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1.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 23(4): 487-515, jul. 2024. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1538020

ABSTRACT

Myrtus communis L., commonly known as true myrtle, is a medicinal plant native to the Mediterranean area. Since ancient times, the inhabitant s of this area have been using it for its cultural and medicinal properties. Because of the vast diversity of biomolecules in its aerial parts, it exhibits several biological properties, including antioxidant, antimicrobial, and anticancer properties. This review retrospect the research on the source, biological activities with empirical evidence, chemical composition, applications, and cellular targets of extracts and essential oils obtained from M. communis leaves, which provides a perspective for further studies on the applications and formulations of extract and EO of M. communis leaves. The efficacy of constituents' individually, in association with other bioactive constituents, or in combination with available commercial drugs would provide insights in to the development of these bio - actives as future drugs and their evolving future potential applications in the pharmaceutical, food, and aroma industries.


Myrtus communis L., comúnmente conocido como arrayán verdadero, es una planta medicinal originaria de la zona mediterránea. Desde la antigüedad, los habitantes de esta zona lo utilizan por sus propiedades culturales y medicinales. Debido a la gran div ersidad de biomoléculas en sus partes aéreas, exhibe varias propiedades biológicas, incluidas propiedades antioxidantes, antimicrobianas y anticancerígenas. Esta revisión retrospectiva de la investigación sobre la fuente, las actividades biológicas con evi dencia empírica, la composición química, las aplicaciones y los objetivos celulares de los extractos y aceites esenciales obtenidos de las hojas de M. communis , lo que brinda una perspectiva para futuros estudios sobre las aplicaciones y formulaciones de l os extractos y EO de M. communis . La eficacia de los componentes individualmente, en asociación con otros componentes bioactivos o en combinación con medicamentos comerciales disponibles proporcionaría información sobre el desarrollo de estos bioactivos co mo medicamentos futuros y sus futuras aplicaciones potenciales en las industrias farmacéutica, alimentaria y aromática


Subject(s)
Myrtus communis/pharmacology , Plants, Medicinal , Oils, Volatile/metabolism , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Plant Leaves/metabolism , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Antifungal Agents , Antioxidants
2.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 23(4): 523-533, jul. 2024. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1538056

ABSTRACT

Leaves of Croton stipulaceuswere extracted (EHex, ECHCl3and EEtOH extracts) to assesstheir antioxidant potential, anti-inflammatory activity in murine models and acute toxicity. EEtOH showed the highest effect in DPPH (37.80% inhibition), FRAP (1065.00 ± 55.30 µmolFe2+) and total polyphenols (231.24 ± 9.05 meq AG/gM). EHex was the most active, ~ 50% inhibition of TPA-induced ear edema; while EEtOH (dose of 2 mg/ear) showed the highest inhibition in the chronic model (97% inhibition), and inhibited MPO activity (48%). In carrageenan-induced edema, ECHCl3(dose 500 mg/kg) was the most active. None of the extracts showed acute toxicity (LD50) at 2 g/kg (p.o.). This work is the first report that supports the traditional use of C. stipulaceusas an anti-inflammatory.


De las hojas de Croton stipulaceusse obtuvieron diferentes extractos (EHex, ECHCl3y EEtOH) evaluando el potencial antioxidante y la actividad antiinflamatoria en modelos murinos y la toxicidad aguda. El EEtOH mostró mayor efecto en DPPH (37.80% inhibición), FRAP (1065.00 ± 55.30 µmolFe2+) y polifenolestotales (231.24 ± 9.05 meq AG/gM). El EHex fue el más activo, cercano al 50% de inhibición del edema auricular inducido con TPA; mientras que el EEtOH (dosis de 2 mg/oreja) mostró la mayor inhibición en el modelo crónico (97% inhibición), e inhibió la actividad de la MPO (48%). En el edema inducido con carragenina, el ECHCl3(dosis 500 mg/kg) fue el más activo. Ninguno de los extractos mostró una toxicidad aguda (DL50) mayor a 2 g/kg (p.o). Este trabajo es el primer reporte que sustenta el uso tradicional de C. stipulaceuscomo antiinflamatorio.


Subject(s)
Plant Leaves/chemistry , Croton/chemistry , Plant Extracts/metabolism , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Plant Structures/metabolism , Plant Structures/chemistry , Plant Leaves/metabolism , Croton/metabolism , Anti-Inflammatory Agents , Antioxidants
3.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 23(4): 636-644, jul. 2024. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1538072

ABSTRACT

Thechemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the essential oil from aerial parts (leaves and flowers) of Chuquiraga arcuataHarling grown in the Ecuadorian Andes were studied. One hundred and twenty-six compounds were identified in the essential oil. Monoterpene hydrocarbons (45.8%) and oxygenated monoterpenes (44.1%) had the major percentages. The most abundant compounds were camphor (21.6%), myrcene (19.5%), and 1,8-cineole (13.4%). Antioxidant activity was examined using DPPH, ABTS,and FRAP assays. The essential oil had a moderate scavenging effect and reduction of ferric ion capacity through FRAP assay. Antimicrobial activity of the essential oil was observed against four pathogenic bacteria and a fungus. The essential oil exhibited activity against all microorganism strains under test, particularly against Candida albicansand Staphylococcus aureuswith MICs of 2.43-12.10 µg/mL.


Se estudió la composición química, actividades antioxidantes y antimicrobianas del aceite esencial procedente de las partes aérea (hojas y flores) de Chuquiraga arcuataHarling cultivadas en los Andes ecuatorianos. Se identificaron 126 compuestos en el aceite esencial. Los hidrocarburos monoterpénicos (45,8%) y los monoterpenos oxigenados (44,1%) tuvieron el mayor porcentaje. Los compuestos más abundantes fueron alcanfor (21,6%), mirceno (19,5%) y 1,8-cineol (13,4%). La actividadantioxidante se examinó mediante ensayos DPPH, ABTS y FRAP. El aceite esencial tuvo un efecto eliminador moderado y una reducción de la capacidad de iones férricos mediante el ensayo FRAP. Se observó actividad antimicrobiana del aceite esencial contra cuatro bacterias y un hongo patógenos. El aceite esencial mostró actividad contra todas las cepas de microorganismos bajo prueba, particularmente contra Candida albicansy Staphylococcus aureuscon CMI de 2,43-12,10 µg/mL.


Subject(s)
Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Antioxidants/chemistry , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Flowers/chemistry , Ecuador , Antioxidants/pharmacology
4.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 23(3): 349-370, mayo 2024. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1538077

ABSTRACT

Age-related neurological disorders (ANDs), including neurodegenerative diseases, are complex illnesses with an increasing risk with advancing years. The central nervous system's neuropathological conditions, including oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, and protein misfolding, are what define ANDs. Due to the rise in age-dependent prevalence, efforts have been made to combat ANDs. Vitis viniferahas a long history of usageto treat a variety of illness symptoms. Because multiple ligand sites may be targeted, Vitis viniferacomponents can be employed to treat ANDs. This is demonstrated by the link between the structure and action of these compounds. This review demonstrates that Vitis viniferaand its constituents, including flavonoids, phenolic compounds, stilbenoidsandaromatic acids, are effective at reducing the neurological symptoms and pathological conditions of ANDs. This is done by acting as an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory. The active Vitis vinifera ingredients have therapeutic effects on ANDs, as this review explains.


Las enfermedades neurológicas asociadas a la edad (AND, por su sigla en inglés) incluyendo las enfermedades neurodegenerativas, son enfermedades complejas con un riesgo creciente con la edad. Las condiciones neuropatológicas del sistema nervioso central, que incluyen el estrés oxidativo, la neuro inflamación, y el plegado erróneo de proteínas, son lo que define las AND. Debido al aumento en la prevalencia dependiente de la edad, se han hecho esfuerzos para combatir las AND. Vitis vinifera tiene una larga historia de uso para el tratamiento de síntomas. Puesto que puede hacer objetivo a muchos sitios ligando, los componentes de Vitis viniferase pueden utilizar para tratar AND. Esto se demuestra por el vínculo entre la estructura y la acción de estos compuestos. Esta revisión demuestra que la Vitis viniferay sus constituyentes, incluídos los flavonoides, componentes fenólicos, estilbenoides, y ácidos aromáticos, son efectivos para reducir los síntomas neurológicos y las condiciones patológicas de AND. Esto se produce por su acción como antioxidante y antiinflamatorio. Los ingredientes activos de Vitis vinifera tienen efectos terapéuticos en AND, y esta revisión lo explica.


Subject(s)
Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Vitis/chemistry , Nervous System Diseases/drug therapy , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Antioxidants/therapeutic use
5.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 23(1): 61-74, ene. 2024. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1552900

ABSTRACT

Although numerous studies have demonstrated the biomedical potential of Myrtus communis L., (Myrtaceae) data on myrt le from Montenegro are scarce. T o evaluate antioxidant, antimutagenic and antibacterial activity of myrtle methanolic extracts. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by measuring free radicals scavenging activity, reducing power and enzyme inhibition. The strongest scavenging activity was towards DPPH radical ( 2,2 - diphenyl - 1 - picry lhydrazyl) (IC 50 1.69 - 2.25 mg/mL) and superoxide anion (IC 50 0.56 to 0.88 mg/mL), followed by high reducing power (428 - 472 mgAA/g.DE) and inhibition of XOD (IC 50 0.308 - 0.6261mg/mL). Antimutagenic activity was evaluated in reverse mutation assays with Esche richia coli WP2 oxyR mutant IC202 and deficient in the induction of antioxidant enzymes. The myrtle extracts strongly inhibited mutagenesis induced by t - BOOH, reaching 70% at the highest concentration applied. Antimicrobial activity was examined on eight different bacterial strains. Gram - positive bacteria, S. epidermis , S. aureus and M. flavus demonstrated the highest sensitivity towards extracts (MICs 4.5 - 9 mg/mL), but significantly lower towards essential oil (MIC 0.42 - 3.32 mg/mL).


Aunque numerosos estudios han demostrado el potencial biomédico de Myrtus communis L., (Myrtaceae), los datos sobre el mirto de Montenegro son escasos. E valuar la actividad antioxidante, antimutagéni ca y antibacteriana de extractos metanólicos de mirto. La actividad antioxidante se evaluó midiendo la actividad de eliminación de radicales libres, el poder reductor y la inhibición enzimática. La actividad secuestrante más fuerte fue hacia DPPH radical ( IC 50 1.69 - 2.25 mg/mL) y radicales de anión superóxido (IC 50 0.56 a 0.88 mg/mL), seguido de alto poder reductor (428 - 472 m gAA/g.DE) e inhibición de XOD (I C 50 0,308 - 0,6261 mg/m L ). La actividad antimutagénica se evaluó en ensayos de mutación inversa con Esche richia coli WP2 oxyR mutante IC202 y deficiente en la inducción de enzimas antioxidantes. Los extractos de mirto inhibieron fuertemente la mutagénesis inducida por t - BOOH, alcanzando el 70% a la mayor concentración aplicada. La actividad antimicrobiana se examinó en octo cepas bacterianas diferentes. Las bacterias grampositivas, S. epidermis , S. aureus y M. flavus demostraron la sensibilidad más alta hacia los extractos (MIC 4.5 - 9 mg/mL), pero significativamente más baja hacia el aceite esencial (MIC 0.42 - 3 .32 mg/mL). Los resultados muestran la gran perspectiva nutrafarmacéutica de la especie montenegrina Myrtus communis .


Subject(s)
Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Myrtus/chemistry , Anti-Infective Agents , Anti-Inflammatory Agents , Antioxidants/therapeutic use , Antioxidants/pharmacology
6.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e253696, 2024. graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355862

ABSTRACT

Abstract Transplanting time and genotype contribute to improving crop yield and quality of eggplant (Solanum melongena L.). A field experiment was conducted to investigate the impact of foliar applied of triacontanol (TRIA) and eggplant genotypes 25919, Nirala, 28389 and Pak-10927,transplanted on 1 March,15 March, and 1 April on exposure to high air temperature conditions. The experiment was performed according to Randomized Complete Block Design and the data was analyzed by using Tuckey,s test . The TRIA was applied at 10µM at flowering stage; distilled water was used as the control. Rate of photosynthesis and transpiration, stomatal conductance, water use efficiency, and effects on antioxidative enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase and peroxidase) were evaluated. The 10µM TRIA increased photosynthesis rate and water use efficiency and yield was improved in all genotypes transplanted at the different dates. Foliar application of 10µM TRIA increased antioxidative enzyme activities (SOD, POD & CAT) and improved physiological as well as biochemical attributes of eggplant genotypes exposed to high heat conditions. Highest activity of dismutase enzyme 5.41mg/1g FW was recorded in Nirala genotype in second transplantation. Whereas, lowest was noted in PAK-10927 (2.30mg/g FW). Maximum fruit yield was found in accession 25919 (1.725kg per plant) at 1st transplantation with Triacontanol, whereas accession PAK-10927 gave the lowest yield (0.285 kg per plant) at control treatment on 3rd transplantation. Genotype, transplanting date and application of TRIA improved growth, yield and quality attributes under of heat stress in eggplant.


Resumo O tempo de transplante e o genótipo contribuem para melhorar a produtividade e a qualidade da cultura da berinjela (Solanum melongena L.). Um experimento de campo foi conduzido para investigar o impacto da aplicação foliar de triacontanol (TRIA) e genótipos de berinjela 25919, Nirala, 28389 e Pak-10927, transplantados em 1 de março, 15 de março e 1 de abril de exposição a condições de alta temperatura do ar. O experimento foi realizado de acordo com o Randomized Complete Block Design e os dados foram analisados pelo teste de Tuckey. O TRIA foi aplicado a 10 µM na fase de floração; água destilada foi utilizada como controle. Taxa de fotossíntese e transpiração, condutância estomática, eficiência do uso da água e efeitos sobre as enzimas antioxidantes (superóxido dismutase, catalase e peroxidase) foram avaliados. O TRIA 10 µM aumentou a taxa de fotossíntese e a eficiência do uso da água e o rendimento foi melhorado em todos os genótipos transplantados nas diferentes datas. A aplicação foliar de TRIA 10µM aumentou as atividades das enzimas antioxidantes (SOD, POD e CAT) e melhorou os atributos fisiológicos e bioquímicos de genótipos de berinjela expostos a condições de alto calor. A atividade mais elevada da enzima dismutase 5,41mg / 1g FW foi registrada no genótipo Nirala no segundo transplante. Considerando que o mais baixo foi observado em PAK-10927 (2,30 mg / g FW). A produtividade máxima de frutos foi encontrada no acesso 25919 (1,725 ​​kg por planta) no 1º transplante com Triacontanol, enquanto o acesso PAK-10927 deu a menor produção (0,285 kg por planta) no tratamento de controle no 3º transplante. Genótipo, data de transplante e aplicação de TRIA, melhoramento do crescimento, rendimento e atributos de qualidade sob estresse térmico em berinjela.


Subject(s)
Solanum melongena/genetics , Solanum melongena/metabolism , Photosynthesis , Heat-Shock Response , Fatty Alcohols , Antioxidants/metabolism , Antioxidants/pharmacology
7.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e257739, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355883

ABSTRACT

Abstract Under salt stress conditions, plant growth is reduced due to osmotic, nutritional and oxidative imbalance. However, salicylic acid acts in the mitigation of this abiotic stress by promoting an increase in growth, photosynthesis, nitrogen metabolism, synthesis of osmoregulators and antioxidant enzymes. In this context, the objective was to evaluate the effect of salicylic acid doses on the growth and physiological changes of eggplant seedlings under salt stress. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse, where the treatments were distributed in randomized blocks using a central composite matrix Box with five levels of electrical conductivity of irrigation water (CEw) (0.50; 1.08; 2.50; 3.92 and 4.50 dS m-1), associated with five doses of salicylic acid (SA) (0.00; 0.22; 0.75; 1.28 and 1.50 mM), with four repetitions and each plot composed of three plants. At 40 days after sowing, plant height, stem diameter, number of leaves, leaf area, electrolyte leakage, relative water content, and total dry mass were determined. ECw and SA application influenced the growth and physiological changes of eggplant seedlings. Increasing the ECw reduced growth in the absence of SA. Membrane damage with the use of SA remained stable up to 3.9 dS m-1 of ECw. The relative water content independent of the CEw increased with 1.0 mM of SA. The use of SA at the concentration of 1.0 mM mitigated the deleterious effect of salinity on seedling growth up to 2.50 dS m-1 of ECw.


Resumo Em condições de estresse salino, o crescimento das plantas é reduzido, em virtude, do desequilíbrio osmótico, nutricional e oxidativo. Contudo, o ácido salicílico atua na mitigação desse estresse abiótico por promover incremento no crescimento, fotossíntese, metabolismo do nitrogênio, síntese de osmorreguladores e enzimas antioxidantes. Nesse contexto, objetivou-se avaliar o efeito de doses de ácido salicílico sobre o crescimento e alterações fisiológicas de mudas de berinjela sob estresse salino. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação, onde os tratamentos foram distribuídos em blocos ao acaso utilizando uma matriz composta central Box com cinco níveis de condutividade elétrica da água de irrigação (CEa) (0,50; 1,08; 2,50; 3,92 e 4,50 dS m-1), associada a cinco doses de ácido salicílico (AS) (0,00; 0,22; 0,75; 1,28 e 1,50 mM), com quatro repetições e cada parcela composta por três plantas. Aos 40 dias após a semeadura, foram determinados a altura da planta, diâmetro do caule, número de folhas, área foliar, vazamento de eletrólito, teor relativo de água e massa seca total. A CEa e a aplicação de AS influenciaram no crescimento e nas alterações fisiológicas das mudas de berinjela. O aumento da CEa reduziu o crescimento na ausência de AS. O dano de membrana com o uso de AS manteve-se estável até 3,9 dS m-1 de CEa. O conteúdo relativo de água independentemente da CEa aumentou com 1 mM de SA. O uso de AS na concentração de 1 mM mitigou o efeito deletério da salinidade no crescimento das mudas até 2,50 dS m-1 de CEa.


Subject(s)
Salicylic Acid/pharmacology , Solanum melongena/metabolism , Photosynthesis , Stress, Physiological , Plant Leaves/metabolism , Seedlings , Salinity , Salt Tolerance , Antioxidants/metabolism
8.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e253599, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355891

ABSTRACT

Abstract The antioxidant activity of Tetragonisca angustula honey (TAH) and its ethanolic extract (TAEE) were investigated. The total levels of phenolic (TPC) and flavonoids (TFC) were also evaluated. The results for TPC were 19.91 ± 0.38 and 29.37 ± 1.82 mg GAE g-1 and for TFC 0.20 ± 0.02 and 0.14 ± 0.01 mg QE g-1 of TAH and TAEE, respectively. Antioxidant activities were 73.29 ± 0.49% and 93.36 ± 0.27% in the DPPH● assay and 71.73 ± 4.07% and 97.86 ± 0.35% in ABTS●+ for TAH and TAEE, respectively. The total reducing activity was determined by the method of reducing power (PR) and iron ion (Fe III) and the results varied in PR from 151.7 ± 25.7 and 230.7 ± 25.2 mg GAE L-1, for TAH and TAEE respectively and for (Fe III) in EC50 0.284 in TAEE and 0.687 in TAH. Chemical analysis by HPLC-DAD of the ethanolic extract (TAEE) revealed the presence of ferulic acid as majority phenolic component in the extract. The 1H NMR analysis confirmed this structure and showed the also presence of glucose, citric acid, succinic acid, proline and hydrocarbon derivatives. In addition, the botanical origin was also investigated and showed a multifloral characteristic, having found 19 pollen types with a botanical predominance of the Anacardiaceae family, with Tapirira pollen occurring as predominant (42.6%) and Schinus as secondary (25.7%). The results showed that T. angustula honey is an interesting source of antioxidant phenolic compounds due to its floral origin and can act as a protector of human health when consumed.


Resumo A atividade antioxidante do mel de Tetragonisca angustula (TAH) e seu extrato etanólico (TAEE) foram investigados. Os níveis totais de fenólicos (TPC) e flavonóides (TFC) também foram avaliados. Os resultados para TPC foram 19,91 ± 0,38 e 29,37 ± 1,82 mg GAE g-1 e para TFC 0,20 ± 0,02 e 0,14 ± 0,01 mg QE g-1 de TAH e TAEE, respectivamente. As atividades antioxidantes foram 73,29 ± 0,49% e 93,36 ± 0,27% no ensaio DPPH● e 71,73 ± 4,07% e 97,86 ± 0,35% no ABTS●+ para TAH e TAEE, respectivamente. A atividade redutora total foi determinada pelo método de poder redutor (PR) e íon ferrico (Fe III) e os resultados variaram em PR de 151,7 ± 25,7 e 230,7 ± 25,2 mg GAE L-1, para TAH e TAEE respectivamente e para (Fe III) em EC50 0,284 em TAEE e 0,687 em TAH. A análise química por HPLC-DAD do extrato etanólico (TAEE) revelou a presença de ácido ferúlico como componente majoritário no extrato. A análise de RMN 1H confirmou esta estrutura e mostrou a presença de glicose, ácido cítrico, ácido succínico, prolina e derivados de hidrocarbonetos no TAEE. Além disso, a origem botânica também foi investigada e apresentou característica multifloral, tendo encontrado 19 tipos polínicos com predomínio botânico da família Anacardiaceae, sendo o pólen Tapirira predominante (42,6%) e o Schinus secundário (25,7%). Os resultados mostraram que o mel de T. angustula é uma interessante fonte de compostos fenólicos antioxidantes devido à sua origem floral e pode atuar como protetor da saúde humana quando consumido.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Honey/analysis , Antioxidants , Phenols/analysis , Brazil , Coumaric Acids
9.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e257074, 2024. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1360211

ABSTRACT

The study of biologically active substances-secondary metabolites of plants that exhibit geroprotective properties is an actual and popular direction in medicine to prevent early aging. This work aims to select the cultivation parameters for obtaining in vitro cell cultures of meadowsweet containing the largest amount of biologically active substances (BAS) for their further extraction as candidate substances for geroprotectors. To specify the effectiveness of the selected cell culture cultivation parameters, biomass growth for callus and root cultures, growth index, specific growth rate, and viability for suspension cultures was carried out. The study results made it possible to select the nutrient media for the cultivation of cell cultures of meadowsweet. It has been found that the greater the antioxidant activity of the extracts, the greater the antimicrobial properties it exhibits. In this study, cell cultures in vitro and alcohol extracts from the plant Filipendula ulmaria were considered as raw materials rich in candidate substances for geroprotectors. According to the data obtained, the plant is rich in hydroxybenzoic and salicylic acids, spireoside, avicularin, and hyperoside.


O estudo de substâncias biologicamente ativas - metabólitos secundários de plantas que apresentam propriedades geroprotetoras - é uma tendência atual e popular no campo da medicina para a prevenção do envelhecimento precoce. O objetivo deste trabalho foi selecionar os parâmetros de cultivo para obtenção de culturas celulares in vitro de Ulmária contendo a maior quantidade de substâncias biologicamente ativas (SBA), para sua posterior extração como substâncias candidatas a serem geroprotetoras. Para especificar a eficácia dos parâmetros selecionados de cultivo em cultura de células, foi realizada a análise de crescimento de biomassa para culturas de calos e raízes, índice de crescimento, taxa de crescimento específica e viabilidade para culturas em suspensão. Os resultados do estudo possibilitaram a seleção do meio nutriente para o cultivo de células de Ulmária. Verificou-se que, quanto maior a atividade antioxidante dos extratos, maiores eram as propriedades antimicrobianas exibidas. Neste estudo, culturas celulares in vitro e extratos alcoólicos da planta Filipendula ulmaria foram considerados matérias-primas ricas em substâncias candidatas a serem geroprotetoras. De acordo com os dados obtidos, a planta é rica em ácidos hidroxibenzoico e salicílico, espirosídeo, avicularina e hiperosídeo.


Subject(s)
Plants, Medicinal/genetics , Aging , Aging, Premature , Antioxidants
10.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e254174, 2024. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1360213

ABSTRACT

Anredera cordifolia (Ten.) Steenis is a vine species native to Brazil that is considered an unconventional food plant and a medicinal species whose phenolic compounds exert antioxidant activity. Since the production of metabolites is determined by environmental factors and leaf maturity, it is important to track these changes in order to determine the best time to harvest. This study aimed to verify whether leaf phenology and seasonality cause variations in the amount of phenolic compounds and in the antioxidant activity of this species. The leaves were collected in different seasons between September 2018 and April 2019, and separated according to maturity: young, mature, and senescent. Daily atmospheric temperature and rainfall data were used to characterize the collection period. The total phenolic content (TPC), determined by Folin-Ciocalteu method, was significantly higher in the young leaves collected in winter, a season of lower temperatures. These leaves showed 54.4 mg of gallic acid equivalents per 100 g of dry matter (mg GAE 100 g-1DM). Other results averaged 25.6 mg GAE 100 g-1DM. The highest antioxidant activity, assessed via the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method, regardless of leaf phenology, was observed in leaves harvested in autumn (73.7%) and winter (71.1%), seasons with lower rainfall. Leaves harvested in summer and spring had lower antioxidant action rates (54.3 e 37.5%, respectively). There was no significant correlation between the total phenolic content and antioxidant activity. Thus, the phenolic composition of A. cordifolia, and consequently its activity on free radicals, varies seasonally in response to temperature and rainfall, and may or may not interact with the age of the leaves.


Anredera cordifolia (Ten.) Steenis é uma trepadeira nativa do Brasil considerada uma planta alimentícia não convencional e uma espécie medicinal, cujos compostos fenólicos exercem ação antioxidante. Como a produção de metabólitos é determinada por fatores ambientais e pela maturidade das folhas, é importante acompanhar essas mudanças a fim de determinar a época de colheita. Neste estudo objetivou-se verificar se a fenologia foliar e a sazonalidade ocasionam variação na quantidade de compostos fenólicos e na ação antioxidante dessa espécie. As folhas foram coletadas em diferentes estações, entre setembro de 2018 e abril de 2019, e separadas conforme a maturidade: jovens, maduras e senescentes. Os dados diários de temperatura atmosférica e pluviosidade foram usados para caracterizar o período de coleta. O conteúdo de fenólicos totais (TPC), determinado pelo método Folin-Ciocalteu, foi significativamente maior nas folhas jovens coletadas no inverno, período caracterizado por temperaturas mais baixas. Estas folhas apresentaram 54,4 mg equivalentes de ácido gálico por 100 g de matéria seca (mg GAE 100 g-1DM) . A média dos outros resultados foi de 25,6 mg GAE 100 g-1DM. A maior ação antioxidante, avaliada pelo método do radical livre 2,2-difenil-1-picrilhidrazil (DPPH), foi observada em folhas colhidas no outono (73,7%) e inverno (71,1%), independentemente da fenologia foliar. Nestes períodos a pluviosidade foi menor. Folhas colhidas no verão e na primavera apresentaram menores percentuais de ação antioxidante (54,3 e 37,5%, respectivamente). Não houve correlação significativa entre o conteúdo de fenólicos totais e a atividade antioxidante. Conclui-se que a composição fenólica de A. cordifolia e, consequentemente, sua ação sobre radicais livres, varia sazonalmente em resposta à temperatura e pluviosidade, podendo ou não interagir com a idade das folhas.


Subject(s)
Plants, Medicinal/growth & development , Seasons , Phenolic Compounds , Antioxidants
11.
Chinese journal of integrative medicine ; (12): 75-84, 2024.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010298

ABSTRACT

Good nutrition plays a crucial role in maintaining a balanced lifestyle. The beneficial effects of nutrition have been found to counteract nutritional disturbances with the expanded use of nutraceuticals to treat and manage cardiovascular diseases, cancer, and other developmental defects over the last decade. Flavonoids are found abundantly in plant-derived foods such as fruits, vegetables, tea, cocoa, and wine. Fruits and vegetables contain phytochemicals like flavonoids, phenolics, alkaloids, saponins, and terpenoids. Flavonoids can act as anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic, anti-microbial (antibacterial, antifungal, and antiviral) antioxidant, anti-cancer, and anti-diarrheal agents. Flavonoids are also reported to upregulate apoptotic activity in several cancers such as hepatic, pancreatic, breast, esophageal, and colon. Myricetin is a flavonol which is naturally present in fruits and vegetables and has shown possible nutraceutical value. Myricetin has been portrayed as a potent nutraceutical that may protect against cancer. The focus of the present review is to present an updated account of studies demonstrating the anticancer potential of myricetin and the molecular mechanisms involved therein. A better understanding of the molecular mechanism(s) underlying its anticancer activity would eventually help in its development as a novel anticancer nutraceutical having minimal side effects.


Subject(s)
Humans , Flavonoids/chemistry , Antineoplastic Agents/chemistry , Dietary Supplements , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Neoplasms/drug therapy
12.
Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines (English Ed.) ; (6): 4-14, 2024.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1011010

ABSTRACT

Polysaccharides, predominantly extracted from traditional Chinese medicinal herbs such as Lycium barbarum, Angelica sinensis, Astragalus membranaceus, Dendrobium officinale, Ganoderma lucidum, and Poria cocos, represent principal bioactive constituents extensively utilized in Chinese medicine. These compounds have demonstrated significant anti-inflammatory capabilities, especially anti-liver injury activities, while exhibiting minimal adverse effects. This review summarized recent studies to elucidate the hepatoprotective efficacy and underlying molecular mechanisms of these herbal polysaccharides. It underscored the role of these polysaccharides in regulating hepatic function, enhancing immunological responses, and improving antioxidant capacities, thus contributing to the attenuation of hepatocyte apoptosis and liver protection. Analyses of molecular pathways in these studies revealed the intricate and indispensable functions of traditional Chinese herbal polysaccharides in liver injury management. Therefore, this review provides a thorough examination of the hepatoprotective attributes and molecular mechanisms of these medicinal polysaccharides, thereby offering valuable insights for the advancement of polysaccharide-based therapeutic research and their potential clinical applications in liver disease treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Liver Diseases/drug therapy , Antioxidants , Polysaccharides/therapeutic use , Medicine, Chinese Traditional
13.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e254234, 2024. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1364499

ABSTRACT

Due to the severe side effects revealed by most of the currently used antidiabetic medicines, search for finding new and safe drugs to manage diabetes is continued. Naphthoquinones possessing strong antioxidant properties have been employed as candidates for diabetes therapy. Present study is aimed at finding the antioxidant and hypoglycaemic potential of some novel derivatives of 2-phenylamino-1,4-naphthoquinones (PAN) including chloro, nitro, methyl and bromo (5a-d) derivatives synthesized by single pot experiment. Product crystals were purified by TLC and characterized by FT-IR. The antioxidant potential of the compounds was assayed through DPPH radical scavenging and reducing power activities noted as UV-vis. absorbance. The DPPH assay has showed the powerful antioxidant activity of nitro and bromo derivatives, while the nitro derivative showed the significant reduction potential towards FRAP assay. Hypoglycaemic potential of the compounds was studied in rat animal model. All synthesized compounds revealed better hypoglycaemic activity; however, the chloro-derivative exhibited the more potent hypoglycaemic activity showing about 43% reduction in the mean blood glucose levels of the treated animals. As the bioreduction of naphthoquinones may be influenced by changing its redox properties, it has been noticed that the e-donating resonance effect (+R) of 'chloro' group has shown the significant effects on biological activity through stabalization of its imine form which limits the potential of generation of free radicals during bioreduction of quinones and thus has been proposed as the reason of its hypoglycaemic activity. Future studies employing the properties of e-donating groups of PAN may optimize the drug-receptor interaction for better drug designing and drug development strategies against diabetes and also for the clinical trials.


Em razão dos graves efeitos colaterais causados pela maioria dos medicamentos antidiabéticos atualmente utilizados, continua a busca por novos medicamentos seguros para o controle do diabetes. As naftoquinonas, que possuem fortes propriedades antioxidantes, têm sido empregadas como candidatas à terapia do diabetes. O presente estudo visa encontrar o potencial antioxidante e hipoglicemiante de alguns novos derivados de 2-fenilamino-1,4-naftoquinonas (PAN), incluindo derivados de cloro, nitro, metil e bromo (5a-d) sintetizados por experimento em pote único. Os cristais do produto foram purificados por TLC e caracterizados por FT-IR. O potencial antioxidante dos compostos foi testado por meio de atividades de sequestro de radicais DPPH e redução de energia observada como absorção no UV-vis. O ensaio DPPH mostrou a poderosa atividade antioxidante dos derivados nitro e bromo, enquanto o derivado nitro mostrou o potencial de redução significativo para o ensaio FRAP. O potencial hipoglicêmico dos compostos foi estudado em modelo animal de rato. Todos os compostos sintetizados revelaram melhor atividade hipoglicemiante; no entanto, o derivado cloro apresentou atividade hipoglicêmica mais potente, com redução de 43% nos níveis médios de glicose no sangue dos animais tratados. Como a biorredução de naftoquinonas pode ser influenciada pela alteração de suas propriedades redox, notou-se que o efeito da doação eletrônica por ressonância (+R) do grupo "cloro" tem sido significativo na atividade biológica por meio da estabilização de sua forma imina, que limita o potencial de geração de radicais livres durante a biorredução de quinonas, e, portanto, tem sido proposto como a razão de sua atividade hipoglicemiante. Estudos futuros empregando as propriedades de grupos de doação eletrônica de PAN podem otimizar a interação droga-receptor para melhor planejamento de medicamentos e estratégias de desenvolvimento de medicamentos contra o diabetes e também para os ensaios clínicos.


Subject(s)
Rats , Models, Animal , Diabetes Mellitus , Drug Development , Hypoglycemic Agents , Antioxidants
14.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e256944, 2024. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1364507

ABSTRACT

In order to ensure the timely and uninterrupted supply of medicinal plant raw materials, the methods of cultivation of plant cell cultures, namely, the production of plant root cultures, are relevant. In this paper, the geroprotective potential of Hedysarum neglectum Ledeb and Panax ginseng C. A. Mey root cultures is studied. They were cultured under in vitro conditions by transforming the rhizome (H. neglectum) and seed seedlings (P. ginseng) with Agrobacterium rhizogenes 15834 Swiss. To identify the geroprotective potential, the antimicrobial disc-diffusion method and the antioxidant activity were analyzed by titration of KMnO4 extracts of plant root cultures. The qualitative and quantitative composition was analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography, thin-layer chromatography, and gas chromatography with mass spectrometry. In the course of the work, the presence of antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of plant root culture extracts was established. Biologically active substances contained in extracts of Hedysarum neglectum Ledeb root crops and Panax ginseng C. A. Mey are characterized by geroprotective potential, so they can act as a source of natural antioxidants in the functional nutrition of the geroprotective orientation.


Para garantir o abastecimento em tempo e ininterrupto de matérias-primas de plantas medicinais, são relevantes os métodos de cultivo de culturas de células vegetais, nomeadamente a produção de culturas de raízes vegetais. Neste trabalho, foi estudado o potencial geroprotetor de culturas de raízes de Hedysarum neglectum Ledeb e Panax ginseng C. A. Mey. Eles foram cultivados em condições in vitro pela transformação do rizoma (H. neglectum) e mudas de sementes (P. ginseng) com Agrobacterium rhizogenes 15834 Swiss. Para identificar o potencial geroprotetor, o método antimicrobiano de difusão em disco e a atividade antioxidante foram analisados por titulação de extratos de KMnO4 de raízes de plantas. A composição qualitativa e quantitativa foi analisada por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência, cromatografia em camada delgada e cromatografia gasosa com espectrometria de massa. No decorrer do trabalho, foi constatada a presença de atividade antimicrobiana e antioxidante dos extratos de raízes de plantas. Substâncias biologicamente ativas contidas em extratos de raízes de H. neglectum Ledeb e P. ginseng C. A. Mey são caracterizadas pelo potencial geroprotetor, podendo atuar como fonte de antioxidantes naturais na nutrição funcional da orientação geroprotetora.


Subject(s)
Plants, Medicinal , Plant Roots , Panax , Anti-Infective Agents , Antioxidants
15.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e255120, 2024. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1364532

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to determine the antiulcerogenic and antioxidant activities of Psyllium (Plantago ovata Forssk) seed ethanolic extract in rats. We assessed the antioxidant potential using free radical scavenging on DPPH, ß-carotene bleaching activity, ferric reducing power, and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity. In the antiulcerogenic study, pre-treatment with Plantago ovata seeds ethanolic extract (POE) (400 mg/kg b.wt) significantly protected against ethanol-induced gastric ulcer in rats by decreasing the ulcer index value and preserving the integrity of the gastric mucosa. The oxidative stress status in the stomach tissues showed a significant increase in the antioxidant enzyme levels of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase with a significant decrease in lipid peroxidation during pre-treatment with POE. In conclusion, the POE protects against gastric ulcer due to its antioxidant potential and presence of bioactive molecules.


O presente estudo teve como objetivo determinar as atividades antiulcerogênica e antioxidante das sementes de Psyllium (Plantago ovata Forssk) em ratos. O potencial antioxidante foi avaliado utilizando o método do sequestro do radical livre DPPH, autooxidação do ß-caroteno, poder redutor de ferro e atividade de sequestro do radical hidroxila. No estudo antiulcerogênico, o pré-tratamento com o extrato etanólico das sementes de Plantago ovata (POE) (400 mg/Kg b.wt) reduziu a úlcera gástrica induzida pelo etanol em ratos, diminuindo o valor do índice de úlcera e preservando a integridade da mucosa gástrica. O estudo do estresse oxidativo nos tecidos estomacais mostrou um aumento significativo dos níveis das enzimas antioxidantes superóxido dismutase, catalase e glutationa peroxidase, com uma diminuição significativa da peroxidação lipídica enquanto pré-tratamento com POE. Em conclusão, o POE protege contra úlcera gástrica devido aos seus potenciais antioxidantes e à presença de moléculas bioativas.


Subject(s)
Rats , Plantago , Stomach Ulcer , Gastric Mucosa , Phytotherapy , Antioxidants
16.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1510998

ABSTRACT

Se revisa en el binomio madre-recién nacidos o/y lactantes, los diferentes ritmos circadianos, especialmente del sueño, la secreción de melatonina y las características de la leche materna. Se aconseja manejo para evitar la cronodisrupción


It is reviewed in the binomial mother-newborns or/and infants, the different circadian rhythms, especially sleep, melatonin secretion and the characteristics of breast milk. Handling is advised to avoid chrono disruption


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Adult , Sleep/physiology , Breast Feeding , Melatonin/physiology , Antioxidants/physiology , Circadian Rhythm
17.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(3): 915-925, jun. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1514287

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Magnolia bark extract supplementation has an anti-oxidative role in mammalians. However, its role in physiological aged-associated heart insufficiency is not known yet. Therefore, we investigated the effects of a magnolia bark complex, including magnolol and honokiol components (MAHOC), in elderly rat hearts (24-month-old aged group). One group of aged rats was supplemented with MAHOC (400 mg/kg/d, for 12 weeks) besides the standard rat diet while the second group of elderly rats and adult rats (to 6-month- old adult-group) were only fed with the standard rat diet. The morphological analysis using light microscopy has shown marked myofibrillar losses, densely localized fibroblasts, vacuolizations, infiltrated cell accumulations, and collagen fibers in the myocardium of the elderly rats compared to the adults. We also detected a markedly increased amount of degenerated cardiomyocytes including the euchromatic nucleus. The MAHOC supplementation of the elderly rats provided marked ameliorations in these abnormal morphological changes in the heart tissue. Furthermore, electrophysiological analysis of electrocardiograms (ECGs) in the supplemented group showed significant attenuations in the prolonged durations of P-waves, QRS-complexes, QT-intervals, and low heart rates compared to the unsupplemented elderly group. The biochemical analysis also showed significant attenuations in the activity of arylesterase and total antioxidant status in the myocardium of the supplemented group. We further determined significant attenuations in the activity of a mitochondrial enzyme succinate dehydrogenase, known as a source of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and the decreased level of ATP/ADP in the heart homogenates of the supplemented group. Moreover, under in vitro conditions by using an aging-mimicked cardiac cell line induced by D-galactose, we demonstrated that MAHOC treatment could provide prevention of depolarization in mitochondria membrane potential and high-level ROS production. Overall, our data presented significant myocardial ameliorations in physiological aging-associated morphological alterations parallel to the function and biochemical attenuations with MAHOC supplementation, at most, through recoveries in mitochondria.


La suplementación con extracto de corteza de magnolia tiene un papel antioxidante en los mamíferos, sin embargo, su rol en la insuficiencia cardíaca asociada al envejecimiento fisiológico aún no se conoce. Por lo anterior, investigamos los efectos de un complejo de corteza de magnolia, incluidos los componentes magnolol y honokiol (MAHOC), en corazones de ratas seniles (grupo de edad de 24 meses). La alimentación de grupo de ratas seniles se complementó con MAHOC (400 mg/kg/d, durante 12 semanas) además de la dieta estándar, mientras que el segundo grupo de ratas seniles y ratas adultas (hasta el grupo de adultos de 6 meses) solo recibió la dieta estándar para ratas. El análisis morfológico mediante microscopía óptica ha mostrado marcadas pérdidas miofibrilares, fibroblastos densamente localizados, vacuolizaciones, acumulaciones de células infiltradas y fibras de colágeno en el miocardio de las ratas seniles en comparación con las adultas. También detectamos una cantidad notablemente mayor de cardiomiocitos degradados, incluido el núcleo eucromático. La suplementación con MAHOC de las ratas seniles proporcionó mejoras marcadas en estos cambios morfológicos anormales en el tejido cardiaco. Por otra parte, el análisis de los electrocardiogramas (ECG) en el grupo suplementado mostró atenuaciones significativas en las duraciones prolongadas de las ondas P, los complejos QRS, los intervalos QT y las frecuencias cardíacas bajas, en comparación con el grupo de ratas seniles sin suplementación alimenticia. El análisis bioquímico también mostró atenuaciones significativas en la actividad de la arilesterasa y el estado antioxidante total en el miocardio del grupo suplementado. Determinamos además atenuaciones significativas en la actividad de la enzima mitocondrial succinato deshidrogenasa, conocida como fuente de especies reactivas de oxígeno (ROS), y la disminución del nivel de ATP/ADP en los homogeneizados de corazón del grupo suplementado. Además, en condiciones in vitro mediante el uso de una línea de células cardíacas, imitando el envejecimiento inducido por D- galactosa, demostramos que el tratamiento con MAHOC podría prevenir la despolarización en el potencial de membrana de las mitocondrias y la producción de ROS de alto nivel. En general, nuestros datos presentaron mejoras miocárdicas significativas en alteraciones morfológicas asociadas con el envejecimiento fisiológico paralelas a la función y atenuaciones bioquímicas con la suplementación con MAHOC, como máximo, a través de recuperaciones en las mitocondrias.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Biphenyl Compounds/administration & dosage , Aging , Magnolia , Heart/drug effects , Antioxidants/administration & dosage , Plant Extracts , Reactive Oxygen Species , Rats, Wistar , Lignans/administration & dosage , Heart/physiology
18.
Vitae (Medellín) ; 30(2): 1-7, 2023-05-08. Ilustraciones
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1538037

ABSTRACT

Background: The edible green algae Caulerpa racemosa (Forsskal) J. Agardh (Caulerpaceae), also known as "sea grape", is an excellent source of phenolic compounds known for their activity to reduce free radicals. Objectives: The research aims to evaluate the total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of C. racemosa (70% ethanol extracts) obtained from different extraction methods, such as maceration, Soxhlet, and ultrasound. Methods: Total phenolics of the extracts were determined by the colorimetry method using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. Total phenol content was expressed as mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE) per g extract. The 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical was used to assess the antioxidant activity of the extracts. Results: the ethanol extract of C. racemosa obtained from the ultrasonic methods had the highest phenolic content (39.38 mg GAE/g) compared to other extraction methods (Soxhlet was 36.88 mg GAE/g and maceration was 22.05 mg GAE/g). The IC50 value against DPPH of the C. racemosa ethanol extracts using ultrasonic, Soxhlet, and maceration was 352.95, 365.73, and 375.84 µg/mL, respectively. Conclusions: the variation of the extraction methods affected the total phenolics content of C. racemosa ethanol extracts and their antioxidant activity. We reported here the potential of C. racemosa extracts as an antioxidant raw material from marine plants for medicinal, nutraceutical, cosmetics, and food products; however, more research is needed.


Antecedentes: El alga verde comestible Caulerpa racemosa (Forsskal) J. Agardh (Caulerpaceae), también conocida como "uva de mar", es una excelente fuente de compuestos fenólicos conocidos por su actividad para reducir los radicales libres. Objetivos: La investigación pretende evaluar el contenido fenólico total y la actividad antioxidante de C. racemosa (extractos de etanol al 70%) obtenidos a partir de diferentes métodos de extracción, como maceración, Soxhlet y ultrasonido. Métodos: Los fenoles totales de los extractos se determinaron por el método colorimétrico utilizando el reactivo de Folin-Ciocalteu. El contenido total de fenoles se expresó como mg de ácido gálico equivalente (GAE) por g de extracto. Para evaluar la actividad antioxidante de los extractos se utilizó el radical libre 2,2-difenil-1-picrilhidrazilo (DPPH). Resultados: el extracto etanólico de C. racemosa obtenido por ultrasonido presentó el mayor contenido fenólico (39,38 mg GAE/g) en comparación con otros métodos de extracción (Soxhlet fue de 36,88 mg GAE/g y maceración fue de 22,05 mg GAE/g). El valor IC50 frente a DPPH de los extractos etanólicos de C. racemosa mediante ultrasonido, Soxhlet y maceración fue de 352,95, 365,73 y 375,84 µg/mL, respectivamente. Conclusiones: la variación de los métodos de extracción afectó al contenido total de fenoles de los extractos etanólicos de C. racemosa y a su actividad antioxidante. Aquí reportamos el potencial de los extractos de C. racemosa como materia prima antioxidante a partir de plantas marinas para productos medicinales, nutracéuticos, cosméticos y alimenticios; sin embargo, se necesita más investigación.


Subject(s)
Humans , Phenolic Compounds , Plant Extracts , Caulerpa , Antioxidants
19.
Braz. J. Anesth. (Impr.) ; 73(2): 177-185, March-Apr. 2023. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1439592

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background The precise underlying mechanism of antioxidant effects of dexmedetomidine-induced neuroprotection against cerebral ischemia has not yet been fully elucidated. Activation of Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2) and Heme Oxygenase-1 (HO-1) represents a major antioxidant-defense mechanism. Therefore, we determined whether dexmedetomidine increases Nrf2/HO-1 expression after global transient cerebral ischemia and assessed the involvement of Protein Kinase C (PKC) in the dexmedetomidine-related antioxidant mechanism. Methods Thirty-eight rats were randomly assigned to five groups: sham (n = 6), ischemic (n = 8), chelerythrine (a PKC inhibitor; 5 mg.kg-1 IV administered 30 min before cerebral ischemia) (n = 8), dexmedetomidine (100 µg.kg-1 IP administered 30 min before cerebral ischemia (n = 8), and dexmedetomidine + chelerythrine (n = 8). Global transient cerebral ischemia (10 min) was applied in all groups, except the sham group; histopathologic changes and levels of nuclear Nrf2 and cytoplasmic HO-1 were examined 24 hours after ischemia insult. Results We found fewer necrotic and apoptotic cells in the dexmedetomidine group relative to the ischemic group (p< 0.01) and significantly higher Nrf2 and HO-1 levels in the dexmedetomidine group than in the ischemic group (p< 0.01). Additionally, chelerythrine co-administration with dexmedetomidine attenuated the dexmedetomidine-induced increases in Nrf2 and HO-1 levels (p< 0.05 and p< 0.01, respectively) and diminished its beneficial neuroprotective effects. Conclusion Preischemic dexmedetomidine administration elicited neuroprotection against global transient cerebral ischemia in rats by increasing Nrf2/HO-1 expression partly via PKC signaling, suggesting that this is the antioxidant mechanism underlying dexmedetomidine-mediated neuroprotection.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Brain Ischemia , Protein Kinase C/metabolism , Protein Kinase C/pharmacology , Ischemic Attack, Transient , Oxidative Stress , Neuroprotective Agents/pharmacology , Dexmedetomidine/pharmacology , Heme Oxygenase-1/metabolism , Heme Oxygenase-1/pharmacology , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/metabolism , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/pharmacology , Heme Oxygenase (Decyclizing)/pharmacology , Antioxidants/metabolism , Antioxidants/pharmacology
20.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1442307

ABSTRACT

Background: Pregnancy is characterized as a physiological period with greater sensitivity to insulin resistance and changes in oxidative stress. Purinergic signaling is directly related to diabetes, as this condition modifies the concentration of extracellular ATP and the level of degradation of ATP to adenosine. Objective: Analyze oxidative stress and the purinergic system in pregnant women with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) and compare them with low-risk pregnant women (LR). Materials and Methods: The research was of a quantitative approach of an experimental nature. The study was carried out at the Clínica da Mulher, which serves high-risk pregnant women, and at the Family Health Centers, which serves low-risk pregnant women, both located in Chapecó, Santa Catarina, Brazil. Results: From the analysis, it was observed that oxidative stress was increased in pregnant women in LR compared to pregnant women with GDM by increasing the concentration of TBARS and reducing the concentration of Carbonyl Protein in pregnant women with LR. Regarding the purinergic system, there was a significant decrease in the hydrolysis of the nucleotides ATP, ADP, and AMP in pregnant women with GDM, and a significant increase in the hydrolysis of ADA, also in pregnant women with GDM. Conclusion: Therefore, pregnant women with GDM have less oxidative stress compared to pregnant women in LR concerning TBARS and Carbonyl Protein markers, thus allowing a greater antioxidant defense mechanism. Furthermore, concerning the purinergic system, there is an increase in the activity of ADA, which is directly related to the immunosuppression process, a necessary condition for the protection of the fetus during the gestational period (AU).


Introdução: A gravidez é caracterizada como um período fisiológico em que há uma maior sensibilidade a resistência à insulina e alterações no estresse oxidativo. A sinalização purinérgica está diretamente relacionada ao diabetes, pois esta condição modifica a concentração de ATP extracelular e o nível de degradação de ATP em adenosina. Objetivo:Analisar o estresse oxidativo e o sistema purinérgico em gestantes com Diabetes Mellitus Gestacional (DMG) e compará-los com gestantes de baixo risco (BR). Materiais e Métodos: A pesquisa foi de abordagem quantitativa, de caráter experimental. O estudo foi realizado na Clínica da Mulher, que atende gestantes de alto risco, e nas Unidades de Saúde da Família, que atendem gestantes de baixo risco, ambas localizadas no município de Chapecó, Santa Catarina, Brasil. Resultados: A partir das análises, observou-se que o estresse oxidativo apresentou-se aumentado em gestantes de BR quando comparado a gestantes com DMG. No que tange ao sistema purinérgico, houve uma diminuição significativa na hidrólise dos nucleotídeos ATP, ADP e AMP em gestantes com DMG, bem como um aumento significativo na hidrólise de ADA, também em gestantes com DMG. Conclusão: Portanto, gestantes com DMG possuem menor estresse oxidativo quando comparado a gestantes de BR, permitindo assim, um maior mecanismo de defesa antioxidante. Para mais, no que se refere ao sistema purinérgico, verifica-se o aumento da concentração de ADA está diretamente relacionada ao processo de imunossupressão, condição necessária à proteção do feto durante o período gestacional (AU).


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications , Purines , Diabetes, Gestational , Oxidative Stress , Antioxidants
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