Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 632
Filter
2.
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 32(3): 468-473, jul.-set. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138516

ABSTRACT

RESUMO A oxigenação por membrana extracorpórea é utilizada como suporte extracirculatório para a assistência de pacientes em severa e reversível falência cardíaca e/ou respiratória. Complicações neurológicas podem estar relacionadas ao procedimento. Diante da evolução neurológica desfavorável e da necessidade de realização de protocolo de morte encefálica, permanece um desafio a realização de teste de apneia nesse contexto. Relatamos o caso de teste de apneia para diagnóstico de morte encefálica em pós-operatório de cirurgia cardíaca em paciente utilizando oxigenação por membrana extracorpórea venoarterial.


Abstract Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation is used as extracirculatory support for the care of patients with severe and reversible cardiac and/or respiratory failure. Neurological complications may be related to the procedure. Given the unfavorable neurological evolution and the need to perform a brain death protocol, the performance of an apnea test in this context remains a challenge. We report the use of an apnea test for the diagnosis of brain death post-cardiac surgery in a patient receiving venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Apnea/diagnosis , Brain Death/diagnosis , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/methods
3.
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 32(3): 405-411, jul.-set. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138508

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: Investigamos a frequência dos testes de apneia e o uso de exames complementares para o diagnóstico de morte cerebral em nosso hospital, assim como as razões para a não realização do teste de apneia e para utilização de exames complementares. Métodos: Neste estudo retrospectivo, examinaram-se os arquivos de pacientes com diagnóstico de morte cerebral entre 2012 e 2018. O exame preferido foi determinado quando um exame complementar foi realizado para o diagnóstico de morte cerebral. Analisaram-se a taxa e a frequência de uso desses exames. Resultados: Durante o diagnóstico de morte cerebral, o teste de apneia foi realizado em 104 (61,5%) pacientes, e não foi ou não pôde ser realizado em 65 (38,5%) deles. Realizaram-se exames complementares em 139 (82,8%) pacientes. O exame complementar mais comumente utilizado foi a angiografia por tomografia computadorizada (79 pacientes, 46,7%). Foi recebida aprovação para doação de órgãos nas reuniões com familiares após o diagnóstico de morte cerebral para 55 (32,5%) dos 169 pacientes. Conclusão: Nos anos mais recentes, identificamos aumento na taxa de testes de apneia incompletos e, concordantemente, elevação no uso de exames complementares. Os exames complementares devem ser utilizados nos pacientes quando há dificuldade para chegar à decisão do diagnóstico de morte cerebral, mas não se deve esquecer que não existe um consenso mundial a respeito do uso de exames complementares.


Abstract Objective: We investigated the frequency of apnea tests, and the use of ancillary tests in the diagnosis of brain death in our hospital, as well as the reasons for not being able to perform apnea testing and the reasons for using ancillary tests. Methods: In this retrospective study, the files of patients diagnosed with brain death between 2012 - 2018 were examined. The preferred test was determined if an ancillary test was performed in the diagnosis of brain death. The rate and frequency of use of these tests were analyzed. Results: During the diagnosis of brain death, an apnea test was performed on 104 (61.5%) patients and was not or could not be performed on 65 (38.5%) patients. Ancillary tests were performed on 139 (82.8%) of the patients. The most common ancillary test was computed tomography angiography (79 patients, 46.7%). Approval for organ donation was received in the meetings with the family following the diagnosis of brain death for 55 (32.5%) of the 169 patients. Conclusion: We found an increase in the rate of incomplete apnea tests and concordantly, an increase in the use of ancillary tests in recent years. Ancillary tests should be performed on patients when there is difficulty in reaching a decision of brain death, but it should not be forgotten that there is no worldwide consensus on the use of ancillary tests.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Apnea/diagnosis , Brain Death/diagnosis , Computed Tomography Angiography/methods , Tissue and Organ Procurement/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies
4.
Rev. am. med. respir ; 20(3): 255-266, sept. 2020. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1123087

ABSTRACT

La posición del cuerpo influye en la frecuencia y duración de apneas e hipopneas en los individuos con apneas obstructivas del sueño. La posición en decúbito supino es en la que más frecuentemente se registran eventos obstructivos y por lo tanto mayores valores en los indicadores de severidad. Aunque existen diferentes definiciones y clasificaciones, el síndrome de apneas del sueño posicional representa el 60% de todos los pacientes evaluados en una unidad de sueño, y su diferenciación tiene por objetivo determinar cuáles serán los candidatos que se beneficiarían de terapia posicional. Hasta el momento no hay una definición aceptada universalmente y la evidencia del beneficio clínico del rol de clasificar a los pacientes con apneas posicionales es aún controvertida en numerosos aspectos. La terapia posicional se basa en disminuir el tiempo en supino y la severidad de los eventos obstructivos, herramienta de la que se beneficiaría una importante proporción de los pacientes. La CPAP es el tratamiento más eficaz y se recomienda en formas severas y moderadas con manifestaciones clínicas y antecedentes cardiovasculares. En este grupo la terapia posicional podría recomendarse como tratamiento coadyuvante.


Body position during sleep time influences the frequency and duration of apneas and hypopneas in individuals who suffer from obstructive sleep apnea. Individuals in supine position show higher frequency of obstructive events and therefore, higher values in severity indexes. Though there are different definitions and classifications, the positional sleep apnea syndrome represents 60% of all patients evaluated in a sleep unit, and differentiating it aims to determine which candidates will benefit from positional therapy. There is no universally accepted definition and the evidence of the clinical benefit of classifying patients with positional sleep apnea is still controversial in many aspects. Positional therapy has the purpose of decreasing supine time and the severity of obstructive events. A significant proportion of patients would benefit from this treatment. The continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is the most effective treatment and is recommended for severe and moderate forms with clinical manifestations and cardiovascular history. In this group, positional therapy could be recommended as adjuvant treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive , Apnea , Sleep , Sleep Apnea Syndromes , Therapeutics
5.
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 32(2): 312-318, Apr.-June 2020. graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138488

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Entre as potenciais complicações da oxigenação por membrana extracorpórea, as disfunções neurológicas, incluindo morte encefálica, não são desprezíveis. No Brasil, o processo diagnóstico é regulamentado pela resolução 2.173 de 2017 do Conselho Federal de Medicina. Entre os testes diagnósticos, está o de apneia, que objetiva verificar se existe resposta ventilatória ao estímulo hipercápnico. Contudo, trocas gasosas, incluindo a remoção de dióxido de carbono, são mantidas sob oxigenação por membrana extracorpórea, tornando o teste desafiador. Somado ao fato de que a citada resolução não contempla as especificidades do processo diagnóstico sob oxigenação por membrana extracorpórea, publicações sobre o tema são escassas. Esta revisão objetivou identificar estudos de casos (e/ou séries de casos) publicados nas bases PubMed® e Cochrane que descrevessem o processo. Foram identificadas 17 publicações (2011 - 2019). As estratégias práticas descritas foram: prover oxigenação suplementar pré-teste, via ventilador mecânico e oxigenação por membrana extracorpórea (fração inspirada de oxigênio = 1,0), e, ao início do teste, titular o sweep flow (0,5 - 1,0L/minuto), a fim de minimizar a remoção de dióxido de carbono. Recomenda-se também incrementar o fluxo sanguíneo e/ou do sweep ante hipoxemia e/ou hipotensão, podendo associar à infusão de fluidos e/ou ao escalonamento de drogas inotrópicas/vasoativas. Se o limiar da pressão parcial de dióxido de carbono não for alcançado, repetir o teste sob suplementação de dióxido de carbono exógeno ao circuito é uma alternativa. Finalmente, nos casos de oxigenação por membrana extracorpórea venoarterial, para mensurar a variação de gases e excluir hipóxia diferencial, recomenda-se coletar amostras sanguíneas provenientes das circulações nativa e extracorpórea (pós-oxigenador).


Abstract Among the potential complications of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, neurological dysfunctions, including brain death, are not negligible. In Brazil, the diagnostic process of brain death is regulated by Federal Council of Medicine resolution 2,173 of 2017. Diagnostic tests for brain death include the apnea test, which assesses the presence of a ventilatory response to hypercapnic stimulus. However, gas exchange, including carbon dioxide removal, is maintained under extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, making the test challenging. In addition to the fact that the aforementioned resolution does not consider the specificities of the diagnostic process under extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, studies on the subject are scarce. This review aims to identify case studies (and/or case series) published in the PubMed® and Cochrane databases describing the process of brain death diagnosis. A total of 17 publications (2011 - 2019) were identified. The practical strategies described were to provide pretest supplemental oxygenation via mechanical ventilation and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (fraction of inspired oxygen = 1.0) and, at the beginning of the test, titrate the sweep flow (0.5 - 1.0L/minute) to minimize carbon dioxide removal. It is also recommended to increase blood flow and/or sweep flow in the presence of hypoxemia and/or hypotension, which may be combined with fluid infusion and/or the escalation of inotropic/vasoactive drugs. If the partial pressure of carbon dioxide threshold is not reached, repeating the test under supplementation of carbon dioxide exogenous to the circuit is an alternative. Last, in cases of venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, to measure gas variation and exclude differential hypoxia, blood samples of the native and extracorporeal (post-oxygenator) circulations are recommended.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Apnea/diagnosis , Brain Death/diagnosis , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Partial Pressure , Brazil , Carbon Dioxide/metabolism
6.
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 32(2): 319-325, Apr.-June 2020. graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138486

ABSTRACT

RESUMO O teste de apneia com desconexão do ventilador mecânico representa riscos durante a determinação da morte encefálica, especialmente em pacientes hipoxêmicos. Descrevemos a realização do teste de apneia sem desconexão do ventilador mecânico em dois pacientes. O primeiro caso é o de um menino de 8 anos, admitido com hipoxemia grave por pneumonia. Apresentou parada cardiorrespiratória, seguida de coma não responsivo por encefalopatia hipóxico-isquêmica. Dois exames clínicos constataram ausência de reflexos de tronco, e o Doppler transcraniano revelou parada circulatória encefálica. Realizaram-se três tentativas de teste de apneia, que foram interrompidas por hipoxemia, sendo então realizado teste de apneia sem desconexão do ventilador mecânico, ajustando a pressão contínua nas vias aéreas em 10cmH2O e fração inspirada de oxigênio em 100%. A saturação de oxigênio manteve-se em 100% por 10 minutos. A gasometria pós-teste foi a seguinte: pH de 6,90, pressão parcial de oxigênio em 284,0mmHg, pressão parcial de dióxido de carbono em 94,0mmHg e saturação de oxigênio em 100%. O segundo caso é de uma mulher de 43 anos, admitida com hemorragia subaracnóidea (Hunt-Hess V e Fisher IV). Dois exames clínicos constataram coma não responsivo e ausência de todos os reflexos de tronco. A cintilografia cerebral evidenciou ausência de captação de radioisótopos no parênquima cerebral. A primeira tentativa do teste de apneia foi interrompida após 5 minutos por hipotermia (34,9oC). Após reaquecimento, o teste de apneia foi repetido sem desconexão do ventilador mecânico, evidenciando-se manutenção do volume residual funcional com tomografia de bioimpedância elétrica. Gasometria pós-teste de apneia apresentava pH em 7,01, pressão parcial de oxigênio em 232,0mmHg, pressão parcial de dióxido de carbono 66,9mmHg e saturação de oxigênio em 99,0%. O teste de apneia sem desconexão do ventilador mecânico permitiu a preservação da oxigenação em ambos os casos. O uso de pressão contínua nas vias aéreas durante o teste de apneia parece ser uma alternativa segura para manter o recrutamento alveolar e a oxigenação durante determinação da morte encefálica.


ABSTRACT The apnea test, which involves disconnection from the mechanical ventilator, presents risks during the determination of brain death, especially in hypoxemic patients. We describe the performance of the apnea test without disconnection from the mechanical ventilator in two patients. The first case involved an 8-year-old boy admitted with severe hypoxemia due to pneumonia. He presented with cardiorespiratory arrest, followed by unresponsive coma due to hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. Two clinical exams revealed the absence of brainstem reflexes, and transcranial Doppler ultrasound revealed brain circulatory arrest. Three attempts were made to perform the apnea test, which were interrupted by hypoxemia; therefore, the apnea test was performed without disconnection from the mechanical ventilator, adjusting the continuous airway pressure to 10cmH2O and the inspired fraction of oxygen to 100%. The oxygen saturation was maintained at 100% for 10 minutes. Posttest blood gas analysis results were as follows: pH, 6.90; partial pressure of oxygen, 284.0mmHg; partial pressure of carbon dioxide, 94.0mmHg; and oxygen saturation, 100%. The second case involved a 43-year-old woman admitted with subarachnoid hemorrhage (Hunt-Hess V and Fisher IV). Two clinical exams revealed unresponsive coma and absence of all brainstem reflexes. Brain scintigraphy showed no radioisotope uptake into the brain parenchyma. The first attempt at the apnea test was stopped after 5 minutes due to hypothermia (34.9°C). After rewarming, the apnea test was repeated without disconnection from the mechanical ventilator, showing maintenance of the functional residual volume with electrical bioimpedance. Posttest blood gas analysis results were as follows: pH, 7.01; partial pressure of oxygen, 232.0mmHg; partial pressure of carbon dioxide, 66.9mmHg; and oxygen saturation, 99.0%. The apnea test without disconnection from the mechanical ventilator allowed the preservation of oxygenation in both cases. The use of continuous airway pressure during the apnea test seems to be a safe alternative in order to maintain alveolar recruitment and oxygenation during brain death determination.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adult , Apnea/diagnosis , Brain Death/diagnosis , Continuous Positive Airway Pressure/methods , Oxygen/blood , Partial Pressure , Respiration, Artificial , Blood Gas Analysis/methods , Carbon Dioxide/blood , Hypoxia/diagnosis
7.
Int. j. odontostomatol. (Print) ; 14(1): 42-47, mar. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056499

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN: El objectivo de este estudio fue describir los valores promedio de oximetría, frecuencia cardíaca y eventos de apnea durante la noche y la actividad de los músculos maseteros y temporales en un grupo de adultos jóvenes con BS. Estudio observacional descriptivo de serie de casos que consideró una muestra 20 jóvenes entre 21 y 25 años diagnosticados con BS mediante polisomnografía. Se describieron las condiciones de actividad de los músculos maseteros y temporales mediante electromiografía y los valores e los signos vitales mediante polisomnografía. El análisis estadístico fue de tipo descriptivo, se aplicaron medidas de tendencia central, frecuencias absolutas y relativas. El promedio de la actividad muscular durante la masticación de los maseteros fue (D: 86) (I: 520). El promedio de la actividad muscular durante la masticación de los temporales fue (D: 340) (I: 510). El promedio en los episodios de hipopnea fue de (28,9). El promedio de oximetría fue (NMOR: 93,5) (MOR: 93,8). El promedio de la tasa cardiaca fue (NMOR: 65,4) (MOR: 66,8) latidos/minuto. El promedio de eventos de bruxismo fue (NREM: 135,4) (REM: 120,2).y el índice (eventos BS/hora) (40,60). Las características de las musculares masticatorias y los signos vitales durante el sueño de los sujetos con BS pueden ayudar al entendimiento y a la toma de decisiones en el tratamiento.


ABSTRACT: The objective of the study was to describe the average oximetry, heart rate, and apnea events values during sleep, and the activity of masseter and temporal muscles in a group of young adults with SB (Sleep Bruxism). This serial case and observational descriptive study comprised of a sample of 20 young people between 21 and 25 years of age, who were diagnosed with SB through a polysomnography test. Electromyography recordings served to describe the activity conditions of masseter and temporal muscles, while polysomnography was used to obtain measurement values and vital signs. A descriptive statistical analysis accounting for measures of central tendency, absolute and relative frequencies was performed. During mastication, the average masseter and temporal muscle activity values registered at (D: 86) (I: 520), and (D: 340) (I: 510) respectively. While, the average value for hypopnea episodes was (28.9), and (NREM: 93.5) (REM: 93.8) for oximetry. The average heart rate exhibited a value of (NREM: 65.4) (REM: 66.8) beats / minute, while the values for bruxism events registered at (NREM: 135.4) (REM: 120.2) with an index value of (SB events / hour) (40.60). Muscles of mastication characteristics, and vital signs during sleep for subjects with SB can aid in understanding and decision making in treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Bruxism , Sleep Bruxism/complications , Sleep Bruxism/diagnosis , Heart Rate/drug effects , Apnea , Oximetry , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Polysomnography , Dental Occlusion , Electromyography , Observational Study , Mastication , Mexico , Muscle Contraction
8.
Neumol. pediátr. (En línea) ; 15(1): 251-256, Mar. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1088092

ABSTRACT

Home cardio-respiratory monitoring began over 40 years ago with the aim of preventing sudden infant death. Although it has been shown that monitoring does not meet this objective, its prescription has been maintained in various clinical situations and with very different criteria. Consensus on the subject has not been able to define precisely the type of monitoring or the time required for different diseases. Among the diseases that still consider the indication of cardio-respiratory monitoring at home are: persistent apnea of prematurity, high-risk BRUE (Brief Resolved Unexplained Events), neurological or metabolic diseases with compromise of the respiratory center, convulsive cough, pathologic gastroesophageal reflux and technology-dependent patients (high flow nasal cannula (CNAF), noninvasive ventilation (NIV), invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) to tracheostomy, and others). A review is presented on the development of cardio-respiratory monitoring at home, highlighting the true usefulness of this technology with a general proposal, which must be evaluated on a case-by-case basis and always taking into account the conditions that must be met to perform adequate monitoring and useful.


La monitorización cardio-respiratoria en domicilio se inició hace más de 40 años con el objetivo de prevenir la muerte súbita del lactante. Aun cuando se ha demostrado que la monitorización no cumple este objetivo, se ha mantenido su prescripción en diversas situaciones clínicas y con criterios muy diversos. Consensos acerca del tema no han llegado a definir con precisión el tipo de monitorización ni el tiempo requerido para distintas enfermedades. Dentro de las enfermedades que todavía consideran la indicación de monitorización cardio-respiratoria en domicilio se encuentran: apnea persistente del prematuro, BRUE (episodio breve resuelto inexplicado) de alto riesgo, enfermedades neurológicas o metabólicas con compromiso del centro respiratorio, tos convulsiva, reflujo gastroesofágico patológico y pacientes dependientes de tecnología (cánula nasal de alto flujo (CNAF), ventilación no invasiva (VNI), ventilación mecánica invasiva (VMI) a traqueostomía, y otros). Se presenta una revisión sobre el desarrollo de la monitorización cardio-respiratoria en domicilio, resaltando la verdadera utilidad que tendría esta tecnología con una propuesta general, que debe evaluarse caso a caso y siempre teniendo en cuenta las condiciones que deben cumplirse para realizar una monitorización adecuada y útil.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Apnea/physiopathology , Respiratory Rate/physiology , Heart Rate/physiology , Monitoring, Physiologic/methods , Risk Assessment , Patient Selection , Home Care Services
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828684

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To compare the efficacy of domestic and imported caffeine citrate in the treatment of apnea in preterm infants.@*METHODS@#A total of 98 preterm infants with a gestational age of 28 - 0.05). There were no significant differences in the incidence of complications and the mortality rate between the two groups (P>0.05). There was no significant difference in the incidence of adverse effects between the two groups (P>0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#The efficacy and safety of domestic caffeine citrate in the treatment of apnea are similar to those of imported caffeine citrate in preterm infants.


Subject(s)
Apnea , Drug Therapy , Caffeine , Therapeutic Uses , Citrates , Therapeutic Uses , Double-Blind Method , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Premature , Infant, Premature, Diseases , Prospective Studies
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-886462

ABSTRACT

@#The Bajaus’ ability to free dive for prolonged periods is attributed to their exceptional physiologic response and large spleens. The spleen has been traditionally viewed as a hematologic and immunologic organ. Unconventionally, this review explores the spleen’s role as a respiratory organ and how apnea training can enhance the spleen’s form and function. Eligible articles obtained from Pubmed were discussed. The selected studies have shown that an 8-week home-based apnea training regimen can enhance the spleen volume by as much as 24% and that prolonged apnea training can increase both splenic contraction and baseline serum hemoglobin levels. However, the sample size and heterogeneity of these studies largely limit the generalizability of these findings. Thus, several future studies are needed to further explore the spleen’s respiratory function in humans.


Subject(s)
Spleen , Apnea
11.
Ortodoncia ; 83(166): 24-31, jul.-dic. 2019. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1102096

ABSTRACT

sueño (SAHOS) es un trastorno frecuente, crónico y de evolución progresiva. Es cada vez más prevalente en la población y compromete seriamente la calidad de vida de quienes lo padecen. Se asocia a una mayor morbilidad cardiovascular, neurocognitiva y metabólica, riesgo de accidentes, alteración del patrón normal de crecimiento, alteraciones conductuales, y psiquiátricas, una mayor frecuencia de trastornos del aprendizaje, mala calidad de vida y mortalidad aumentada. En este artículo no solo comprenderá las características del SAHOS sino que se le brindará un cuestionario para el paciente, "PROF MESI" (www.profetamesi.com), que en solo 2 minutos le permitirá diagnosticar y tratar o derivar a todos sus pacientes con esta patología.(AU)


Obstructive Sleep Apnea-Hypopnea Syndrome (OSAHS) is a frequent, chronic and progressive disorder. It is increasingly prevalent in the population and it seriously compromises the quality of life of those who suffer from it. It is associated with greater cardiovascular, neurocognitive and metabolic morbidity, risk of accidents, alterations of normal growth patterns, behavioral and psychiatric alterations, higher frequency of learning disorders, bad quality of life and increased mortality. In this article you will not only understand the characteristics of OSAHS but you will also have a questionnaire for the patient, "PROF MESI" (www.profetamesi. com), which will allow you, just in 2 minutes, to diagnose and treat or refer all your patients with this pathology.(AU)


Subject(s)
Apnea , Surveys and Questionnaires , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive , Quality of Life , Respiratory Sounds , Fatigue
12.
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 31(1): 106-110, jan.-mar. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1003625

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Relatamos o caso de um paciente que evoluiu com suspeita de morte encefálica associada à atelectasia e à hipoxemia moderada a grave, apesar de instituídos ventilação protetora, sistema de aspiração traqueal fechado, pressão positiva ao final da expiração moderada e manobra de recrutamento. Diante da não obtenção de pressão parcial de oxigênio adequada para o teste de apneia, optamos por pronar o paciente, utilizar pressão positiva expiratória final mais elevada, realizar nova manobra de recrutamento e ventilar com volume corrente mais elevado (8mL/kg), sem ultrapassar pressão de platô de 30cmH2O. O teste de apneia foi realizado em posição prona, com válvula de pressão positiva contínua nas vias aéreas acoplada em tubo T. O atraso no diagnóstico foi de 10 horas; a doação de órgãos não foi possível devido à parada circulatória. Este relato demonstra as dificuldades para obtenção de níveis de pressão parcial de oxigênio mais altos para a realização do teste de apneia. Os atrasos que isso pode acarretar ao diagnóstico de morte encefálica e ao processo de doação de órgãos são discutidos, além de potenciais estratégias de otimização da pressão parcial de oxigênio para realização do teste, conforme as recomendações atuais.


ABSTRACT We report the case of a patient in whom brain death was suspected and associated with atelectasis and moderate to severe hypoxemia even though the patient was subjected to protective ventilation, a closed tracheal suction system, positive end-expiratory pressure, and recruitment maneuvers. Faced with the failure to obtain an adequate partial pressure of oxygen for the apnea test, we elected to place the patient in a prone position, use higher positive end-expiratory pressure, perform a new recruitment maneuver, and ventilate with a higher tidal volume (8mL/kg) without exceeding the plateau pressure of 30cmH2O. The apnea test was performed with the patient in a prone position, with continuous positive airway pressure coupled with a T-piece. The delay in diagnosis was 10 hours, and organ donation was not possible due to circulatory arrest. This report demonstrates the difficulties in obtaining higher levels of the partial pressure of oxygen for the apnea test. The delays in the diagnosis of brain death and in the organ donation process are discussed, as well as potential strategies to optimize the partial pressure of oxygen to perform the apnea test according to the current recommendations.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Apnea/diagnosis , Pulmonary Atelectasis/complications , Brain Death/diagnosis , Hypoxia/complications , Oxygen/blood , Partial Pressure , Tidal Volume , Prone Position , Continuous Positive Airway Pressure , Delayed Diagnosis , Middle Aged
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741843

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Various publications on the use of sedation and anesthesia for diagnostic procedures in children have demonstrated that no ideal agent is available. Although propofol has been widely used for sedation during esophagogastroduodenoscopy in children, adverse events including hypoxia and hypotension, are concerns in propofol-based sedation. Propofol is used in combination with other sedatives in order to reduce potential complications. We aimed to analyze whether the administration of midazolam would improve the safety and efficacy of propofol-based sedation in diagnostic esophagogastroduodenoscopies in children. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the hospital records of children who underwent diagnostic esophagogastroduodenoscopies during a 30-month period. Demographic characteristics, vital signs, medication dosages, induction times, sedation times, recovery times, and any complications observed, were examined. RESULTS: Baseline characteristics did not differ between the midazolam-propofol and propofol alone groups. No differences were observed between the two groups in terms of induction times, sedation times, recovery times, or the proportion of satisfactory endoscopist responses. No major procedural complications, such as cardiac arrest, apnea, or laryngospasm, occurred in any case. However, minor complications developed in 22 patients (10.7%), 17 (16.2%) in the midazolam-propofol group and five (5.0%) in the propofol alone group (p=0.010). CONCLUSION: The sedation protocol with propofol was safe and efficient. The administration of midazolam provided no additional benefit in propofol-based sedation.


Subject(s)
Anesthesia , Hypoxia , Apnea , Child , Conscious Sedation , Endoscopy , Endoscopy, Digestive System , Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal , Heart Arrest , Hospital Records , Humans , Hypnotics and Sedatives , Hypotension , Laryngismus , Midazolam , Propofol , Retrospective Studies , Vital Signs
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764954

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Despite well-known advantages, propofol remains off-label in many countries for general anesthesia in children under 3 years of age due to insufficient evidence regarding its use in this population. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of propofol compared with other general anesthetics in children under 3 years of age undergoing surgery through a systematic review and meta-analysis of existing randomized clinical trials. METHODS: A comprehensive literature search was conducted of MEDLINE, Embase, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials to find all randomized clinical trials comparing propofol with another general anesthetic that included children under 3 years of age. The relative risk or arcsine-transformed risk difference for dichotomous outcomes and the weighted or standardized mean difference for continuous outcomes were estimated using a random-effects model. RESULTS: A total of 249 young children from 6 publications were included. The children who received propofol had statistically significantly lower systolic and diastolic blood pressures, but hypotension was not observed in the propofol groups. The heart rate, stroke volume index, and cardiac index were not significantly different between the propofol and control groups. The propofol groups showed slightly shorter recovery times and a lower incidence of emergence agitation than the control groups, while no difference was observed for the incidence of hypotension, desaturation, and apnea. CONCLUSION: This systematic review and meta-analysis indicates that propofol use for general anesthesia in young healthy children undergoing surgery does not increase complications and that propofol could be at least comparable to other anesthetic agents.


Subject(s)
Anesthesia, General , Anesthetics , Anesthetics, General , Apnea , Child , Dihydroergotamine , Heart Rate , Humans , Hypotension , Incidence , Infant , Propofol , Stroke Volume
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739329

ABSTRACT

Central hypoventilation syndrome is a rare and fatal condition resulting from various central nervous system disorders that is characterized by a failure of automatic breathing. We report a case of central hypoventilation syndrome following posterior circulation stroke whose pulmonary function was improved by respiratory rehabilitation. A 59-year-old woman with a history of hemorrhagic stroke of the bilateral cerebellum was hospitalized due to pneumonia. A portable ventilator was applied via tracheostomy, recurrent episodes of apnea and hypercapnia impeded weaning. A respiratory rehabilitation program including chest wall range of motion exercise, air stacking exercise, neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) on abdominal muscles, upper extremity ergometer, locomotor training, high-frequency chest wall oscillator, mechanical insufflation, and exsufflation was employed, as spirometry showed a severe restrictive pattern. A spontaneous breathing trial was started, and a portable ventilator was applied for 8 hours, only during nighttime, to prevent sudden apneic event. After 4 weeks of treatment, follow-up spirometry showed much improved respiratory parameters. This case suggests that respiratory rehabilitation can improve pulmonary function parameters and quality of life in central hypoventilation syndrome.


Subject(s)
Abdominal Muscles , Apnea , Central Nervous System Diseases , Cerebellum , Electric Stimulation , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Hypercapnia , Hypoventilation , Insufflation , Middle Aged , Pneumonia , Quality of Life , Range of Motion, Articular , Rehabilitation , Respiration , Respiratory Center , Spirometry , Stroke , Thoracic Wall , Tracheostomy , Upper Extremity , Ventilators, Mechanical , Weaning
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739230

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The energy consumption process of cochlea and neural signal transduction along the auditory pathway are highly dependent on blood oxygen supply. At present, it is under debate on whether the obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) would affect the auditory function since the patients suffer from low oxygen saturation. Moreover, it is difficult to detect the functional state of auditory in less severe stage of OSAS. Recently, speech-evoked auditory brainstem response (speech-ABR) has been reported to be a new electrophysiological tool in characterizing the auditory dysfunction. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the auditory processes in adult patients with mild and moderate OSAS by speech-ABR. METHODS: An experimental group of 31 patients with mild to moderate OSAS, and a control group without OSAS diagnosed by apnea hypopnea index in polysomnogram were recruited. All participants underwent otologic examinations and tests of pure-tone audiogram, distortion product otoacoustic emissions, click-evoked auditory brainstem response (click-ABR) and speech-ABR, respectively. RESULTS: The results of pure-tone audiogram, distortion product otoacoustic emissions, and click-ABR in OSAS group showed no significant differences compared with the control group (P>0.05). Speech-ABRs for OSAS participants and controls showed similar morphological waveforms and typical peak structures. There were significant group differences for the onset and offset transient peaks (P < 0.05), where OSAS group had longer latencies for peak V (6.69± 0.33 ms vs. 6.39±0.23 ms), peak C (13.48±0.30 ms vs. 13.31±0.23 ms), and peak O (48.27±0.39 ms vs. 47.60± 0.40 ms) compared to the control group. The latency of these peaks showed significant correlations with apnea hypopnea index for peak V (r=0.37, P=0.040), peak C (r=0.36, P=0.045), as well as peak O (r=0.55, P=0.001). CONCLUSION: These findings indicate that some auditory dysfunctions may be present in patients with mild and moderate OSAS, and the damages were aggravated with the severity of OSAS, which suggests that speech-ABR may be a potential biomarker in the diagnosis and evaluation at early stage of OSAS.


Subject(s)
Adult , Hypoxia , Apnea , Auditory Pathways , Cochlea , Diagnosis , Evoked Potentials, Auditory, Brain Stem , Humans , Oxygen , Polysomnography , Signal Transduction , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739228

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To develop a simple algorithm for prescreening of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) on the basis of respiratorysounds recorded during polysomnography during all sleep stages between sleep onset and offset. METHODS: Patients who underwent attended, in-laboratory, full-night polysomnography were included. For all patients, audiorecordings were performed with an air-conduction microphone during polysomnography. Analyses included allsleep stages (i.e., N1, N2, N3, rapid eye movement, and waking). After noise reduction preprocessing, data were segmentedinto 5-s windows and sound features were extracted. Prediction models were established and validated with10-fold cross-validation by using simple logistic regression. Binary classifications were separately conducted for threedifferent threshold criteria at apnea hypopnea index (AHI) of 5, 15, or 30. Prediction model characteristics, includingaccuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (precision), negative predictive value, and area under thecurve (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristic were computed. RESULTS: A total of 116 subjects were included; their mean age, body mass index, and AHI were 50.4 years, 25.5 kg/m2, and23.0/hr, respectively. A total of 508 sound features were extracted from respiratory sounds recorded throughoutsleep. Accuracies of binary classifiers at AHIs of 5, 15, and 30 were 82.7%, 84.4%, and 85.3%, respectively. Predictionperformances for the classifiers at AHIs of 5, 15, and 30 were AUC, 0.83, 0.901, and 0.91; sensitivity, 87.5%,81.6%, and 60%; and specificity, 67.8%, 87.5%, and 94.1%. Respective precision values of the classifiers were89.5%, 87.5%, and 78.2% for AHIs of 5, 15, and 30. CONCLUSION: This study showed that our binary classifier predicted patients with AHI of ≥15 with sensitivity and specificityof >80% by using respiratory sounds during sleep. Since our prediction model included all sleep stage data, algorithmsbased on respiratory sounds may have a high value for prescreening OSA with mobile devices.


Subject(s)
Apnea , Area Under Curve , Body Mass Index , Classification , Humans , Logistic Models , Machine Learning , Noise , Polysomnography , Respiratory Sounds , ROC Curve , Sensitivity and Specificity , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive , Sleep Stages , Sleep, REM
19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-775059

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To study the clinical features and prognosis of bacterial meningitis in full-term and preterm infants.@*METHODS@#A retrospective analysis was performed for the clinical data of 102 neonates with bacterial meningitis. According to the gestational age, they were divided into a preterm group (n=46) and a full-term group (n=56). The two groups were compared in terms of clinical manifestations, laboratory markers, imaging findings, and clinical outcomes.@*RESULTS@#Poor response and apnea were the major clinical manifestations in the preterm group (P0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#There are certain differences in the clinical manifestations between full-term and preterm infants with bacterial meningitis. Preterm infants tend to have a higher incidence rate of poor prognosis.


Subject(s)
Apnea , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Premature , Leukocyte Count , Meningitis, Bacterial , Retrospective Studies
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-774034

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To study the clinical effect and safety of different maintenance doses of caffeine citrate in the treatment of apnea in very low birth weight preterm infants.@*METHODS@#A total of 78 very low birth weight preterm infants with primary apnea were enrolled who were admitted from January 2016 to January 2018. They were randomly divided into high-dose caffeine group with 38 children and low-dose caffeine group with 40 children. Both groups received a loading dose of 20 mg/kg caffeine citrate, and 24 hours later, the children in the high-dose caffeine group were given a maintenance dose of 10 mg/kg, and those in the low-dose caffeine group were given a maintenance dose of 5 mg/kg. The two groups were compared in terms of response rate and incidence rate of adverse events.@*RESULTS@#The high-dose caffeine group had a significantly higher response rate than the low-dose caffeine group (71% vs 48%; P0.05). There was no significant difference in the mortality rate between the two groups (P>0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Higher maintenance dose of caffeine citrate has a better clinical effect than lower maintenance dose of caffeine citrate in the treatment of apnea in very low birth weight preterm infants, without increasing the incidence rates of adverse drug reactions and serious complications in preterm infants.


Subject(s)
Apnea , Drug Therapy , Caffeine , Therapeutic Uses , Child , Citrates , Therapeutic Uses , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Premature , Infant, Very Low Birth Weight , Prospective Studies
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL