Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 304
Filter
1.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 20(3): 215-225, may. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1342813

ABSTRACT

This review describes the geographical distribution, botanical data, popular use, chemical composition, pharmacological activities and genetic aspects related to Eugenia luschnathiana, a native Brazilian plant popularly known as "bay pitomba". E. luschnathiana leaves are characterized morphologically by the presence of a petiole, an attenuated base, acuminated apex, elliptical shape, and parallel venation. The major chemical compounds found in E. luschnathiana are sesquiterpenes. Literature reports showed that E. luschnathiana extracts have antioxidant properties and antimicrobial activity against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. The extractsfrom the leaf, fruit and stem, and a concentrated residual solution of its essential oil, displayed negligible toxicity. Lastly, a cytogenetic analysis indicated that some markers can be used for the study of genetic diversity, population structure, and genetic improvements. The information available on E. luschnathiana supports the hypothesis that this plant may be a source of compounds with promising pharmacological activity.


Esta revisión describe la distribución geográfica, datos botánicos, uso popular, composición química, actividad farmacológica y el análisis genético de Eugenia luschnathiana, una planta originaria del Brasil conocida popularmente como "pitomba da baía". Las hojas de E. luschnathiana se caracterizan por la presencia de pecíolo, base atenuada, ápice acuminado, forma elíptica y venación paralela. Su composición química presenta mayormente sesquiterpenos. Los informes en la literatura muestran que los extractos de E. luschnathiana presentan propiedades antioxidantes y actividad antimicrobiana contra las bacterias Gram-negativas y Gram-positivas. Los extractos de la hoja, fruto y tallo, y una solución residual concentrada del aceite esencial, presentaron baja toxicidad. Por último, un análisis citogenético indicó que algunos marcadores pueden utilizarse para estudios de diversidad genética, estructura poblacional y mejoramiento genético. Las informaciones disponibles acerca de E. luschnathiana proponen la hipótesis de que esta planta puede ser una fuente de compuestos con actividad farmacológica prometedora.


Subject(s)
Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Eugenia/chemistry , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Terpenes/analysis , Bacteria/drug effects , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Plant Extracts/genetics , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Eugenia/genetics , Medicine, Traditional , Anti-Infective Agents/chemistry
2.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 64: e21200106, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345494

ABSTRACT

Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial effect of the essential oils of cinnamon, cardamom, clove, oregano, and thyme and their synergism on vegetative cells and endospores of Clostridium perfringens type A inoculated in meat sausage (mortadella), as well as the influence of blends on the color, and lipid oxidation through the determination of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS index). The anticlostridial action of the oil blends was established. The two added oil blends (Treat. 1: oregano, clove, and thyme; Treat. 2: oregano, clove, and cinnamon) in combination with reduced nitrite content (75 ppm) promoted a lower growth of C. perfringens in mortadella stored at 15 °C for 21 days in comparison to treatments containing only 75 ppm of nitrite. The essential oil blends showed antioxidant action and did not alter food color, thus possessing potential application as a preservative for the meat products industry.


Subject(s)
Oils, Volatile , Endospore-Forming Bacteria , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Nitrites , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Cinnamomum zeylanicum , Dianthus , Elettaria , Origanum , Thymus Plant
3.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1284447

ABSTRACT

This paper described the chemical compositions and antimicrobial activity of the essential oils from the leaves and stem of Amomum rubidumLamxay & N. S. Lý, collected from Bidoup Nui Ba National Park, Lam Dong, Vietnam. The essential oils were obtained by hydrodisitllation method while antimicrobial activity was evaluetd by microdilution broth susceptibility assay. The main constituents of the leaf essential oil were identified as 1,8-cineole (37.7%), δ-3-carene (19.5%) and limonene (16.3%) while δ-3-carene (21.9%), limonene (17.8%) and ß-phellandrene (14.6%) dominated in the stem essentialoil. The leaf and stem essential oils displayed stronger inhibition of Pseudomonas aeruginosa with MIC of 25 µg/mLand 50 µg/mL respectively. The stem essential oil was active against Candida albicans (MIC, 50 µg/mL) while both essential oils inhibited the growth of Fusarium oxysporum (MIC 50 µg/mL). This is the first report on chemical constituents and antimicrobial activity of the essential oils of A. rubidum.


Este artículo describe la composición química y la actividad antimicrobiana de aceites esenciales de las hojas y el tallo de Amomum rubidum Lamxay & N. S. Lý recolectados del Parque Nacional Bidoup Nui Ba, Lam Dong, Vietnam. Los aceites esenciales se obtuvieron mediante el método de hidrodisitilación, mientras que la actividad antimicrobiana se evaluó mediante un ensayo de susceptibilidad de caldo de microdilución. Los principales componentes del aceite esencial de la hoja se identificaron como 1,8-cineol (37,7%), δ-3-careno (19,5%) y limoneno (16,3%), mientras que δ-3-careno (21,9%), limoneno (17,8 %) y ß-felandreno (14,6%) dominaron en el aceite esencial del tallo. Los aceites esenciales de hoja y tallo mostraron una inhibición más fuerte de Pseudomonas aeruginosa con un MIC de 25 µg/mL y 50 µg/mL, respectivamente. El aceite esencial del tallo fue activo contra Candida albicans (MIC, 50 µg/mL) mientras que ambos aceites esenciales inhibieron el crecimiento de Fusarium oxysporum (MIC 50 µg/mL). Este es el primer informe sobre los componentes químicos y la actividad antimicrobiana de los aceites esenciales de A. rubidum.


Subject(s)
Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Amomum/chemistry , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/drug effects , Candida albicans/drug effects , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Distillation , Chromatography, Gas , Plant Stems , Plant Leaves , Monoterpenes/analysis , Fusarium/drug effects , Anti-Infective Agents/chemistry
4.
Braz. dent. j ; 31(5): 485-492, Sept.-Oct. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1132341

ABSTRACT

Abstract Green chemistry has been applied in different areas due to the growing demands for renewable processes and one of them is nanotechnology. The aim of this study was to characterize a formulation containing silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) produced by a green synthesis and to evaluate its antimicrobial activity. The formulation will be used as an intracanal dressing exploiting the AgNPs' antimicrobial properties, which are crucial to prevent infections and bacterial reinfections that can compromise endodontic treatments. In the green synthesis, silver nitrate was employed as the precursor salt, maltose as a reducing agent, and gelatin as a stabilizing agent. The formulation was prepared mixing 50 % of a liquid containing the AgNPs and 50 % of hydroxyethylcellulose gel at 1.5 % with proper evaluation of the process inherent parameters. Techniques such as molecular absorption spectrometry and dynamic light scattering were used in characterization step. The antimicrobial activity of the AgNPs against Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Enterococcus faecalis NCTC 775, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 and Streptococcus mutans ATCC 25175 was verified according to National Comittee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS) by determining minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC). The obtained results indicated the formulation containing AgNPs produced by a green synthesis was properly characterized by the selected techniques. Furthermore, the formulation assessment proved that it is suitable for the proposal as well as it has potential to be used as an intracanal dressing since presented antimicrobial activity against all bacterial strains evaluated.


Resumo A química verde tem sido aplicada em diferentes áreas devido à crescente demanda por processos renováveis e uma delas é a nanotecnologia. O objetivo deste estudo foi caracterizar uma formulação contendo nanopartículas de prata (AgNPs) produzidas por meio de síntese verde e avaliar sua atividade antimicrobiana. A formulação será usada como curativo intracanal explorando as propriedades antimicrobianas das AgNPs que são cruciais para prevenir infecções e reinfecções bacterianas que podem comprometer os tratamentos endodônticos. Na síntese verde, nitrato de prata foi empregado como sal precursor, maltose como agente redutor e gelatina como agente estabilizador. A formulação foi preparada misturando-se 50% do líquido contendo as AgNPs e 50% de gel de hidroxietilcelulose a 1,5% com avaliação adequada dos parâmetros inerentes ao processo. Técnicas como espectrometria de absorção molecular e espalhamento dinâmico de luz foram usadas na etapa de caracterização. A atividade antimicrobiana das AgNPs contra Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Enterococcus faecalis NCTC 775, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 e Streptococcus mutans ATCC 25175 foi verificada de acordo com o National Comittee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS), determinando-se a concentração inibitória mínima (MIC) e a concentração bactericida mínima (MBC). Os resultados obtidos indicaram que a formulação contendo AgNPs produzidas por meio de síntese verde foi devidamente caracterizada pelas técnicas selecionadas. Além disso, a avaliação da formulação provou que ela é adequada para a proposta, bem como tem potencial para ser utilizada como curativo intracanal já que apresentou atividade antimicrobiana contra todas as cepas bacterianas avaliadas.


Subject(s)
Metal Nanoparticles , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Silver/pharmacology , Bandages , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
5.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 36(1): 223-234, jan./feb. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1049244

ABSTRACT

The Brazilian flora is known for its vast biodiversity; however, many species have been still little studied regarding to their chemical composition and biological potential. Thus, this study aimed to determine the antimicrobial, antioxidant and acaricidal activity of the extracts of leaves of Zanthoxylum caribaeum L. In addition, phytochemical screening of these extracts was carried out to determine the main classes of secondary metabolites present in Z. caribaeum. Using the Z. caribaeum leaves, aqueous and organic extracts were obtained using the following solvents (ethanol, methanol, hexane, acetone, dichloromethane and ethyl acetate). The antimicrobial activity of extracts was determined by broth microdilution method, and to detect antioxidant activity the method of capturing the free radical 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) was used. The acaricidal activity of the extracts was tested on Dermanyssus gallinae (De Geer) (Acari: Dermanissidae). Ethanolic and methanolic extracts presented antimicrobial activity for most of the bacterial strains tested, as well as for yeast Candida albicans. The ethanolic extract presented high free radical sequestration potential (71.2%) and antioxidant capacity (the lowest IC50 value - 24.39 µg mL-1). The crude extracts obtained with methanol and acetone were the most promising. In general, phytochemical screening indicated the presence of steroids, flavanones, flavones, flavonols, saponins, tannins, triterpenoids and xanthones.


A flora brasileira é conhecida pela sua vasta biodiversidade, no entanto, muitas espécies ainda são pouco estudadas quanto à composição química e ao potencial biológico. Assim, esse trabalho teve como objetivo determinar a atividade antimicrobiana, antioxidante e acaricida dos extratos vegetais das folhas de Zanthoxylum caribaeum L. Adicionalmente, foi realizada triagem fotoquímica desses extratos para determinar as principais classes de metabólitos secundários presentes em Z. caribaeum. Empregando-se as folhas de Z. caribaeum foram obtidos o extrato aquoso e orgânicos, utilizando os seguintes solventes (etanol, metanol, hexano, acetona, diclorometano e acetato de etila). A atividade antimicrobiana dos extratos foi determinada pelo método de microdiluição em caldo, e para detecção da atividade antioxidante foi empregado o método de captura do radical livre 2,2-difenil-1-picril hidrazil (DPPH). A atividade acaricida dos extratos foi avaliada frente a Dermanyssus gallinae (De Geer) (Acari: Dermanissidae). Os extratos brutos etanólico e metanólico apresentaram atividade antimicrobiana para a maioria das cepas bacterianas testadas, e também para a levedura Candida albicans. O extrato etanólico apresentou elevado potencial de sequestro de radicais livres (71,2%) e o menor valor de IC50 (24,39µg mL-1), revelando, portanto, sua capacidade antioxidante. No que se refere à atividade acaricida, os extratos obtidos com metanol e acetona foram os mais promissores. De modo geral, a triagem fitoquímica indicou a presença de esteroides, flavanonas, flavonas, flavonóis, saponinas, taninos, triterpenóides e xantonas.


Subject(s)
Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Zanthoxylum , Acaricides/pharmacology , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Plant Leaves , Salmonella enterica/drug effects , Zanthoxylum/chemistry , Mites/drug effects
6.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 53(12): e9468, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1132501

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity and toxicity of glass ionomer cement (GIC) modified with 5-methyl-2-(1-methylethyl)phenol (thymol) against Streptococcus mutans in silico and in vitro. The antimicrobial activity of thymol on GIC modified with concentrations of 2% (GIC-2) and 4% (GIC-4) was evaluated in a model of planktonic cell biofilm using agar diffusion test, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC), dynamic biofilm (continuous flow cell parallel), and bacterial kinetics. Conventional GIC (GIC-0) was used as a control. Thymol toxicity was evaluated in Artemia salina and in silico using Osiris® software. Differences between groups were estimated by analysis of variance, followed by Tukey post hoc test, with a 5% significance level. The results of the agar diffusion test between groups were not significantly different (P≥0.05). Thymol had potential bacteriostatic and bactericidal activity against Streptococcus mutans with respect to planktonic growth, with MIC of 100 µg/mL and MBC of 400 µg/mL. The groups GIC-0, GIC-2, and GIC-4 reduced the biofilm by approximately 10, 85, and 95%, respectively. Bacterial kinetics showed efficiency of the modified GICs for up to 96 h. GIC with thymol was effective against S. mutans, with significant inhibition of the biofilms. Analyses in silico and using Artemia salina resulted in no relevant toxicity, suggesting potential for use in humans. GIC-2 was effective against S. mutans biofilm, with decreased cell viability.


Subject(s)
Humans , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Streptococcus mutans , Materials Testing , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Biofilms , Glass Ionomer Cements/toxicity
7.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63: e20190408, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132168

ABSTRACT

Abstract Propolis is a resinous substance collected and processed by Apis mellifera from parts of plants, buds and exudates. In Minas Gerais (MG) state, Brazil, green propolis is produced from the collection of resinous substance found in shoot apices of Baccharis dracunculifolia. This paper aims to investigate the chemical composition and in vitro antioxidant, anti-Helicobacter pylori, antimycobacterial and antiproliferative activities of essential oil (EO) from Brazilian green propolis (BGP-EO). The oil showed high antibacterial activity against H. pylori (MIC = 6.25 µg/mL), Mycobacterium avium (MIC = 62.5 µg/mL) and M. tuberculosis (MIC = 64 µg/mL). Its antioxidant activity was evaluated in vitro by both DPPH (IC50 = 23.48 µg/mL) and ABTS (IC50 = 32.18 µg/mL) methods. The antiproliferative activity in normal (GM07492A, lung fibroblasts) and tumor cell lines (MCF-7, HeLa and M059J) was analyzed by the XTT assay. BGP-EO showed inhibition of normal cell growth at 68.93 ± 2.56 µg/mL. Antiproliferative activity was observed against human tumor cell lines, whose IC50 values were 56.17, 66.43 and -65.83 µg/mL for MCF-7, HeLa and M059J cells, respectively. Its major constituents, which were determined by GC-FID and GC-MS, were carvacrol (20.7 %), acetophenone (13.5 %), spathulenol (11.0 %), (E)-nerolidol (9.7 %) and β-caryophyllene (6.2 %). These results showed the effectiveness of BGP-EO as a natural product which has promising biological activities.


Subject(s)
Propolis/chemistry , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Brazil , Oils, Volatile/therapeutic use , Helicobacter pylori/drug effects , Mycobacterium avium/drug effects , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/drug effects
8.
J. appl. oral sci ; 27: e20180514, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1012510

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the effect of Myracrodruon urundeuva All. and Qualea grandiflora Mart. leaves hydroalcoholic extracts on viability and metabolism of a microcosm biofilm and on enamel demineralization prevention. Methodology: Microcosm biofilm was produced on bovine enamel using inoculum from pooled human saliva mixed with McBain saliva, under 0.2% sucrose exposure, for 14 days. The biofilm was daily-treated with the extracts for 1 min. At the end, it was analyzed with respect to viability by fluorescence, CFU counting and extracellular polysaccharides (phenol-sulphuric acid colorimetric assay) and lactic acid (enzymatic assay) production. The demineralization was measured by TMR. The data were compared using ANOVA or Kruskal-Wallis (p<0.05). Results: M. urundeuva All. at 100, 10 and 0.1 μg/mL and Q. grandiflora Mart. at 100 and 0.1 μg/mL reduced biofilm viability similarly to positive control (chlorhexidine) and significantly more than the negative-vehicle control (35% ethanol). M. urundeuva at 1000, 100 and 0.1 μg/mL were able to reduce both lactobacilli and mutans streptococci CFU counting, while Q. grandiflora (1000 and 1.0 μg/mL) significantly reduced mutans streptococci CFU counting. On the other hand, the natural extracts were unable to significantly reduce extracellular polysaccharides and lactic acid productions neither the development of enamel carious lesions. Conclusions: The extracts showed antimicrobial properties on microcosm biofilm, however, they had no effect on biofilm metabolism and caries protection.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Cattle , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Tooth Demineralization/prevention & control , Biofilms/drug effects , Anacardiaceae/chemistry , Myrtales/chemistry , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Polysaccharides, Bacterial/metabolism , Saliva/chemistry , Streptococcus mutans/drug effects , Microradiography/methods , Colony Count, Microbial , Cariostatic Agents/pharmacology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Reproducibility of Results , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Lactic Acid/metabolism , Dental Enamel/drug effects , Dental Enamel/microbiology , Microbial Viability/drug effects , Lactobacillus/drug effects
9.
Braz. dent. j ; 29(6): 599-605, Nov.-Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974199

ABSTRACT

Abstract The occurrence of caries lesions adjacent to restorations is a serious problem in Dentistry. Therefore, new antimicrobial restorative materials could help to prevent recurrent carious lesions. This study evaluated the effect of a new glass ionomer cement (Ion Z) on the viability of a microcosm biofilm and on the development of enamel demineralization. Enamel samples were filled with the following materials (n=9): A) Ion-Z (FGM Ltda); B) Maxxion R (FGM Ltda); C) Ketac Fil Plus (3M ESPE) and D) no restoration (control). The samples were then exposed to human saliva mixed with McBain saliva (1:50) containing 0.2% sucrose for 14 days. The live and dead bacteria were quantified by fluorescence using a confocal laser-scanning microscope. The enamel demineralization was analyzed using transverse microradiography (TMR). The data were submitted to ANOVA/Tukey or Kruskal-Wallis/Dunn test (p<0.05). Ion Z induced a higher percentage of dead bacteria (60.96±12.0%) compared to the other groups (Maxxion R: 39.8±6.7%, Ketac Fil Plus: 43.7±9.71% and control 46.3±9.5%). All materials significantly reduced the average mineral loss compared to control (Ion-Z 25.0±4.2%vol, Maxxion R 23.4±8.0%vol, Ketac Fil Plus 30.7±7.7 and control 41.2±6.6%vol). Ion-Z was the only material able to significantly improve the mineral content at the surface layer (Zmax: 63.5±18.2%vol) compared to control (38.9±11.3%vol). Ion-Z shows antimicrobial potential, but its anti-caries effect was similar to the other materials, under this model.


Resumo A ocorrência de lesões de cárie adjacentes a restaurações é um sério problema na Odontologia. Portanto, novos materiais restauradores antimicrobianos poderiam ajudar a prevenir as lesões cariosas recorrentes. Este estudo avaliou o efeito de um novo cimento de ionômero de vidro (Ion Z) sobre a viabilidade de um biofilme microcosmo e o desenvolvimento da desmineralização do esmalte. Amostras de esmalte foram restauradas com os seguintes materiais (n=9): A) Ion-Z (FGM Ltda); B) Maxxion R (FGM Ltda); C) Ketac Fil Plus (3M ESPE) e D) sem restauração (controle). As amostras foram submetidas a uma mistura de saliva humana com saliva de McBain (1:50) contendo sacarose a 0,2% por 14 dias. As bactérias vivas e mortas foram quantificadas por fluorescência usando um microscópio confocal de varredura à laser. A desmineralização do esmalte foi analisada usando microradiografia transversal (TMR). Os dados foram submetidos aos testes ANOVA/Tukey ou Kruskal-Wallis/Dunn (p<0,05). O Ion Z induziu uma porcentagem mais elevada de bactérias mortas (60,96 ± 12,0%) comparado aos outros grupos (Maxxion R: 39,8 ± 6,7%, Ketac Fil Plus: 43,7 ± 9,71% e controle 46,3 ± 9,5%). Todos os materiais reduziram significativamente a perda mineral média em relação ao controle (Ion-Z 25,0 ± 4,2% vol, Maxxion R 23,4 ± 8,0% vol, Ketac Fil Plus 30,7 ± 7,7% vol e controle 41,2 ± 6,6% vol). O Ion-Z foi o único material capaz de melhorar significativamente o conteúdo mineral na camada superficial (Zmax: 63,5 ± 18,2% vol) em comparação com o controle (38,9 ± 11,3% vol). Ion-Z mostrou potencial antimicrobiano, mas seu efeito anti-cárie foi semelhante aos outros materiais, sob este modelo.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Cariostatic Agents/pharmacology , Biofilms/drug effects , Dental Enamel/drug effects , Dental Restoration, Permanent , Glass Ionomer Cements/pharmacology , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Saliva/microbiology , Streptococcus mutans , Surface Properties , In Vitro Techniques , Materials Testing , Brazil , Cattle , Streptococcus sobrinus , Maleates
10.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1007328

ABSTRACT

Propolis is a substance manufactured by Apis mellifera and has been widely used in folk medicine due to its high concentration of bioactive compounds. The purpose of the following study was to characterize and evaluate in vitro the antimicrobial properties of propolis on clinical samples and ATCC strains. The chemical characterization of propolis presents a concentration of total polyphenols of 247 ± 9 mg EAG g-1 MS, flavones and flavonols 75± 4 mg EQ g-1 MS, flavanonones and flavanonols 118 ± 11 EP g-1 MS. HPLC-DAD identified apigenin, galangin, phenethyl ester of caffeic acid and pinocembrin, in addition to 16 compounds by HPLC MS/MS. Chilean propolis is a natural antimicrobial, showing effectiveness in strains ATCC Staphylococcus aureus, Candida albicans, Trichophyton rubrum and clinical samples of Staphylococcus aureus unlike Escherichia coli. These results demonstrate the antimicrobial effectiveness of the synergy of compounds present in propolis against different human pathogens.


El propóleos es una substancia fabricada por Apis mellifera y ha sido utilizado ampliamente en la medicina popular debido a su alta concentración de compuestos bioactivos. El propósito del siguiente estudio fue caracterizar y evaluar in vitro las propiedades antimicrobianas del propóleos sobre muestras clínicas y cepas ATCC. La caracterización química de propóleos presenta una concentración de polifenoles totales de 247 ± 9 mg EAG g-1 de MS, flavonas y flavonoles 75 ± 4 mg EQ g-1 de MS, flavanononas y flavanonoles 118 ± 11 EP g-1 de MS. Mediante HPLC-DAD se identificó apigenina, galangina, fenetil éster del ácido cafeico y pinocembrina, además de 16 compuestos mediante HPLC MS/MS. El propóleos chileno es un antimicrobiano natural, observándose efectividad en cepas ATCC Staphylococcus aureus, Candida albicans, Trichophyton rubrum y muestras clínicas de Staphylococcus aureus a diferencia de Escherichia coli. Estos resultados demuestran la efectividad antimicrobiana de la sinergia de compuestos presentes en el propóleos ante diferentes patógenos humanos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Propolis/pharmacology , Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Candida albicans/drug effects , Escherichia coli/drug effects , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Pharynx/microbiology , Propolis/chemistry , Trichophyton/drug effects , Flavonoids/analysis , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Apis mellifica , Chile , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Escherichia coli/drug effects , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Anti-Infective Agents/chemistry , Mouth/microbiology
11.
Braz. j. biol ; 78(4): 661-666, Nov. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951610

ABSTRACT

Abstract Mastitis is an inflammatory process of the udder tissue caused mainly by the bacteria Staphylococcus aureus. The indiscriminate use of antibiotics fosters conditions that favor the selection of resistant microorganisms, suppressing at the same time susceptible forms, causing a serious problem in dairy cattle. Given the importance in performing an antibiogram to select the most adequate antimicrobial therapy, the aim of this study was to identify bacteria isolated from cow's milk with mastitis, in dairy farms situated in the city of Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, and to determinate the susceptibility profile of these isolates against the antibiotics used to treat this illness. A total of 30 isolates of Staphylococcus spp., were selected from milk samples from the udder quarters with subclinical mastitis whose species were identified through the Vitek system. The susceptibility profile was performed by the disk diffusion assay, against: ampicillin, amoxicillin, bacitracin, cephalexin, ceftiofur, enrofloxacin, gentamicin, neomycin, norfloxacin, penicillin G, tetracycline and trimethoprim. In the antibiogram, 100.0% of the isolates were resistant to trimethoprim and 96.7% to tetracycline and neomycin, three strains of Staphylococcus spp., (10.0%) presented resistance to the 12 antibiotics tested and 24 (80.0%) to at least eight. These results showed the difficulty in treating mastitis, due to the pathogens' resistance.


Resumo A mastite se constitui no processo inflamatório da glândula mamária causada principalmente por bactérias Staphylococcus aureus. O uso indiscriminado dos antibióticos promove condições que favorecem a seleção de micro-organismos resistentes e, ao mesmo tempo, suprime formas suscetíveis, causando um grave problema para a bovinocultura leiteira. Tendo em vista a importância da realização do antibiograma para a seleção da terapia antimicrobiana mais adequada, o objetivo deste estudo foi identificar bactérias isoladas de leite de vaca com mastite, oriundas de propriedades leiteiras localizadas na cidade de Pelotas, RS, bem como determinar o perfil de suscetibilidade desses isolados frente a antibióticos usados para o tratamento desta doença. Foram selecionados 30 isolados de Staphylococcus spp. de amostras de leite provenientes de quartos mamários com mastite subclínica, cujas espécies foram identificadas através do sistema Vitek. O perfil de suscetibilidade foi realizado pela técnica de difusão em disco, frente a: ampicilina, amoxicilina, bacitracina, cefalexina, ceftiofur, enrofloxacina, gentamicina, neomicina, norfloxacina, penicilina G, tetraciclina e trimetoprima. No antibiograma, 100,0% dos isolados foram resistentes a trimetoprima e 96,7% a tetraciclina e a neomicina, três cepas (10,0%) foram resistentes aos 12 antibióticos testados e 24 (80,0%) a pelo menos oito. Esses resultados demonstram a dificuldade encontrada no tratamento da mastite devido à resistência dos agentes patológicos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Staphylococcal Infections/microbiology , Staphylococcus/drug effects , Dairying , Drug Resistance, Bacterial/drug effects , Milk/microbiology , Mastitis, Bovine/microbiology , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Staphylococcal Infections/drug therapy , Staphylococcal Infections/transmission , Cattle , Animal Husbandry , Mastitis, Bovine/drug therapy , Mastitis, Bovine/transmission
12.
Braz. j. biol ; 78(4): 601-608, Nov. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951599

ABSTRACT

Abstract This work describes the preliminary evaluation of cytotoxic, antimicrobial, molluscicidal, antioxidant and anticholinesterase activities from leaf (LECF) and stem bark alcoholic extracts (BECF) of the species Croton floribundus Spreng. (Euphorbiaceae), popularly known as capixingui or tapixingui. BECF presented significant toxicity (LC50 = 89.6 μg/ml) in the Artemia salina Leach, 1819 (Crustacea: Branchiopoda) bioassay, whereas LECF did not show activity (LC50 > 1000 μg/ml). From DPPH method, the values of IC50 for the LECF and BECF were 61.2 μg/ml and 62.2 μg/ml, respectively, showing that C. floribundus has an expressive antioxidant activity. Antimicrobial susceptibility was evaluated by microdilution technique and only BECF was active against Staphylococcus aureus (MIC = 39.6 μg/ml). The extracts did not present molluscicidal activity against snail Biomphalaria glabrata Say, 1818 (Gastropoda: Planorbidae). Both extracts revealed the presence of several components with an inhibiting capacity of acetylcholinesterase enzyme on the bioautographic assay. C. floribundus showed to be a promising species considering that it exhibited good biological activity in the most assays performed.


Resumo Este trabalho descreve a avaliação preliminar das atividades citotóxica, antimicrobiana, moluscicida, antioxidante e anticolinesterásica de extratos alcoólicos das folhas (LECF) e das cascas do caule (BECF) da espécie Croton floribundus Spreng. (Euphorbiaceae), popularmente conhecida como capixingui ou tapixingui. No bioensaio com Artemia salina Leach, 1819 (Crustacea: Branchiopoda), BECF apresentou toxicidade significante (LC50 = 89,6 µg/ml), enquanto que LECF não apresentou atividade (LC50 > 1000 µg/ml). A partir do método de DPPH, os valores de IC50 para o LECF e BECF foram 61,2 µg/ml e 62,2 µg/ml, respectivamente, evidenciando que C. floribundus tem uma atividade antioxidante expressiva. A susceptibilidade antimicrobiana foi avaliada pela técnica de microdiluição e apenas BECF foi ativo contra Staphylococcus aureus (MIC = 39,6 mg/ml). Os extratos não apresentaram atividade moluscicida contra o caramujo Biomphalaria glabrata Say, 1818 (Gastropoda: Planorbidae). Ambos os extratos revelaram a presença de componentes com capacidade inibidora da enzima acetilcolinesterase no ensaio bioautográfico. C. floribundus mostrou ser uma espécie promissora considerando que exibiu boa atividade biológica na maioria dos ensaios testados.


Subject(s)
Animals , Artemia/drug effects , Biomphalaria/drug effects , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Croton/chemistry , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Plant Stems/chemistry , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Phytochemicals/analysis , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Antioxidants/pharmacology
13.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 22(4): 323-327, July-Aug. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974230

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT This study assessed the microbiology, clinical syndromes, and outcomes of oncologic patients with viridans group streptococci isolated from blood cultures between January 1st, 2013 and December 31st, 2016 in a referral hospital in Mexico using the Bruker MALDI Biotyper. Antimicrobial sensitivity was determined using BD Phoenix 100 according to CLSI M100 standards. Clinical information was obtained from medical records and descriptive analysis was performed.Forty-three patients were included, 22 females and 21 males, aged 42 ± 17 years. Twenty (46.5%) patients had hematological cancer and 23 (53.5%) a solid malignancy. The viridans group streptococci isolated were Streptococcus mitis, 20 (46.5%); Streptococcus anginosus, 14 (32.6%); Streptococcus sanguinis, 7 (16.3%); and Streptococcus salivarius, 2 (4.7%). The main risk factors were pyrimidine antagonist chemotherapy in 22 (51.2%) and neutropenia in 19 (44.2%) cases, respectively. Central line associated bloodstream infection was diagnosed in 18 (41.9%) cases. Septic shock occurred in 20.9% of patients, with an overall mortality of 18.6%. Only four S. mitis revealed penicillin-resistance.Our results are similar to those of other series, identifying these bacteria as emerging pathogens with significant morbidity and mortality in oncologic patients. The MALDI-TOF system increased the rate of viridans group streptococci isolation in this population.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Streptococcal Infections/complications , Bacteremia/diagnosis , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Catheter-Related Infections/diagnosis , Neoplasms/microbiology , Penicillin Resistance , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Cohort Studies , Bacteremia/microbiology , Bacteremia/epidemiology , beta-Lactam Resistance , Viridans Streptococci/isolation & purification , Viridans Streptococci/drug effects , Catheter-Related Infections/microbiology , Catheter-Related Infections/epidemiology , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology
14.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(2): 296-302, Apr.-June 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889227

ABSTRACT

Abstract The main objective of this study was to demonstrate the antimicrobial potential of the crude extract and fractions of Chenopodium ambrosioides L., popularly known as Santa-Maria herb, against microorganisms of clinical interest by the microdilution technique, and also to show the chromatographic profile of the phenolic compounds in the species. The Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of cardiotonic, anthraquinone, alkaloids, tannins and flavonoids. The analysis by HPLC-DAD revealed the presence of rutin in the crude extract (12.5 ± 0.20 mg/g), ethyl acetate (16.5 ± 0.37 mg/g) and n-butanol (8.85 ± 0.11 mg/g), whereas quercetin and chrysin were quantified in chloroform fraction (1.95 ± 0.04 and 1.04 ± 0.01 mg/g), respectively. The most promising results were obtained with the ethyl acetate fraction, which inhibited a greater number of microorganisms and presented the lowest values of MIC against Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis (MIC = 0.42 mg/mL), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MIC = 34.37 mg/mL), Paenibacillus apiarus (MIC = 4.29 mg/mL) and Paenibacillus thiaminolyticus (MIC = 4.29 mg/mL). Considering mycobacterial inhibition, the best results were obtained by chloroform fraction against M. tuberculosis, M. smegmatis, and M. avium (MIC ranging from 156.25 to 625 µg/mL). This study proves, in part, that the popular use of C. ambrosioides L. can be an effective and sustainable alternative for the prevention and treatment of diseases caused by various infectious agents.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Bacteria/drug effects , Chenopodium ambrosioides/chemistry , Phenols/pharmacology , Phytochemicals/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Anti-Infective Agents/chemistry , Anti-Infective Agents/isolation & purification , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Phenols/chemistry , Phenols/isolation & purification , Phytochemicals/chemistry , Phytochemicals/isolation & purification , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Plant Extracts/isolation & purification
15.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(2): 212-219, Apr.-June 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889241

ABSTRACT

Abstract The evolution of microorganisms resistant to many medicines has become a major challenge for the scientific community around the world. Motivated by the gravity of such a situation, the World Health Organization released a report in 2014 with the aim of providing updated information on this critical scenario. Among the most worrying microorganisms, species from the genus Candida have exhibited a high rate of resistance to antifungal drugs. Therefore, the objective of this review is to show that the use of natural products (extracts or isolated biomolecules), along with conventional antifungal therapy, can be a very promising strategy to overcome microbial multiresistance. Some promising alternatives are essential oils of Melaleuca alternifolia (mainly composed of terpinen-4-ol, a type of monoterpene), lactoferrin (a peptide isolated from milk) and chitosan (a copolymer from chitin). Such products have great potential to increase antifungal therapy efficacy, mitigate side effects and provide a wide range of action in antifungal therapy.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Biological Products/pharmacology , Candida/drug effects , Chitosan/pharmacology , Lactoferrin/pharmacology , Melaleuca/chemistry , Anti-Infective Agents/isolation & purification , Biological Products/isolation & purification , Candidiasis/drug therapy , Chitosan/isolation & purification , Lactoferrin/isolation & purification
16.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Clín. Méd ; 16(1): 59-63, 20180000. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-884999

ABSTRACT

Foi feita uma revisão sobre o uso racional de antimicrobianos em ambiente hospitalar, pois este é um dos principais desafios encontrados na terapia de infecções em ambiente hospitalar. Foram abordados os principais fatores que nos levam ao atual panorama global em relação à resistência antimicrobiana, bem como as principais estratégias para o uso racional dos antimicrobianos, de modo a garantir melhor terapêutica e menor incidência de resistência aos antimicrobianos. A racionalização de antimicrobianos é um componente-chave de uma abordagem multifacetada para a prevenção de resistência antimicrobiana. A boa gestão de antimicrobianos envolve a seleção do medicamento apropriado, otimizando sempre a dose e a duração do tratamento, utilizando bem os parâmetros de farmacodinâmica e farmacocinética, minimizando a toxicidade e as condições para a seleção de cepas bacterianas resistentes e garantindo, assim, sucesso terapêutico. Com o uso racional de antimicrobianos, podemos obter um melhor desempenho no tratamento de doenças infecciosas. Nesta revisão foi demonstrada a existência de várias estratégias de racionalização de antimicrobianos. Portanto, cabe a cada instituição estudar e analisar quais métodos devem ser implantados. Também é de fundamental importância que o prescritor analise as opções terapêuticas disponíveis e busque a individualização do tratamento, sempre visando à otimização terapêutica.(AU)


A review on antimicrobial stewardship was performed, because this is one of the leading challenges found in infectious diseases therapy in hospital settings. The major factors leading to the current global picture regarding antimicrobial resistance, and the main strategies for antimicrobial stewardship, to ensure the best treatment and lower incidence of antimicrobial resistance were discussed. Antimicrobial stewardship is a multifaceted approach considered a key component in the prevention of antimicrobial resistance. The best antimicrobial stewardship program involves selecting the appropriate medication, always optimizing its dose and duration of treatment using pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics parameters, minimizing toxicity and the conditions for selecting resistant bacterial strains, and ensuring treatment success. The rational use of antimicrobials can lead to more success in the treatment of infectious diseases. This review shows several strategies for antimicrobial stewardship. Therefore, it is up to each institution to study and analyze which method should be implemented. It is also crucial that the prescriber reviews the therapeutic options available to seek individualization of treatment, always aiming at therapy optimization.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacokinetics , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacokinetics , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Cross Infection , Drug Resistance, Fungal , Drug Utilization/trends
17.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 22(2): 129-136, Mar.-Apr. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951633

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: Biofilm production is an important mechanism for the survival of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and its relationship with antimicrobial resistance represents a challenge for patient therapeutics. P. aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen frequently associated to nosocomial infections, especially in imunocompromised hosts. Objectives: Analyze the phenotypic biofilm production in P. aeruginosa isolates, describe clonal profiles, and analyze quorum sensing (QS) genes and the occurrence of mutations in the LasR protein of non-biofilm producing isolates. Methods: Isolates were tested for biofilm production by measuring cells adherence to the microtiter plates. Clonal profile analysis was carried out through ERIC-PCR, QS genes were by specific PCR. Results: The results showed that 77.5% of the isolates were considered biofilm producers. The results of genotyping showed 38 distinct genetic profiles. As for the occurrence of the genes, 100% of the isolates presented the lasR, rhlI and rhlR genes, and 97.5%, presented the lasI gene. In this study nine isolates were not biofilm producers. However, all presented the QS genes. Amplicons related to genes were sequenced in three of the nine non-biofilm-producing isolates (all presenting different genetic similarity profile) and aligned to the sequences of those genes in P. aeruginosa strain PAO1 (standard biofilm-producing strain). Alignment analysis showed an insertion of three nucleotides (T, C and G) causing the addition of an amino acid valine in the sequence of the LasR protein, in position 53. Conclusion: The modeling of the resulting LasR protein showed a conformational change in its structure, suggesting that this might be the reason why these isolates are unable to produce biofilm.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/physiology , Pseudomonas Infections/microbiology , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Trans-Activators/genetics , Biofilms/growth & development , Biofilms/drug effects , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/drug effects , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/chemistry , Pseudomonas Infections/drug therapy , Bacterial Proteins/chemistry , Trans-Activators/chemistry , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Cross Infection , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
18.
Braz. j. biol ; 78(1): 53-60, Feb. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888834

ABSTRACT

Abstract The essential oils are extracted from plant compounds and can present activities antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. The goals of the present study were: (a) to determine the chemical composition of the essential oil of Guarea kunthiana A. Juss using the method of gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS); (b) to evaluate the antimicrobial potential of this oil using the broth microdilution method against different microorganisms: five Gram-negative bacteria, four Gram-positive bacteria and a yeast and (c) to determine the antioxidant activity of the oil using the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) free radical assay. The GC-MS analyses allowed identifying 13 constituents, representing 96.52% of the essencial oil composition. The main compounds identified were α-zingiberene (34.48%), β-sesquiphellandrene (22.90%), and α-curcumene (16.17%). With respect to the antimicrobial activity, the essential oil was effective against all the microorganisms tested, except for the bacteria E. coli and K. pneumoniae, which were resistant to the action of the oil. From a general point of view, Gram-positive bacteria were more susceptible to the action of the essential oil than Gram-negative bacteria. The essential oil exhibited antioxidant potential.


Resumo Os óleos essenciais são compostos extraídos de plantas e podem apresentar propriedades antimicrobianas e antioxidantes. O objetivo deste trabalho foi (a) determinar a composição química do óleo essencial de Guarea kunthiana A. Juss pelo método de cromatografia gasosa acoplada à espectrometria de massas (CG-EM); (b) avaliar o potencial antimicrobiano deste óleo pelo método de microdiluição em caldo frente a diferentes micro-organismos, sendo cinco bactérias Gram-negativas, quatro Gram-positivas uma levedura e (c) por fim, determinar a atividade antioxidante do óleo pelo método de captura do radical livre 2,2-difenil-1-picril hidrazil (DPPH). As análises de CG-EM resultaram na identificação de 13 constituintes, representando 96,52% da composição do óleo essencial. Os principais compostos identificados foram α-Zingibereno (34,48%), β-Sesquifelandreno (22,90%) e α-Curcumeno (16,17%). Em relação à atividade antimicrobiana, o óleo essencial foi efetivo frente a todos os micro-organismos testados exceto para as bactérias E. coli e K. pneumoniae, as quais se apresentaram resistentes à ação do óleo. Em geral, as bactérias Gram-positivas foram mais suscetíveis à ação do óleo essencial em relação às Gram-negativas. O óleo essencial apresentou potencial.


Subject(s)
Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Meliaceae/chemistry , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Infective Agents/chemistry , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Antioxidants/chemistry , Picrates , Bacteria/drug effects , Biphenyl Compounds
19.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(supl.1): 128-139, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974327

ABSTRACT

Abstract Pyroligneous extract is applied in diverse areas as an antioxidant, an antimicrobial, and an anti-inflammatory agent. The discovery of new cost-effective antimicrobial agents of natural origin remains a challenge for the scientific community. This study aimed to conduct a systematic review and a technological forecasting of the existent evidence regarding the use of pyroligneous extract as a potential antimicrobial agent. Studies were identified through an investigation of various electronic databases: PubMed, SciFinder, Web of Science, Scopus, Scielo, Google scholar, and ProQuest. Patents were searched through INPI, Google patents, Espacenet, Patents online, USPTO, and WIPO. The literature on antimicrobial activity of pyroligneous extract are limited given the short duration of studies and variability in study design, use of pyroligneous preparations, and reports on results. However, evidence suggests the potential of pyroligneous extract as a natural antimicrobial agent. The most studied activity was the role of PE as a food preservative. However, pyroligneous extracts are also effective against pathogenic bacteria in the oral microflora and treatment of candidal infections. Further research is needed using standardized preparations of pyroligneous extracts to determine their long-term effectiveness and ability as antimicrobial agents.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Wood/chemistry , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Food Preservatives/pharmacology , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Bacteria/drug effects , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Food Preservatives/chemistry , Fungi/drug effects , Anti-Infective Agents/chemistry
20.
Bauru; s.n; 2018. 132 p. tab, graf, ilus.
Thesis in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-906807

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial and anti-caries effects of two plant extracts. The first chapter dealt with a review of the literature whose objective was to discuss the antimicrobial potential of Brazilian natural agents on the biofilm related to dental caries and gingivitis/periodontal disease. The research of the articles was carried out using PubMed. We found a total of 23 papers. Most of the studies were performed using planktonic microorganisms or under clinical trials. Nineteen articles were focused on cariogenic bacteria. From these nineteen articles, eleven were also about periodontopathogenic bacteria. Four studies addressed only periodontopathogenic bacteria. The most tested Brazilian natural agents were green propolis, essential oils of Lippia sidoides and Copaifera sp. Most of the tested agents showed similar results when compared to positive control (essential oils and extracts) or better effect than negative control (green propolis). More studies involving protocols closer to the clinical condition and the use of response variables that allows understanding the mechanism of action of natural agents are necessary before the incorporation of these natural agents into dental products. The second chapter aimed to test the effect of the hydroalcoholic extracts of Myracrodruon urundeuva All. and Qualea grandiflora Mart. leaves on the viability of the microcosm biofilm and on the prevention of enamel demineralization. The microcosm biofilm was produced on bovine enamel, using human saliva pool mixed with McBain saliva (0.2% sucrose) for 14 days. The biofilm was treated daily with the extracts for 1 min. M. urundeuva at 100, 10 and 0.1 µg/ml and Q. grandiflora at 100 and 0.1 µg/ml reduced cell viability similarly to the positive control and significantly more than negative control. M. urundeuva at 1000, 100 and 0.1 µg/ml were able to reduce the counting formation unit-CFU counting of lactobacilli sp. and Streptococcus mutans, while Q. grandiflora at 1000 and 1.0 µg/ml significantly reduced the S. mutans CFU counting. On the other hand, the natural extracts did not reduce the production of extracellular polyssacharides, lactic acid and the development of enamel caries lesions. The third chapter aimed to evaluate the effect of hydroalcoholic extracts of M. urundeuva and Q. grandiflora (alone or combined) on the viability of S. mutans biofilm and the prevention of enamel demineralization. S. mutans strain (ATCC 21175) was reactivated in BHI broth. Minimum inhibitory concentration, minimum bactericidal concentration, minimum biofilm inhibitory concentration and minimum biofilm eradication concentration were determined to choose the concentrations to be tested under the biofilm model. S. mutans biofilm (5x105 CFU/ml) was produced on bovine enamel using McBain saliva with 0.2% sucrose for 3 days. The biofilm was treated daily with the extracts for 1 min. M. urundeuva (isolated or combined) at concentrations equal or higher than 0.625 mg/ml was able to reduce the bacteria viability, whereas Q. grandiflora extract alone showed antimicrobial effect at 5 mg/ml only (p<0.05). On the other hand, none of the extracts was able to reduce the development of enamel caries lesions. Despite the tested natural extracts have antimicrobial effect; they are unable to prevent caries in enamel.(AU)


O objetivo foi avaliar os efeitos antimicrobiano e anti-cárie de dois extratos de plantas. O primeiro capítulo se referiu a uma revisão da literatura cujo objetivo foi discutir o potencial antimicrobiano dos agentes naturais brasileiros sobre o biofilme relacionado à cárie dentária e à gengivite/doença periodontal. A pesquisa dos artigos foi realizada usando o PubMed. Foram encontrados 23 trabalhos. A maioria dos estudos foi realizada utilizando microorganismos na fase planctônica ou ensaios clínicos. Dezenove artigos foram focados em bactérias cariogênicas. Dos dezenove artigos, onze também eram sobre bactérias periodontopatogênicas. Quatro estudos abordaram apenas bactérias periodontopatogênicas. Os agentes naturais brasileiros mais testados foram própolis verde, óleos essenciais de Lippia sidoides e Copaifera sp. Os agentes testados apresentaram resultados similares quando comparados ao controle positivo (óleos essenciais e extratos) ou melhor efeito que o controle negativo (própolis verde). Mais estudos próximos da condição clínica e o uso de variáveis de resposta que permitam entender o mecanismo de ação são necessários, para permitir a incorporação desses agentes naturais em produtos odontológicos. O segundo capítulo teve como objetivo testar o efeito dos extratos hidroalcoólicos de Myracrodruon urundeuva All. e Qualea grandiflora Mart. sobre a viabilidade do biofilme microcosmo e na prevenção da desmineralização do esmalte. O biofilme microcosmo foi produzido em esmalte bovino, utilizando pool de saliva humana misturada à saliva de McBain (0,2% de sacarose) durante 14 dias. O biofilme foi tratado diariamente com os extratos durante 1 min. M. urundeuva a 100, 10 e 0,1 µg/ml e Q. grandiflora a 100 e 0,1 µg/ml reduziram a viabilidade dos microrganismos de forma semelhante ao controle positivo e significativamente maior do que o controle negativo. M. urundeuva a 1000, 100 e 0,1 µg/ml foi capaz de reduzir a contagem de Unidade formadora de colônia-UFC para Lactobacilos totais e Streptococcus mutans, enquanto a Q. grandiflora a 1000 e 1,0 µg/ml reduziu significativamente a contagem de UFC para S. mutans. Os extratos naturais não conseguiram reduzir a produção de polissacarídeos extracelulares-PEC, ácido lático e o desenvolvimento da lesão cariosa em esmalte. O terceiro capítulo teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito dos extratos hidroalcoólicos de M. urundeuva. e Q. grandiflora (sozinhos ou combinados) sobre a viabilidade do biofilme de S. mutans e na prevenção da desmineralização do esmalte. Cepa de S. mutans (ATCC 21175) foi reativada em caldo BHI. Concentração inibitória mínima, concentração bactericida mínima, concentração inibitória mínima de biofilme e concentração de erradicação mínima de biofilme foram determinadas para escolher as concentrações a serem testadas sob o modelo de biofilme. O biofilme de S. mutans (5x105 CFU/ml) foi produzido em esmalte bovino, utilizando saliva de McBain com 0,2% de sacarose durante 3 dias. O biofilme foi tratado diariamente com os extratos durante 1 min. M. urundeuva (isolada ou combinada) nas concentrações iguais ou superiores a 0,625 mg/ml foi capaz de reduzir a viabilidade das bactérias, enquanto que o extrato da Q. grandflora apresentou efeito antimicrobiano somente a 5 mg/ml (p<0,05). Nenhum dos extratos reduziu o desenvolvimento da lesão da cárie. Apesar dos extratos naturais terem efeito antimicrobiano, são incapazes de prevenir o desenvolvimento da lesão cariosa em esmalte.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Cattle , Anacardiaceae/chemistry , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Biofilms/drug effects , Dental Enamel/microbiology , Magnoliopsida/chemistry , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Tooth Demineralization/prevention & control , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Microradiography , Reproducibility of Results , Saliva/microbiology , Streptococcus mutans/drug effects , Streptococcus mutans/growth & development , Time Factors
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL