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1.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 23(3): 437-447, mayo 2024. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1538171

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to optimize by response surface design, the extraction of the leaf essential oil (EO) from Minthostachys mollis [HBK] Griseb., grown in Ecuador, using steam distillation. The factors used were extraction time (XTIE) of 60, 105 and 150 min and plant material/water ratio (XRMA) of 1:3, 1:4 and 1:5. The optimal combination was reached with XRMA 1:5 and XTIE 150 min, obtaining a process yield of 0.67%. The chemical composition of the EO analyzed by GC - MS was determined, where the main compounds were carvacryl acetate (44.01%), carvacrol (16.51%) and menthone (8.20%). The anti oxidant capacity of EO was evaluated using the FRAP and ABTS methodologies, with an IC 50 243.21 µmol Fe 2+ /g and 0.12 mg/mL, respectively. In addition, the antimicrobial activity of EO was found against Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Salmonella enterica , Escherich ia coli and Staphylococcus aureus .


El objetivo del estudio fue optimizar, mediante un diseño de superficie respuesta, la extracción d el aceite esencial (AE) de hojas de Minthostachys mollis [HBK] Griseb. del Ecuador, mediante destilación por arrastre de vapor. Los factores fueron el tiempo de extracción (XTIE) de 60, 105 y 150 min, y relación de material vegetal/ agua destilada (XRMA) d e 1:3, 1:4 y 1:5. La combinación óptima se logró con XTIE 150 min y XRMA 1:5 para un rendimiento de 0,67%. Se determinó la composición química del AE por GC - MS donde los compuestos mayoritarios fueron acetato de carvacrilo (44,01%), carvacrol (16,51%) y me ntona (8,20%). Se evaluó la capacidad antioxidante del AE por las metodologías FRAP y ABTS, con CI 50 de 243,21 µmol Fe 2+ /g y 0,12 mg/mL, respectivamente. Además, se demostró la actividad antimicrobiana contra Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Salmonella enterica , Es cherichia coli y Staphylococcus aureus .


Subject(s)
Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Anti-Infective Agents/chemistry , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Lamiaceae/metabolism , Lamiaceae/chemistry , Ecuador
4.
J. Health Biol. Sci. (Online) ; 12(1): 1-9, jan.-dez. 2024. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1554635

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: analisar o perfil de micro-organismos presentes e resistência destes aos antimicrobianos em uroculturas de pacientes transplantados renais no período de 2021-2022. Métodos: trata-se de um estudo transversal com análise quantitativa dos dados de uroculturas positivas de pacientes transplantados renais, acompanhados no Hospital Geral de Fortaleza entre janeiro de 2021 a dezembro de 2022. Foi empregado um instrumento de pesquisa elaborado, contendo variáveis classificatórias, e os dados foram obtidos por meio de registros das uroculturas existentes no sistema de prontuário eletrônico utilizado pelo hospital. Resultados: das 534 uroculturas solicitadas, 36,7% apresentaram resultado positivo, sendo 60,4% de mulheres com idades entre 20 e 59 anos. A maioria dos casos foram desenvolvidos por pacientes que receberam acompanhamento ambulatorial (56,2%). Os micro-organismos isolados foram, predominantemente, enterobactérias (81,34%), com prevalência de E.coli (69,30%). Os perfis de sensibilidade antimicrobiana variaram, com a resistência da E.coli a antibióticos como ampicilina, ácido nalidíxico, norfloxacino e ciprofloxacino. Conclusões: essas descobertas fornecem informações importantes sobre métodos clínicos específicos, métodos preventivos e melhorias na qualidade de vida dos transplantados renais.


Objective: to analyze the profile of microorganisms present and their resistance to antimicrobials in urocultures of renal transplant patients in 2021-2022. Methods: it is a cross-sectional study with quantitative data analysis from positive urocultures of renal transplant patients accompanied at the General Hospital of Fortaleza between January 2021 and December 2022. An elaborate research instrument containing classification variables was employed, and the data were obtained through records of the urocultures existing in the electronic checkbook system used by the hospital. Results: of the 534 urocultures requested, 36.7% showed a positive result, of which 60.4% were women aged between 20 and 59. Most cases were developed by patients who received outpatient follow-up (56.2%). The isolated microorganisms were predominantly enterobacteria (81.34%), with the prevalence of E.coli (69.30%). Antimicrobial sensitivity profiles varied, with E.coli resistance to antibiotics such as ampicillin, nalidixic acid, norfloxacin, and ciprofloxacin. Conclusion: these findings provide important information about specific clinical methods, preventive methods, and improvements in the quality of life of renal transplant patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Microbiota , Transplant Recipients , Anti-Infective Agents , Patients , Kidney
5.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 23(1): 61-74, ene. 2024. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1552900

ABSTRACT

Although numerous studies have demonstrated the biomedical potential of Myrtus communis L., (Myrtaceae) data on myrt le from Montenegro are scarce. T o evaluate antioxidant, antimutagenic and antibacterial activity of myrtle methanolic extracts. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by measuring free radicals scavenging activity, reducing power and enzyme inhibition. The strongest scavenging activity was towards DPPH radical ( 2,2 - diphenyl - 1 - picry lhydrazyl) (IC 50 1.69 - 2.25 mg/mL) and superoxide anion (IC 50 0.56 to 0.88 mg/mL), followed by high reducing power (428 - 472 mgAA/g.DE) and inhibition of XOD (IC 50 0.308 - 0.6261mg/mL). Antimutagenic activity was evaluated in reverse mutation assays with Esche richia coli WP2 oxyR mutant IC202 and deficient in the induction of antioxidant enzymes. The myrtle extracts strongly inhibited mutagenesis induced by t - BOOH, reaching 70% at the highest concentration applied. Antimicrobial activity was examined on eight different bacterial strains. Gram - positive bacteria, S. epidermis , S. aureus and M. flavus demonstrated the highest sensitivity towards extracts (MICs 4.5 - 9 mg/mL), but significantly lower towards essential oil (MIC 0.42 - 3.32 mg/mL).


Aunque numerosos estudios han demostrado el potencial biomédico de Myrtus communis L., (Myrtaceae), los datos sobre el mirto de Montenegro son escasos. E valuar la actividad antioxidante, antimutagéni ca y antibacteriana de extractos metanólicos de mirto. La actividad antioxidante se evaluó midiendo la actividad de eliminación de radicales libres, el poder reductor y la inhibición enzimática. La actividad secuestrante más fuerte fue hacia DPPH radical ( IC 50 1.69 - 2.25 mg/mL) y radicales de anión superóxido (IC 50 0.56 a 0.88 mg/mL), seguido de alto poder reductor (428 - 472 m gAA/g.DE) e inhibición de XOD (I C 50 0,308 - 0,6261 mg/m L ). La actividad antimutagénica se evaluó en ensayos de mutación inversa con Esche richia coli WP2 oxyR mutante IC202 y deficiente en la inducción de enzimas antioxidantes. Los extractos de mirto inhibieron fuertemente la mutagénesis inducida por t - BOOH, alcanzando el 70% a la mayor concentración aplicada. La actividad antimicrobiana se examinó en octo cepas bacterianas diferentes. Las bacterias grampositivas, S. epidermis , S. aureus y M. flavus demostraron la sensibilidad más alta hacia los extractos (MIC 4.5 - 9 mg/mL), pero significativamente más baja hacia el aceite esencial (MIC 0.42 - 3 .32 mg/mL). Los resultados muestran la gran perspectiva nutrafarmacéutica de la especie montenegrina Myrtus communis .


Subject(s)
Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Myrtus/chemistry , Anti-Infective Agents , Anti-Inflammatory Agents , Antioxidants/therapeutic use , Antioxidants/pharmacology
6.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 23(1): 142-151, ene. 2024. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1554181

ABSTRACT

The chemical constituents and antimic robial activity of the essential oil isolated from the rhizomes of Alpinia menghaiensis S.Q. Tong & Y.M. Xia in S.Q. Tong from Vietnam was studied and reported. The techniques of gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS) were used to characterize the chemical constituents of the essential oil while the microdilution assay was used to evaluate the antimicrobial activity. The main compounds identified in the rhizome essential oil consist of ß - pinene (46.5%), ß - phellandrene (25.7%) and α - pinene (8.5%). The studied essential oil inhibited the growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC27853 with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) value of 15.32 µg/mL ± 0. 01, and median inhibitory concentration (IC50) value of 32.0 ± 0.01 µg/mL. The essential oil also displayed activity against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC25923 (MIC 31.57 ± 0.01 µg/mL) and Bacillus cereus ATCC14579 (MIC, 34.21 µg/mL ± 0.01 µg/mL), and IC 50 va lue of 64.0 ± 0.01 µg/mL. This is the first report on the rhizome oil composition, as well as the antimicrobial of essential oils from A. menghaiensis . The paper discusses further the comparative analysis of essential oils from A. menghaiensis .


Se investigaron los componentes químicos y la actividad antimicrobiana del aceite escencial aislado de los rizomas de Alpinia menghaiensis S.Q. Ton g & Y. M. Xia en S.Q. Tong de Vietnam. Se usaron las técnicas de cromatografía de gases (GC) y cromatografía de gases con espectrometría de masas (GC/MS) para caracterizar los componentes químicos del aceite escencial, mientras que se utilizó un ensayo de microdilución para evaluar la actividad antimicrobial. Se identificaron los componentes principales en el aceite escencial del rizoma, compuesto de ß - pineno (46.5%), ß - fellandreno (25.7%) y α - pineno (8.5%). El aceite escencial estudiado inhibió el crecimie nto de Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC27853 con concentraciones de actividad mínima inhibitoria (MIC) de 15.32 µg/mL ± 0.01, y una m ediana de concentración inhibitoria (IC 50 ) de 32.0 ± 0.01 µg/mL. El aceite escencial también mostró actividad contra Staphylococ cus aureus ATCC25923 (MIC 31.57 ± 0.01 µg/mL) y Bacillus cereus ATCC14579 (MIC, 34.21 µg/mL ± 0.01 µg/mL), y valor IC 50 de 64.0 ± 0.01 µg/mL. Este es el primer reporte sobre la composición del aceite de rizoma, así como de las propiedades antimicrobianas d e los aceites escenciales de A. menghaiensis . El artículo discute el análisis comparativo de los aceites escenciales de A. menghaiensis .


Subject(s)
Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Alpinia/chemistry , Vietnam , Chromatography, Gas/methods , Alpinia/drug effects , Anti-Infective Agents/chemistry
7.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e256944, 2024. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1364507

ABSTRACT

In order to ensure the timely and uninterrupted supply of medicinal plant raw materials, the methods of cultivation of plant cell cultures, namely, the production of plant root cultures, are relevant. In this paper, the geroprotective potential of Hedysarum neglectum Ledeb and Panax ginseng C. A. Mey root cultures is studied. They were cultured under in vitro conditions by transforming the rhizome (H. neglectum) and seed seedlings (P. ginseng) with Agrobacterium rhizogenes 15834 Swiss. To identify the geroprotective potential, the antimicrobial disc-diffusion method and the antioxidant activity were analyzed by titration of KMnO4 extracts of plant root cultures. The qualitative and quantitative composition was analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography, thin-layer chromatography, and gas chromatography with mass spectrometry. In the course of the work, the presence of antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of plant root culture extracts was established. Biologically active substances contained in extracts of Hedysarum neglectum Ledeb root crops and Panax ginseng C. A. Mey are characterized by geroprotective potential, so they can act as a source of natural antioxidants in the functional nutrition of the geroprotective orientation.


Para garantir o abastecimento em tempo e ininterrupto de matérias-primas de plantas medicinais, são relevantes os métodos de cultivo de culturas de células vegetais, nomeadamente a produção de culturas de raízes vegetais. Neste trabalho, foi estudado o potencial geroprotetor de culturas de raízes de Hedysarum neglectum Ledeb e Panax ginseng C. A. Mey. Eles foram cultivados em condições in vitro pela transformação do rizoma (H. neglectum) e mudas de sementes (P. ginseng) com Agrobacterium rhizogenes 15834 Swiss. Para identificar o potencial geroprotetor, o método antimicrobiano de difusão em disco e a atividade antioxidante foram analisados por titulação de extratos de KMnO4 de raízes de plantas. A composição qualitativa e quantitativa foi analisada por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência, cromatografia em camada delgada e cromatografia gasosa com espectrometria de massa. No decorrer do trabalho, foi constatada a presença de atividade antimicrobiana e antioxidante dos extratos de raízes de plantas. Substâncias biologicamente ativas contidas em extratos de raízes de H. neglectum Ledeb e P. ginseng C. A. Mey são caracterizadas pelo potencial geroprotetor, podendo atuar como fonte de antioxidantes naturais na nutrição funcional da orientação geroprotetora.


Subject(s)
Plants, Medicinal , Plant Roots , Panax , Anti-Infective Agents , Antioxidants
8.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e257070, 2024. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1360228

ABSTRACT

Nanoparticles (NPs) are insoluble particles with a diameter of fewer than 100 nanometers. Two main methods have been utilized in orthodontic therapy to avoid microbial adherence or enamel demineralization. Certain NPs are included in orthodontic adhesives or acrylic resins (fluorohydroxyapatite, fluorapatite, hydroxyapatite, SiO2, TiO2, silver, nanofillers), and NPs (i.e., a thin layer of nitrogen-doped TiO2 on the bracket surfaces) are coated on the surfaces of orthodontic equipment. Although using NPs in orthodontics may open up modern facilities, prior research looked at antibacterial or physical characteristics for a limited period of time, ranging from one day to several weeks, and the limits of in vitro studies must be understood. The long-term effectiveness of nanotechnology-based orthodontic materials has not yet been conclusively confirmed and needs further study, as well as potential safety concerns (toxic effects) associated with NP size.


Nanopartículas (NPs) são partículas insolúveis com diâmetro inferior a 100 nanômetros. Dois métodos principais têm sido utilizados na terapia ortodôntica para evitar a aderência microbiana ou a desmineralização do esmalte: NPs são incluídas em adesivos ortodônticos ou resinas acrílicas (fluoro-hidroxiapatita, fluorapatita, hidroxiapatita, SiO2, TiO2, prata, nanopreenchimentos) e NPs são revestidas nas superfícies de equipamentos ortodônticos, ou seja, uma camada fina de TiO2 dopado com nitrogênio nas superfícies do braquete. Embora o uso de NPs em ortodontia possa tornar acessível modernos recursos, pesquisas anteriores analisaram as características antibacterianas ou físicas por um período limitado de tempo, variando de 24 horas a várias semanas, por isso devem ser compreendidos os limites dos estudos in vitro. A eficácia de longo prazo de materiais ortodônticos com base em nanotecnologia ainda não foi confirmada de forma conclusiva, o que exige mais estudos, bem como potenciais preocupações de segurança (efeitos tóxicos) associadas ao tamanho da NP.


Subject(s)
Orthodontics , Demineralization , Dental Enamel , Nanoparticles , Anti-Infective Agents
9.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UNISALUD, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1560681

ABSTRACT

Las resistencias bacterianas a antimicrobianos representan uno de los principales problemas en la actualidad, encontrándose dentro de las principales causas de muerte en todo el mundo. Latinoamérica y Argentina, lejos de ser una excepción,presentan incidencias crecientes de infecciones por gérmenes resistentes. Cada día, se conocen mejor los mecanismos de resistencia que presentan los bacilos gram negativos y algunos cocos positivos. El problema no surge sólo por el sobreuso de antimicrobianos en la medicina clínica. Su sobreutilización para maximizar los beneficios productivos en la pesca, la ganadería y la agricultura contribuyen a esta situación. Desde la perspectiva de la atención primaria de la salud,consideramos fundamental conocer todos los aspectos que forman parte de esta problemática para intentar mitigar el daño que las resistencias bacterianas generan a nivel global. Argentina se transformó en el primer país de la región y del continente en contar con una ley para prevenir y controlar la resistencia a los Antimicrobianos. Consideramos de vital importancia que se fomenten más y mejores políticas sanitarias de orden público para enfrentar este creciente desafío. (AU)


Nowadays, bacterial resistance to antimicrobials is one of the main problems, being one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Latin America and Argentina, far from being an exception, have an increasing incidence of infections by resistant germs. Every day, the resistance mechanisms of gram-negative bacilli and some positive cocci are better known. The problem does not arise only because of the overuse of antimicrobials in clinical medicine. Its overuse to maximize productive benefits in fishing, livestock, and agriculture also contributes to this issue. From the perspective of primary health care,it is essential to know all the aspects of this problem to mitigate the damage that bacterial resistance generates at a global level. Argentina became the first country in the region and the continent to have a law to prevent and control antimicrobial resistance. We consider it vitally important that more and better public health policies are promoted to face this growing challenge. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Bacterial Infections/prevention & control , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Hand Disinfection , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Drug Therapy/methods , Prescription Drug Misuse , Anti-Infective Agents/history
10.
Actual. SIDA. infectol ; 31(113): 11-18, 20230000. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1527283

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La emergencia y diseminación de la re-sistencia a antimicrobianos está vinculada en parte al abuso y/o mal uso de los mismos. La propagación del SARS-CoV-2 implicó un mayor consumo de antibióticos. El objetivo de este trabajo fue analizar los mecanismos de resistencia a betalactámicos (MRB) en bacilos Gram negativos (BGN) y la resistencia a amikacina (R AKN) en Acinetobacter baumannii.Métodos: Se realizó un estudio retrospectivo descriptivo de 2863 muestras con aislamientos de BGN remitidas al sector de Bacteriología del hospital de mayo 2019 a abril 2022. Se definieron tres períodos: mayo 2019-abril 2020 (P0), mayo 2020-abril 2021 (P1) y mayo 2021-abril 2022 (P2).Resultados: En P0 se halló un 15% de MRB. En P1, un 17,7% y en P2, un 21%. La combinación de BLEE+MBL se encontró en un aislamiento de P0, en dos de P1 y en 13 de P2. KPC+MBL se halló en nueve aislamientos de P2. La R AKN en A. baumannii fue de 20,8% en P0, 29,8% en P1 y 42,7% en P2.Conclusiones: Hubo un aumento significativo de aisla-mientos de BGN con MRB. BLEE fue el MRB más frecuente y Klebsiella sp. el microorganismo con MRB aislado con mayor frecuencia. En P2 se observó un aumento de aisla-mientos con combinación de MRB. Se observó diferencia significativa en la R AKN en A. baumannii entre P0 y P2. Con la pandemia de COVID-19 aumentó la cantidad de BGN con MRB y la R AKN en A. baumannii


Introduction: emergency and disemination of antimicrobial resistance is partly linked to abusive or wrong usage of them. The spread of SARS-CoV-2 implied a rise in antibiotics consumption. The aim of this study was to analize the mechanisms of resistance to beta lactams (MRB) in Gram negative bacilli (BGN) and amikacin resistance (R AKN) in Acinetobacter baumannii.Methods: a retrospective, descriptive study was made on 2863 samples with BGN isolates which were remitted to the bacteriology laboratory from May 2019 to April 2022. 3 periods were defined: May 2019 - April 2020 (P0). May 2020 - April 2021 (P1) and May 2021 - April 2022 (P2).Results: in P0, 15% had MRB. In P1, 17,7% and in P2, 21%. Combination of BLEE+MBL was found in 1 isolate of P0, in 2 of P1 and in 13 of P2. KPC+MBL was found in 9 isolates of P2. R AKN in A. baumannii was 20.8% in P0, 29.8% in P1 and 42.7% in P2.Conclusion: there was a significant increase in BGN isolates with MRB. BLEE was the most frequent MRB and Klebsiella sp. the most frequently isolated microorganism with MRB. A significant difference was observed in R AKN in A. baumanii between P0 and P2. After COVID-19 pandemic, there was an increase in the number of BGN with MRB and in R AKN in A. baumannii


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Drug Resistance , COVID-19 , Gram-Negative Bacteria , Anti-Infective Agents/therapeutic use
11.
Rev. enferm. UERJ ; 31: e75415, jan. -dez. 2023.
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1526911

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: analisar a gestão de riscos proativa do processo de administração de anti-infecciosos em Unidade de Terapia Intensiva. Método: estudo qualitativo, em pesquisa-ação, com observação participante e grupo focal, realizado de 2019 a 2021. Foi mapeado o processo, analisados os riscos, planejadas ações de melhorias e redesenhado o processo. Resultados: a prescrição ocorria em sistema eletrônico e os registros da administração em impressos. O processo de administração de anti-infecciosos possuía 19 atividades, dois subprocessos, 16 modos de falhas e 23 causas potenciais. Os modos de falhas foram relacionados à assepsia e erro de dose no preparo de anti-infecciosos e as causas apontadas foram a falha humana na violação das técnicas e o lapso de memória. Cinco especialistas redesenharam o processo resultando em alterações de atividades e no sistema. Conclusão: a gestão de riscos proativa aplicada ao processo de administração de anti-infecciosos propiciou identificar riscos, suas causas e priorizar ações de melhorias, o que pode viabilizar tomadas de decisões apropriadas(AU)


Objective: to analyze the proactive risk management of the anti-infective administration process in an Intensive Care Unit. Method: qualitative study, in action research, with participant observation and focus group, from 2019 to 2021. The process was mapped, risks analyzed, improvement actions planned and the process redesigned. Results: the prescription occurred in an electronic system and the administration records in printed form. The anti-infective administration process had 19 activities, two sub-processes, 16 failure modes and 23 potential causes. The failure modes were related to asepsis and dose error in the preparation of anti-infectives and the identified causes were human error in violating techniques and memory lapse. Five specialists redesigned the process resulting in changes in activities and in the system. Conclusion: proactive risk management applied to the anti-infective administration process was effective in identifying risks, their causes and prioritizing improvement actions(AU)


Objetivo: analizar la gestión proactiva de riesgos del proceso de administración de antiinfecciosos en una Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos. Método: estudio cualitativo, en investigación-acción, con observación participante y grupo focal, que tuvo lugar del 2019 al 2021. Se mapeó el proceso, se analizaron los riesgos, se planificaron acciones de mejora y se rediseñó el proceso. Resultados: la prescripción ocurrió en sistema electrónico y los registros de administración en forma impresa. El proceso de administración de antiinfecciosos tuvo 19 actividades, dos subprocesos, 16 modos de falla y 23 causas potenciales. Los modos de falla estuvieron relacionados con la asepsia y error de dosis en la preparación de antiinfecciosos y las causas identificadas fueron error humano por violación de técnicas y lapsus de memoria. Cinco especialistas rediseñaron el proceso generando cambios en las actividades y en el sistema. Conclusión: la gestión proactiva de riesgos aplicada al proceso de administración de antiinfecciosos fue efectiva para identificar riesgos, sus causas y priorizar acciones de mejora, lo que puede factibilizar la toma de decisiones adecuadasa(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Risk Management/standards , Licensed Practical Nurses , Healthcare Failure Mode and Effect Analysis , Intensive Care Units , Anti-Infective Agents/administration & dosage , Nurses , Qualitative Research , Health Services Research , Hospitals, Public , Hospitals, University
12.
Rev. Ciênc. Saúde ; 13(2): 19-24, Junho 2023.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1444164

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Avaliar o valor preditivo da colonização prévia por Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB) e Pseudomonas aeruginosa (CRPA) resistente a carbapenêmicos estabelecida em culturas de vigilância para infecção subsequente por esses patógenos em pacientes internados em UTI. Métodos: Foi realizado um estudo de coorte com pacientes internados na unidade de terapia intensiva por pelo menos 48 h. Foram medidos os valores preditivos negativos e positivos, sensibilidade e especificidade das culturas de vigilância em CRAB e CRPA. Resultados: Foram incluídos 693 pacientes infectados. Pacientes previamente colonizados por CRAB e CRPA tiveram maior probabilidade de serem infectados por esses patógenos: OR ajustado: 10,34 (6,58 - 16,45; p < 0,001) e 2,30 (3,88 - 10,26; p < 0,001), respectivamente. Encontramos altos valores preditivos negativos de culturas de vigilância para CRAB (87,18%) e CRPA (88,30%) e alta especificidade 91,96% e 90,13%, respectivamente. Conclusões: Pacientes não colonizados por CRAB e CRPA mostraram-se menos propensos à infecção por esses patógenos. Esses achados podem contribuir para a escolha da terapia antimicrobiana empírica e desencorajar a prescrição de antibióticos contra esses patógenos em pacientes sem colonização prévia.


Objective: To assess the predictive value of prior carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (CRPA) colonization established in surveillance cultures for subsequent infection by these pathogens in ICU patients. Methods: A cohort study was performed with patients admitted to the intensive care unit for at least 48 h. Negative and positive predictive values, sensitivity, and specificity of surveillance cultures in CRAB and CRPA were measured. Results: 693 infected patients were included. Patients previously colonized by CRAB and CRPA were more likely to be infected by these pathogens: adjusted OR: 10.34 (6.58 - 16.45; p < 0.001) and 2.30 (3.88 - 10.26; p < 0.001), respectively. We found high negative predictive values of surveillance cultures for CRAB (87.18%) and CRPA (88.30%) and high specificity 91.96% and 90.13%, respectively. Conclusions: Patients not colonized by CRAB and CRPA were less prone to infection by these pathogens. These findings may contribute to the choice of empirical antimicrobial therapy and discourage the prescription of antibiotics against these pathogens in patients without previous colonization.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Pharmacologic Actions , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Noxae , Predictive Value of Tests , Anti-Infective Agents
14.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 40(4): 334-341, ago. 2023. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1521846

ABSTRACT

El uso preventivo de antimicrobianos es de larga data y no se restringe a antibacterianos. Lo más consensuado y estructurado es la profilaxis antimicrobiana perioperatoria y ante procedimientos invasivos. Fuera de este contexto hay gran cantidad de situaciones, menos caracterizadas, con riesgo de infecciones en que se usan ampliamente, muchas veces con menor sistematización. Esta presentación presenta las bases conceptuales y operativas de este segundo tipo de profilaxis. Conceptualmente la profilaxis primaria pretende evitar la infección por agente único conocido o variados, por exposición ambiental o susceptibilidad específica de ese hospedero y es implementable antes o después de la exposición. Producida esta infección la meta de la profilaxis secundaria intenta evitar la enfermedad y puede tomar dos modalidades, en infecciones sin evidencias de enfermedad clínica o daños, la profilaxis corresponde a "tratamiento de infección latente" y, si aún en ausencia de manifestaciones clínicas, hay elementos de laboratorio precoces premonitorios de progresión, la profilaxis se denomina "tratamiento anticipatorio". Se presentan operacionalmente y resumidas las situaciones en contexto médico no invasivo con uso potencial preventivo de antimicrobianos en base a agentes posibles, situaciones ambientales de riesgo, vulnerabilidad del hospedero, medicamentos a usar, su duración y efectividad con enfoque mayoritario en medicina de adultos.


Antimicrobial use with preventive purpose probably began shortly after its therapeutic use, especially antibiotics. More consensus and sistematization exist with perioperative and invasive procedures prophylaxis. However, beyond that context, there is great number of non invasive medical situations with high risk of secondary infections either by acquisition of pathogens or activation of latent ones, in which antimicrobials are routinely used with preventive purpose, albeit with less sistematization and consensus. This presentation aims to lay down the conceptual and operational basis for antimicrobial prophylaxis in these settings, whose objective is preventing an infection (primary prophylaxis) by a known or a variety of pathogens, either by person to person transmission, enviromental exposure or particular susceptibility of the host, and can be implemented before or after exposure. If already infected, the antimicrobial prophylaxis goal is to avoid progression to disease (secondary prevention) and may take two conceptual approaches; first, without clinical disease but significant risk of progression, the modality can be called "treatment of latent infection". In the second, also clinically asymptomatic, but with premonitory laboratoy signs of impending progression present, early use of antimicrobial is called "preemptive treatment". This presentation will describe the most frequent medical situations where preventive use of antimicrobials is employed, together with the medications most consensually used, according to the host, the agent(s) and medical situation, with emphasis in adults.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infection Control/methods , Antibiotic Prophylaxis/methods , Anti-Infective Agents/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Pneumocystis/prevention & control , Tuberculosis/prevention & control , Post-Exposure Prophylaxis , Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis , Hepatitis B/prevention & control
15.
Med. infant ; 30(2): 114-121, Junio 2023. Ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UNISALUD, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1443459

ABSTRACT

Las Leucemias y linfomas constituyen las enfermedades oncológicas más frecuentes en pediatría y las bacteriemias representan infecciones graves en estos pacientes. Objetivos: describir los microorganismos aislados de sangre en pacientes con leucemia aguda o linfoma pediátrico; comparar la incidencia de aislamientos según enfermedad de base; detallar las variaciones en la incidencia de dichos aislamientos y la evolución de su resistencia antimicrobiana. Estudio retrospectivo, observacional. Se incluyeron 823 episodios de bacteriemia en 467 pacientes pediátricos, entre julio-2016 y junio-2022, dividido en tres períodos (período-1: años 2016- 2018, período-2: años 2018-2020, período-3: años 2020-2022). Se aislaron 880 microorganismos: 55,3% gram negativos (GN), 40% gram positivos (GP) y 4,7% levaduras. En GN predominaron: enterobacterias (72%) y en GP: estreptococos del grupo viridans (SGV) (34,1%). Se encontró asociación entre LLA-enterobacterias (p=0,009) y LMA-SGV (p<0,001). Hubo aumento de GN entre los períodos 1 y 3 (p=0,02) y 2 y 3 (p=0,002) y disminución de GP entre 2 y 3 (p=0,01). Se registraron los siguientes mecanismos de resistencia: BLEE (16,4%), carbapenemasas: KPC (2,5%); MBL (2,7%) y OXA (0,2%); meticilinorresistencia en Staphylococcus aureus (20%) y estafilococos coagulasa negativos (95%), vancomicina resistencia en Enterococcus spp. (39%), SGV no sensibles a penicilina (44%) y a cefotaxima (13%). Hubo aumento de MBL entre los períodos 1 y 2 (p=0,02) y una tendencia en disminución de sensibilidad a penicilina en SGV entre el 1 y 3 (p=0,058). El conocimiento dinámico y análisis de estos datos es esencial para generar estadísticas a nivel local, fundamentales para el diseño de guías de tratamientos empíricos (AU)


Leukemias and lymphomas are the most common cancers in children and bacteremia is a severe infection in these patients. Objectives: to describe the microorganisms isolated from blood in pediatric patients with acute leukemia or lymphoma; to compare the incidence of isolates according to the underlying disease; and to detail the variations in the incidence of these isolates and the evolution of their antimicrobial resistance. Retrospective, observational study. We included 823 episodes of bacteremia in 467 pediatric patients seen between July-2016 and June-2022, divided into three periods (period-1: 2016- 2018, period-2: 2018-2020, period-3: 2020-2022). A total of 880 microorganisms were isolated: 55.3% were gram-negative (GN), 40% gram-positive (GP) and 4.7% yeasts. In GN there was a predominance of: enterobacteria (72%) and in GP viridans group streptococci (VGS) (34.1%). An association was found between ALL-enterobacteria (p=0.009) and AML-VGS (p<0.001). There was an increase in GN between periods 1 and 3 (p=0.02) and 2 and 3 (p=0.002) and a decrease in GP between 2 and 3 (p=0.01). The following resistance mechanisms were recorded: BLEE (16.4%), carbapenemases: KPC (2.5%), MBL (2.7%), and OXA (0.2%); methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus (20%) and coagulase negative staphylococci (95%), vancomycin resistance in Enterococcus spp. (39%), VGS resistant to penicillin (44%) and to cefotaxime (13%). There was an increase in MBL between periods 1 and 2 (p=0.02) and a decreasing trend in penicillin sensitivity in VGS between periods 1 and 3 (p=0.058). Dynamic knowledge and analysis of these data is essential to generate statistics at the local level, which is fundamental for the design of empirical treatment guidelines (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/complications , Leukemia, Lymphoid/complications , Follow-Up Studies , Bacteremia/microbiology , Febrile Neutropenia/etiology , Lymphoma/complications , Acute Disease , Retrospective Studies , Cohort Studies , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Anti-Infective Agents/adverse effects
16.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 40(2): 105-165, abr. 2023. ilus, tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1441404

ABSTRACT

El Comité de Infecciones en Inmunocomprometidos de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología presenta aquí una actualización en el Manejo de episodios de neutropenia febril en adultos y niños con cáncer, derivado de los grandes cambios ocurridos en los últimos años en el enfrentamiento de estos pacientes. Para estos efectos, un grupo multidisciplinario desarrolló recomendaciones en relación a: su enfrentamiento inicial, exámenes de laboratorio requeridos, el tratamiento antimicrobiano inicial empírico y frente a focos infecciosos conocidos, las infecciones fúngicas invasoras y profilaxis antimicrobiana.


The Committee of Infections in Immunocompromised Patients of the Chilean Society of Infectious Diseases presents an update in the Management of febrile neutropenia in adults and children with cancer. It comes from the significant changes that occurred in recent years in the confrontation of these patients. For which a multidisciplinary task force group developed recommendations in relation to their initial handling, laboratory exams required, the initial empirical antimicrobial treatment and in front of known infectious focus, invasive fungal infections and antimicrobial prophylaxis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Adult , Consensus , Febrile Neutropenia/diagnosis , Febrile Neutropenia/drug therapy , Neoplasms/complications , Febrile Neutropenia/etiology , Anti-Infective Agents/therapeutic use
17.
Rev. Cient. CRO-RJ (Online) ; 8(1): 14-20, Jan.-Apr 2023.
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1512056

ABSTRACT

Introduction: violacein is a natural purple pigment produced by environmental bacteria that presents antimicrobial activity, particularly against Gram-positive bacteria. Intraoral halitosis (IOH) is a condition defined by the unpleasant odor emanating from the mouth, whose main source are volatile sulfur compounds, produced by Gram-negative oral bacteria on the tongue coating. In IOH treatment, antimicrobials have been indicated as chemical adjuncts, including natural products. Objective: thus, this study tested the antimicrobial activity of a violacein extract on key IOH-related bacteria (Porphyromonas gingivalis, Porphyromonas endodontalis, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Prevotella intermedia, Solobacterium moorei). Materials and Methods: bacteria were cultured in fastidious anaerobe blood agar in anaerobiosis, and 109 cells/ml suspensions were plated. Crude extract of violacein obtained from Chromobacterium violaceum was diluted in a 25% ethanol aqueous solution to 8, 4, 2, 1, 0.5 and 0.25 mg/ml. Using the disk agar diffusion method, 10 µl aliquots of each dilution were deposited on the seeded plates. Chlorohexidine (0.1%) and 25% ethanol solution were used as controls. Plates were incubated in anaerobiosis at 37°C for 72h, and the inhibition halos were recorded. Results: although chlorhexidine showed higher inhibition halos than the violacein extract, most species were inhibited at 4 and 8 mg/ml concentrations (p<0.05). P. gingivalis followed by F. nucleatum were the most affected species in relation to the other bacteria, although statistical significance was only reached for P. gingivalis (p<0.05). Conclusion: crude violacein extract from C. violaceum demonstrated antimicrobial activity against IOH-associated oral bacteria, being a potential antimicrobial to be studied as an adjunct in the control of IOH.


Introdução: a violaceína é um pigmento roxo natural produzido por bactérias ambientais que apresenta ação antimicrobiana, particularmente contra bactérias Gram-positivas. A halitose intraoral (HIO) é uma condição definida pelo odor desagradável que emana da boca, cuja principal fonte são os compostos sulfurados voláteis produzidos por bactérias Gram-negativas da saburra lingual. No tratamento da HIO, antimicrobianos têm sido indicados como adjuvantes, incluindo produtos naturais. Objetivo: assim, este estudo avaliou o potencial antimicrobiano de um extrato de violaceína em patógenos-chave da HIO (Porphyromonas gingivalis, Porphyromonas endodontalis, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Prevotella intermedia, Solobacterium moorei). Materiais e Métodos: bactérias foram cultivadas em meio ágar sangue para fastidiosos, em anaerobiose, e suspensões de 109 células/ml foram semeadas. O extrato bruto de violaceína obtido de Chromobacterium violaceum foi diluído em solução aquosa com 25% de etanol nas concentrações de 8, 4, 2, 1, 0,5 e 0,25 mg/ml. Através do método de disco difusão, 10 µl de cada diluição foram depositados nas placas semeadas. A clorexidina (0,1%) e a solução etanólica a 25% foram usadas como controles. As placas foram incubadas em anaerobiose a 37°C por 72h, e os halos de inibição foram registrados. Resultados: embora a clorexidina tenha apresentado os maiores halos de inibição do do que o extrato, a maioria das espécies foi inibida nas concentrações de 4 e 8 mg/ml (p<0,05). P. gingivalis e F. nucleatum foram as espécies mais afetadas em relação às outras bactérias, porém só foi observada significância estatística para P. gingivalis (p<0,05). Conclusão: o extrato bruto de violaceína de C. violaceum demonstrou atividade antimicrobiana contra bactérias orais associadas a HIO, sendo um potencial antimicrobiano a ser estudado como adjuvante no controle da HIO.


Subject(s)
Halitosis , Chlorhexidine , Chromobacterium , Anti-Infective Agents
18.
Rev. cuba. med. trop ; 75(1)abr. 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1550869

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La resistencia a los antimicrobianos (RAM) es una crisis de salud pública a nivel mundial. La Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) estableció una lista de bacterias resistentes priorizadas para orientar investigaciones y alternativas de mejora. Objetivo: Describir la producción científica del Perú sobre RAM de bacterias priorizadas por la Organización Mundial de la Salud, entre 2012 y 2021. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo observacional de tipo bibliométrico en revistas indexadas en Scopus durante el período 2012-2021. La selección de los estudios y la extracción de datos se realizó manualmente por duplicado. Se clasificaron las bacterias resistentes estudiadas, según las prioridades (crítica, alta y media). Resultados: Se incluyeron 118 artículos. Durante el período 2014-2021 hubo un aumento de publicaciones. El 61,9 por ciento fueron artículos publicados en inglés, 98,3 por ciento con filiación en Perú y el 77,1 por ciento fueron realizados en Lima. Se publicaron más estudios sobre las bacterias de prioridad crítica que sobre las de alta o media. El 79,7 por ciento buscó determinar la prevalencia o caracterizar y el 26,1 por ciento mencionó algún financiamiento de instituciones del país. Conclusión: La producción científica peruana sobre RAM ha aumentado en los últimos años y se cuenta con más publicaciones de bacterias de prioridad crítica. Sin embargo, estos estudios se centran en Lima y solo la cuarta parte ha sido financiada por alguna entidad peruana(AU)


Introduction: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a worldwide public health crisis. The World Health Organization (WHO) established a priority list of resistant bacteria to guide research and alternatives for improvement. Objective: To describe the scientific production of Peru on AMR of bacteria prioritized by the World Health Organization, between 2012 and 2021. Methods: Observational descriptive study of bibliometric type in journals indexed in Scopus during the period 2012-2021. The selection of studies and data extraction were performed manually in duplicate. Resistant bacteria studied were classified based on priority (critical, high, and medium). Results: A total of 118 articles were included. During the period 2014-2021, the number of publications increased. The articles published in English accounted for 61.9 percent, 98.3 percent had their affiliation in Peru, and 77.1 percent were conducted in Lima. Most publications focused on bacteria of critical priority than high and medium priority. A total of 79.7 percent sought to determine prevalence or characterize and 26.1 percent referred to funding from Peruvian institutions. Conclusions: Peruvian scientific production on AMR has increased in recent years and there are more publications on critical priority bacteria. However, these studies are centered in Lima and only a quarter of them have been financed by a Peruvian entity(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Drug Resistance, Microbial/immunology , Anti-Infective Agents/administration & dosage
19.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 22(2): 255-267, mar. 2023. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1555677

ABSTRACT

Food spoilage is a widely neglected problem and the constant use of synthetic fungicides could develop resistant fungi. The objective of this study was to evaluate the chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of Tetradenia riparialeaf essential oil against foodborne disease microorganisms. Leaf essential oil was obtained by hydrodistillation and identified by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. The antimicrobial activity was studied by broth microdilution. The major compounds identified were oxygenated sesquiterpenes (43.6%): 14-hydroxy-9-epi-(E)-cariophylene (20.8%) and τ-cadinol (18.4%); followed by oxygenated diterpenes (24.6%): 6,7-dehydroroyleanone (12.6%) and 9ß, 13ß-epoxy-7-abiethene (10.6%); sesquiterpenic hydrocarbons (17.1%) and oxygenated monoterpenes (7.4%): fenchone (5.6%). The essential oil had broad antibacterial and antifungal activity, mainly against A. versicolor and P. ochrochloron with fungistatic and fungicidal activities and B. cereus, L. monocytogenes, and S. aureuswith bacteriostatic and bactericidal activities. T. riparialeaf essential oil is a potential alternative to control microorganisms-


El deterioro de los alimentos es un problema ampliamente desatendido y el uso constante de fungicidas sintéticos podría desarrollar hongos resistentes. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la composición química y la actividad antimicrobiana del aceite esencial de hoja de Tetradenia riparia contra microorganismos patógenos transmitidos por los alimentos. El aceite esencial de hoja se obtuvo por hidrodestilación y se identificó mediante cromatografía de gases acoplada a espectrometría de masas. La actividad antimicrobiana estudiada fue por microdilución en caldo. Los compuestos principales del aceite esencial se identificaron como sesquiterpenos oxigenados (43,6%): 14-hidroxi-9-epi-(E)-cariofileno (20,8%) y τ-cadinol (18,4%); seguido de diterpenos oxigenados (24,6%): 6-7-deshidroroileanona (12,6%) y 9ß, 13ß-epoxi-7-abieteno (10,6%); hidrocarburos sesquiterpénicos (17,1%) y monoterpenos oxigenados (7,4%): fenchona (5,6%). Tenía amplia actividad antibacteriana y antifúngica, principalmente contra A. versicolor y P. ochrochloron con actividades fungistáticas y fungicidas, y principalmente contra B. cereus, L. monocytogenes y S. aureus con actividades bacteriostáticas y bactericidas. El aceite esencial de hoja de T. riparia es una alternativa potencial para controlar microorganismos.


Subject(s)
Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Lamiaceae/chemistry , Anti-Infective Agents/therapeutic use
20.
Arq. Asma, Alerg. Imunol ; 7(1): 3-22, 20230300. ilus
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1509596

ABSTRACT

O desenvolvimento e a ampliação do uso das vacinas durante décadas contribuíram para o controle e erradicação de doenças infecciosas, causando um grande impacto na saúde pública no mundo. A análise de segurança das vacinas percorre criteriosos processos e fases dos estudos clínicos, um dos pilares essenciais para aprovação regulatória e utilização do produto na população. O evento supostamente atribuído à vacinação e imunização (ESAVI), terminologia atual, é definido como qualquer ocorrência médica indesejada após a vacinação que possui, ou não, uma relação causal com o uso de uma vacina ou outro imunobiológico. Cabe ressaltar que eventos adversos mais raros ou inesperados, incluindo os eventos de hipersensibilidade, poderão ocorrer na fase pós-comercialização, quando as vacinas são aplicadas em milhões de pessoas. Neste artigo, serão discutidos os principais aspectos relacionados aos eventos adversos de hipersensibilidade pós-vacinais de interesse do especialista, e os desafios frente ao reconhecimento do agente causal e conduta a ser adotada. Além disso, serão revisados os potenciais alérgenos presentes nas vacinas de uso rotineiro para auxiliar o profissional de saúde na identificação de pacientes com potencial de risco de ESAVI por tais componentes. A atualização do conhecimento acerca da segurança e dos benefícios das vacinas pelos profissionais de saúde, sobretudo em populações especiais, contribui para condutas em imunização mais apropriadas, reduzindo o risco de exposição a um possível alérgeno em pessoas comprovadamente alérgicas às vacinas ou a alguns dos seus componentes, além de evitar contraindicações desnecessárias em eventos coincidentes ou não graves.


The expansion of vaccine use and development in recent decades has contributed to the control and eradication of infectious diseases, causing a major impact on public health worldwide. Vaccine safety analysis, which involves careful processes and clinical study, is one of the essential pillars of regulatory approval and use in the population. In current terminology, events supposedly attributable to vaccination and immunization (ESAVI) are defined as any unwanted medical occurrence after vaccination that may or may not have a causal relationship with vaccines or other immunobiologicals. It is noteworthy that rare or unexpected adverse events, including hypersensitivity, can occur during the post-marketing phase, when vaccines are administered to millions of people. In this article, we will discuss the main aspects of post-vaccine hypersensitivity events of interest to specialists and challenges to recognizing the causal agent and appropriate clinical practice. Potential allergens in routine vaccines will also be reviewed to help health professionals identify patients with a potential risk of ESAVI due to such components. Updating health professionals' knowledge about the safety and benefits of vaccines, particularly in special populations, can contribute to more appropriate clinical practice regarding immunization, reducing the risk of exposure to possible allergens in people with allergies to vaccines or their components, avoiding unnecessary contraindications in coincidental or non-serious events.


Subject(s)
Humans , Influenza Vaccines , Diphtheria-Tetanus-Pertussis Vaccine , Chickenpox Vaccine , Diphtheria-Tetanus Vaccine , Pneumococcal Vaccines , Yellow Fever Vaccine , COVID-19 Vaccines , Polyethylene Glycols , Milk Hypersensitivity , Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures , Latex Hypersensitivity , Egg Hypersensitivity , Anti-Infective Agents
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