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1.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, CONASS, ColecionaSUS, SES-GO | ID: biblio-1426707

ABSTRACT

Mesilato de osimertinibe, gefitinibe, erlotinibe, quimioterapia padrão. Indicação: Câncer de pulmão de células não pequenas com mutação do receptor do fator de crescimento epidérmico (EGFR). Pergunta: Mesilato de osimertinibe é mais eficaz e seguro que gefitinibe, erlotinibe ou quimioterapia para os desfechos de sobrevida global, sobrevida livre de progressão e de segurança no tratamento de carcinoma pulmonar de células não pequenas com mutação do EGFR? Métodos: Levantamento bibliográfico foi realizado na base de dados PUBMED e EPISTEMONIKOS, seguindo estratégias de buscas predefinidas. Foi feita avaliação da qualidade metodológica das revisões sistemáticas com a ferramenta AMSTAR-2 (Assessing the Methodological Quality of Systematic Reviews Version 2). Resultados: Foram selecionadas duas revisões sistemáticas que atenderam aos critérios de elegibilidade. Conclusão: Mesilato de osimertinibe é mais eficaz do que gefitinibe ou erlotinibe na melhora da sobrevida global e da sobrevida livre de progressão em pacientes virgens de tratamento. Em pacientes previamente tratados, o mesilato de osimertinibe não é superior à quimioterapia padrão à base de platina no prolongamento da sobrevida global, mas é mais eficaz no aumento da sobrevida livre de progressão. Para câncer avançado, mesilato de osimertinibe não é mais eficaz do que a quimioterapia com ou sem pemetrexede para prolongar a sobrevida global, mas é mais eficaz em melhorar a sobrevida livre de progressão. Gefitinibe combinado com quimioterapia à base de pemetrexede foi superior à quimioterapia com ou sem pemetrexede na melhora da sobrevida global e da sobrevida livre de progressão


Osimertinib mesylate, gefitinib, erlotinib, standard chemotherapy. Indication: Non-small cell lung cancer with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation. Question: Is osimertinib mesylate more effective and safer than gefitinib, erlotinib or chemotherapy for overall survival, progression-free survival and safety outcomes in the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer with EGFR mutation? Methods: A bibliographic search was done in the PUBMED and EPISTEMONIKOS database, following predefined search strategies. The methodological quality of systematic reviews was evaluated using the Assessing the Methodological Quality of Systematic Reviews Version 2 tool. Results: Two systematic reviews were selected because they met the eligibility criteria. Conclusion: Osimertinib mesylate is more effective than gefitinib or erlotinib in improving overall survival and progression-free survival in treatment-naive patients. In previously treated patients, osimertinib mesylate is not superior to standard platinum-based chemotherapy in prolonging overall survival, but it is more effective in increasing progression-free survival. For advanced cancer, osimertinib mesylate is not more effective than chemotherapy with or without pemetrexed in prolonging overall survival, but it is more effective in improving progression-free survival. Gefitinib combined with pemetrexed-based chemotherapy was superior to chemotherapy with or without pemetrexed in improving overall survival and progression-free survival


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/drug therapy , Erlotinib Hydrochloride/therapeutic use , Gefitinib/therapeutic use , Inhibitors, Tyrosine Kinase/therapeutic use , Pemetrexed/therapeutic use , Antineoplastic Agents/administration & dosage
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: 1-9, 2023. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1468875

ABSTRACT

Cisplatin (CP) is a commonly used, powerful antineoplastic drug, having numerous side effects. Casticin (CAS) is considered as a free radical scavenger and a potent antioxidant. The present research was planned to assess the curative potential of CAS on CP persuaded renal injury in male albino rats. Twenty four male albino rats were distributed into four equal groups. Group-1 was considered as a control group. Animals of Group-2 were injected with 5mg/kg of CP intraperitoneally. Group-3 was co-treated with CAS (50mg/kg) orally and injection of CP (5mg/kg). Group-4 was treated with CAS (50mg/kg) orally throughout the experiment. CP administration substantially reduced the activities of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), glutathione S-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GSR), glutathione (GSH) content while increased thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) levels. Urea, urinary creatinine, urobilinogen, urinary proteins, kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) levels were substantially increased. In contrast, albumin and creatinine clearance was significantly reduced in CP treated group. The results demonstrated that CP significantly increased the inflammation indicators including nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), Interleukin-1β (IL-1β), Interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) activity and histopathological damages. However, the administration of CAS displayed a palliative effect against CP-generated renal toxicity and recovered all parameters by bringing them to a normal level. These results revealed that the CAS is an effective compound having the curative potential to counter the CP-induced renal damage.


A cisplatina (CP) é uma droga antineoplásica poderosa, comumente usada, com vários efeitos colaterais. Casticin (CAS) é considerado um eliminador de radicais livres e um potente antioxidante. A presente pesquisa foi planejada para avaliar o potencial curativo da CAS em lesão renal induzida por PC em ratos albinos machos. Vinte e quatro ratos albinos machos foram distribuídos em quatro grupos iguais. O Grupo 1 foi considerado grupo controle. Os animais do Grupo 2 foram injetados com 5 mg / kg de PB por via intraperitoneal. O Grupo 3 foi cotratado com CAS (50 mg / kg) por via oral e injeção de CP (5 mg / kg). O Grupo 4 foi tratado com CAS (50 mg / kg) por via oral durante todo o experimento. A administração de CP reduziu substancialmente as atividades de catalase (CAT), superóxido dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), glutationa S-transferase (GST), glutationa redutase (GSR), glutationa (GSH), enquanto aumentou as substâncias reativas ao ácido tiobarbitúrico (TBARS) e níveis de peróxido de hidrogênio (H2O2). Os níveis de ureia, creatinina urinária, urobilinogênio, proteínas urinárias, molécula 1 de lesão renal (KIM-1) e lipocalina associada à gelatinase de neutrófilos (NGAL) aumentaram substancialmente. Em contraste, a albumina e a depuração da creatinina foram significativamente reduzidas no grupo tratado com PC. Os resultados demonstraram que a CP aumentou significativamente os indicadores de inflamação, incluindo fator nuclear kappa-B (NF-κB), fator de necrose tumoral-α (TNF-α), interleucina-1β (IL-1β), interleucina-6 (IL-6) níveis e atividade da ciclooxigenase-2 (COX-2) e danos histopatológicos. No entanto, a administração de CAS apresentou um efeito paliativo contra a toxicidade renal gerada por CP e recuperou todos os parâmetros, trazendo-os a um nível normal. Estes resultados revelaram que o CAS é um composto eficaz com potencial curativo para combater o dano renal induzido por CP.


Subject(s)
Male , Animals , Rats , Antineoplastic Agents/administration & dosage , Antineoplastic Agents/adverse effects , Antioxidants/administration & dosage , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Kidney/injuries , Free Radical Scavengers/administration & dosage , Free Radical Scavengers/pharmacology , Rats, Inbred Strains
3.
Int. j. med. surg. sci. (Print) ; 9(2): 1-9, June 2022. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1512600

ABSTRACT

Cisplatin, the first platinum compound approved for cancer treatment, is widely used in the treatment of various cancers including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). HCC incidence rates rise globally. Epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) is implicated in cancer invasion and metastasis, which are associated with increased mortality. Cisplatin dose might influence cancer invasion and metastatic behavior of the cells. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of low-dose cisplatin treatment on EMT- related changes in HepG2 cells. Following treatment with 4 µM cisplatin, HepG2 cells were evaluated morphologically. Gene expression of E-cadherin, Vimentin, Snail1 was assessed by quantitative PCR. Immunofluorescence analyses of NA-K ATPase were performed. Although the low-dose cisplatin treated cells exhibited a more stretched morphology, no statistical difference was detected in gene expression of E-cadherin, Vimentin, Snail1 and immunofluorescence of NA-K ATPase. Findings on low-dose cisplatin effects in HepG2 might contribute to the knowledge of antineoplastic inefficacy by further understanding the molecular mechanisms of drug action.


El cisplatino, el primer compuesto de platino aprobado para el tratamiento del cáncer, es ampliamente utilizado en el tratamiento de varios tipos de cáncer, incluido el carcinoma hepatocelular (CHC). Las tasas de incidencia de CHC aumentan a nivel mundial. La transición mesenquimal epitelial (EMT) está implicada en la invasión del cáncer y la metástasis, que se asocian con un aumento de la mortalidad. La dosis de cisplatino podría influir en la invasión del cáncer y el comportamiento metastásico de las células. El objetivo del estudio fue investigar el efecto del tratamiento con dosis bajas de cisplatino en los cambios relacionados con la EMT en las células HepG2. Tras el tratamiento con cisplatino de 4 µM, se evaluaron morfológicamente las células HepG2. La expresión génica de E-cadherina, vimentina, caracol1 se evaluó mediante PCR cuantitativa. Se realizaron análisis de inmunofluorescencia de NA-K ATPasa . Aunque las células tratadas con cisplatino en dosis bajas exhibieron una morfología más estirada, no se detectaron diferencias estadísticas en la expresión génica de E-cadherina, vimentina, Snail1 e inmunofluorescencia de NA-K ATPasa. Los hallazgos sobre los efectos del cisplatino en dosis bajas en HepG2 podrían contribuir al conocimiento de la ineficacia antineoplásica al comprender mejor los mecanismos moleculares de la acción del fármaco.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cisplatin/administration & dosage , Antineoplastic Agents/administration & dosage , Vimentin/drug effects , Vimentin/genetics , Vimentin/metabolism , Cadherins/drug effects , Cadherins/genetics , Cadherins/metabolism , Cells, Cultured , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Microscopy, Confocal , Hep G2 Cells , Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Snail Family Transcription Factors/drug effects , Snail Family Transcription Factors/genetics , Snail Family Transcription Factors/metabolism , Neoplasm Invasiveness
4.
Esc. Anna Nery Rev. Enferm ; 26: e20210246, 2022. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1360442

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo descrever as necessidades de aprendizagem de familiares de crianças e adolescentes com câncer quanto ao tratamento com quimioterápicos antineoplásicos orais. Método pesquisa qualitativa descritiva desenvolvida em um hospital federal do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. Os dados foram coletados nos meses de julho a setembro de 2020 a partir de entrevistas semiestruturadas com vinte e três familiares de crianças e adolescentes com câncer em quimioterapia antineoplásica oral. Os dados foram processados no software Interface de R pour Analyses Multidimensionnelles de Textes et de Questionnaires pela Classificação Hierárquica Descendente. Resultados dentre os temas que demandam aprendizagem pelos familiares estão administração oral, armazenamento e manipulação dos quimioterápicos orais, além dos efeitos adversos e emergências que demandam atendimento hospitalar. Conclusão e implicações para a prática no tratamento com quimioterápicos orais, as necessidades de aprendizagem dos familiares de crianças e adolescentes precisam ser problematizadas em práticas educativas dialógicas para, assim, favorecer a segurança, a adesão e a eficácia do tratamento.


RESUMEN Objetivo describir las necesidades de aprendizaje de familiares de niños y adolescentes con cáncer en cuanto al tratamiento con quimioterápicos antineoplásicos orales. Método investigación cualitativa descriptiva desarrollada en un hospital federal de Río de Janeiro, Brasil. Los datos fueron recogidos en los meses de julio a septiembre de 2020 a partir de entrevistas semiestructuradas con veintitrés familiares de niños y adolescentes con cáncer en quimioterapia antineoplásica oral. Los datos fueron procesados en el software Interface de R pour Analyses Multidimensionnelles de Textes et de Questionnaires por la Clasificación Jerárquica Descendente. Resultados entre los temas que demandan aprendizaje por los familiares están administración oral, almacenamiento y manipulación de los quimioterápicos orales, además de los efectos adversos y emergencias que demandan atención hospitalaria. Conclusión e implicaciones para la práctica en el tratamiento con quimioterápicos orales, las necesidades de aprendizaje de los familiares de niños y adolescentes necesitan ser problematizadas en prácticas educativas dialógicas para, así, favorecer la seguridad, la adhesión y la eficacia del tratamiento.


ABSTRACT Objective to describe the learning needs of family members of children and adolescents with cancer regarding treatment with oral antineoplastic chemotherapies. Method a descriptive qualitative research developed in a federal hospital in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Data were collected in the months from July to September 2020 from semi-structured interviews with twenty-three family members of children and adolescents with cancer undergoing oral antineoplastic chemotherapy. Data was processed in the software Interface de R pour Analyses Multidimensionnelles de Textes et de Questionnaires by the Descending Hierarchical Classification. Results among the themes that demand learning by the family members are oral administration, storage and handling of oral antineoplastic drugs, as well as adverse effects and emergencies that require hospital care. Conclusion and implications for practice in oral antineoplastic treatment, the learning needs of family members of children and adolescents need to be problematized in dialogic educational practices in order to favor the safety, adherence, and efficacy of the treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Health Education , Caregivers/education , Neoplasms/therapy , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Child Care , Methotrexate/therapeutic use , Administration, Oral , Qualitative Research , Drug Storage , Temozolomide/therapeutic use , Mercaptopurine/therapeutic use , Antineoplastic Agents/administration & dosage
5.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, CONASS, ColecionaSUS, SES-GO | ID: biblio-1391770

ABSTRACT

O tratamento metronômico consiste na administração regular e contínua de quimioterápicos em baixa dose, preferivelmente via oral, sem pausas prolongadas, com objetivo de bloquear a proliferação tumoral. Este tratamento tem sido utilizado para uma série de tumores e nos últimos anos notou-se aumento da utilização em estudos clínicos, principalmente no cenário paliativo. Objetivo: Realizar uma revisão narrativa acerca do tema quimioterapia metronômica em tumores sólidos, nos seus aspectos de definição, racional biológico, indicação clínica, marcadores preditivos e prognósticos. Metodologia: Foi realizada uma pesquisa na base de dados PUBMED, maior base de dados de conteúdo médico, onde foram encontrados 575 artigos, dos quais 46 artigos se adequavam aos critérios de seleção (artigos em inglês publicados no período compreendido entre 2015 a 2020), dentre eles 32 artigos de revisão, 1 metanálise, 2 retrospectivos, 9 prospectivos e 2 descritivos. E, após análise pormenorizada, 529 artigos foram excluídos devido aos critérios de exclusão: artigos em outras línguas que não inglês e a utilização apenas de anticorpo, imunoterapia ou terapia alvo molecular sem quimioterapia associados. Resultados: A partir da análise dos 46 artigos, foram encontrados descrições acerca dos aspectos conceituais, teorias metronômicas, efeito angiogênico, imunológico e quiescência tumoral, efeito 4 "D" e indicação clínica, avaliação de eficácia, segurança, marcadores, precisão e custo efetividade. Conclusão: Verificou-se que evidências clínicas e pré-clínicas suportam o uso de quimioterapia metronômica como uma alternativa ao tratamento oncológico padrão em cenário de acesso restrito a novas drogas, tais como: terapia alvo ou imunoterapia, sendo a principal característica sua baixa toxicidade, acessibilidade, disponibilidade de drogas para administração oral e alta atividade anti-angiogênica, além de outros efeitos diretos e indiretos, os quais se traduzem em benefício clínico


Metronomic treatment consists of regular and continuous administration of low-dose chemotherapy, preferably orally, without prolonged pauses, with the aim of blocking tumor proliferation. This treatment has been used for a number of tumors and, in recent years, there has been an increase in its use in clinical studies, especially in the palliative setting. Objective: To carry out a narrative review on the topic metronomic chemotherapy in solid tumors, in its aspects of definition, biological rationale, clinical indication, predictive and prognostic markers. Methodology: A search was carried out in the PUBMED database, the largest database of medical content, where 575 articles were found, of which 46 articles fit the selection criteria (articles in English published between 2015 and 2020), among them 32 review articles, 1 meta-analysis, 2 retrospective, 9 prospective and 2 descriptive. And, after a detailed analysis, 529 articles were excluded, due to the exclusion criteria: articles in languages other than English and the use of antibody alone, immunotherapy or molecular targeted therapy without associated chemotherapy. Results: From the analysis of the 46 articles, descriptions were found about the conceptual aspects, metronomic theories, angiogenic, immunological and tumor quiescence effects, 4 "D" effect and clinical indication, evaluation of efficacy, safety, markers, precision and cost effectiveness . Conclusion: It was found that clinical and preclinical evidence support the use of metronomic chemotherapy as an alternative to standard cancer treatment in a scenario of restricted access to new drugs, such as targeted therapy or immunotherapy, the main feature being its low toxicity, accessibility, availability of drugs for oral administration and high anti-angiogenic activity, in addition to other direct and indirect effects, which translate into clinical benefit


Subject(s)
Humans , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/administration & dosage , Administration, Metronomic , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Antineoplastic Agents/administration & dosage
6.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, CONASS, ColecionaSUS, SES-GO | ID: biblio-1359838

ABSTRACT

Introdução: A L-asparaginase tem sido estudada como alternativa no tratamento da Leucemia Linfoblástica Aguda (LLA) uma vez que possui a capacidade de induzir apoptose em células leucêmicas sem causar danos às células normais. Estudos mostraram benefícios no tratamento da LLA, porém com o risco de desenvolver efeitos adversos. Objetivo: Este trabalho visa apresentar e explicar o histórico da L-asparaginase, desafios enfrentados pelo Brasil, mecanismos de ação que envolvem as formas da enzima e efeitos adversos de sua utilização. Métodos: Foram incluídos neste trabalho 54 artigos na língua portuguesa e inglesa consultados em bancos de artigos como PubMed e SciELO, entre o período de 1953 até 2021. Resultados: A L-asparaginase é uma enzima que converte asparagina em aspartato e amônia, isolada a partir de colônias de Escherichia coli e de Erwinia chrysanthemi, além disso foi polimerizada com polietilenoglicol. O uso de corticosteroides, anti-histamínicos e suplementação vitamínica se mostraram eficientes para amenizar os efeitos adversos. Conclusões: É necessário evitar um desabastecimento de L-Asparaginase no Brasil, principalmente por conta da dificuldade de comercialização e alto custo, mesmo sendo um medicamento presente na lista da Organização Mundial da Saúde, considerado essencial.


Introduction: L-asparaginase has been studied as an alternative in the treatment of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL) since it has the ability to induce apoptosis in leukemic cells without causing damage to normal cells. Studies have shown benefits in the treatment of ALL, but with the risk of developing adverse effects. Objective: This work aims to present and explain the history of L-asparaginase, challenges faced by Brazil, mechanisms of action involving the forms of the enzyme and adverse effects of its use. Methods: 54 articles in Portuguese and English were included in this work, consulted in article banks such as PubMed and SciELO, between the period of 1953 to 2021. Results: L-asparaginase is an enzyme that converts asparagine into aspartate and ammonia, isolated from from Escherichia coli and Erwinia chrysanthemi colonies, it was also polymerized with polyethylene glycol. The use of corticosteroids, antihistamines and vitamin supplementation proved to be efficient in mitigating adverse effects. Conclusions: It is necessary to avoid a shortage of L-Asparaginase in Brazil, mainly due to the difficulty of commercialization and high cost, even though it is a drug present on the World Health Organization list, considered essential.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Asparaginase/antagonists & inhibitors , Precursor T-Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/prevention & control , Escherichia coli , Antineoplastic Agents/administration & dosage
7.
Rev. medica electron ; 42(6): 2499-2511, nov.-dic. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1150033

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: los medicamentos de alto costo son medicamentos nuevos, altamente específicos y utilizados en condiciones clínicas complejas, como el tratamiento de algunos tipos de cáncer; enfermedades que comprometen el sistema inmunológico, enfermedades inflamatorias o infecciosas. Objetivo: determinar cumplimiento del plan de consumo de los medicamentos de alto costo en la provincia de Matanzas, en el quinquenio 2012-2017. Materiales y métodos: estudio descriptivo, observacional de seguimiento sobre el cumplimiento del plan de consumo de los medicamentos de alto costo, en la población matancera del año 2012 al 2017. Se analizó el universo de medicamentos incluidos en esta categoría, a partir de la base de datos de suministro de medicamentos que emplea la Empresa Comercializadora de Medicamentos. Se identificaron las variables estudiadas. Resultados: en todo el período de estudio se observó un incremento creciente de los medicamentos de alto costo, en el 88,9 % de ellos el consumo ha estado por encima de la planificación realizada por la provincia. Los costos se incrementaron en un 233 % y además en las prescripciones realizadas de estos productos, se encontraron problemas como escaques vacíos, antibióticos sin impresión diagnóstica y omisión de la forma de presentación del medicamento y/o dosis indicada. Conclusiones: el consumo de muchos medicamentos de alto costo fue mayor que la planificación realizada en la provincia de Matanzas, durante el período analizado. Implicó un incremento significativo del presupuesto destinado a estos fines y se detectaron dificultades en el cumplimiento de lo establecido en las prescripciones de dichos medicamentos (AU).


ABSTRACT Introduction: high cost medications (HCM) are new highly specific medications and used in complex clinical conditions as in treatment of some types of cancer, diseases that compromise the immunological system, inflammatory or infections disorders. Objective: to determine the fulfillment of the consumption plan of high-cost medications in the province of Matanzas in the period 2012-2017. Materials and methods: a descriptive, observational, follow up study on the fulfillment of the consumption plan of high-cost medication by the population of Matanzas2012 year to 2017. The universe of drugs included in this category was analyzed on the bases of the drug-supplying database used by the Drug Commercializing Enterprise (ENCOMED in Spanish). The studied variables were identified. Results: it was observed a growing increase of high-cost drugs use during all the period; in 88.9 % of them the consumption has been above the planning made in the province. The costs increased in 233 %, and besides that in the prescriptions made of these drugs there were found problems like empty boxes, antibiotics without diagnostic impression and omissions of the drug presentation forms and/or the prescribed doses. Conclusions: the consumption of many high-cost drugs was higher than the planning made in the province of Matanzas for the analyzed period. It implied a significant increase of the budget destined for these aims and difficulties were found in the fulfillment of the terms for prescribing these drugs (AU).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Drug Costs/standards , Drug and Narcotic Control/methods , Pharmacy and Therapeutics Committee/standards , National Drug Policy , Antineoplastic Agents/administration & dosage
8.
Gac. méd. Méx ; 156(3): 229-236, may.-jun. 2020. graf
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249899

ABSTRACT

Resumen Los anticuerpos terapéuticos son proteínas recombinantes empleadas en el tratamiento del cáncer. Existe una nueva generación de anticuerpos monoclonales con actividad contra las células cancerosas, conocidos como anticuerpos conjugados a fármacos. Estas moléculas están integradas por tres elementos: un anticuerpo monoclonal, un fármaco citotóxico con alta potencia y un enlazador químico que los une. El anticuerpo reconoce antígenos tumorales, por lo que permite la entrega dirigida del agente citotóxico hacia las células cancerosas. Tras el reconocimiento de su antígeno, el anticuerpo conjugado a fármaco es endocitado por las células blanco, donde se induce la degradación lisosomal de la fracción proteica y se libera el fármaco citotóxico. En el presente artículo se revisan las características generales de los anticuerpos conjugados a fármacos y se describe la evidencia clínica de la eficacia y seguridad de los primeros cuatro aprobados por las agencias reguladoras de Estados Unidos y Europa.


Abstract Therapeutic antibodies are recombinant proteins used in the treatment of cancer. There is a new generation of monoclonal antibodies with activity against cancer cells, known as antibody-drug conjugates. These molecules are made up of three elements: a monoclonal antibody, a highly potent cytotoxic drug, and a chemical linker that binds them together. The antibody recognizes tumor antigens, thereby allowing targeted delivery of the cytotoxic agent to cancer cells. After recognizing its antigen, the antibody-drug conjugate is endocytosed by the target cells, where the protein fraction is degradated into lysosomes, releasing the cytotoxic drug. This article reviews antibody-drug conjugates general characteristics and describes the clinical evidence of efficacy and safety of the first four approved by regulatory agencies in the United States and Europe.


Subject(s)
Humans , Immunoconjugates/administration & dosage , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Antineoplastic Agents/administration & dosage , Biotechnology , Immunoconjugates/adverse effects , Immunoconjugates/pharmacology , Antigens, Neoplasm/immunology , Neoplasms/immunology , Antineoplastic Agents/adverse effects , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology
9.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 114(6): 1004-1012, Jun., 2020. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1131236

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento A doença arterial coronariana (DAC) associada à quimioterapia está se tornando um tema emergente na prática clínica. Contudo, o mecanismo subjacente da quimioterapia associada à DAC permanence incerto. Objetivos O estudo investigou a associação entre a quimioterapia e as anomalias anatômicas ateroscleróticas das artérias coronárias dentre pacientes com cancer de pulmão. Métodos Foram incluídos pacientes submetidos à angiografia coronária (AGC), entre 2010 e 2017, com câncer de pulmão prévio. Os fatores de risco associados à DAC e os dados sobre o câncer de pulmão foram avaliados. Avaliamos as anomalias das artérias coronárias de acordo com o escore SYNTAX (SXescore) calculado à AGC. Na análise de regressão logística, o escore SYNTAX foi classificado como alto (SXescoreALTO) se ≥22. Os dados foram analisados através de estatística descritiva e análise de regressão. Resultados Ao todo, 94 pacientes foram incluídos no estudo. O SXescore foi mais alto no grupo com quimioterapia quando comparado com o grupo sem quimioterapia (25,25, IIQ [4,50-30,00] versus 16,50, IIQ [5,00-22,00]; p = 0,0195). A taxa do SXescoreALTO foi maior no grupo com quimioterapia do que no no grupo sem quimioterapia (58,33% versus 25,86; p = 0,0016). Tanto a análise de regressão logística univariada (OR: 4,013; 95% IC:1,655-9,731) quanto a multivariada (OR: 5,868; 95% IC:1,778-19,367) revelaram que a quimioterapia aumentou o risco de uma maior taxa do SXescoreALTO. A análise multivariada de regressão logística Stepwise mostrou que o risco para DAC anatômica mais grave aumenta com a quimioterapia como um todo em 5.323 vezes (95% IC: 2,002-14,152), e com o regime à base de platina em 5,850 vezes (95% IC: 2,027-16,879). Conclusões A quimioterapia está associada com a complexidade e gravidade anatômica da DAC, o que pode explicar, em parte, o maior risco de DAC associada à quimioterapia dentre pacientes com câncer de pulmão. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2020; [online].ahead print, PP.0-0)


Abstract Background Chemotherapy-related coronary artery disease (CAD) is becoming an emerging issue in clinic. However, the underlying mechanism of chemotherapy-related CAD remains unclear. Objective The study investigated the association between chemotherapy and atherosclerotic anatomical abnormalities of coronary arteries among lung cancer patients. Methods Patients undergoing coronary angiography (CAG) between 2010 and 2017, who previously had lung cancer, were examined. Risk factors associated with CAD and information about lung cancer were evaluated. We assessed coronary-artery abnormalities by SYNTAX score (SXscore) based on CAG. In logistic-regression analysis, we defined high SXscore (SXhigh) grade as positive if ≥22. Data were analyzed through descriptive statistics and regression analysis. Results A total of 94 patients were included in the study. The SXscore was higher in the chemotherapy group than in the non-chemotherapy group (25.25, IQR [4.50-30.00] vs. 16.50, IQR [ 5.00-22.00], p = 0.0195). The SXhigh rate was greater in the chemotherapy group than in the non-chemotherapy group (58.33% vs. 25.86; p = 0.0016). Both univariate (OR:4.013; 95% CI:1.655-9.731) and multivariate (OR:5.868; 95% CI:1.778-19.367) logistic-regression analysis revealed that chemotherapy increased the risk of greater SXhigh rates. Multivariate stepwise logistic-regression analysis showed the risk of more severe anatomical CAD is increased by chemotherapy as a whole by 5.323 times (95% CI: 2.002-14.152), and by platinum-based regimens by 5.850 times (95% CI: 2.027-16.879). Conclusions Chemotherapy is associated with anatomical complexity and severity of CAD, which might partly account for the higher risk of chemotherapy-related CAD among lung cancer patients. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2020; [online].ahead print, PP.0-0)


Subject(s)
Coronary Artery Disease/chemically induced , Carotid Artery Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Coronary Angiography/methods , Coronary Vessels/diagnostic imaging , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Antineoplastic Agents/adverse effects , Severity of Illness Index , Risk Factors , Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color , Antineoplastic Agents/administration & dosage
10.
Rev. argent. coloproctología ; 31(1): 31-33, mar. 2020. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1102182

ABSTRACT

El sinus pilonidal es una patología frecuente cuya malignización es infrecuente aunque su pronóstico puede ser fatal. El objetivo de esta publicación es presentar un caso de un paciente intervenido en múltiples ocasiones de escisiones de sinus pilonidal con degeneración maligna del mismo y evolución fatal, con el fin de recalcar la importancia del examen anatomopatológico sistemático de todas las muestras de escisión quirúrgica. (AU)


The pilonidal sinus is a frequent pathology whose malignization is uncommon although its prognosis can be fatal. The objective of this publication is to present a case of a patient intervened on multiple occasions of pilonidal sinus excisions with malignant degeneration and fatal evolution, in order to emphasize the importance of the systematic pathological examination of all surgical excision samples. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pilonidal Sinus/surgery , Pilonidal Sinus/pathology , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/pathology , Neoplasms, Second Primary/surgery , Pilonidal Sinus/mortality , Radiotherapy , Recurrence , Reoperation , Cisplatin/administration & dosage , Neoplasms, Second Primary/mortality , Chemotherapy, Adjuvant/methods , Antineoplastic Agents/administration & dosage
11.
Rev. bras. cancerol ; 66(2): 1-9, 20200402.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1095547

ABSTRACT

Introdução: A manipulação de antineoplásicos para ajuste de dose, como partição de comprimidos, é comum no tratamento de leucemias agudas de crianças e adolescentes. Objetivo: Identificar a frequência e descrever a prática da partição domiciliar de comprimidos antineoplásicos utilizados no tratamento oral de crianças e adolescentes com leucemias agudas na fase de manutenção. Método: Trata-se de um estudo transversal descritivo, realizado em um hospital pertencente à rede de saúde pública do Distrito Federal com assistência especializada em pediatria. Foram incluídos no estudo crianças e adolescentes entre 1 e 18 anos, diagnosticados com leucemias agudas e em fase de manutenção do tratamento no período de estudo. Foi aplicado um questionário semiestruturado ao responsável principal pela administração dos medicamentos quimioterápicos via oral, podendo ser o cuidador ou a própria criança/adolescente. Foram coletadas variáveis sociodemográficas dos pacientes e cuidadores e variáveis sobre a prática de partição de medicamentos antineoplásicos no domicílio. Resultados: Todos os 48 entrevistados no período do estudo relataram ter partido comprimidos antineoplásicos ao longo do tratamento de leucemias agudas, sendo estes mercaptopurina (n=45 [93,75%]) e tioguanina (n=3 [6,25%]). Conclusão: A partição de comprimidos antineoplásicos foi uma prática unânime em virtude da necessidade referida de ajuste de dose individual para o tratamento de leucemias agudas de crianças e adolescentes, considerando a indisponibilidade de formulações adequadas. Os resultados reforçam a necessidade de a partição ser uniformizada e realizada de maneira a minimizar os riscos e a garantir a segurança para as crianças e adolescentes e seus cuidadores.


Introduction: Antineoplastic drug manipulation for dose adjustment, such as tablet splitting, is standard in acute leukemia treatment for children and adolescents. Objective: To identify the frequency and describe the practice of household splitting of antineoplastic tablet for oral treatment of children and adolescents with acute leukemias in the maintenance phase. Method: Cross-sectional descriptive study performed in a public health system hospital from Distrito Federal (Brazil) with specialized pediatric assistance. Children and teenagers between 1 and 18 years old, diagnosed with acute leukemia and in treatment maintenance phase during the study period were included. A semi-structured questionnaire was applied to the main responsible for administering oral chemotherapy drugs, which could be the caregiver or the child/adolescent themselves. Sociodemographic variables of patients and caregivers and variables on the practice of splitting antineoplastic drugs at home were collected. Results: All 48 interviewees in the study period reported having split antineoplastic tablets during the treatment for acute leukemias, such as mercaptopurine (n = 45 [93.75%]) and thioguanine (n = 3 [6.25%]). Conclusion: The splitting of antineoplastic tablets was a unanimous practice due to the reported need to adjust the individual dose for acute leukemia treatment in children and adolescents, considering the unavailability of adequate formulations. The results reinforce the need for splitting to be standardized and performed in a way that minimizes risks and ensures safety for patients and their caregivers


Introducción: La manipulación de fármacos antineoplásicos para el ajuste de dosis, como las particiones de comprimidos, es frecuente en el tratamiento de las leucemias agudas en niños y jóvenes. Objetivo: Identificar la frecuencia y describir la práctica de la división domiciliaria de medicamentos antineoplásicos utilizados en el tratamiento oral de niños y adolescentes con leucemias agudas en la fase de mantenimiento. Método: Se trata de un estudio transversal descriptivo realizado en un hospital de la red de salud pública del Distrito Federal (Brasil) con asistencia especializada en pediatría. El estudio incluyó a niños y jóvenes de entre 1 y 18 años de edad diagnosticados con leucemia aguda y en fase de mantenimiento del tratamiento en el período del estudio. Se aplicó un cuestionario semiestructurado a la persona principal responsable de la administración de fármacos quimioterapéuticos por vía oral, que puede ser el cuidador o el propio niño/joven. Fueron colectadas variables sociodemográficas de los pacientes y cuidadores y variables sobre la práctica de la división de los medicamentos antineoplásicos en domicílios. Resultados: Los 48 entrevistados en el período de estudio informaron haber roto las pastillas antineoplásicas durante el tratamiento de la leucemia aguda, siendo éstas mercaptopurina (n=45 [93,75%]) y tioguanina (n=3 [6,25%]). Conclusión: La partición de comprimidos antineoplásicos fue una práctica unánime debido a la necesidad mencionada de ajustar la dosis individual para el tratamiento de las leucemias agudas de niños y adolescentes, considerando la falta de formulaciones apropiadas. Los resultados refuerzan la necesidad de estandarizar y realizar la partición para minimizar los riesgos y garantizar la seguridad de los niños, jóvenes y sus cuidadores.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Tablets/administration & dosage , Leukemia/drug therapy , Antineoplastic Agents/administration & dosage , Socioeconomic Factors , Tablets/adverse effects , Thioguanine/administration & dosage , Thioguanine/adverse effects , Acute Disease , Cross-Sectional Studies , Administration, Oral , Caregivers , Medication Therapy Management , Mercaptopurine/administration & dosage , Mercaptopurine/adverse effects , Antineoplastic Agents/adverse effects
12.
An. bras. dermatol ; 94(6): 721-723, Nov.-Dec. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1054886

ABSTRACT

Abstract Primary male genital melanomas are very rare; they are associated with high mortality and late detection. Scrotal melanoma is the least common presentation and only 23 cases have been reported. Herein, the authors present a 30-year-old patient with stage IIIC (T4b, N2a, M0) scrotal melanoma in order to report the characteristics, treatment, and outcome, as well as to emphasize the importance of examination of the genitals, education of patients about self-examination and destigmatizing genital lesions to increase the likelihood of earlier detection.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Scrotum/pathology , Skin Neoplasms/pathology , Genital Neoplasms, Male/pathology , Melanoma/pathology , Skin Neoplasms/drug therapy , Biopsy , Interferon alpha-2/administration & dosage , Genital Neoplasms, Male/drug therapy , Melanoma/drug therapy , Neoplasm Staging , Antineoplastic Agents/administration & dosage
13.
Rev. invest. clín ; 71(5): 349-358, Sep.-Oct. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1289705

ABSTRACT

Background The outcome of patients with primary extranodal diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (PE-DLBCL) varies according to the primary site involved. Primary gastrointestinal, breast, bone, craniofacial, and testicular DLBCL are rare extranodal manifestations of DLBCL. Objective The objective of the study was to describe the clinical course of patients with PE-DLBCL disease in a referral cancer center. Results From 637 patients, 51 (8.77%) were considered as having PE-DLBCL (25 gastrointestinal, 12 craniofacial, 6 breast, 5 bone, and 3 with primary testicular DLBCL). Complete remission was higher in all PE-DLBCL sites (100% in testicular, 92.6% craniofacial, 83.3% breast, 80% bone, and 80% gastrointestinal) compared with 73.3% in nodal DLBCL. Although 2 cases with breast PE-DLBC relapsed, they achieved a complete response with chemotherapy. The overall survival at 5 years was 100%, 80%, 78%, 58%, 58%, and 62% for patients with primary breast, primary bone, gastrointestinal, primary craniofacial, primary testicular, and nodal DLBCL, respectively. Conclusions PE-DLBCLs constitute rare, primary sites of lymphoproliferative disorders in most cases, with localized disease and good prognosis. They require a combined chemoimmunotherapy with radiotherapy in most cases to improve local and systemic disease.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse/pathology , Immunotherapy/methods , Lymph Nodes/pathology , Antineoplastic Agents/administration & dosage , Prognosis , Survival Rate , Retrospective Studies , Cohort Studies , Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse/therapy , Treatment Outcome , Combined Modality Therapy
14.
Rev. invest. clín ; 71(4): 283-290, Jul.-Aug. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1289697

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background Febrile neutropenia (FN) is a common complication in children who receive chemotherapy for cancer. Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate the clinical efficacy of the continuous versus intermittent infusion of piperacillin/tazobactam (TZP) in febrile neutropenic pediatric patients. Methods This is a non-blinded randomized controlled clinical trial. Eligible group consisted of hemato-oncological patients with FN who were candidates to receive TZP. Patients were randomized to one of two groups: Group 1 received antibiotic treatment through intravenous intermittent infusion of TZP 300 mg/kg/day based on piperacillin, divided into four doses, not exceeding 16 g/day; Group 2 received an initial TZP loading dose of 75 mg/kg infusion over 30 min, and then a continuous infusion of TZP 300 mg/kg/day through central line with pump over 24 h. Results There were 176 episodes that could be assessed, 100 in Group 1 and 76 in Group 2. There was no statistically significant difference in treatment failure in the experimental group (continuous infusion) compared with the intermittent group, 21% versus 13% (p = 0.15). The increase in the absolute risk reduction was 0.08% (95% confidence interval 0.12-0.30), and the number needed to treat was 12.4. One patient in each group died. Conclusions There were no differences in fever resolution, clinical cure rate, or mortality when comparing the continuous with the intermittent TZP infusion.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Febrile Neutropenia/drug therapy , Piperacillin, Tazobactam Drug Combination/administration & dosage , Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Antineoplastic Agents/adverse effects , Infusions, Intravenous , Drug Administration Schedule , Antineoplastic Agents/administration & dosage
15.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 79(4): 280-283, ago. 2019. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040522

ABSTRACT

The purpose of the study was to evaluate the outcome of patients under 18 months diagnosed with neuroblastoma. Between April 2006 and December 2013, 45 consecutive patients followed in Hospital de Pediatría Garrahan, were retrospectively reviewed. With a median age of 9.3 months (1-18 months) N-myc amplification was detected in 5 out of 38 patients, 1p deletion (del1p) in 4 patients, and 11q aberration in one patient. With a median follow-up of 53 (range: 6-109 months), at 24 months the event free survival (EFS) of all patients was 83% (SE 6%) and overall survival (OS) of 88% (SE 5%). Significant difference was found in OS and EFS between patients with stages L1, L2 and Ms vs. stage M (p = 0.01 and p = 0.01 respectively). EFS for each stage: L1 85% (SE 7%), L2 100%, MS 100%, vs. M 55% (SE 16%). OS: L1 90% (SE 6%), L2 100%, MS 100%, vs. M 66% (SE 15%). OS and EFS results are similar to those reported in international studies. However, better identification of biological prognostic factors will warr ant accurate staging and consequently an appropriate treatment.


El objetivo del trabajo fue evaluar las características y evolución de pacientes menores de 18 meses de edad, con diagnóstico de neuroblastoma. Se realizó un análisis descriptivo, retrospectivo entre abril/2006 y diciembre/2013, de 45 pacientes diagnosticados en forma consecutiva. La edad media fue 9.3 meses (1-18 meses). La amplificación del gen N-myc fue detectada en 5 pacientes, deleción del cromosoma 1p (del1p) en 4, y aberración de 11q en uno. Con una media de seguimiento de 53 meses (6-109 meses), la supervivencia libre de eventos (SLE) de todos los pacientes, a 24 meses fue 83% (ES 6%) y la supervivencia global (SG) de 88% (ES 5%). Se encontró diferencia significativa en la SG y SLE entre los pacientes con estadios L1, L2 y Ms, y aquellos con estadio M (p = 0.01). La SLE para cada estadio fue: L1 85% (ES 7%), L2 100%, MS 100%, M 55% (ES 16%). SG para cada estadio: L1 90% (ES 6%), L2 100%, MS 100%, y M 66% (ES 15%). Aunque los resultados de SG y SLE son similares a los publicados en estudios internacionales, una mejor identificación de los factores pronósticos biológicos permitirá una estadificación precisa y, en consecuencia, un tratamiento adecuado.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Neuroblastoma/diagnosis , Neuroblastoma/drug therapy , Antineoplastic Agents/administration & dosage , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Antineoplastic Protocols , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Neoplasm Staging , Neuroblastoma/mortality
16.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 147(7): 887-890, jul. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058618

ABSTRACT

Background: The use of systemic chemotherapy has survival and palliation benefits in oncological patients. Mortality at 30 days after the administration of systemic chemotherapy is considered as a quality and safety indicator of oncological patient care. The international mortality threshold is 5%, which is the figure used to compare institutions. Aim: To assess mortality at 30 days after the administration of ambulatory systemic chemotherapy in a regional referral center in adult cancer patients. Material and Methods: Retrospective observational study of patients receiving ambulatory systemic chemotherapy in the oncology service of a regional public hospital during 2018. The 30-day mortality rate was calculated. Demographic characteristics, baseline disease and the treatment received were recorded. Results: During the study period, 690 patients received ambulatory systemic chemotherapy. Chemotherapy was palliative in 76% of patients and 53% received a first line treatment. Seventeen (2.5%) died within 30 days of treatment administration. Nine deaths (52.9%) were definitely related to treatment and sepsis was the most frequent cause. Conclusions: Our mortality rates are similar to international data. This type of audit reviews local outcomes and identifies factors contributing to mortality aiming to improve standards of care.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Neoplasms/mortality , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Antineoplastic Agents/administration & dosage , Time Factors , Retrospective Studies
17.
Rev. invest. clín ; 71(3): 186-194, May.-Jun. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1289686

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background Expression and activity of the potassium channel ether-à-go-go-1 (EAG1) are strongly related to carcinogenesis and tumor progression, which can be exploited for therapeutic purposes. EAG1 activity may be reduced by preventing its phosphorylation with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) kinase inhibitors and by astemizole, which blocks the channel pore and downregulates its gene expression. Objective We aimed to study the potential cooperative antiproliferative effect of the EGFR inhibitor gefitinib and the EAG1-blocker astemizole, in breast cancer cells. Materials and Methods The cells were characterized by immunocytochemistry. Inhibitory concentrations were determined by non-linear regression analysis using dose-response curves. The nature of the pharmacological effect was evaluated by the combination index equation while cell cycle analysis was studied by flow cytometry. Results Astemizole and gefitinib inhibited cell proliferation in a concentration-dependent manner, with inhibitory concentrations (IC 50) values of 1.72 µM and 0.51 µM, respectively. All combinations resulted in a synergistic antiproliferative effect. The combination of astemizole and gefitinib diminished the percentage of cells in G2/M and S phases, while increased accumulation in G0/G1 of the cell cycle. Conclusions Astemizole and gefitinib synergistically inhibited proliferation in breast cancer cells expressing both EGFR and EAG1. Our results suggest that the combined treatment increased cell death by targeting the oncogenic activity of EAG1.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Breast Neoplasms/drug therapy , Astemizole/pharmacology , Gefitinib/pharmacology , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Breast Neoplasms/genetics , Breast Neoplasms/pathology , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic , Astemizole/administration & dosage , Inhibitory Concentration 50 , Cell Line, Tumor , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Drug Synergism , Ether-A-Go-Go Potassium Channels/antagonists & inhibitors , Ether-A-Go-Go Potassium Channels/genetics , ErbB Receptors/antagonists & inhibitors , ErbB Receptors/genetics , Gefitinib/administration & dosage , Antineoplastic Agents/administration & dosage
18.
Rio de Janeiro; s.n; 20190000. 95 p. graf, ilus, tab.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1025726

ABSTRACT

Trata-se de uma investigação fundamentada na técnica Delphi, cujo objeto de estudo foi o erro de medicação com antineoplásicos. O objetivo foi elaborar um checklist para administração de medicações antineoplásicas. Pesquisa quantitativa desenvolvida no Hospital do Câncer I, do Instituto Nacional de Câncer José Alencar Gomes da Silva, tendo como participantes 48 enfermeiros que desenvolvem suas atividades laborais em 10 CACONS/ UNACONS da região metropolitana da cidade do Rio de Janeiro. Aprovado pelos Comitês de Ética e Pesquisa da UNIRIO e INCA respectivamente sob os pareceres de número 2.425.327 e 2.437.380. O desenvolvimento do estudo possibilitou a construção de três produtos: o artigo Erro de medicação com antineoplásicos: estudo retrospectivo em um hospital federal no período de 2009 a 2017 cujo desfecho apontou a estratificação de erros com antineoplásicos no período, as variáveis correlacionadas e os fatores contribuintes envolvidos na gênese dos erros. O artigo Construção de checklist como barreira para prevenção de erros de medicação com antineoplásicos que descreveu passo a passo o percurso percorrido a partir da Técnica Delphi para a elaboração deste produto, objetivo primário do estudo e o terceiro produto foi o Checklist constando de vinte e seis pontos de verificação com possibilidade de assinalar "sim", "não" ou "não se aplica", distribuídos em quatros eixos: análise da prescrição, antes da administração, durante a administração e pós administração. Foi possível compreender a complexidade do sistema de medicação e que nele participam médicos, farmacêuticos e enfermeiros, estes últimos responsáveis pela finalização da ação. Identificou-se que embora esses profissionais conheçam amiúde cada etapa do processo, a ocorrência de atos inseguros, como erros e violações estão presentes e predispõem a ocorrência de eventos do tipo erros de medicação com antineoplásicos. Entende-se que o checklist elaborado possa contribuir para melhoria do processo de administração de antineoplásicos, entretanto, sugerimos estudos posteriores para sua validação


It is an investigation based on the Delphi technique, whose object of study was the medication errors with antineoplastics. The goal was to develop a checklist for administration of antineoplastics. Quantitative research developed at Cancer Hospital I of the National Cancer Institute José Alencar Gomes da Silva. Participants included 48 nurses who develop their work activities in 10 CACONS / UNACONS in the metropolitan region of the city of Rio de Janeiro. Approved by the Ethics and Research Committees of UNIRIO and INCA, respectively, under no. 2,425,327 and 2,437,380. The development of the study made it possible to construct three products: the article Medication error with antineoplastics: a retrospective study at a federal hospital from 2009 to 2017 whose outcome pointed to stratification of errors with antineoplastics in the period, correlated variables and contributing factors involved in the genesis of errors. The article Construction of the checklist as a barrier to the prevention of medication errors with antineoplastics, which described step by step the path traveled from the Delphi Technique for the elaboration of this product, the primary objective of the study, and the third product was the Checklist consisting of twenty and six checkpoints with the possibility of indicating "yes", "no" or "not applicable", distributed over four axes: prescription analysis, before administration, during administration and post administration. It was possible to understand the complexity of the medication system and that it includes doctors, pharmacists and nurses, the latter responsible for the completion of the action. It was identified that although these professionals know every step of the process, the occurrence of unsafe acts, such as errors and violations are present and predispose to the occurrence of medication errors with antineoplastic events. It is understood that the checklist elaborated may contribute to the improvement of the antineoplastic administration process, however, we suggest further studies for its validation


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Checklist/methods , Medication Errors/nursing , Antineoplastic Agents/administration & dosage , Time Out, Healthcare , Medication Errors/prevention & control , Antineoplastic Agents/adverse effects
19.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet. (Impr.) ; 24(3): 1153-1164, mar. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-989582

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study maps and analyzes patient flows for breast cancer chemotherapy in order to identify the potential implications for organization of pharmaceutical services in the cancer care network. An ecological study design sought to correlate the place of residence with place of care for breast cancer patients. All chemotherapy procedures financed by Brazil's Unified Health System (SUS) and performed from January to December 2013 were included. Flows were mapped using TerraView® software. A total of 1 347 803 outpatient chemotherapy procedures were delivered by 243 cancer care units located in 156 municipalities. Seventeen cities concentrated approximately 50.0 % of the procedures. A total of 8 538 origin-destination flows were generated and 49.2% of procedures were performed in services located outside the municipality in which the patient resided. Context challenges, related to inequality of access to chemotherapy and hindrances in planning and management of pharmaceutical services, were discussed.


Resumo Este estudo mapeia e analisa os fluxos percorridos por pacientes em uso de quimioterapia para o tratamento do câncer de mama no Brasil, usando metodologia de redes, de forma a identificar potenciais implicações para a organização da assistência farmacêutica na rede de atenção oncológica. Realizou-se um estudo ecológico correlacionando o local de residência com o de atendimento de pacientes com câncer de mama. Incluiu-se todos os procedimentos de quimioterapia financiados pelo Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS), realizados no ano de 2013. O mapeamento dos fluxos foi efetuado no programa TerraView®. Foram realizados 1.347.803 procedimentos ambulatoriais de quimioterapia em 243 unidades habilitadas pelo SUS, sediadas em 156 municípios brasileiros. Dezessete cidades concentraram aproximadamente 50,0% dos atendimentos. Foram gerados 8.538 fluxos de origem-destino e 49,2% dos procedimentos foram realizados em serviços sediados fora do município de residência da mulher. Alguns aspectos da organização da assistência farmacêutica, relacionados a desigualdades no acesso à quimioterapia e dificuldades no planejamento de ações e serviços farmacêuticos foram problematizados frente ao contexto apresentado.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pharmaceutical Services/statistics & numerical data , Breast Neoplasms/drug therapy , Health Services Accessibility , Antineoplastic Agents/administration & dosage , Brazil , Residence Characteristics/statistics & numerical data , Healthcare Disparities/statistics & numerical data , National Health Programs/statistics & numerical data
20.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 65(2): 177-182, Feb. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-990334

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: To explore the effect of FOLFOX6 chemotherapy on serum vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in advanced colorectal cancer patients. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of 81 patients with advanced colorectal cancer who visited our hospital from March 2014 to February 2016 was performed. All the patients were treated with FOLFOX6 chemotherapy. On day 1, patients received oxaliplatin 100 mg/m2 ivgtt (2h), calcium folinate 200 mg/m2 ivgtt (2h), 5 fluorouracil 400 mg/m2 iv bolus and 5 fluorouracil 2500 mg/m2 ivgtt (5h). The treatment course was 2 weeks, and 4 treatment courses were required. The changes in the levels of VEGF and CRP and quality of life before and after 4 courses of chemotherapy were observed and therapeutic effects and adverse reactions after chemotherapy were evaluated. RESULTS: After treatment, the total efficiency of chemotherapy was 82.72% (67/81) with 24 cases in complete remission, 25 cases in partial response, 18 cases in stable disease and 14 cases in progressive disease. The levels of CRP and VEGF after the treatment were significantly lower than those before treatment (5.69±0.77) mg/L vs. (7.99±1.36) mg/L; (443.26±21.55) pg/mL vs. (542.83±20.44) pg/mL] (P<0.05). The KPS grade after treatment was significantly higher than that before treatment (57.84±4.6) point vs. (50.99±3.73) point] (P<0.05). Among them, 3 cases developed a rash, 5 cases experienced hair loss, and 9 cases developed nausea and vomiting. CONCLUSION: FOLFOX6 chemotherapy can decrease serum VEGF expression in patients with advanced colorectal cancer and enhance the curative effect with high safety, which is good for the improvement of patients' survival.


RESUMO OBJETIVO: Explorar o efeito da quimioterapia Folfox6 na expressão do fator de crescimento endotelial vascular sérico (VEGF) em pacientes com câncer colorretal avançado. MÉTODOS: Uma análise retrospectiva de 81 pacientes com câncer colorretal avançado que visitaram nosso hospital de março de 2014 a fevereiro de 2016 foi realizada. Todos os pacientes foram tratados com quimioterapia Folfox6. No dia 1, os doentes receberam oxaliplatina 100 mg / m2 ivgtt (2h), folinato de cálcio 200 mg/m2 ivgtt (2h), 5 fluorouracil 400 mg/m2 iv bolus e 5 fluorouracil 2.500 mg/m2 ivgtt (5h). O curso de tratamento foi de duas semanas e foram necessários quatro cursos de tratamento. Foram observadas as alterações nos níveis de VEGF e CRP e qualidade de vida antes e após quatro cursos de quimioterapia e avaliados os efeitos terapêuticos e reações adversas após a quimioterapia. RESULTADOS: Após o tratamento, a eficácia total da quimioterapia foi de 82,72% (67/81), com 24 casos em remissão completa, 25 casos em resposta parcial, 18 casos em doença estável e 14 casos em doença progressiva. Os níveis de CRP e VEGF após o tratamento foram significativamente inferiores aos do tratamento (5,69 ± 0,77) mg / L vs. (7,99 ± 1,36) mg / L; (443,26 ± 21,55) pg / mL vs. (542,83 ± 20,44) pg / mL] (P < 0,05). O grau de KPS após o tratamento foi significativamente maior do que antes do tratamento (57,84 ± 4,6 pontos) vs. (50,99 ± 3,73 pontos)] (P < 0,05). Entre eles, três casos desenvolveram erupção cutânea, cinco casos sofreram perda de cabelo e nove casos desenvolveram náuseas e vômitos. CONCLUSÃO: A quimioterapia Folfox6 pode, obviamente, diminuir a expressão de VEGF no soro em pacientes com câncer colorretal avançado e melhorar o efeito curativo com alta segurança, o que é bom para a melhoria da sobrevivência dos pacientes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Colorectal Neoplasms/drug therapy , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/administration & dosage , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/blood , Antineoplastic Agents/administration & dosage , Organoplatinum Compounds/administration & dosage , Colorectal Neoplasms/blood , Leucovorin/administration & dosage , Retrospective Studies , Disease-Free Survival , Fluorouracil/administration & dosage , Middle Aged , Neoplasm Staging
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