se caracteriza principalmente por inestabilidad al caminar o al estar de pie, visión borrosa inducida por el movimiento u oscilopsia al caminar o al realizar movimientos rápidos de la cabeza o del cuerpo, empeoramiento de la estabilidad en la oscuridad o terrenos irregulares, reducción de los síntomas al estar en condiciones estáticas, ganancia del reflejo vestíbulo-ocular angular reducida de forma bilateral, entre otros. Existen múltiples causas. Dentro de las causas identificables, se describen principalmente medicamentos ototóxicos, meningitis y enfermedad de Ménière. Se presenta el caso de una paciente de 64 años diagnosticada con vestibulopatía bilateral posterior a tratamiento intramuscular con gentamicina por sobreinfección bacteriana cutánea de las manos. La evaluación vestibular complementada con videonistagmografía y prueba de impulso cefálico asistida por video confirman el diagnóstico y se inicia tratamiento con rehabilitación vestibular enfocada en promover la compensación central a través de estrategias de sustitución principalmente; además de habituación y adaptación vestibular, favoreciendo la estabilización de la mirada, mantención del equilibrio, control postural, marcha y reducción de los síntomas.


Bilateral vestibulopathy is infrequent, and it is characterized mostly by unstable walking or when standing, blurred vision induced by movement, or oscillopsia when walking or performing fast movements; worsening of the stability in darkness or uneven ground, but with lack of symptoms in static conditions. Other symptoms may include bilateral reduction of the oculo-vestibular reflex. Among the identifiable causes, there is the use of ototoxic medication, meningitis, Ménière's disease, although it can be idiopathic or have a neurological cause. We hereby describe the case of a 64-year-old woman, diagnosed with bilateral vestibulopathy secondary to intramuscular treatment with gentamicin due to a bacterial hand infection. Vestibular assessment was complemented with video-nystagmography and video head impulse test which confirmed the diagnosis, and therapy was started with vestibular rehabilitation focused on promoting central compensation mainly, through substitution strategies. Also, habituation exercise and vestibular adaptation strategies were used, thus promoting sight stabilization, balance maintenance, postural control, walking, and reduction of the symptoms.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Gentamicins/adverse effects , Bilateral Vestibulopathy/chemically induced , Bilateral Vestibulopathy/rehabilitation , Anti-Bacterial Agents/adverse effects , Audiometry , Superinfection , Electronystagmography , Head Impulse Test , Bilateral Vestibulopathy/diagnosis , Bilateral Vestibulopathy/physiopathology
9.
Rev. cuba. estomatol ; 57(1): e2967, ene.-mar. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1126487

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: El té verde (Camellia sinensis) y el propóleo presentan flavonoides, que inhiben el crecimiento, metabolismo y la coagregación del Streptococcus mutans, principal agente causal de la caries dental. Objetivo: Evaluar la actividad antibacteriana in vitro del extracto etanólico del té verde (Camellia sinensis) al 10 por ciento y 20 por ciento comparado con extracto etanólico de propóleo al 10 por ciento y 20 por ciento, frente al crecimiento de cepas de Streptococcus mutans (ATCC 25175). Métodos: Estudio experimental in vitro, longitudinal, prospectivo y comparativo. El universo estuvo constituido por 90 discos de difusión y la muestra por 15 discos embebidos en té verde (Camellia sinensis) o propóleo a diferentes concentraciones, clorhexidina acuosa al 0,12 por ciento y agua destilada. El tamaño de muestra se calculó por fórmula de comparación de medias, después de realizar un estudio piloto. Se colocaron los discos de difusión embebidos en las sustancias sobre agar Mueller Hinton, sembrado con Streptococcus mutans (ATCC 25175), haciendo medición del ancho de los halos inhibitorios a las 24 y 48 h. Se aplicaron pruebas de comparación no paramétricas de Kruskal Wallis y la prueba rangos de Wilcoxon. Resultados: El máximo ancho de halo inhibitorio logrado por clorhexidina acuosa al 0,12 por ciento, extracto etanólico de té verde (Camellia sinensis) al 20 por ciento y extracto etanólico de propóleo al 20 por ciento fue a las 24 h con valores de 10,64 mm ± 0,924 mm, 6,82 mm ± 0,982 mm y 8,36 mm ± 1,286 mm, respectivamente. El extracto etanólico de té verde (Camellia sinensis) al 20 por ciento, presentó diferencias estadísticamente significativas respecto al extracto etanólico de propóleo al 20 por ciento, tanto a las 24 h (p= 0,013), como a las 48 h (p= 0,011). Conclusiones: Frente al crecimiento de cepas de Streptococcus mutans (ATCC 25175), el extracto etanólico de propóleo al 20 por ciento presenta mayor actividad antibacteriana respecto al extracto etanólico de té verde (Camellia sinensis) al 10 por ciento y 20 por ciento, actividad que disminuye con el paso del tiempo(AU)


ABSTRACT Introduction: Green tea (Camellia sinensis) and propolis contain flavonoids which inhibit the growth, metabolism and co-aggregation of Streptococcus mutans, the main causative agent of dental caries. Objective: Evaluate the antibacterial activity in vitro of 10 percent and 20 percent green tea (Camellia sinensis) ethanolic extract versus 10 percent and 20 percent propolis ethanolic extract against the growth of Streptococcus mutans (ATCC 25175) strains. Methods: An in vitro experimental prospective longitudinal comparative study was conducted. The study universe was 90 diffusion disks and the sample was 15 disks soaked up in green tea (Camellia sinensis) or propolis at various concentrations, 0.12 percent aqueous chlorhexidine and distilled water. Sample size was estimated by the comparison of means formula after conducting a pilot study. The diffusion disks soaked up in the substances were placed on Mueller Hinton agar planted with Streptococcus mutans (ATCC 25175) and the width of the inhibition haloes was measured at 24 h and 48 h. Nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis comparison tests and the Wilcoxon rank test were performed. Results: The maximum width of the inhibition halo achieved by 0.12 percent aqueous chlorhexidine, 20 percent green tea (Camellia sinensis) ethanolic extract, and 20 percent propolis ethanolic extract at 24 h was 10.64 mm ± 0.924 mm, 6.82 mm ± 0.982 mm and 8.36 mm ± 1.286 mm, respectively. The 20 percent green tea (Camellia sinensis) ethanolic extract showed statistically significant differences with respect to the 20 percent propolis ethanolic extract, both at 24 h (p= 0.013) and at 48 h (p= 0.011). Conclusions: The 20 percent propolis ethanolic extract displays greater antibacterial activity against the growth of Streptococcus mutans (ATCC 25175) strains than the 10 percent and 20 percent green tea (Camellia sinensis) ethanolic extract. This activity decreases with the passing of time(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Propolis/therapeutic use , Streptococcus mutans/cytology , Chlorhexidine/therapeutic use , Camellia sinensis/adverse effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/adverse effects , Prospective Studies , Longitudinal Studies
10.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63: e20200131, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132247

ABSTRACT

Abstract Gallic acid (GA), as a strong antioxidant, was selected in this study to investigate its possible nephroprotective effects against gentamicin (GM)-induced nephrotoxicity. Twenty-four rats were separated into three groups (n=8): group 1 (control group) received saline (0.5 mL/day), group 2 (GM group) received GM (100 mg/kg/day), and group 3 (treated group) received GM (100 mg/kg/day) and GA (100mg/kg/day). All treatments were performed intraperitoneally for 12 days. After 12 days, the rats were euthanized, and kidneys were removed immediately. For serum preparation, blood samples were collected before killing. Kidney paraffin sections were prepared from one of the kidneys and stained by the periodic acid-Schiff process. GA significantly decreased GM-induced renal histopathological injuries, including tubular necrosis, tubular cast, and leucocyte infiltration compared with the GM group. Additionally, GA significantly improved proteinuria, serum levels of urea and creatinine, and serum activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) compared with nephrotoxic animals. Furthermore, GA caused a significant improvement in the levels of cholesterol (Chol), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and cardiac risk ratios 1 and 2 in comparison with nephrotoxic animals. GA administration was observed to significantly improve the levels of lipid peroxidation, nitric oxide (NO), and glutathione (GSH) compared with the GM group. Finally, the activities and gene expression levels of catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) significantly increased following GA administration compared with the GM group. Our results indicated that GA has potential protective effects against GM nephrotoxicity by reducing oxidative stress in rats.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Gentamicins/adverse effects , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Gallic Acid/therapeutic use , Kidney Diseases/drug therapy , Anti-Bacterial Agents/adverse effects , Antioxidants/therapeutic use , Biomarkers , Cholesterol , Rats, Wistar , Disease Models, Animal , Gallic Acid/chemistry , Kidney Diseases/chemically induced , Kidney Diseases/pathology , Lipoproteins, HDL , Lipoproteins, LDL
11.
Arq. Inst. Biol ; 87: e0362019, 2020.
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1130146

ABSTRACT

The use of antimicrobials in fish farming is a reflection of the fast aquaculture development worldwide. The intensification of aquaculture to achieve market demands could lead to an increase in infectious diseases by pathogenic bacteria. Consequently, antimicrobials act as controls for emerging infectious diseases, but their use must follow the rules and regulations of the country where the activity is performed. Although the regulations impose limits to the use of antimicrobials in fish farming, many studies show that resistant bacteria are isolated from this system. The selection of resistant bacteria is not limited only to the use of antimicrobials, but also to co-selection of resistance genes or even with cross-resistance processes. Resistant bacteria from fish farming are a serious concern because they can be acquired by humans with handling or food chain, which may represent a public health problem. In the present review, we present an overview of antimicrobials use in aquaculture, the antimicrobial resistance and the impact of antimicrobial and bacterial resistance from a public health perspective.(AU)


O uso de antimicrobianos na piscicultura é um reflexo do rápido desenvolvimento da aquicultura em todo o mundo. A intensificação da aquicultura para suprir as demandas do mercado pode levar ao aumento de doenças infecciosas por bactérias patogênicas. Consequentemente, os antimicrobianos atuam no controle de doenças infecciosas emergentes, mas seu uso deve seguir as regras e regulamentos do país onde a atividade é realizada. Embora os regulamentos imponham limites ao uso de antimicrobianos na piscicultura, muitos estudos mostram que bactérias resistentes são isoladas desse sistema. A seleção de bactérias resistentes não se limita apenas ao uso de antimicrobianos, mas também à cosseleção de genes de resistência ou mesmo por meio do processo de resistência cruzada. As bactérias resistentes da piscicultura são uma preocupação séria, uma vez que tais bactérias podem ser adquiridas pelos seres humanos no manuseio ou na cadeia alimentar, o que pode representar um problema de saúde pública. Nesta revisão, apresentamos uma visão geral do uso de antimicrobianos na aquicultura, a resistência antimicrobiana e o impacto da resistência antimicrobiana e bacteriana do ponto de vista da saúde pública.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Health Risk , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Fisheries , Fishes/microbiology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/adverse effects , Bacteria/drug effects , Bacterial Infections/therapy , Bacterial Infections/transmission , Food Chain , Environment , Food Safety , Animal Diseases/therapy , Occupational Diseases/microbiology
12.
Infectio ; 23(4): 405-408, Dec. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1040011

ABSTRACT

Resumen Mujer quien inició tratamiento de rescate de segunda línea para Helicobacter pylori con levofloxacina un gramo cada 12 horas, amoxicilina 500 mg cada 8 horas y lansoprazol 40 mg cada 24 horas. Al quinto día de tratamiento manifestó mialgias generalizadas seguido por artralgias y limitación del movimiento en rodillas y codos. Al séptimo día, sin mejora, la paciente suspende la medicación y presenta resolución completa de los síntomas una semana después. No hubo secuelas, ni complicaciones, ni re-exposición al medicamento. El caso fue clasificado como probable, con un puntaje de siete en la escala de Naranjo. Este caso nos recuerda que la administración de fluoroquinolonas puede asociarse con artralgias y artropatía reversible aguda, y debería ser la primera sospecha diagnóstica en pacientes sin comorbilidad.


Abstract Woman who initiated second-line rescue therapy for Helicobacter pylori with levofloxacin one gram every 12 hours, amoxicillin 500 mg every 8 hours and lansoprazole 40 mg every 24 hours. On the fifth day of treatment, she manifested generalized myalgia followed by bilateral knee and elbow arthralgia with limitation of movements. On the seventh day, without improvement, the patient discontinues the medication and achieve complete resolution of the symptoms one week later. There were no sequelae, no complications, no re-exposure to the drug. The case was classified as probable attaining a score of seven under the Naranjo's scale. This case reminds us that administration of fluoroquinolones may be associated with arthralgia and acute reversible arthropathy and should be the first diagnostic suspicion in patients without comorbidity.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Helicobacter pylori , Arthralgia , Levofloxacin , Fluoroquinolones , Myalgia , Gastritis , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Anti-Bacterial Agents/adverse effects
13.
An. bras. dermatol ; 94(6): 664-670, Nov.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1054902

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Reports regarding the causative drugs of drug-induced cutaneous adverse reactions in China are indistinct, such that different regions have reported the spectrum of drugs differs substantially in different clinical conditions. Objective: To explore the causative drugs that led to cutaneous reactions. Methods: Adverse drug reaction reports from central China were collected and divided into cutaneous adverse reactions and severe cutaneous adverse reactions groups. Cases were reviewed retrospectively for causative drugs. Results: The male:female ratio was equal in both cutaneous adverse reactions and severe cutaneous adverse reactions. In cutaneous adverse reactions (n = 482), the highest incidence happened between 51 and 60 years of age and the top three causative drugs were antibiotics (48%), Chinese medicine (16%), and allopurinol (9%). In severe cutaneous adverse reactions (n = 126), the highest incidence happened between 41 and 50 years of age and the top three causative drugs were sedative-hypnotics and antiepileptics (39%), antibiotics (22%), and allopurinol (15%). Carbamazepine was the most frequently used single-drug (16/18) in sedative-hypnotics and antiepileptics. β-lactams were the most frequently used antibiotics that induced both cutaneous adverse reactions and severe cutaneous adverse reactions. Study limitations: The small sample size, retrospective design, collection of cutaneous adverse reactions and severe cutaneous adverse reactions at different time frames and locations, and exclusion of patients taking more than five medications are limitations of the study. Conclusions: Gender does not affect cutaneous adverse reactions and severe cutaneous adverse reactions. The top three drugs to induce cutaneous adverse reactions are antibiotics, Chinese medicine, and allopurinol, while those that triggered severe cutaneous adverse reactions are sedative-hypnotics and antiepileptics, antibiotics, and allopurinol. Carbamazepine is the most frequent single drug that induces severe cutaneous adverse reactions. β-lactams are the most frequently used antibiotics that induce both cutaneous adverse reactions and severe cutaneous adverse reactions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Drug Eruptions/etiology , Drug Eruptions/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Incidence , Retrospective Studies , Age Factors , Sex Distribution , Age Distribution , Hypnotics and Sedatives/adverse effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/adverse effects , Anticonvulsants/adverse effects
14.
Rev. Paul. Pediatr. (Ed. Port., Online) ; 37(1): 27-33, Jan.-Mar. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-985138

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: Verificar o perfil e a adequabilidade do uso de antibacterianos em crianças hospitalizadas. Métodos: Estudo transversal. Foi feita a análise de todas as crianças que utilizaram antibacterianos durante a internação de janeiro a dezembro de 2015, em um hospital filantrópico de direito privado de grande porte no sul do Brasil. As informações foram obtidas por revisão dos prontuários e incluíram dados demográficos (idade, sexo, raça e peso corporal) e clínicos (motivo da internação, uso deantibacterianos e desfecho clínico). Utilizou-se estatística descritiva. Resultados: Dos 318 pacientes incluídos, 61,3% eram do sexo masculino. A faixa etária variou de 2 a 11 anos (média: 5,8±2,9 anos de idade). A prevalência do uso de antibacterianos foi de 24,4% considerando o total de 1.346 crianças que foram hospitalizadas. O tempo de internação apresentou mediana de quatro dias. O principal motivo de internação foi clínico e o antibacteriano mais prescrito foi a cefazolina, sendo a via intravenosa predominante. Em relação ao uso de antibacterianos, 62,2% apresentaram prescrições de antibacterianos consideradas adequadas. A subdosagem e a superdosagem tiveram, respectivamente, os valores de 11,7 e 14,6% dos pacientes incluídos. Quanto aos intervalos de administração, 8% foram caracterizados com intervalos longos e 3,5%, curtos. Conclusões: Apesar de a prevalência encontrada do uso de antibacterianos nas crianças hospitalizadas não ser tão elevada, parte considerável da amostra apresentou inadequabilidade quanto ao uso desse tipo de medicamento, se considerados a dose e o intervalo de utilização. Esses dados são motivo de preocupação para o desenvolvimento de resistência bacteriana e ocorrência de reações adversas.


ABSTRACT Objective: To examine the profile and appropriate use of antibiotics among hospitalized children. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted with children who had taken antibiotics during hospitalization in a private philanthropic hospital in Southern Brazil, from January to December 2015. The data were obtained by reviewing medical records, encompassing demographic data (age, gender, ethnicity, and body weight) and clinical data (causes of hospitalization, use of antibiotics, and clinical outcome). Descriptive statistics was used to present the data. Results: Of the 318 participants included in the study, 61.3% were male patients. The age range varied between 2 and 11 years, with mean age of 5.8±2.9 years. The prevalence of antibiotics was 24.4% out of the 1,346 hospitalized children. Median hospital stay was four days. The main cause of hospitalization was clinical instability, and the most commonly prescribed antibiotics was Cefazolin, mostly administered intravenously. Regarding the administration of antibiotics, 62.2% were adequately prescribed, even though underdose was 11.7%, and overdose was 14.6% in the studied patients. Antibiotic administration intervals were characterized as long in 8% of cases, and short in 3.5% of cases. Conclusions: Although the prevalence of antibiotics among hospitalized children was not that high, a considerable part of the sample presented inadequacy regarding the dosage and range of use. These data raise concerns about bacterial resistance and adverse reactions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Medical Records, Problem-Oriented/statistics & numerical data , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/statistics & numerical data , Brazil/epidemiology , Child, Hospitalized/statistics & numerical data , Cross-Sectional Studies , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage , Anti-Bacterial Agents/classification , Anti-Bacterial Agents/adverse effects
15.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 62: e19180051, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055373

ABSTRACT

Abstract Salacia oblonga Wall belonging to family Celastraceae contains vital phytoconstituents and has been used since long for the treatment of diabetes, inflammation and burn wounds. S. oblonga ethyl acetate root extract was evaluated for antibacterial activity towards drug resistant pathogens Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Further 260 nm absorbing material was estimated in the control and treated cells. Interestingly 260 nm absorbance material is higher in the Staphylococcus aureus. Further the effect of the plant extract on drug resistant pathogen S. aureus was examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). SEM results have shown that treated bacterial cells have changed in morphology, size and reduced in number. Based on these results it can be concluded that S. oblonga extract acts on membrane of the drug resistant pathogen S. aureus.


Subject(s)
Salacia/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/adverse effects , Noxae/adverse effects , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning/instrumentation
16.
Rev. Hosp. Clin. Univ. Chile ; 30(3): 231-237, 2019.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1050987

ABSTRACT

Allergy to Betalactams is a widely suspected pathology, which is not regularly studied in Chile, leading to a misusage of antibiotics of other families. In this article a case report in a pediatric patient will be described, and a discussion about the studies needed for this pathology, and treatment will be made in accordance to the experiences and tools available in Chile, and specifically in University of Chile Clinical Hospital. In our Hospital we study these cases following international guidelines for the diagnosis of allergy to Betalactams. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , beta-Lactamases/adverse effects , beta-Lactam Resistance , Anti-Bacterial Agents/adverse effects
17.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 147(1): 114-118, 2019. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-991381

ABSTRACT

Drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms or DRESS Syndrome is a rare, serious and potentially fatal adverse drug reaction. It is characterized by widespread morbilliform and edematous skin lesions, associated with eosinophilia, lymphadenopathy and internal organ involvement and unusually associated with pulmonary symptoms. We report a 47-year-old male with DRESS syndrome, manifested with typical skin lesions and extensive pulmonary involvement, responding satisfactorily to systemic corticosteroids.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/chemically induced , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/pathology , Drug Hypersensitivity Syndrome/pathology , Penicillin G Benzathine/adverse effects , Dipyrone/adverse effects , Treatment Outcome , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/drug therapy , Antipyretics/adverse effects , Drug Hypersensitivity Syndrome/drug therapy , Anti-Bacterial Agents/adverse effects
20.
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 89(5): 600-605, oct. 2018. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-978131

ABSTRACT

Resumen: Introducción: El objetivo de este estudio es evaluar la asociación entre la duración del tratamien to antibiótico empírico inicial y el desarrollo posterior de sepsis tardía, enterocolitis necrotizante (NEC) y muerte en recién nacidos de muy bajo peso al nacer (RNMBP). Pacientes y Método: Estudio cuantitativo, transversal analítico, en RNMBP ingresados a UCI neonatal durante un período de 5 años. Se consideró antibioterapia empírica inicial aquella que comenzó desde el nacimiento, sin conocer resultado de hemocultivos. Antibioterapia prolongada se estimó cuando la duración del tratamiento fue > 5 días. Se analizaron variables perinatales, e incidencia de sepsis tardía, NEC confirmada y mortalidad. Resultados: Se estudiaron un total de 266 RNMBP, con edad gestacional y peso de nacimiento promedios de 28,8 ± 2,5 semanas y 1.127 ± 264 g respec tivamente. Recibieron antibioterapia empírica inicial 213 (80,0%), siendo ésta prolongada en el 67,6%. Todos recibieron antibioterapia biasociada. Se pesquisaron 136 episodios de sepsis tardía, siendo los gérmenes más frecuentes el Staphylococcus coagulasa negativo y el Staphylococcus au reus. Del total de RN con antibioterapia empírica prolongada, hubo 20 casos de NEC confirmada y 15 fallecidos (10,4%) en el grupo analizado. Al comparar el uso de antibioterapia > 5 días ver sus tratamiento menor de 5 días, se observó una asociación estadísticamente significativa entre la antibioterapia prolongada y sepsis tardía (p = 0,03) y además de NEC confirmada (p = 0,03), pero no de mortalidad (p = 0,12). Conclusión: El uso de antibioterapia empírica inicial por 5 días o más se asoció a un riesgo aumentado de sepsis tardía y de NEC, pero no de la mortalidad en RNMBPN.


Abstract: Introduction: The objective of this study is to evaluate the association between the duration of ini tial empirical antibiotic treatment and the subsequent development of late-onset sepsis, necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) and death in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. Patients and Methods: Quantitative, cross-sectional, analytical study of VLBW infants admitted to the neonatal ICU were included over a period of five years. Initial empirical antibiotic therapy was that which started im mediately after birth, without knowing the results of blood cultures. It was considered prolonged antibiotic therapy when the treatment duration was > 5 days. Perinatal variables, as well as the inci dence of late-onset sepsis, confirmed NEC and mortality were analyzed. Results: 266 VLBW infants were studied, with an average gestational age and birth weight of 28.8 ± 2.5 weeks and 1.127 ± 264 g respectively. 213 infants received initial empiric antibiotic therapy (80.0%), which was prolonged in 67.6% of cases. All infants received two different antibiotics. 136 episodes of late-onset sepsis were described. The most common pathogens were coagulase-negative Staphylococcus and Staphylococcus aureus. Among the newborns with prolonged antibiotic therapy, there were 20 cases of confirmed NEC and 15 of the studied infants died (10.4%). When comparing the use of antibiotic therapy during > 5 days versus treatment less than 5 days duration, a statistically significant association was observed between prolonged antibiotic therapy and late-onset sepsis (p = 0.03) and confirmed NEC (p = 0.03), but not of mortality (p = 0.12). Conclusion: The use of empirical antibiotic therapy for five days or more was associated with an increased risk of late-onset sepsis and NEC, but not of mortality in VLBW infants.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Staphylococcal Infections/chemically induced , Infant, Very Low Birth Weight , Enterocolitis, Necrotizing/chemically induced , Neonatal Sepsis/chemically induced , Infant, Premature, Diseases/chemically induced , Anti-Bacterial Agents/adverse effects , Staphylococcal Infections/mortality , Infant, Premature , Drug Administration Schedule , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Enterocolitis, Necrotizing/mortality , Neonatal Sepsis/mortality , Infant, Premature, Diseases/mortality , Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage
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