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1.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 146(6): 802-807, jun. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-961462

ABSTRACT

Intrathecal chemotherapy may be complicated with the development of myelopathies or toxic radiculopathies. This myeloradicular involvement, of toxic character, is unpredictable, since these patients have repeatedly received Intrathecal chemotherapy with the same drugs without apparent injury. The toxic effect should be mainly attributed to Cytarabine and not to methotrexate, since the central nervous system lacks Cytidine deaminase, the enzyme that degrades Cytarabine. We report two patients, an 18-year-old woman and a 16 years old male, who received systemic and intrathecal chemotherapy (methotrexate, cytarabine) for the treatment of an acute lymphoblastic leukemia and developed, in relation to this procedure, a spinal subacute combined degeneration. They had a proprioceptive and motor alteration of the lower extremities and neuroimaging showed selective rear and side spinal cord hyper intensity produced by central axonopathy. Two weeks later the woman developed a quadriplegia and the young man a flaccid paraplegia due to added root involvement.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Methotrexate/adverse effects , Cytarabine/adverse effects , Subacute Combined Degeneration/chemically induced , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/drug therapy , Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic/adverse effects , Injections, Spinal , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Methotrexate/administration & dosage , Fatal Outcome , Cytarabine/administration & dosage , Subacute Combined Degeneration/diagnostic imaging , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/complications , Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic/administration & dosage
2.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 116(3): 459-462, jun. 2018. tab, ilus
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-950027

ABSTRACT

La necrólisis epidérmica tóxica y el síndrome de StevensJohnson son enfermedades mucocutáneas raras que están asociadas a una evolución prolongada y a un desenlace potencialmente mortal. Principalmente están inducidas por fármacos y las tasas de mortalidad son muy elevadas. Aunque la piel es la más comprometida, también pueden estar afectados múltiples aparatos o sistemas como el cardiovascular, pulmonar, gastrointestinal y urinario. En este artículo, describimos el caso de un paciente con síndrome de Stevens-Johnson asociado al tratamiento con metotrexato, quien desarrolló insuficiencia cardíaca aguda y hemorragia gastrointestinal además de las manifestaciones en la piel. El paciente recibió un tratamiento satisfactorio con metilprednisolona e inmunoglobulina por vía intravenosa y continuó la quimioterapia con metotrexato.


Toxic epidermal necrolysis and Stevens-Johnson syndrome are rare mucocutaneous diseases which are associated with a prolonged course and potentially lethal outcome. They are mostly drug induced and mortality rates are very high. Although mostly skin is involved, multiple organ systems such as cardiovascular, pulmonary, gastrointestinal, and urinary systems may be affected. Here, we report a case of StevensJohnson Syndrome associated with methotrexate treatment who developed acute cardiac failure and gastrointestinal hemorrhage beside skin findings. He had been treated with intravenous immunglobulin and methylprednisolone succesfully and continued chemotherapy with methotrexate treatment again.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Child , Methotrexate/adverse effects , Stevens-Johnson Syndrome/etiology , Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic/adverse effects , Methylprednisolone/administration & dosage , Methotrexate/administration & dosage , Stevens-Johnson Syndrome/diagnosis , Stevens-Johnson Syndrome/drug therapy , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/administration & dosage , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/drug therapy , Heart Failure/chemically induced , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/chemically induced , Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic/administration & dosage
3.
Rev. gastroenterol. Perú ; 38(1): 9-21, jan.-mar. 2018. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1014052

ABSTRACT

Objective: To assess whether extended time intervals (8-12, 13-20 and >20 weeks) between the end of neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy and surgery affect overall survival, disease-free survival. Materials and methods: Retrospective study in 120 patients with rectal adenocarcinoma without evidence of metastasis (T1-4/N0-2/M0) at the time of diagnosis that underwent surgery with curative intent after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy with capecitabine and obtained R0 or R1 resection between January 2010 to December 2014 at the National Cancer Institute of Peru. Dates were evaluated by Kaplan-Meier method, log- rank test and Cox regression analysis. Results: Of the 120 patients, 70 were women (58%). The median age was 63(26-85) years. All received neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy. No significant difference was found between the association of the median radial (0.6, 0.7 and 0.8 cm; p=0.826) and distal edge (3.0, 3.5 and 4.0 cm; p=0.606) with time interval groups and similarly the mean resected (18.8, 19.1 and 16.0; p=0.239) and infiltrated nodules (1.05, 1.29 and 0.41); p=0.585). The median follow-up time of overall survival and desease free survival was 40 and 37 months, respectively. No significant differences were observed in overall survival (79.0%, 74.6% and 71.1%; p=0.66) and disease-free survival (73.7%, 68.1% and 73.6%; p=0.922) according to the three groups studied at the 3-year of follow-up. Conclusions: We found that widening the time intervals between the end of neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy and surgery at 24 weeks does not affect the overall survival, disease-free survival and pathological outcomes. It allows to extend the intervals of time for future studies that finally will define the best time interval for the surgery


Objetivo: Evaluar si los intervalos de tiempo extendidos (8-12, 13-20 y >20 semanas) entre el fin de la quimioradioterapia neoadyuvante y la cirugía afectan la sobrevida global, y la sobrevida libre de enfermedad. Material y métodos: Estudio retrospectivo de 120 pacientes con adenocarcinoma rectal sin evidencia de metástasis (T1-4/N0-2/M0) al momento del diagnóstico que se sometieron a cirugía con intención curativa luego de quimioradioterapia neoadyuvante con capecitabina y tuvieron resección R0 o R1 entre enero 2010 y diciembre 2014 en el Instituto Nacioanal de Enfermedades Neoplásicas de Perú. El análisis se hizo con el método de Kaplan-Meier, la prueba log-rank y la regresión de Cox. Resultados: De 120 pacientes, 70 fueron mujeres (58%). La mediana de la edad fue 63 años (26-85 años). Todos recibieron quimioradioterapia neoadyuvante. No hubo diferencia significativa entre la asociación de las medianas de los bordes radial (0,6, 0.7 y 0,8 cm; p=0,826) y distal (3,0, 3,5 y 4,0 cm; p=0,606) con los intervalos de tiempo de los grupos y similarmente con la media de los ganglios resecados (18,8, 19,1 y 16,0; p=0,239) e infiltrados (1,05, 1,29 y 0,41; p=0,585). No se observaron diferencias significativas en sobrevida global (79,0%, 74,6% y 71,1%; p=0,66) y sobrevida libre de enfermedad (73,7%, 68,1% y 73,6%; p=0,922), en los tres grupos estudiados a 3 años de seguimiento. Conclusiones: Encontramos que aumentar los intervalos de tiempo entre el fin de la quimioradioterapia neoadyuvante y la cirugía hasta 24 semanas no afecta la sobrevida global, sobrevida libre de enfermedad ni los desenlaces patológicos. Esto permitiría extender los intervalos de tiempo en estudios futuros para definir el mejor intervalo de tiempo para la cirugía


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Rectal Neoplasms/therapy , Rectum/surgery , Adenocarcinoma/therapy , Neoadjuvant Therapy/methods , Chemoradiotherapy, Adjuvant/methods , Capecitabine/administration & dosage , Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic/administration & dosage , Rectal Neoplasms/mortality , Time Factors , Drug Administration Schedule , Adenocarcinoma/mortality , Survival Analysis , Retrospective Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Treatment Outcome , Capecitabine/therapeutic use , Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic/therapeutic use
4.
Bol. méd. Hosp. Infant. Méx ; 74(1): 13-26, ene.-feb. 2017. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-888592

ABSTRACT

Resumen: En paralelo al proyecto de la secuenciación del genoma humano, se han desarrollado varias plataformas tecnológicas que están permitiendo ganar conocimiento sobre la estructura del genoma de las entidades humanas, así como evaluar su utilidad en el abordaje clínico del paciente. En la leucemia linfoblástica aguda (LLA), el cáncer infantil más común, las herramientas genómicas prometen ser útiles para detectar a los pacientes con alto riesgo de recaída, ya sea al diagnóstico o durante el tratamiento (enfermedad mínima residual), además de que permiten identificar los casos en riesgo de presentar reacciones adversas a los tratamientos antineoplásicos y ofrecer una medicina personalizada con esquemas terapéuticos diseñados a la medida del paciente. Un ejemplo claro de esto último es la identificación de polimorfismos de un solo nucleótido (SNPs) en el gen de la tiopurina metil transferasa (TPMT), donde la presencia de dos alelos nulos (homocigotos o heterocigotos compuestos) indica la necesidad de reducir la dosis de la mercaptopurina hasta en un 90% para evitar efectos tóxicos que pueden conducir a la muerte del paciente. En esta revisión se proporciona una visión global de la genómica de la LLA, describiendo algunas estrategias que contribuyen a la identificación de biomarcadores con potencial utilidad en la práctica clínica.


Abstract: In parallel to the human genome sequencing project, several technological platforms have been developed that let us gain insight into the genome structure of human entities, as well as evaluate their usefulness in the clinical approach of the patient. Thus, in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), the most common pediatric malignancy, genomic tools promise to be useful to detect patients at high risk of relapse, either at diagnosis or during treatment (minimal residual disease), and they also increase the possibility to identify cases at risk of adverse reactions to chemotherapy. Therefore, the physician could offer patient-tailored therapeutic schemes. A clear example of the useful genomic tools is the identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the thiopurine methyl transferase (TPMT) gene, where the presence of two null alleles (homozygous or compound heterozygous) indicates the need to reduce the dose of mercaptopurine by up to 90% to avoid toxic effects which could lead to the death of the patient. In this review, we provide an overview of the genomic perspective of ALL, describing some strategies that contribute to the identification of biomarkers with potential clinical application.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Genomics/methods , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/genetics , Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic/administration & dosage , Recurrence , Biomarkers, Tumor/metabolism , Neoplasm, Residual/genetics , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/pathology , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/drug therapy , Mercaptopurine/administration & dosage , Mercaptopurine/adverse effects , Methyltransferases/genetics , Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic/adverse effects
5.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 35-42, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-65065

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Decitabine, a DNA hypomethylating agent, was recently approved for use in Korea for older adults with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) who are not candidates for standard chemotherapy. This study aimed to evaluate the role of decitabine as a first-line treatment for older adults with AML. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-four patients with AML who received at least one course of decitabine (20 mg/m²/d intravenously for 5 days every 4 weeks) as a first-line therapy at Severance Hospital were evaluated retrospectively. RESULTS: The median age of the patients was 73.5 years. The longest follow-up duration was 502 days. A total of 113 cycles of treatment were given to 24 patients, and the median number of cycles was four (range, 1–14). Thirteen patients dropped out because of death, no or loss of response, patient refusal, or transfer to another hospital. Twenty-one (87.5%) and 12 (50%) patients completed the second and fourth cycles, respectively, and responses to treatment were evaluated in 17. A complete response (CR) or CR with incomplete blood-count recovery was achieved in six (35.3%) patients, and the estimated median overall survival was 502 days. Ten patients developed grade >2 hematologic or non-hematologic toxicities. In univariate analysis, bone marrow blasts, lactate dehydrogenase, serum ferritin level, and bone marrow iron were significantly associated with response to decitabine. CONCLUSION: Five-day decitabine treatment showed acceptable efficacy in older patients with AML who are unfit for conventional chemotherapy, with a CR rate 35.3% and about a median overall survival of 18 months.


Subject(s)
Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic/administration & dosage , Azacitidine/analogs & derivatives , DNA Methylation , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/drug therapy , Remission Induction , Republic of Korea , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
6.
An. bras. dermatol ; 91(5,supl.1): 42-44, Sept.-Oct. 2016. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-837922

ABSTRACT

Abstract We report a 33-year-old male patient diagnosed with erythroplasia of Queyrat. The patient had an erythematous and eroded lesion affecting more than 50% of the glans associated with bleeding and local pain. Despite previous indication of penectomy, he was successfully treated with topical 5-fluorouracil.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Penile Neoplasms/drug therapy , Carcinoma in Situ/drug therapy , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/drug therapy , Erythroplasia/drug therapy , Fluorouracil/administration & dosage , Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic/administration & dosage , Penile Neoplasms/pathology , Penis/pathology , Time Factors , Biopsy , Carcinoma in Situ/pathology , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/pathology , Administration, Topical , Treatment Outcome , Erythroplasia/pathology
7.
São Paulo med. j ; 133(3): 271-274, May-Jun/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-752131

ABSTRACT

CONTEXT: Refractory acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a difficult disease to control with second or third-line chemotherapy regimens. In this report, we describe using azacitidine in combination with lenalidomide as salvage therapy. CASE REPORT: 52-year-old female was diagnosed with refractory AML and high-risk cytogenetics: complex monosomal karyotype consisting of t (3, 3) in association with monosomy 7 and del 5q. Morphological remission associated with maintenance of the cytogenetic abnormality of chromosome 3 and disappearance of the abnormalities relating to chromosomes 5 and 7 was achieved after three cycles of combination therapy with azacitidine and lenalidomide. CONCLUSION: Azacitidine plus lenalidomide can be a therapeutic option for patients with refractory AML, as illustrated in this case. .


CONTEXTO: A leucemia mieloide aguda (LMA) refratária é considerada doença de difícil controle com regime quimioterápico de segunda ou terceira linha. Neste relato, é descrito o uso de azacitidina em combinação com lenalidomida como esquema de resgate. RELATO DE CASO: Paciente de 52 anos, do sexo feminino, com o diagnóstico de LMA refratária de alto risco citogenético, apresentava cariótipo complexo e monossômico, com t (3, 3), associado à monosomia do 7 e del 5q. Destaca-se que, após três ciclos da terapia combinada com azacitidina e lenalidomida, houve remissão morfológica, com manutenção da anormalidade citogenética relacionada ao cromossomo 3 e desaparecimento da anormalidade relacionada aos cromossomos 5 e 7. CONCLUSÃO: Azacitidina e lenalidomida podem ser opção terapêutica para pacientes com LMA refratária, como demonstrado neste caso. .


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Angiogenesis Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic/therapeutic use , Azacitidine/therapeutic use , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/drug therapy , Thalidomide/analogs & derivatives , Angiogenesis Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic/administration & dosage , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/therapeutic use , Azacitidine/administration & dosage , Reproducibility of Results , Thalidomide/administration & dosage , Thalidomide/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome
8.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 110(1): 106-113, 03/02/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-741610

ABSTRACT

This study examined whether the antidermatophytic activity of essential oils (EOs) can be used as an indicator for the discovery of active natural products against Leishmania amazonensis. The aerial parts of seven plants were hydrodistilled. Using broth microdilution techniques, the obtained EOs were tested against three strains of dermatophytes (Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Microsporum gypseum and Microsporum canis). To compare the EOs antifungal and antiparasitic effects, the EOs activities against axenic amastigotes of L. amazonensis were concurrently evaluated. For the most promising EOs, their antileishmanial activities against parasites infecting peritoneal macrophages of BALB/c mice were measured. The most interesting antifungal candidates were the EOs from Cymbopogon citratus, Otacanthus azureus and Protium heptaphyllum, whereas O. azureus, Piper hispidum and P. heptaphyllum EOs exhibited the lowest 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) values against axenic amastigotes, thus revealing a certain correspondence between both activities. The P. hispidum EO was identified as the most promising product in the results from the infected macrophages model (IC50: 4.7 µg/mL, safety index: 8). The most abundant compounds found in this EO were sesquiterpenes, notably curzerene and furanodiene. Eventually, the evaluation of the antidermatophytic activity of EOs appears to be an efficient method for identifying new potential drugs for the treatment of L. amazonensis.


Subject(s)
Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic/administration & dosage , Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic , Bile Duct Neoplasms/drug therapy , Cholangiocarcinoma/drug therapy , Deoxycytidine/administration & dosage , Deoxycytidine/analogs & derivatives , Embolization, Therapeutic , Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic/adverse effects , Combined Modality Therapy , Deoxycytidine/adverse effects , Quality of Life , Treatment Outcome
9.
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 37(1): 24-29, 01/2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-732875

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To verify the predictors of intravasation rate during hysteroscopy. METHODS: Prospective observational study (Canadian Task Force classification II-1). All cases (n=200 women; 22 to 86 years old) were treated in an operating room setting. Considering respective bag overfill to calculate water balance, we tested two multiple linear regression models: one for total intravasation (mL) and the other for absorption rate (mL.min-1). The predictors tested (independent variables) were energy (mono/bipolar), tube patency (with/without tubal ligation), hysterometry (cm), age≤50 years, body surface area (m2), surgical complexity (with/without myomectomy) and duration (min). RESULTS: Mean intravasation was significantly higher when myomectomy was performed (442±616 versus 223±332 mL; p<0.01). In the proposed multiple linear regression models for total intravasation (adjusted R2=0.44; p<0.01), the only significant predictors were myomectomy and duration (p<0.01).In the proposed model for intravasation rate (R2=0.39; p<0.01), only myomectomy and hysterometry were significant predictors (p=0.02 and p<0.01, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Not only myomectomy but also hysterometry were significant predictors of intravasation rate during operative hysteroscopy. .


OBJETIVO: Testar preditores do ritmo de intravasamento durante histeroscopia cirúrgica. MÉTODOS: Estudo prospectivo observacional (classificação: Canadian Task Force II-1) incluindo casos conduzidos em centro cirúrgico (n=200 mulheres; 22 a 86 anos de idade). Considerando os erros de aferição nas embalagens de solução de irrigação para calcular o balanço hídrico, nós testamos dois modelos de regressão linear múltipla: um para intravasamento total (mL) e outro para ritmo de intravasamento (mL.min-1). Os preditores testados (variáveis independentes) foram energia (mono/bipolar), permeabilidade tubária (com/sem ligadura tubária), histerometria (cm), status ovariano (idade≤50 anos), área de superfície corporal (m2), complexidade de cirurgia (com/sem miomectomia) e tempo de ressecção (min). RESULTADOS: O intravasamento médio foi significativamente maior quando miomectomia foi realizada (442±616 versus 223±332 mL, p<0,01). No modelo proposto para intravasamento total (R2 ajustado=0,44; p<0,01), os únicos preditores significativos foram miomectomia e tempo de duração (p<0,01). No modelo proposto para a taxa de intravasamento (R2=0,39; p<0,01), somente miomectomia e histerometria foram preditores significativos (p=0,02 e p<0,01, respectivamente). CONCLUSÕES: Não só a miomectomia mas também a histerometria são preditores significativo da taxa de intravasamento durante histeroscopia cirúrgica. .


Subject(s)
Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic/therapeutic use , Carcinoma, Transitional Cell/drug therapy , Pyrimidines/therapeutic use , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/drug therapy , Administration, Oral , Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic/administration & dosage , Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic/adverse effects , Drug Administration Schedule , Pyrimidines/administration & dosage , Pyrimidines/adverse effects
10.
J. bras. nefrol ; 36(4): 490-495, Oct-Dec/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-731157

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Patients with chronic kidney disease present selenium (Se) plasma deficiency which is an essential trace element with important biological functions and, the best known biological role is attributed to its presence in the antioxidant enzyme, glutathione peroxidase (GPx). The Se content of foods depends on soil and some authors have suggested that Amazon soil (North Brazilian region) has high Se concentrations when compared to other regions of Brazil. Objective: The objective of this work was to compare the Se status in hemodialysis (HD) patients from North and Southeast of Brazil. Methods: Thirty-eight patients from Southeast region (22 men and 16 women, 15% diabetic, 53.5 ± 26.4 yrs) were compared to 40 patients from North region (28 men and 12 women, 22.5% diabetic, 63.5 ± 11.9 yrs). Se in plasma was determined through atomic absorption spectrophotometry with hydride generation. Results: The plasma Se levels in patients from Southeast region were significantly lower (17.5 ± 11.9 μg/L) when compared to patients from the North (37.1 ± 15.8 μg/L) (p < 0.001). However, both patient groups presented low Se plasma levels when compared to recommended values (60- 120 μg/L). There was no correlation between plasma Se levels and analyzed parameters. Conclusion: We concluded that patients from North (Amazon) region present higher plasma Se levels when compared to the patients from Southeast of Brazil. However, independently of the region, HD patients presented Se deficiency. .


Introdução: Pacientes com Doença Renal Crônica apresentam deficiência de selênio (Se), um elemento essencial, com importantes funções biológicas, como a de ser componente da enzima antioxidante glutationa peroxidase (GPx). A concentração de Se nos alimentos depende de sua concentração no solo e autores relatam que o solo da Amazônia possui elevados níveis de Se. Objetivo: O objetivo do trabalho foi comparar o estado nutricional do Se em pacientes em hemodiálise (HD) das regiões Norte e Sudeste do Brasil. Métodos: Trinta e oito pacientes da região Sudeste (22 homens e 16 mulheres, 15% diabéticos, 53,5 ± 26,4 anos) foram comparados com 40 pacientes da região Norte (28 homens e 12 mulheres, 22,5% diabéticos, 63,5 ± 11,9 anos). O Se no plasma foi determinado por espectrofotometria de absorção atômica por geração de hidretos acoplados a cela de quartzo. Resultados: Os níveis de Se dos pacientes em HD da região Sudeste foram significativamente menores (17,5 ± 11,9 μg/L) comparados aos pacientes da região Norte (37,1 ± 15,8 μg/L) (p < 0,001). Entretanto, ambos os grupos apresentaram níveis de Se abaixo da recomendação (60-120 μg/L). Não houve associação entre os níveis de Se e os parâmetros analisados. Conclusão: Com base nos resultados, concluímos que os pacientes da região Norte apresentaram elevados níveis de Se quando comparados com os pacientes da região Sudeste do Brasil. Entretanto, independentemente da região, ambos os grupos apresentaram deficiência com relação ao estado nutricional do Se. .


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Breast Neoplasms/metabolism , Breast Neoplasms/mortality , Thymidine Phosphorylase/metabolism , Administration, Oral , Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic/administration & dosage , Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic/therapeutic use , Breast Neoplasms/drug therapy , Breast Neoplasms/pathology , Breast Neoplasms/surgery , Disease-Free Survival , Drug Administration Schedule , Floxuridine/administration & dosage , Floxuridine/therapeutic use , Japan , Predictive Value of Tests , Prognosis , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Retrospective Studies , Survival Analysis , Stromal Cells/metabolism , Tumor Cells, Cultured/metabolism
11.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 23(4): 501-508, Oct-Dec/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-731259

ABSTRACT

Toxoplasmosis stands out as a global disease that has felines as definitive hosts. In the municipality of Natal, Rio Grande do Norte State, Brazil, two parks are notable for their ecological and social importance. This study aimed to investigate the presence of Toxoplasma gondii in short hair cats, bats and small non-volant mammals in these two ecological reserves. Altogether, biological samples were obtained from 154 mammals, 92 wild animals from both areas and 62 domestic cats of the Parque da Cidade. In total, 22 (53.7%) non-volant wild mammals, 11 (21.5%) bats and 28 (52.8%) cats were positive for IgG anti-T. gondii antibodies using the Modified Agglutination Test (≥ 25). It was possible to detect the presence of T. gondii DNA, by means of a molecular amplification of a B1 gene fragment (155bp), in 92 tissue samples from wild animals, including Didelphis albiventris, Monodelphis domestica, Artibeus lituratus, Carollia perspicillata and Glossophaga soricina. Of the 62 cats examined by the same molecular method, T. gondii DNA could be detected in 4 cats. In this study, it was observed the circulation of T. gondii in wild species and domestic cats, demonstrating the involvement of wild and domestic animals in the cycle of T. gondii.


Toxoplasmose destaca-se como uma doença global que tem felinos como hospedeiros definitivos. No município de Natal, Rio Grande do Norte, Brasil, dois parques são notáveis por sua importância ecológica e social. Este estudo teve como objetivo investigar a presença de Toxoplasma gondii em gatos de rua, morcegos e pequenos mamíferos não-voadores nestas duas reservas ecológicas. No total, as amostras biológicas foram obtidas de 154 mamíferos, 92 animais selvagens de ambas as áreas e 62 gatos domésticos do Parque da Cidade. No total, 22 (53,7%) mamíferos silvestres não-voadores, 11 (21,5%) morcegos e 28 (52,8%) gatos foram positivos para IgG anti-T. gondii utilizando o Teste de Aglutinação Modificado (≥ 25). Foi possível detectar a presença de DNA de T. gondii, por meio de uma amplificação molecular de um fragmento do gene B1 (155bp), em 92 amostras de tecido de animais selvagens, incluindo Didelphis albiventris, Monodelphis domestica, Artibeus lituratus, Carollia perspicillata e Glossophaga soricina. Dos 62 gatos examinadas pelo mesmo método molecular, DNA de T. gondii pode ser detectado em quatro gatos. Neste estudo, observou-se a circulação de T. gondii em espécies selvagens e gatos domésticos, demonstrando o envolvimento de animais domésticos e selvagens no ciclo de T. gondii.


Subject(s)
Aged , Humans , Male , Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic/administration & dosage , Colonic Neoplasms/drug therapy , Floxuridine/administration & dosage , Lymphatic Metastasis , Liver Neoplasms/secondary , Administration, Oral , Colonic Neoplasms/pathology , Colonic Neoplasms/surgery , Drug Administration Schedule , Hepatectomy
12.
Hist. ciênc. saúde-Manguinhos ; 21(4): 1179-1196, Oct-Dec/2014.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-732513

ABSTRACT

O artigo analisa o livro Boys in white: student culture in medical school, de Howard S. Becker, Blanche Geer, Everett C. Hughes e Anselm Strauss, considerado um dos modelos de pesquisa qualitativa em sociologia. A análise aborda as trajetórias dos autores, do livro, da pesquisa qualitativa e dos estudantes de medicina, enfatizando sua importância nas origens da sociologia médica e da sociologia da educação médica. Na trajetória dos autores são apresentados aspectos biobibliográficos; na da pesquisa qualitativa, o modo como essa metodologia de investigação atravessa a construção do trabalho de campo; e na dos estudantes, sua forma de atravessar os primeiros anos da escola médica e construir sua própria “cultura do estudante”.


This article analyzes Boys in white: student culture in medical schoolby Howard S. Becker, Blanche Geer, Everett C. Hughes and Anselm Strauss, considered a model of qualitative research in sociology. The analysis investigates the trajectories of the authors, the book, qualitative analysis, and the medical students, emphasizing their importance in the origins of medical sociology and the sociology of medical education. In the trajectory of the authors, bibliographical information is given. The trajectory of qualitative research focuses on how this methodology influences the construction of the field. The investigation of the students’ trajectory shows how they progress through their first years at medical school to build their own student culture.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Mice , Adenocarcinoma/drug therapy , Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic/pharmacology , Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal/pharmacology , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/therapeutic use , Apoptosis/drug effects , Breast Neoplasms/drug therapy , Estrogens , Estrogen Antagonists/pharmacology , Growth Inhibitors/pharmacology , Neoplasms, Hormone-Dependent/drug therapy , Phenylacetates/pharmacology , /biosynthesis , Tamoxifen/pharmacology , Adenocarcinoma/pathology , Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic/administration & dosage , Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal/administration & dosage , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/pharmacology , Breast Neoplasms/pathology , Cell Differentiation/drug effects , Cell Division/drug effects , Drug Synergism , Genes, ras , Mice, Nude , Neoplasm Transplantation , Neoplasms, Hormone-Dependent/pathology , /physiology , Phenylacetates/administration & dosage , /genetics , Transfection , Tamoxifen/administration & dosage , Tumor Cells, Cultured/drug effects
13.
Braz. dent. j ; 25(5): 425-429, Sep-Oct/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-731049

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to investigate in vitro the antimicrobial effect and diffusion against E. faecalis of new intracanal medications on the external root surface. The medications tested were a placebo gel (PC); the new formulations with either 3% nitrofurantoin (NIT) or 3% doxycycline hydrochloride (DX) and 2% chlorhexidine (CHX) gel as positive control. The new formulations were tested using the traditional agar diffusion test (ADT) and an adapted agar diffusion method (AADM), where the teeth were filled with the medications and left to diffuse on agar surface seeded with E. faecalis. In the ADT, the larger zones of microbial growth inhibition were seen in DX, followed by CHX and NIT. In the AADM test only DX and CHX showed antimicrobial effect. Statistically significant differences between groups were observed by the Kruskal-Wallis test (2=47.126; p<0.001). The new intracanal formulations with DX and NIT have demonstrated antimicrobial effect against E. faecalis, but only DX was able to diffuse through the dentinal tubules and exert antimicrobial effect outside the roots.


O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar, in vitro, o efeito antibacteriano e a difusão frente ao E. faecalis, de novas medicações intracanal na superfície externa da raiz. As medicações testadas foram um gel placebo (PC), as novas formulações quer com nitrofurantoína a 3% (NIT) ou hidrocloridrato de doxiciclina a 3%(DX) e um gel de clorexidina a 2% (CHX) como controle positive. As novas formulações foram testadas usando o tradicional teste de difusão em agar (ADT) e um método de difusão adaptado (AADM), onde os dentes foram preenchidos com as medicações e deixados a difundir numa superfície de agar semeada com E. faecalis. No ADT, a maior área de inibição foi registada para DX, seguida por CHX e NIT. No teste AADM, apenas DX e CHX demonstraram ação antimicrobiana. Foram observadas diferenças significativas entre os grupos através do teste Kruskal-Wallis (X2=47.126; p<0.001). As novas formulações intracanais contendo DX e NIT demonstraram ação antimicrobiana quando em contacto com E. faecalis, mas apenas DX teve capacidade de difundir através dos túbulos dentinários e exercer ação antimicrobiana fora das raízes.


Subject(s)
Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic/therapeutic use , Floxuridine/therapeutic use , Stomach Neoplasms/drug therapy , Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic/administration & dosage , Drug Administration Schedule , Floxuridine/administration & dosage , Registries , Survival Rate , Stomach Neoplasms/mortality
14.
Rev. bras. enferm ; 67(5): 825-831, Sep-Oct/2014. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: lil-731219

ABSTRACT

O estudo teve por objetivo analisar os efeitos da sondagem gástrica em pacientes com acidente vascular cerebral e disfagia. Revisão sistemática da literatura, realizada em seis bases de dados, com os descritores stroke e intubation, gastrointestinal. Foram encontrados 120 estudos e selecionados três ensaios clínicos. Os resultados apontaram diferentes desfechos, entre os quais: aumento do nível sérico de albumina (gastrostomia), prognóstico ruim e risco de morte (gastrostomia), aumento das falhas no tratamento devido a bloqueio, deslocamento e reinserção da sonda nasogástrica, e aumento da incidência de hemorragia gastrointestinal (sonda nasogástrica). A partir dos resultados obtidos nesta revisão sistemática, ressaltam-se as seguintes evidências: a sondagem nasogástrica deve ser adotada precocemente como um método de alimentação enteral; as falhas do tratamento são mais comuns naqueles que utilizam a sonda nasogástrica como método de alimentação; os resultados relacionados à melhora do estado funcional dos pacientes foram semelhantes, independente do método de terapia nutricional empregado.


This study aimed to analyze the effects of gastric intubation in patients with stroke and dysphagia. A systematic literature review was performed in six databases, using the keywords stroke and intubation, gastrointestinal. One hundred and twenty studies were found, from which three clinical trials were selected. The results showed different outcomes, including: increased serum albumin level (gastrostomy), poor prognosis and risk of death (gastrostomy), increased treatment failures because of blocking, displacement and reinsertion need of the nasogastric tube, and increased incidence of gastrointestinal bleeding (nasogastric tube). From the results obtained in this systematic review, we emphasize the following evidences: a nasogastric catheter should be adopted as a method of early enteral feeding; treatment failures are more common in those who use nasogastric tube-feeding; outcomes related to improved functional status of patients were similar, regardless of the method of nutritional therapy used.


El objetivo del estudio fue analizar los efectos de la intubación gástrica en pacientes con accidente cerebrovascular y disfagia. Se llevó a cabo una revisión sistemática de la literatura en seis bases de datos, utilizando-se las palabras clave accidente cerebrovascular y intubación, gastrointestinal. Entre 120 estudios identificados, fueran seleccionados tres ensayos clínicos. Los resultados mostraron diferentes desfechos, incluyendo: aumento del nivel de albúmina sérica (gastrostomía); mal pronóstico y riesgo de muerte (gastrostomía); aumento de los fracasos del tratamiento debido a obstrucción, desplazamiento y necesidad de reinserción de la sonda nasogástrica; y aumento de la incidencia de hemorragia gastrointestinal (sonda nasogástrica). A partir de los resultados obtenidos, destacamos las siguientes evidencias: se deben adoptar catéteres nasogástricas como método de alimentación enteral temprana; fracasos del tratamiento son más comunes en aquellos que utilizan la alimentación con sonda nasogástrica; los resultados relacionados con la mejora del estado funcional de los pacientes fueron similares, independientemente del método de terapia nutricional utilizado.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Antineoplastic Agents/administration & dosage , Cisplatin/administration & dosage , Ureteral Neoplasms/drug therapy , Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic/administration & dosage , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/administration & dosage , Floxuridine/administration & dosage , Infusions, Intravenous , Lymphatic Metastasis , Outpatients , Urothelium , Ureteral Neoplasms , Ureteral Neoplasms/secondary
15.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 51(3): 186-191, Jul-Sep/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-723859

ABSTRACT

Context Capecitabine, an oral drug, is as effective as traditional chemotherapy drugs. Objectives To investigate the adhesion to treatment with oral capecitabine in breast and colorectal cancer, and to determine any correlation with changes in patient’s quality of life. Methods Patients with colorectal cancer or breast cancer using capecitabine were included. The patients were asked to bring any medication left at the time of scheduled visits. The QLQ-C30 questionnaire was applied at the first visit and 8-12 weeks after treatment. Results Thirty patients were evaluated. Adherence was 88.3% for metastatic colon cancer, 90.4% for non-metastatic colon cancer, 94.3% for rectal cancer and 96.2% for metastatic breast cancer. No strong correlation between adherence and European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer QLQ-C30 functional or symptom scale rates had been found. There was no statistically significant correlation between compliance and the functional and symptom scales of the questionnaire before and after chemotherapy, with the exception of dyspnea. Conclusions Although no absolute adherence to oral capecitabine treatment had been observed, the level of adherence was good. Health professionals therefore need a greater focus in the monitoring the involvement of patients with oral treatment regimens. Patients with lesser degrees of dyspnea had greater compliance. .


Contexto A capecitabina, uma droga oral, é tão eficaz quanto as drogas quimioterápicas tradicionais. Objetivos Investigar a adesão ao tratamento oral com capecitabina para câncer de mama e colorretal e determinar qualquer correlação com as mudanças na qualidade de vida do paciente. Métodos Pacientes com câncer colorretal ou de mama em uso de capecitabina foram incluídos. A cada consulta os pacientes trouxeram a medicação restante. O questionário de qualidade de vida QLQ- C30 foi aplicado na primeira visita e 8-12 semanas após o tratamento. Resultados Trinta pacientes foram avaliados. A adesão foi de 88,3% para o câncer de cólon metastático, 90,4% para o de cólon não-metastático, 94,3% para o de reto e 96,2% para o de mama metastático. Com exceção da dispnéia, não houve forte correlação entre adesão e as taxas European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer QLQ-C30 em relação a escala funcional ou de sintomas no início ou após quimioterapia. Conclusões O nível de adesão foi bom, embora não houvesse adesão absoluta ao tratamento com capecitabina oral. Os profissionais de saúde, portanto, precisam dar maior atenção a pacientes em regimes de tratamento oral. Os pacientes com menor grau de dispneia tiveram maior adesão. Neoplasias colorretais, terapia .


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic/administration & dosage , Breast Neoplasms/drug therapy , Colonic Neoplasms/drug therapy , Deoxycytidine/analogs & derivatives , Fluorouracil/analogs & derivatives , Medication Adherence/statistics & numerical data , Rectal Neoplasms/drug therapy , Administration, Oral , Cohort Studies , Deoxycytidine/administration & dosage , Fluorouracil/administration & dosage , Prospective Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires
16.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 142(2): 199-203, feb. 2014. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-710988

ABSTRACT

Background: Gastric cancer is one of the most lethal tumors in the Chilean population. Aim: To report the results of adjuvant chemoradiotherapy in advanced gastric cancer. Material and Methods: Review of medical records of patients with locoregionally advanced gastric cancer, subjected to a curative resection and treated with adjuvant chemoradiotherapy. The treatment was based on the INT 0116/SWOG protocol, which includes 5-fuorouracil as a single agent. Patients were followed for a median of 58 months. Results: the records of 168 patients (99 men) treated between 2004 and 2011, were reviewed. Median survival was 41 months. Median lapses between surgery and onset of chemo and radiotherapy were 12 and 17 weeks, respectively. Overall three and five years survival was 53 and 41%, respectively. On multivariate analysis the factors associated with a lower survival were an antral location of the tumor, presence of signet ring cells and more than 15 involved lymph nodes. Conclusions: Three and five years survival of gastric cancer patients subjected to adjuvant chemoradiotherapy was 53 and 41% respectively. These results are similar to those reported elsewhere.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic/administration & dosage , Chemoradiotherapy, Adjuvant , Fluorouracil/administration & dosage , Leucovorin/administration & dosage , Stomach Neoplasms/therapy , Vitamin B Complex/administration & dosage , Disease-Free Survival , Lymphatic Metastasis , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local , Neoplasm Staging , Neoplasm, Residual , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Stomach Neoplasms/pathology , Treatment Outcome
17.
Clinics in Orthopedic Surgery ; : 439-442, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-223880

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Aggressive fibromatosis is a rare but invasive tumor infiltrating widely between fascia and muscle fibers. It has a high tendency to be locally recurrent despite complete resection. Effectiveness of adjuvant treatment for aggressive fibromatosis including radiotherapy, pharmacological agents, hormonal treatments, and chemotherapy have been previously reported. The purpose of this article was to collect and analyze all information regarding the effectiveness and side effects of oral methotrexate in aggressive fibromatosis. METHODS: From 2005 to 2011, eleven patients with aggressive fibromatosis treated with oral methotrexate at our institution were analyzed in this study. Oral methotrexate was administered once per week at 10 mg per week. Authors collected information about effectiveness concerning cases of local recurrence and metastasis. RESULTS: Eleven patients had remission, two patients had local recurrence. Fatal complications or toxicity were not observed. CONCLUSIONS: Oral methotrexate given at this dose and schedule was considered as a useful treatment in primary inoperable fibromatosis and recurrent fibromatosis.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Administration, Oral , Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic/administration & dosage , Fibromatosis, Aggressive/drug therapy , Methotrexate/administration & dosage , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/drug therapy , Retrospective Studies
18.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 1489-1497, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-221614

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: For locally unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients, concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) has been applied as a loco-regional treatment. After shrinkage of tumors in selected patients, surgical resection is performed. The aim of this study was to evaluate prognostic factors and long-term survivors in such patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From January 2000 to January 2009, 264 patients with HCC were treated with CCRT (45 Gy with fractional dose of 1.8 Gy), and intra-arterial chemotherapy was administered during radiotherapy. Eighteen of these patients (6.8%) underwent hepatic resection after showing a response to CCRT. Cases were considered resectable when tumor-free margins and sufficient remnant volumes were obtained without extrahepatic metastasis. Prior to operation, there were six patients with complete remission, 11 with partial remission, and six with stable disease according to modified Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors. RESULTS: In pathologic review, four patients (22.2%) showed total necrosis and seven patients (38.9%) showed 70-99% necrosis. A high level of necrosis (> or =80%) was correlated with low risk for extrahepatic metastasis and long-term survival. In univariate analyses, vessel invasion and capsular infiltration were significantly correlated with disease free survival (DFS) (p=0.017 and 0.013, respectively), and vessel invasion was significantly correlated with overall survival (OS) (p=0.013). In multivariate analyses, capsule infiltration was a significant factor for DFS (p=0.016) and vessel invasion was significant for OS (p=0.015). CONCLUSION: CCRT showed favorable responses and locally advanced HCC converted into resectable tumor after CCRT in selected patients. Long-term survivors showed the pathological features of near total necrosis, as well as negative capsule and vessel invasion.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic/administration & dosage , Antineoplastic Agents/administration & dosage , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/mortality , Chemoradiotherapy/methods , Cisplatin/administration & dosage , Disease-Free Survival , Fluorouracil/administration & dosage , Liver Neoplasms/mortality , Prognosis , Radiotherapy, Conformal , Remission Induction , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Salvage Therapy , Survival Rate , Treatment Outcome , Tumor Burden
19.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 46(7): 634-642, ago. 2013. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-682404

ABSTRACT

Current therapy for pancreatic cancer is multimodal, involving surgery and chemotherapy. However, development of pancreatic cancer therapies requires a thorough evaluation of drug efficacy in vitro before animal testing and subsequent clinical trials. Compared to two-dimensional culture of cell monolayer, three-dimensional (3-D) models more closely mimic native tissues, since the tumor microenvironment established in 3-D models often plays a significant role in cancer progression and cellular responses to the drugs. Accumulating evidence has highlighted the benefits of 3-D in vitro models of various cancers. In the present study, we have developed a spheroid-based, 3-D culture of pancreatic cancer cell lines MIAPaCa-2 and PANC-1 for pancreatic drug testing, using the acid phosphatase assay. Drug efficacy testing showed that spheroids had much higher drug resistance than monolayers. This model, which is characteristically reproducible and easy and offers rapid handling, is the preferred choice for filling the gap between monolayer cell cultures and in vivo models in the process of drug development and testing for pancreatic cancer.


Subject(s)
Humans , Acid Phosphatase/metabolism , Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor/methods , Pancreatic Neoplasms/drug therapy , Spheroids, Cellular/drug effects , Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic/administration & dosage , Cell Survival , Cell Culture Techniques/methods , Cell Line, Tumor/drug effects , Cell Line, Tumor/enzymology , Deoxycytidine/administration & dosage , Deoxycytidine/analogs & derivatives , Fluorouracil/administration & dosage , Pancreatic Neoplasms/enzymology , Spheroids, Cellular/enzymology
20.
Indian J Cancer ; 2012 Apr-June; 49(2): 202-208
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-144573

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Gemcitabine in low-dose prolonged infusion is a treatment with documented activity against a variety of tumors. The present study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the combination of gemcitabine at a low-dose prolonged infusion in comparison with standard dose gemcitabine with carboplatin in chemonaive patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Materials and Methods: Sixty chemonaive patients with stage IIIB or IV NSCLC were included. Patients were randomly assigned 1:1 to receive 350mg/m 2 gemcitabine in a 6-h infusion on days 1 and 8 and carboplatin area under the serum concentration time curve (AUC) 5 on day 1 versus gemcitabine 1000mg/m 2 on days 1 and 8 and carboplatin AUC 5 on day 1 (3-week cycle both). A total of 118 chemotherapy cycles, with a median of 4 cycles per patient (range 2-6), and 134 chemotherapy cycles, with a median of 4.47 cycles per patient (range 3-6) were administered in standard and low infusional dose arm, respectively. Results: Among patients in the standard arm, 40% had overall response rate (ORR), 33.3% had stable disease and 26.6% had progressive disease, while in low-dose infusional arm, 36.6% had ORR, 36.3% had stable disease and 26.6% had progressive disease (P = 0.992). Median progression-free survival was 5.5 months and 5.4 months, median overall survival was 9.7 months and 10.7 months, and 1-year survival was 33.7% and 36.6% in standard arm and low-dose infusion arm, respectively. Grade 3/4 toxicity was rare. Conclusion: In NSCLC, gemcitabine low-dose prolonged infusion with carboplatin has low toxicity, especially thrombocytopenia, and has an activity comparable with gemcitabine given in higher dose in standard infusion.


Subject(s)
Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic/administration & dosage , Dosage , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/drug therapy , Carboplatin/administration & dosage , Drug Delivery Systems , Drug Dosage Calculations , Humans
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