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1.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2644-2655, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981222

ABSTRACT

Nearly a quarter of the world's population is infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and remains long-term asymptomatic infection. Rv2626c is a latent infection-related protein regulated by DosR of M. tuberculosis. In this study, the Rv2626c protein was prokaryotically expressed and purified, and its immunobiological characteristics were analyzed using RAW264.7 cells and mice as infection models. SDS-PAGE and Western blotting analysis showed that the Rv2626c-His fusion protein was mainly expressed in soluble form and specifically reacted with the rabbit anti-H37RV polyclonal serum. In addition, we found that the Rv2626c protein bound to the surface of RAW264.7 macrophages and up-regulated the production of NO. Moreover, the Rv2626c protein significantly induced the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-6 and MCP-1, and induced strong Th1-tendency immune response. These results may help to reveal the pathogenic mechanism of M. tuberculosis and facilitate the development of new tuberculosis vaccine.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Rabbits , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genetics , Tuberculosis , Antigens, Bacterial , Cytokines , Immunity, Cellular
2.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 4085-4097, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008013

ABSTRACT

To prepare a lipid nanoparticle (LNP)-based subunit vaccine of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) antigen EsxV and study its immunological characteristics, the LNP containing EsxV and c-di-AMP (EsxV: C: L) was prepared by thin film dispersion method, and its encapsulation rate, LNP morphology, particle size, surface charge and polyphase dispersion index were measured. BALB/c mice were immunized with EsxV: C: L by nasal drops. The levels of serum and mucosal antibodies, transcription and secretion of cytokines in lung and spleen, and the proportion of T cell subsets were detected after immunization. EsxV: C: L LNPs were obtained with uniform size and they were spherical and negatively charged. Compared with EsxV: C immunization, EsxV: C: L mucosal inoculation induced increased sIgA level in respiratory tract mucosa. Levels of IL-2 secreted from spleen and ratios of memory T cells and tissue-resident T cells in mice were also elevated. In conclusion, EsxV: C: L could induce stronger mucosal immunity and memory T cell immune responses, which may provide better protection against Mtb infection.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Antigens, Bacterial , Immunization , Nanoparticles , Vaccines, Subunit , Mice, Inbred BALB C
3.
Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine ; (12): 370-376, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935295

ABSTRACT

To explore the protective immune effect induced by mucosal delivery heparin-binding hemagglutinin (HBHA)-a candidate vaccine antigen of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Female C57BL/6 mice were between 6 and 8 weeks of age before experimental use. Thirty mice received different immunization strategies and were randomly divided into the control group, the early secreting antigen target-6 (ESAT-6) intranasal immunization group, the HBHA intranasal immunization group, the BCG priming PBS control group, or BCG priming HBHA boost group, 6 mice in each group. In order to analyzed the immune effect, the concentrations of plasma Interleukin-17A (IL-17A) and other cytokines were measured by ELISA. Quantitative real-time PCR analyses were performed to detect the relative quantity (RQ) mRNA of IL-17A in the lung. The lung tissue sections were stained to detect the formation of the tertiary lymphoid structures. The chemokines contributed to formation of the tertiary lymphoid structures were also measured. Flow cytometry was used to detect the frequency of Th1 and Th17 cells in the system. Sixty mice in the BCG priming PBS control group and the BCG priming HBHA boost group were sacrificed at different time points after infection to count the lung bacterial burden. The concentrations of plasma IL-17A and relative quantity of lung IL-17A mRNA were highest in the BCG priming HBHA boost group [(14.76±4.73) pg/mL,RQ (12.27±6.71)], which was significantly higher than the control group [(5.57±2.95) pg/mL,RQ (1.30±0.97)] (t=4.213, P<0.001; t=5.984, P<0.001), and also significantly higher than the BCG priming PBS control group [(6.81±2.18) pg/mL,RQ (1.44±1.16)] (t=3.646 P=0.001; t=6.185 P<0.001). Compared with the BCG priming PBS control group (0.38±0.38)% the frequency of spleen Th17 cells were also significantly increased (t=-0.280 , P=0.048) in the BCG-primary HBHA boost group (1.02±0.34)%. In addition, HBHA boosting could promote better formation of the tertiary lymphoid structures in the lung, and decrease the bacterial load on the early stage after BCG challenge. Collectively, mucosal delivery of HBHA can effectively enhance the protective effect after BCG vaccination, and it is a potential candidate vaccine component.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Humans , Mice , Antigens, Bacterial , Bacterial Proteins , Immunization, Secondary , Interleukin-17 , Lectins , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Tuberculosis/prevention & control , Tuberculosis Vaccines
4.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 148-159, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927700

ABSTRACT

The GapC protein of Streptococcus uberis located on the surface of bacteria is a protein with glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase activity. It participates in cellular processes and exhibits a variety of biological activities. In addition, it has good antigenicity. The aim of this study was to predict the possible B-cell epitopes of the GapC protein and verify the immunogenicity of candidate epitope peptides. The gapC gene of S. uberis isolate RF5-1 was cloned into a recombinant expression plasmid pET-28a-GapC and inducibly expressed. The purified protein was used to immunize experimental rabbits to produce anti-GapC polyclonal antibodies. The three-dimensional structure and three-dimensional location of the GapC B-cell epitopes and the homology comparison of the GapC protein and its B-cell epitopes were carried out using bioinformatics softwares. The results showed that the 44-kDa GapC protein had a good immunological reactivity. Six linear and 3 conformational dominant B-cell epitopes against the GapC protein were selected and synthesized. Three dimensional analysis indicated that the selected peptides have better antigen epitope formation potential. Rabbit anti-GapC polyclonal antibodies were generated after immunized with the purified GapC protein, and the polyclonal antibodies were used to identify the epitope peptide by an indirect ELISA. The ELISA results showed that all of the 9 epitope peptides could react with anti-GapC polyclonal antibodies with varying titers. Among them, the epitope polypeptide 266AANDSYGYTEDPIVSSD282 reacted with the polyclonal antibodies significantly stronger than with other epitope peptides. This study laid an experimental foundation for in-depth understanding of the immunological properties and utilizing effective epitopes of the GapC protein of S. uberis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Rabbits , Antigens, Bacterial/genetics , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte/genetics , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Streptococcus
7.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 63-69, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921229

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Differential diagnosis of active tuberculosis (ATB) and latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) has been a challenge for clinicians in high TB burden countries. The purpose of this study was to improve the accuracy of differential diagnosis of ATB and LTBI by using fluorescent immunospot (FluoroSpot) assay to detect specific Th1 cell immune responses. The novel mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) latency-associated antigens Rv1733c and synthetic long peptides derived from Rv1733c (Rv1733c SLP) were used based on virulence factors early secreting antigen target-6 (ESAT-6) and culture filtrate protein-10 (CFP-10).@*METHODS@#Fifty-seven ATB cases, including 20 pathogen-confirmed ATB and 37 clinically diagnosed ATB, and 36 LTBI cases, were enrolled between January and December 2017. FluoroSpot assay was used to detect the interferon γ (IFN-γ) and interleukin 2 (IL-2) secreted by the specific T cells after being stimulated with MTB virulence factors ESAT-6 and CFP-10, MTB latency-associated antigens Rv1733c and Rv1733c SLP. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to define the best cutoff value of latency-associated antigens in the use of differentiating ATB and LTBI. The sensitivity, specificity, predictive value, and likelihood ratio of ESAT-6 and CFP-10-FluoroSpot combined with latency-associated antigen in the differential diagnosis of ATB and LTBI were also calculated.@*RESULTS@#Following the stimulation with Rv1733c and Rv1733c SLP, the frequency of single IL-2-secreting T cells stimulated by Rv1733c SLP had the largest area under the ROC curve, which was 0.766. With a cutoff value of 1 (spot-forming cells [SFCs]/2.5 × 105 peripheral blood mononuclear cells) for frequency, the sensitivity and specificity of distinguishing ATB from LTBI were 72.2% and 73.7%, respectively. ESAT-6 and CFP-10-FluoroSpot detected the frequency and proportion of single IFN-γ-secreting T cells; the sensitivity and specificity of distinguishing ATB from LTBI were 82.5% and 66.7%, respectively. Combined with the frequency of single IL-2-secreting T cells stimulated by Rv1733c SLP on the basis of ESAT-6 and CFP-10-FluoroSpot, the sensitivity and specificity increased to 84.2% and 83.3%, respectively.@*CONCLUSION@#Rv1733c SLP, combined with ESAT-6 and CFP-10, might be used as a candidate antigen for T cell-based tuberculosis diagnostic tests to differentiate ATB from LTBI.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antigens, Bacterial , Diagnosis, Differential , Latent Tuberculosis/diagnosis , Leukocytes, Mononuclear , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Tuberculosis/diagnosis
8.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1081-1091, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878615

ABSTRACT

The enterobacterial common antigen (ECA) is a polysaccharide composed of polysaccharide repeats that are located in the outer membrane of almost all Enterobacteriaceae bacteria and has diverse biological functions. ECA is synthesized by the synergistic action of multiple genes that are present in clusters on the genome of Enterobacteriaceae bacteria, forming the ECA antigen gene cluster, an important virulence factor that plays a role in host invasion and survival of Enterobacteriaceae in vivo. ECA also plays an important role in the maintenance of the bacterial outer membrane permeability barrier, flagella gene expression, swarming motility, and bile salts resistance. In addition, ECALPS, anchored in the core region of bacterial lipopolysaccharide, is an important surface antigen for bacteria, stimulating high levels of antibody production in the host and could be a target for vaccine research. This review summarizes ECA purification, genes involved in ECA biosynthesis, its immunological characteristics, biological functions and clinical applications.


Subject(s)
Antigens, Bacterial/genetics , Enterobacteriaceae/genetics , Lipopolysaccharides , Polysaccharides
9.
Rev. bras. epidemiol ; 24: e210039, 2021. graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1280024

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: Investigar os fatores de risco associados ao adoecimento por hanseníase em contatos de casos da doença. Métodos: Realizou-se uma revisão sistemática e metanálise com busca nas bases de dados: Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE), Embase, Cochrane Library, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde (LILACS), Scopus e Web of Science até setembro de 2019. A seleção, a análise e a avaliação da qualidade dos estudos foram realizadas por quatro revisores. Utilizou-se modelo de efeitos aleatórios para calcular o risco relativo agrupado (RR) e intervalos de confiança de 95% (IC95%) quando na presença de heterogeneidade superior a 50%. Resultados: A busca resultou em 2.148 referências e foram incluídos 24 estudos. Estes, em sua maioria, foram realizados no Brasil e na Índia, com delineamento coorte, e incluíram contatos domiciliares, peridomiciliares e sociais. Mostraram-se associados ao adoecimento por hanseníase em contatos: o analfabetismo (RR = 1,48; IC95% 1,22 - 1,79), a convivência intradomiciliar (RR = 2,41; IC95% 1,87 - 3,10) com caso de hanseníase apresentando alta carga bacilar (RR = 2,40; IC95% 1,69 - 3,41), a soropositividade ao antígeno PGL-1(glicolipídeo fenólico-1) do Mycobacterium leprae (RR = 3,54; IC95% 2,21 - 5,67), presença do bacilo na corrente sanguínea (RR = 10,61; IC95% 4,74 - 23,77) e reação de Mitsuda negativa (RR = 2,68; IC95% 1,76 - 4,07). A imunização com bacilo Calmette-Guérin (BCG) teve efeito protetor contra o adoecimento (RR = 0,52; IC95% 0,34 - 0,78). Conclusão: O adoecimento por hanseníase em contatos perpassa pela determinação social, pela susceptibilidade individual e por fragilidades no acesso às ações de controle da doença; contudo, fatores de risco modificáveis são os principais determinantes do adoecimento nessa população.


ABSTRACT Objective: To investigate the risk factors associated with leprosy in contacts of patients. Method: We carried out a systematic review and meta-analysis by searching the databases MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane Library, CINAHL, LILACS, Scopus, and Web of Science until September 2019. Four reviewers carried out the selection, analysis, and evaluation of quality of studies. The random effects model was used to calculate the pooled relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) when heterogeneity was greater than 50%. Results: The search resulted in 2,148 references and included 24 reports. Most of the studies had been conducted in Brazil and India, had a cohort design and included household, neighbors, and social contacts. The risk factors associated with illness due to leprosy in contacts were: illiteracy (RR = 1,48; 95%CI 1,22 - 1,79), living in the same house (RR = 2,41; 95%CI 1,87 - 3,10) of a case of leprosy with high bacillary load (RR = 2.40; 95%CI 1.69 - 3.41), seropositivity to the Mycobacterium leprae PGL-1 (phenolic glycolipid-1) antigen (RR = 3.54; 95%CI 2.21 - 5.67), presence of the bacillus in the bloodstream (RR = 10.61; 95%CI 4.74 - 23.77) and negative Mitsuda reaction (RR = 2,68; 95%CI 1,76 - 4,07). Immunization with BCG (bacillus Calmette-Guérin) vaccine had a protective effect against leprosy. Conclusion: Leprosy in contacts of patients involves social determination, individual susceptibility, and difficulties in access to disease control actions, but modifiable risk factors are the main determinants of illness in this population.


Subject(s)
Humans , Leprosy/epidemiology , Antigens, Bacterial , Brazil/epidemiology , Glycolipids , Mycobacterium leprae
10.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 24(6): 545-551, Nov.-Dec. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153495

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: Helicobacter pylori harbouring cag-pathogenicity island (cagPAI) which encodes type IV secretion system (T4SS) and cagA virulence gene are involved in inflammation of the gastric mucosa. We examined all the 27 cagPAI genes in 88 H. pylori isolates from patients of different ethnicities and examined the association of the intactness of cagPAI region with histopathological scores of the gastric mucosa. Results: 96.6% (n = 85) of H. pylori isolates were cagPAI-positive with 22.4% (19/85) having an intact cagPAI, whereas 77.6% (66/85) had a partial/rearranged cagPAI. The frequency of cag2 and cag14 were found to be significantly higher in H. pylori isolated from Malays, whereas cag4 was predominantly found in Chinese isolates. The cag24 was significantly found in higher proportions in Malay and Indian isolates than in Chinese isolates. The intactness of cagPAI region showed an association with histopathological scores of the gastric mucosa. Significant association was observed between H. pylori harbouring partial cagPAI with higher density of bacteria and neutrophil activity, whereas strains lacking cagPAI were associated with higher inflammatory score. Conclusions: The genotypes of H. pylori strains with various cagPAI rearrangement associated with patients' ethnicities and histopathological scores might contribute to the pathogenesis of H. pylori infection in a multi-ethnic population.


Subject(s)
Humans , Helicobacter pylori , Helicobacter Infections , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Virulence/genetics , Helicobacter pylori/genetics , Genomic Islands/genetics , Antigens, Bacterial/genetics
11.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 57(4): 366-374, Oct.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142336

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: During the Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection, the infiltration of the leukocytes into stomach mucosa is directed by locally produced chemokines that play a decisive role in infection outcome. The CagA is the most potent virulence factor of HP, so that the infection with CagA + strains is associated with more severe complications than infection with CagA - HP. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to determine the expression of chemokines CXCL10, CCL17, CCL20 and CCL22, and their receptors by CagA + HP- and CagA - HP-derived crude extract (HP-CE)-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from peptic ulcer (PU) patients. METHODS: The serum and the PBMCs were collected from 20 HP-infected PU patients, 20 HP-infected asymptomatic subjects (HIA) and 20 non-infected healthy subjects (NHS). The PBMCs were cultured in absence of stimulator or with 10 µg CagA + HP crude extract (CagA + CE), 10 µg CagA - HP crude extract (CagA - CE). Chemokines and receptors were measured by ELISA and real time-PCR respectively. RESULTS: In PU patients, the production of chemokines CXCL10, CCL17, CCL20 and CCL22, and the expression of chemokine receptors CXCR3, CCR4 and CCR6 by CagA + CE-induced PBMCs were significantly higher than non-stimulated and CagA - CE stimulated cultures. The CXCL10 production by CagA + CE stimulated PBMCs from HIA subjects was significantly higher than the equal cultures from PU and NHS groups. The CCL17 and the CCL20 production by non-stimulated, CagA + CE stimulated, and CagA - CE stimulated PBMCs from PU subjects were significantly higher than the equal cultures from NHS and HIA groups. The CCL22 production by non-stimulated, CagA + CE stimulated and CagA - CE stimulated PBMCs from NHS group were significantly higher than the equal cultures from HIA and PU groups. The CagA + CE stimulated PBMCs from HIA subjects expressed lower amounts of CCR6 in comparison with CagA + CE stimulated PBMCs from NHS and PU groups. The serum levels CXCL10 and CCL20 in PU and HIA groups were significantly higher than NHS subjects. NHS and HIA groups displayed higher serum levels of CCL22 in comparison with PU patients. CONCLUSION: Results indicated that the CagA status of bacterium influence the expression of chemokines and receptors by HP-CE stimulated PBMCs from PU patients.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: Durante a infecção por Helicobacter pylori (HP), a infiltração dos leucócitos na mucosa estomacal é dirigida por quimiocinas produzidas localmente que desempenham um papel decisivo no resultado da infecção. O CagA é o fator de virulência mais potente do HP, de modo que a infecção com cepas CagA + está associada a complicações mais graves do que a infecção com CagA - HP. OBJETIVO: O objetivo foi determinar a expressão das quimiocinas CXCL10, CCL17, CCL20 e CCL22, e seus receptores por CagA + HP- e CagA - extrato bruto (EB) derivado de HP (HP-EB) de células mononucleares do sangue periférico (CMSP) de pacientes com úlcera péptica (UP). MÉTODOS: O soro e as CMSP foram coletados de 20 pacientes com UP infectados pelo HP, 20 indivíduos assintomáticos infectados pelo HP (AI-HP) e 20 indivíduos saudáveis não infectados pelo HP (NI-HP). As CMSP foram cultivadas na ausência de estimulador ou com extrato bruto CagA + HP de 10 μg (CagA + EB), 10 μg CagA - extrato bruto HP (CagA - EB). Quimiocinas e receptores foram medidos por ELISA e PCR em tempo real, respectivamente. RESULTADOS: Em pacientes com UP a produção de quimiocinas CXCL10, CCL17, CCL20 e CCL22, e a expressão dos receptores de quimiocina CXCR3, CCR4 e CCR6 por CagA + CMSP induzidos pelo EB foram significativamente maiores do que as culturas não estimuladas e CagA - EB estimulados. A produção de CXCL10 por CagA + EB estimulou as CMSP de sujeitos AI-HP em proporção significativamente maior do que as culturas iguais dos grupos UP e NI-HP. A produção de CCL17 e CCL20 por grupos não estimulados, CagA + EB estimulado, e CagA - EB estimulou CMSP de sujeitos com UP e foram significativamente superiores às culturas iguais dos grupos NI-HP e AI-HP. A produção de CCL22 por grupos não estimulados, CagA + EB estimulado e CagA - EB estimulado pelo grupo NI-HP foram significativamente maiores do que as culturas iguais dos grupos AI-HP e PU. O CagA + EB estimulou as CMSP dos sujeitos do AI-HP, expressando menores quantidades de CCR6 em comparação com as CMSP estimuladas pelo CagA + EB de grupos NI-HP e UP. Os níveis sanguíneos de CXCL10 e CCL20 nos grupos UP e AI-HP foram significativamente superiores aos dos sujeitos do NI-HP. Os grupos NI-HP e AI-HP apresentaram níveis sanguíneos mais elevados de CCL22 em comparação com pacientes com UP. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados indicaram que o estado CagA da bactéria influencia a expressão de quimiocinas e receptores por HP-EB estimulados CMSP de pacientes com UP.


Subject(s)
Humans , Peptic Ulcer , Helicobacter pylori , Bacterial Proteins , Leukocytes, Mononuclear , Helicobacter Infections , Virulence Factors , Chemokine CCL17 , Chemokine CCL20 , Chemokine CCL22 , Leukocytes , Antigens, Bacterial
12.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e200370, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1135225

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Bacillus anthracis is the aetiologic agent of anthrax, a re-emerging, septicaemic, haemorrhagic and lethal disease that affects humans, domestic ruminants and wildlife. Plasmids pXO1 and pXO2 are attributes that confer pathogenicity to B. anthracis strains. This bacterium was used as biological weapon in the World Wars and in the biological attack in the United States of America at 2001. B. anthracis is classified as a Tier 1 bioterrorism agent by the Centers for Diseases Control and Prevention. Anthrax is recognised as a re-emerging disease. Several studies concerning the dynamics of B. anthracis cycle in soil revealed that nonpathogenic B. anthracis strains due to lack of pXO2 plasmid are commonly found in some types of soil. OBJECTIVES This study aimed isolation and identification of B. anthracis spores in soil samples of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. METHODS Phenotypic and genotypic approaches were used to identify isolates including MALDI-TOF/MS, motility test, susceptibility to gamma phage and penicillin, survey for pag and cap genes as surrogates of pXO1 and pXO2 plasmids, respectively, and sequencing of 16SrRNA-encoding gene. Physicochemical analysis of the soil samples were carried out to describe soil characteristics. FINDINGS We observed the presence of one B. anthracis pXO1+ and pXO2- isolated from clay loam soil; one B. anthracis-like strain pXO1+ and pXO2-isolated from loamy sand; and 10 Bacillus spp. strains sensitive to phage-gamma that need better characterisation to define which their species were recovered from loamy sand. MAIN CONCLUSIONS This work showed promising results and it was the first study to report results from an active surveillance for B. anthracis in Brazil.


Subject(s)
Humans , Plasmids/analysis , Soil Microbiology , Spores, Bacterial , Bacillus anthracis/isolation & purification , DNA, Bacterial/genetics , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Virulence Factors/genetics , Plasmids/genetics , Soil , Bacillus anthracis/genetics , Bacillus anthracis/pathogenicity , Bacterial Toxins , Virulence , Brazil , DNA, Bacterial/analysis , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Antigens, Bacterial
13.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e190396, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1101277

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Nanoparticles (NPs) are viable candidates as carriers of exogenous materials into cells via transfection and can be used in the DNA vaccination strategy against leptospirosis. OBJECTIVES We evaluated the efficiency of halloysite clay nanotubes (HNTs) and amine-functionalised multi-walled carbon nanotubes (NH2-MWCNTs) in facilitating recombinant LemA antigen (rLemA) expression and protecting Golden Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) against Leptospira interrogans lethal infection. METHODS An indirect immunofluorescent technique was used to investigate the potency of HNTs and NH2-MWCNTs in enhancing the transfection and expression efficiency of the DNA vaccine in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. Hamsters were immunised with two doses of vaccines HNT-pTARGET/lemA, NH2-MWCNTs-pTARGET/lemA, pTARGET/lemA, and empty pTARGET (control), and the efficacy was determined in terms of humoral immune response and protection against a lethal challenge. FINDINGS rLemA DNA vaccines carried by NPs were able to transfect CHO cells effectively, inducing IgG immune response in hamsters (p < 0.05), and did not exhibit cytotoxic effects. Furthermore, 83.3% of the hamsters immunised with NH2-MWCNTs-pTARGET/lemA were protected against the lethal challenge (p < 0.01), and 66.7% of hamsters immunised with HNT-pTARGET/lemA survived (p < 0.05). MAIN CONCLUSIONS NH2-MWCNTs and HNTs can act as antigen carriers for mammalian cells and are suitable for DNA nanovaccine delivery.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Bacterial Proteins/administration & dosage , Transcription Factors/administration & dosage , Bacterial Vaccines/administration & dosage , Vaccines, DNA/administration & dosage , Leptospirosis/prevention & control , Antigens, Bacterial/administration & dosage , Bacterial Proteins/immunology , Transcription Factors/immunology , Bacterial Vaccines/immunology , Cricetinae , Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect , Vaccines, DNA/immunology , Disease Models, Animal , Nanoparticles , Leptospira interrogans/immunology , Leptospirosis/immunology , Antibodies, Bacterial/immunology , Antigens, Bacterial/immunology
14.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 147(11): 1382-1389, nov. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1094167

ABSTRACT

Background Chile has one of the highest mortality rates by gastric cancer (GC) worldwide. Primary prevention of GC and detection of pre-neoplastic and early neoplastic lesions should be a national priority. Aim To assess the impact of the protocolization of endoscopy referral and the use of H. pylori stool antigen test (HPSA) in the management of dyspepsia to decrease the waiting list for endoscopy and increase the detection of gastric pre-neoplastic and early neoplastic lesions. Material and Methods We included all patients referred to the Endoscopy Unit of a regional hospital, from January 2015 to December 2017. We also included patients with known pre-neoplastic lesions and all those with first degree relatives with GC. We implemented protocols for referral of patients with dyspepsia considering the use of HPSA test, prioritizing to endoscopy those with a higher risk of GC. Results A total of 4,641 endoscopies and 2,631 HPSA tests were carried out. After the adoption of these protocols, we observed a 52% decrease in the waiting time for endoscopy. The GC detection rate in this period was 1.8 to 3.1 cases per 100 endoscopies. After the adoption of the protocols, we observed a significant increase in early GC detection rate (from none in 2015 to 13% in 2017, p = 0.03). Conclusions The protocolization of the referral for endoscopy associated with widespread use of HPSA test in the management of patients with dyspepsia, are successful strategies to decrease waiting lists for endoscopy and optimize the detection rate of pre-neoplastic lesions and early GC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Precancerous Conditions/diagnosis , Waiting Lists , Helicobacter pylori/isolation & purification , Helicobacter Infections/diagnosis , Dyspepsia/diagnosis , Feces/microbiology , Antigens, Bacterial/analysis , Precancerous Conditions/microbiology , Primary Health Care , Referral and Consultation , Helicobacter Infections/complications , Helicobacter Infections/microbiology , Sensitivity and Specificity , Early Diagnosis , Dyspepsia/microbiology , Endoscopy/statistics & numerical data
15.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 23(4): 246-253, July-Aug. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039236

ABSTRACT

Abstract Accurate and rapid diagnostic tools are important aspects of managing tuberculosis (TB) cases appropriately. However, the sensitivity and specificity of diagnostic kits based on immune response such as the tuberculin skin test (TST) and interferon gamma release assay (IGRA) are still debated. Thus, the exploration and assessment of specific biomarker-targeted antibodies are needed for the development of an accurate and rapid diagnostic tool. The present study was conducted in patients with a respiratory problem suspected to be TB at Dr. Soetomo Hospital, Surabaya, Indonesia. Among 102 patients tested by GeneXpert and AFB, 59 serum samples were from cases retrospectively determined to have active TB. A total of 102 serum of healthy controls (HC) was also collected. The PPD antigen and the recombinant CFP-10 and ESAT-6 proteins were prepared. Antibody responses against these proteins were evaluated by ELISA. All samples were also screened for the possibility of Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex (MAC) infection using Capilla MaC kit. The results showed that TB patients had a significantly higher concentration of IgG antibody in response to PPD than the HC. In addition, the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis showed that PPD was acceptable for diagnostic purposes with an AUC value of 0.835 (95% CI 0.770-0.900, p < 0.0001). However, ESAT-6 and CFP-10 had low AUCs, and 32 samples from both groups showed a low concentration of IgA antibody against all antigens. The MAC detection results also showed that the concentration of IgA in the HC group was the highest. The current results indicate that PPD is a better antigen for antibody-based detection of TB than ESAT-6 and CFP-10. Based on the MAC detection assay, 53 people in the HC group were probably infected with rapidly growing nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM), although antibody response to PPD was low.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Bacterial Proteins/immunology , Tuberculin/immunology , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/diagnosis , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/microbiology , Antibody Formation/immunology , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/immunology , Antigens, Bacterial/immunology , Reference Values , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/blood , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Tuberculin Test , Case-Control Studies , Retrospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Statistics, Nonparametric , Indonesia
16.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 23(3): 151-159, May-June 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019551

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: HIV infection harms adaptive cellular immunity mechanisms. Long-term virological control by combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) reduces the risk of mycobacterial infections. Thus, we aimed to study cellular responses to mycobacterial antigens in 20 HIV-infected adolescents with at least one year of virological control (HIV-RNA <40 copies/mL) and 20 healthy adolescents. Methods: We evaluated CD8 and γδ T-cell degranulation by measurement of CD107a membrane expression after stimulation with lysates from BCG (10 µg/mL) and H37RA Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb, 10 µg/mL). Immune activation and antigen-presenting ability were also assessed by determination of HLA-DR, CD80, and CD86 markers. Results: TCR γδ T-cell CD107a expression was similar between groups in response to mycobacterial antigens, and lower in the HIV-infected group in response to mitogen. Higher baseline HLA-DR expression and lower mycobacterial-stimulated expression was found within the HIV-infected group. Conclusions: Similar degranulation in stimulated CD8+ and TCR γδ T-cells from HIV-infected adolescents, when compared to healthy controls suggests long-term immunological preservation with immune reconstitution under successful cART. However, differences in HLA-DR expression may represent ongoing inflammation and lower specific responses in HIV-infected youth. These features may be relevant in the context of the precocity and severity of vertically acquired HIV infection.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Young Adult , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, alpha-beta/immunology , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/immunology , Antigens, Bacterial/immunology , Tuberculosis/immunology , Biomarkers/blood , Cross-Sectional Studies , Prospective Studies , Immunophenotyping , Antigen Presentation/immunology , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Antigens, Bacterial/drug effects
17.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 375-388, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771369

ABSTRACT

Recombinant bacterial vector vaccines have been widely used as carriers for the delivery of protective antigens and nucleic acid vaccines to prevent certain infectious diseases because of their ability to induce mucosal immunity, humoral immunity and cellular immunity. However, protective antigens and nucleic acids recombined into bacterial vector vaccines are difficult to be released into host cells because of the presence of bacterial cell wall. Vaccine strains that are residual in animals or livestock products may also cause environmental contamination and spread of the vaccine strains. The effective solution for these problems is to construct an auto-lysis system that can regulate the vaccine strains to grow normally in vitro while lysis in vivo. The lysis systems that have been applied in germs mainly include: the lysis system based on regulated delayed peptidoglycan synthesis, the lysis system based on the regulation of bacteriophage lysis protein and the lysis system based on the toxin-antitoxin system. In addition, a potential lysis system based on bacterial Type Ⅵ Secretion System (T6SS) is also expected to be a new method for the construction of auto-lysis strains. This review will focus on the regulatory mechanisms of these bacterial lysis systems.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antigens, Bacterial , Bacterial Vaccines , Vaccines, Attenuated , Vaccines, DNA
18.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 718-725, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771338

ABSTRACT

Multi-epitope recombinant diagnostic antigen (designated 'B102') of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) was prepared and evaluated as a serological diagnostic antigen. With TRX at the N-terminal and His tag at the C-terminal, the multi-epitope Mtb recombinant diagnostic antigen including 11 predicted B-cell epitopes from 6 Mtb antigens (PstS1, ESAT6, CFP10, Ag85B, Ag85A and PPE54) was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) and purified by Ni²⁺-Chelating affinity and DEAE anion exchange chromatography. Based on the antigenicity of B102 confirmed in Western blotting analysis, we constructed and evaluated a double-antigen sandwich ELISA for diagnosis of Mtb infection. The protein B102 exists in the form of inclusion bodies, accounting for 31.25% of the total proteins of the bacteria. After purification and renaturation, protein B102 exists in soluble form with the concentration 3.124 mg/mL and the homogeneity 96.71%. WB analysis demonstrated that protein B102 could react with antibodies in Mtb positive serum. Using the novel antigen in ELISA, we tested 60 Mtb-related positive and negative serum; The results showed the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values and coincidence rate of the detection method is 90.00%, 93.33%, 93.10%, 90.32% and 91.67%, respectively. The McNemer analysis suggested there was no statistical difference between the 'Gold standard' and the novel ELISA with kappa 0.833, which suggested the excellent consistency. By prokaryotic expression and chromatography purification, the multi-epitope recombinant antigen B102 was obtained with excellent antigenicity, which could be applied for Mtb-related serological detection.


Subject(s)
Antigens, Bacterial , Bacterial Proteins , Blotting, Western , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Epitopes , Escherichia coli , Mycobacterium tuberculosis
19.
Journal of Southern Medical University ; (12): 609-613, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773559

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the value of interferon-inducible protein 10 (IP-10) in the auxiliary diagnosis of tuberculosis and the judgment of the severity of disease.@*METHODS@#From February, 2013 to February, 2017, a total of 193 patients with TB admitted in our hospital and 84 healthy control subjects were recruited consecutively. The peripheral blood plasma levels of interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and IP-10 were detected using liquid phase chip (Luminex) technique. According to the number of lung fields affected by TB, the patients were divided into group A (with lesions in 1-2 lung fields), group B (3-4 lung fields) and group C (5-6 lung fields), The expressions of IFN-γ and IP-10 in 3 groups were compared.@*RESULTS@#The plasma levels of IP-10 were significantly higher in TB patients than in the control subjects ( < 0.05), but IFN-γ levels were comparable between the two groups ( > 0.05). Among the TB patients, plasma IP-10 levels was the highest in group C ( < 0.05), and IFN-γ levels did not differ significantly among the 3 groups ( > 0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Plasma IP-10 has a certain reference value in the auxiliary diagnosis of active tuberculosis and the judgment of the severity of the disease.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antigens, Bacterial , Biomarkers , Blood , Chemokine CXCL10 , Blood , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary , Blood , Diagnosis
20.
Biomedical and Environmental Sciences ; (12): 427-437, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773387

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#This study aimed to characterize the diagnostic and vaccine potential of a novel Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigen Rv0674.@*METHODS@#To evaluate the diagnostic potential and antigenicity of Rv0674, IgG was evaluated using ELISA and interferon (IFN)-γ was done by using ELISpot assay among TB patients and healthy donors. For immunogenicity evaluation, BALB/c mice were immunized with Rv0674. Cytokine production was determined by cytokine release assay using an ELISA kit, and the antibodies were tested using ELISA.@*RESULTS@#The results of serum Elisa tests showed that Rv0674 specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) response was higher in TB patients than negative controls. And Rv0674 had good performance in serological test with sensitivity and specificity of 77.1% and 81.1%, respectively. While it shows poor sensitivity and specificity of 26.23% and 79.69% for IFN-γ tests. In BALB/c mice, Rv0674 adjuvant by DDA/Poly I:C could also induce a high level of IFN-γ, interleukin-2 and interleukin-6 as well as a high IgG titer in both high- and low-dose groups indicating that Rv0674 is essential in humoral and cellular immunity. Moreover, the cytokine profile and IgG isotype characterized Rv0674 as a Th1/Th2-mixed-type protective immunity with the predominance of Th1 cytokines.@*CONCLUSION@#Rv0674 may be a good potential candidate for the development of TB serological diagnosis and a new TB vaccine.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Animals , Female , Humans , Male , Mice , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Antigens, Bacterial , Allergy and Immunology , Immunity, Cellular , Immunity, Humoral , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Tuberculosis , Diagnosis , Allergy and Immunology
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