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1.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 251-256, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-811470

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study aimed to evaluate the validity of the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index Short Form (WOMAC-SF) for the assessment of musculoskeletal disorders. We evaluated whether WOMAC-SF correlated with the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule 12 (WHODAS-12) and Kaigo-Yobo questionnaires for assessing health-outcomes in Korea.MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study used data from the Namgaram-2 cohort. WOMAC, WOMAC-SF, WHODAS-12, and Kaigo-Yobo questionnaires were administered to patients with musculoskeletal disorders, including radiology-confirmed knee osteoarthritis (RKOA), sarcopenia, and osteoporosis. The relationships among WOMAC-SF, WHODAS-12, and Kaigo-Yobo scores were analyzed by stepwise multiple regression analysis.RESULTS: WOMAC-SF was associated with the WOMAC questionnaire. The results of confirmatory factor analysis for the hypothesized model with two latent factors, pain and function, provided satisfactory fit indices. WOMAC-SF pain and function were associated with RKOA. Kaigo-Yobo was associated with WOMAC-SF pain (B=0.140, p=0.001) and WOMAC-SF function (B=0.042, p=0.004). WHODAS-12 was associated with WOMAC-SF pain (B=0.679, p=0.003) and WOMAC-SF function (B=0.804, p<0.001).CONCLUSION: WOMAC-SF was validated for the evaluation of low extremity musculoskeletal disorders and health-related quality of life in a community-based population. Furthermore, we confirmed that WOMAC-SF were reflective of disability and frailty, which affect health outcomes.


Subject(s)
Appointments and Schedules , Arthritis , Cohort Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Extremities , Humans , Korea , Ontario , Osteoarthritis, Knee , Osteoporosis , Quality of Life , Sarcopenia , World Health Organization
2.
Article in Korean | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-782303

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study aims to examine the working time quality and work-life imbalance and verify the effect of working time quality on nurses' work-life imbalance.METHODS: Data from the Korean Working Condition Survey were analyzed, and a total of 296 nurses were included. Working time quality was measured using the following: number of work hours per week, amount of weekend work, whether work was done during free time to meet work demands, and whether there were any changes in work hours. Five items were used to determine levels of work-life imbalance.RESULTS: The number of weekend work days was positively related to work-life imbalance (p=.036). Nurses who spent their free time working to meet work demands (p<.001), as well as nurses whose work time changed through an increase in hours (p=.001), showed higher levels of work-life imbalance. In addition, nurses who had worked for less than 1 year had a poor work-life balance compared with those who worked 10 years or more.CONCLUSION: To improve nurses' work-life balance, it is essential to improve quality of work time by providing fair schedules, avoiding unpredictable changes in work schedule, and supporting new nurses.


Subject(s)
Appointments and Schedules
3.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-782069

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Shift workers frequently suffer from insomnia and mood disturbances, but little is known about the relationships of these conditions with the chronotypes and different working schedules of shift workers. We hypothesized that different shift-work schedules are associated with different severities of sleep and mood disturbances, and that the individual chronotype plays a role in sleep disturbances in shift workers.METHODS: This study enrolled 276 participants, comprising 77 nurses working in a three-shift schedule (3S, 27.9%), 60 firefighters working in a 24-h-every-other-day shift schedule (EOD, 21.7%), and 139 day workers (DW, 50.4%). All of the participants completed the following questionnaires to assess their sleep disturbances, mood, and chronotype: Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), Epworth Sleepiness Scale, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire.RESULTS: ISI questionnaires were worse in both shift workers compare to DW, 35.1% of 3S, 23% of EOD had clinically significant insomnia (ISI score >14). Depressive mood and anxiety symptom were significantly worse in 3S compare to EOD. The sleep disturbance by ISI score had significant correlations with depressive mood and anxiety symptoms for both EOD and 3S (EOD: rho=0.57, rho=0.57, 3S: rho=0.37, rho=0.33 respectively). Chronotype type in shift workers had no significant correlation with sleep disturbance, depressive mood, nor anxiety symptom. However, after adjustment, the eveningness chronotype have relationship to the depressive mood in shift workers.CONCLUSIONS: Sleep disturbances are more frequent in shift workers than DW. Depressive mood and anxiety symptoms were frequently reported in 3S, then EOD. Different shift schedules cab be a determinant of depressive mood and anxiety symptom.


Subject(s)
Anxiety , Appointments and Schedules , Depression , Firefighters , Humans , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders
4.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-811207

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to compare the pain levels during anesthesia and the efficacy of the QuickSleeper intraosseous (IO) injection system and conventional inferior alveolar nerve block (IANB) in impacted mandibular third molar surgery.METHODS: This prospective randomized clinical trial included 30 patients (16 women, 14 men) with bilateral symmetrical impacted mandibular third molars. Thirty subjects randomly received either the IO injection or conventional IANB at two successive appointments. A split-mouth design was used in which each patient underwent treatment of a tooth with one of the techniques and treatment of the homologous contralateral tooth with the other technique. The subjects received 1.8 mL of 2% articaine. Subjects' demographic data, pain levels during anesthesia induction, tooth extractions, and mouth opening on postoperative first, third, and seventh days were recorded. Pain assessment ratings were recorded using the 100-mm visual analog scale. The latency and duration of the anesthetic effect, complications, and operation duration were also analyzed in this study. The duration of anesthetic effect was considered using an electric pulp test and by probing the soft tissue with an explorer.RESULTS: Thirty patients aged between 18 and 47 years (mean age, 25 years) were included in this study. The IO injection was significantly less painful with lesser soft tissue numbness and quicker onset of anesthesia and lingual mucosa anesthesia with single needle penetration than conventional IANB. Moreover, 19 out of 30 patients (63%) preferred transcortical anesthesia. Mouth opening on postoperative first day was significantly better with intraosseous injection than with conventional IANB (P = 0.013).CONCLUSION: The IO anesthetic system is a good alternative to IANB for extraction of the third molar with less pain during anesthesia induction and sufficient depth of anesthesia for the surgical procedure.


Subject(s)
Anesthesia , Anesthetics , Appointments and Schedules , Carticaine , Female , Humans , Hypesthesia , Jupiter , Mandibular Nerve , Molar, Third , Mouth , Mucous Membrane , Needles , Pain Measurement , Prospective Studies , Tooth , Tooth Extraction , Tooth, Impacted , Visual Analog Scale
6.
Av. enferm ; 37(2): 198-207, mai.-ago. 2019. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS (Americas), BDENF, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1038776

ABSTRACT

Resumo Objetivo: compreender o quotidiano nas salas de vacinação sob a ótica do profissional de Enfermagem. Materiais e métodos: estudo de casos múltiplos holístico-qualitativo, fundamentado na sociologia compreensiva do quotidiano com 56 participantes de quatro microrregiões da Região Ampliada Oeste de Minas Gerais, Brasil. Resultados: a falta de vacina, a informatização, a comunicação e o horário de funcionamento da sala de vacinação interferem no quotidiano e na assistência prestada ao usuário. As ações realizadas na sala de vacinação implicam diretamente na confiança que os usuários têm no profissional. Surge a integralidade da atenção na sala de vacinação e esse espaço como um lugar para a construção do vínculo. Conclusões: aspectos inerentes ao profissional e à estrutura, organização, apoio e educação permanente influenciam o quotidiano do trabalho seguro na vacinação e nas coberturas vacinais. Faz-se necessário incorporar a supervisão sistematizada do enfermeiro nas salas de vacinação e a educação permanente dos profissionais.


Resumen Objetivo: comprender la cotidianidad de las salas de vacunación desde la óptica del profesional de enfermería. Materiales y métodos: estudio de casos múltiples holístico-cua-litativo, fundamentado en la sociología comprensiva y de lo cotidiano con 56 participantes de cuatro micro-rregiones de la Región Ampliada Oeste de Minas Gerais, Brasil. Resultados: la falta de vacunación, la informatización, la comunicación y el horario de funcionamiento de la sala de vacuna interfieren en la vida cotidiana y en la asistencia al usuario. Las acciones en sala de vacuna implican directamente la confianza de los usuarios hacia el profesional. Surge la integralidad de la atención en la sala de vacuna y ese espacio como un lugar para la construcción del vínculo. Conclusiones: aspectos inherentes al profesional y a la estructura, organización, apoyo y educación permanente influyen en la cotidianidad del trabajo seguro en vacunación y en las coberturas vacunales. Se hace necesario incorporar la supervisión sistematizada del enfermero en las salas de vacuna y la educación permanente de los profesionales.


Abstract Objective: to understand the everyday life in the vaccination rooms from the perspective of the nursing professional. Materials and methods: study of holistic and qualitative multiple cases, based on comprehensive and everyday life sociology, with 56 participants from four microregions of the Expanded West Region of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Results: the lack of vaccination, computerization, communication and operation schedule of vaccination room interfere in the everyday life and in the assistance to the user. Actions in vaccination room directly involve confidence from users towards professional. There arises the integrality of attention in the vaccination room, and that space as a place for the construction of the link. Conclusions: aspects inherent to the professional and the structure, organization, support and continuing education influence the everyday life of the safe work on vaccination and vaccine coverage. It is necessary to incorporate the systematic supervision of the nurse in the vaccination rooms and continuing education of professionals.


Subject(s)
Humans , Appointments and Schedules , Attention , Brazil , Vaccines , Vaccination , Vaccination Coverage , Trust , Nurses
7.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-762166

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Ultra-rush schedule of subcutaneous allergen immunotherapy (UR-SCIT) administering maximum maintenance dose of allergen extract within one day can save time and effort for allergen immunotherapy in patients with allergic disease. However, UR-SCIT is associated with an increased risk of systemic reaction (SR) and typically has been conducted in a hospital admission setting. To overcome disadvantages of UR-SCIT, we evaluated the safety of UR-SCIT conducted in an outpatient clinic in patients with atopic dermatitis (AD) and allergic rhinitis (AR). METHODS: UR-SCIT was performed in 538 patients with AD and/or AR sensitized to house dust mite (HDM). A maximum maintenance dose of tyrosine-adsorbed HDM extract (1 mL of maintenance concentration) was divided into 4 increasing doses (0.1, 0.2, 0.3, and 0.4 mL) and administered to the patients by subcutaneous injection at 2-hour intervals for 8 hours in an outpatient clinic. SRs associated with UR-SCIT were classified according to the World Allergy Organization grading system. RESULTS: SR was observed in 12 of 538 patients (2.2%) with AD and/or AR during UR-SCIT. The severity grades of the observed SRs were mild-to-moderate (grade 1 in 7 patients, grade 2 in 4 patients, and grade 3 in 1 patient). The scheduled 4 increasing doses of HDM extract could be administered in 535 of 538 patients (99.4%) except 3 patients who experienced SR before administration of the last scheduled dose. SR was observed within 2 hours in 11 patients after administration of the scheduled doses of HDM extract except one patient who experienced a grade 2 SR at 5.5 hours after administration of the last scheduled dose. CONCLUSIONS: UR-SCIT with tyrosine-adsorbed HDM extract conducted in an outpatient clinic was tolerable in patients with AD and AR. UR-SCIT can be a useful method to start a SCIT in patients with AD and AR.


Subject(s)
Ambulatory Care Facilities , Appointments and Schedules , Dermatitis, Atopic , Desensitization, Immunologic , Dust , Humans , Hypersensitivity , Injections, Subcutaneous , Methods , Outpatients , Pyroglyphidae , Rhinitis, Allergic
8.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 570-577, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-762077

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT) is known to be the only therapeutic modality to alter the natural course of allergic diseases. However, at least 3 years of treatment is recommended for achieving long-term disease modifying effect. This study aimed to investigate factors associated with immunotherapy non-adherence in real practice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed medical records of patients who were diagnosed with allergic rhinitis, asthma, or atopic dermatitis, and received AIT to common allergens such as house dust mite and/or pollens from January 2007 to August 2014. In this study, non-adherence was defined as not completing 3 years of AIT. RESULTS: Among 1162 patients enrolled, 228 (19.6%) failed to complete 3 years of AIT. In multivariate analysis, age less than 20 years [odds ratio (OR) 3.11, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.70–5.69] and 20 to 40 years (OR 2.01, 95% CI 1.17–3.43), cluster build-up (OR 1.78, 95% CI 1.05–3.02) and ultra-rush build-up schedules (OR 5.46, 95% CI 2.40–12.43), and absence of visit to other departments in the same hospital (OR 1.87, 95% CI 1.05–3.32) were independently associated with immunotherapy non-adherence. Disease duration of 5–10 years was negatively associated with non-adherence compared to shorter disease duration of less than 5 years (OR 0.61, 95% CI 0.40–0.94). Although male sex and commercial product of AIT, Tyrosine S®, compared to Novo-Helisen® were non-adherent factors in univariate analysis, no statistical significances were identified in multivariate analysis. CONCLUSION: Various factors are associated with immunotherapy adherence affecting the utility of immunotherapy. Clinicians should be aware of factors associated with adherence to maximize the utility of allergen-specific subcutaneous immunotherapy.


Subject(s)
Allergens , Appointments and Schedules , Asthma , Dermatitis, Atopic , Humans , Immunotherapy , Male , Medical Records , Multivariate Analysis , Pollen , Pyroglyphidae , Retrospective Studies , Rhinitis, Allergic , Tyrosine
9.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-740233

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to investigate the clinical decision support (CDS) functions and digitalization of clinical documents of Electronic Medical Record (EMR) systems in Korea. This exploratory study was conducted focusing on current status of EMR systems. METHODS: This study used a nationwide survey on EMR systems conducted from July 25, 2018 to September 30, 2018 in Korea. The unit of analysis was hospitals. Respondents of the survey were mainly medical recorders or staff members in departments of health insurance claims or information technology. This study analyzed data acquired from 132 hospitals that participated in the survey. RESULTS: This study found that approximately 80% of clinical documents were digitalized in both general and small hospitals. The percentages of general and small hospitals with 100% paperless medical charts were 33.7% and 38.2%, respectively. The EMR systems of general hospitals are more likely to have CDS functions of warnings regarding drug dosage, reminders of clinical schedules, and clinical guidelines compared to those of small hospitals; this difference was statistically significant. For the lists of digitalized clinical documents, almost 93% of EMR systems in general hospitals have the inpatient progress note, operation records, and discharge summary notes digitalized. CONCLUSIONS: EMRs are becoming increasingly important. This study found that the functions and digital documentation of EMR systems still have a large gap, which should be improved and made more sophisticated. We hope that the results of this study will contribute to the development of more sophisticated EMR systems.


Subject(s)
Appointments and Schedules , Decision Support Systems, Clinical , Electronic Health Records , Health Information Exchange , Hope , Hospitals, General , Humans , Inpatients , Insurance, Health , Korea , Medical Informatics , Medical Records , Medical Records Systems, Computerized , Surveys and Questionnaires
10.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-740184

ABSTRACT

In 2016, 9-valent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine has been newly introduced in Korea, thus the need to develop recommendations for the vaccine has raised. Until we decide to develop a guideline, no further studies on the bi-valent or quadri-valent HPV vaccine have been announced. We searched and reviewed the literatures focused on the efficacy of 9-valent HPV vaccine, the ideal age of 3-dose schedule vaccination, the efficacy of 9-valent HPV vaccine in middle-aged women, the efficacy of the 2-dose schedule vaccination, the safety of 9-valent HPV vaccine, the possibility of additional 9-valent HPV vaccination, and cross-vaccination of 9-valent HPV vaccine. So, Korean Society of Gynecologic Oncology (KSGO) developed a guideline only for 9-valent HPV vaccine.


Subject(s)
Appointments and Schedules , Female , Humans , Korea , Male , Papillomavirus Vaccines , Vaccination
11.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-740004

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to compare the pain perception and anesthetic efficacy of 2% lignocaine with 1:200,000 epinephrine, buffered lignocaine, and 4% articaine with 1:200,000 epinephrine for the inferior alveolar nerve block. METHODS: This was a double-blind crossover study involving 48 children aged 5–10 years, who received three inferior alveolar nerve block injections in three appointments scheduled one week apart from the next. Pain on injection was assessed using the Wong-Baker Faces pain scale and the sound eye motor scale (SEM). Efficacy of anesthesia was assessed by subjective (tingling or numbness of the lip, tongue, and corner of mouth) and objective signs (pain on probing). RESULTS: Pain perception on injection assessed with Wong-Baker scale was significantly different between buffered lignocaine and lignocaine (P < 0.001) and between buffered lignocaine and articaine (P = 0.041). The onset of anesthesia was lowest for buffered lignocaine, with a statistically significant difference between buffered lignocaine and lignocaine (P < 0.001). Moreover, the efficacy of local analgesia assessed using objective signs was significantly different between buffered lignocaine and lignocaine (P < 0.001) and between lignocaine and articaine. CONCLUSION: Buffered lignocaine was the least painful and the most efficacious anesthetic agent during the inferior alveolar nerve block injection in 5–10-year-old patients.


Subject(s)
Analgesia , Anesthesia , Appointments and Schedules , Buffers , Carticaine , Child , Cross-Over Studies , Epinephrine , Humans , Hypesthesia , Lidocaine , Lip , Mandibular Nerve , Pain Perception , Tongue
12.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-739467

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: In this study, we aimed to evaluate the serum hepcidin levels in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) patients that were newly diagnosed with no history of psychotropic drugs. METHODS: A total of 70 ADHD patients and 69 healthy controls were enrolled in our study. During the diagnosis, the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children-Present and Lifetime version were applied. The sociodemographic data form, Turgay DSM-IV-Based Child and Adolescent Behavior Disorders Screening and Rating Scale, and Conners’ Rating Scales-Revised: Long Form were used for the clinical evaluation. Serum hepcidin levels were measured and compared between the groups. RESULTS: No significant difference between the groups in terms of age (p=0.533) and gender (p=0.397) was determined. In addition, the groups did not differ significantly for the other sociodemographic variables recorded. Serum hepcidin levels were found to be significantly higher in the patients with ADHD than healthy controls (p=0.019). CONCLUSION: To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to evaluate the total serum hepcidin levels in ADHD patients. Our study findings may suggest that high levels of hepcidin may cause iron dysregulation in ADHD patients. However, further studies are required to establish a definite conclusion.


Subject(s)
Adolescent Behavior , Adolescent , Appointments and Schedules , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity , Child , Diagnosis , Hepcidins , Humans , Iron , Mass Screening , Mood Disorders , Psychotropic Drugs , Schizophrenia
13.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-719676

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To critically compare the benefits and risks of labor induction versus spontaneous labor in uncomplicated nulliparous women at 39 or more weeks of gestation. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective, observational study of 237 nulliparous women who were at 39 or more weeks of a singleton pregnancy with vertex presentation and intact membranes. We compared maternal outcomes including the Cesarean section rate and neonatal outcomes in the induced labor and spontaneous labor groups. RESULTS: Among the 237 women, 199 delivered vaginally (84.0%). The spontaneous labor group and induced labor group had a similar incidence of Cesarean delivery (17.7% vs. 12.3%, P=0.300). The length of stay and blood loss during delivery were also similar between the groups (4.3±1.5 vs. 3.9±1.5 days and 1.9±1.3 vs. 1.8±1.0 mg/sL, respectively; all P > 0.05). Regarding neonatal outcomes, the rate of meconium-stained amniotic fluid, Apgar score 0.05). Only the neonatal intensive care unit admission rate was significantly lower in the induction group than in the spontaneous labor group (28.0% vs. 13.2%, P=0.001). CONCLUSION: Maternal adverse outcomes of labor induction at 39 weeks of gestation were similar to those in a spontaneous labor group in uncomplicated nulliparous women. Neonatal adverse events were also similar between the groups. It may be acceptable to schedule labor induction as long as 7 days before the estimated date, even when the indication is only relative.


Subject(s)
Amniotic Fluid , Apgar Score , Appointments and Schedules , Cesarean Section , Delivery, Obstetric , Female , Humans , Incidence , Infant, Newborn , Intensive Care, Neonatal , Intubation , Labor, Induced , Length of Stay , Membranes , Observational Study , Postpartum Period , Pregnancy , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment
14.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 35(1): e00044718, 2019. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-974623

ABSTRACT

Resumo: O estudo teve como objetivo analisar a associação entre o acesso aos serviços de atenção primária à saúde dos adolescentes e adultos jovens e a cobertura da Estratégia Saúde da Família (ESF). Trata-se de estudo transversal, a partir de um inquérito domiciliar realizado com 812 indivíduos de 15 a 24 anos de idade, em Camaçari, Bahia, Brasil, por meio de uma amostragem por conglomerados. Variáveis demográficas, socioeconômicas, de saúde e dos serviços de saúde foram utilizadas para descrição da população, segundo a área de cobertura de atenção primária à saúde. A associação entre área de cobertura da atenção primária à saúde e acesso aos serviços desta, as barreiras de acesso e a participação em atividades educativas foram estimadas por meio da razão de prevalência (RP), com uso do modelo de regressão logística multinível no software R. O acesso aos serviços de atenção primária à saúde foi referido por 89,5% dos indivíduos, não havendo diferenças estatisticamente significantes entre esse tipo de acesso e a área de cobertura da ESF. Entretanto, entre indivíduos residentes em áreas cobertas pela ESF, verificou-se maior acesso às ações de prevenção de agravos e promoção da saúde (RP = 3,0; IC95%: 1,68-5,34), mas também menor probabilidade de o atendimento ocorrer no mesmo dia de marcação da consulta (RP = 0,60; IC95%: 0,48-0,74) e menor disponibilidade de transporte coletivo (RP = 0,59; IC95%: 0,39-0,90). Os dados deste estudo apontaram elevada prevalência de acesso aos serviços de atenção primátria à saúde entre os adolescentes e adultos jovens. Ainda que não se tenham observado diferenças do acesso entre as áreas com cobertura da ESF, a maior participação desses indivíduos em atividades de prevenção e promoção da saúde reforçam a importância dessa estratégia no âmbito do Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS).


Abstract: The study sought to analyze the association between adolescents and young adults' access to primary health care services and Family Health Strategy (FHS) services. It is a cross-sectional study based on a household survey of 812 individuals aged between 15 and 24 years in Camaçari, Bahia State, Brazil, through cluster sampling. Demographic, socioeconomic, health and health service variables were used to describe the population according to primary health care area. The association between primary health care coverage area and access to its services, access barriers and participation in educational activities were estimated through prevalence ratios (PR) using multilevel logistic regression models in the R software. Access to primary health care services was reported by 89.5% of individuals, with no statistically significant differences between this type of access and primary health care coverage area. However, among individuals who reside in areas covered by FHS, there was greater access to harm reduction and health promotion actions (PR = 3.0; 95%CI: 1.68-5.34), but also lower probability of being seen by a health worker on the same day the appointment was scheduled (PR = 0.60; 95%CI: 0.48-0.74) and lower availability of public transportation (RP = 0.59; 95%CI: 0.39-0.90). Study results point to a high prevalence of access to primary health care services among adolescents and young adults. Though we did not observe a difference in access between areas with FHS coverage, young people's greater participation in prevention and health promotion activities reinforces this strategy's importance within Brazilian Unified National Health System (SUS).


Resumen: El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar la asociación entre el acceso a los servicios de atención primaria en salud de adolescentes y adultos jóvenes y la cobertura de la Estrategia de Salud Familiar (ESF). Se trata de un estudio transversal, a partir de una encuesta domiciliaria, realizada con 812 individuos de 15 a 24 años de edad, en Camaçari, Bahía, Brasil, mediante una muestra por conglomerados. Se utilizaron variables demográficas, socioeconómicas, de salud y de servicios de salud para la descripción de la población, según el área de cobertura de atención primaria en salud. La asociación entre área de cobertura de la atención primaria en salud y el acceso a los servicios de esta, las barreras de acceso, y la participación en actividades educativas se estimaron mediante la razón de prevalencia (RP), con el uso del modelo de regresión logística multinivel en el software R. Un 89,5% de los individuos informó de acceso a servicios de atención primaria en salud, no existiendo diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre este tipo de acceso y el área de cobertura de la ESF. No sólo entre individuos residentes en áreas cubiertas por la ESF se verificó un mayor acceso a las acciones de prevención de enfermedades y promoción de la salud (RP = 3,0; IC95%: 1,68-5,34), sino también una menor probabilidad de que la atención se produzca el mismo día en el que se fija la consulta (RP = 0,60; IC95%: 0,48-0,74) y una menor disponibilidad de transporte colectivo (RP = 0,59; IC95%: 0,39-0,90). Los datos de este estudio apuntaron una elevada prevalencia de acceso a los servicios de la atención primaria en salud entre los adolescentes y adultos jóvenes. A pesar de que no se hayan observado diferencias de acceso entre las áreas con cobertura de la ESF, la mayor participación de estos individuos en actividades de prevención y promoción de la salud refuerza la importancia de esta estrategia en el ámbito del SUS.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adolescent , Young Adult , Primary Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Surveys and Questionnaires/statistics & numerical data , Health Services Accessibility/statistics & numerical data , Appointments and Schedules , Socioeconomic Factors , Time Factors , Transportation/statistics & numerical data , Brazil , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Promotion/statistics & numerical data , Housing/statistics & numerical data
15.
Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management; 23(1), p.121-125, fig., tab., 2019
in English | AIM (Africa) | ID: afr-200083

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: This study investigated the effect of geogrid reinforcement on the mechanical property of an unsuitable road soil with respect to appropriate placement in the pavement structure and implication on the cost of the development of the road. Sample was collected from the stockpile of an unsuitable soil material at a bridge site and subjected to identification, geotechnical strength (CBR) and chemical stabilization tests. CBR strength evaluation test was further performed on the soil sample when reinforced with the use of a geosynthetic, triaxial geogrid (Tx 160). A flexible pavement structure was designed for low, medium and heavy traffic level using three design methods with the improved soil subgrade. The corresponding relative cost advantages were also determined using the pavement thickness reduction factor. The results established the geogrid reinforcement is a better alternative to chemical stabilization of an unsuitable AASHTO A-4 soil. The design results denoted a significant pavement thickness reduction factor as a result of geogrid reinforcement within 13% - 67% savings in pavement thickness for all the pavement design methods employed. The use of geogrids should, therefore, be encouraged as an economic form of improving subgrade soils for pavement works


Subject(s)
Appointments and Schedules , Hardness , Nigeria
16.
African Population Studies ; 32(2), p.4356-4375, fig., tab., 2019
Article in English | AIM (Africa) | ID: afr-201068

ABSTRACT

Background: Migration today is a complex process determined by inter-related historical, geographical, economic, sociological and political factors. There are linkages between life-course transitions and patterns of movement necessitating estimation of migration propensities by age, sex and other characteristics. However, analysis of age specific migration propensities has been limited in developing countries.Data source and methods: Data was derived from the 2009 Kenya population and housing Census via the IPUMS data Series. The standard 7-parameter age migration schedule due to Rogers and Castro (1981) was fitted using Microsoft excel workbook using solver.Results: Large volumes of movements occur between ages 17 and 24.The peak ages at migration are similar to those observed in Asian migration patterns. The age pattern for all the regions had two peaks contrary to the standard with four.Conclusion: The results suggest that the main contributory factors behind migration schedules are schooling, labour force and associational moves.


Subject(s)
Appointments and Schedules , State , Government , Kenya
17.
South African Medical Journal ; 109(8), p.13-17, fig., tab., 2019
Article in English | AIM (Africa) | ID: afr-201114

ABSTRACT

South Africa has a high disease burden resulting from communicable and non-communicable diseases. Current therapeutic interventions rarely result in a cure and the associated lifelong treatment places a considerable strain on an overburdened health sector. Gene and cell therapies present novel alternatives to disease management, offering the promise of a single treatment and a lifelong cure. Although challenges remain, investment in the field has started to bear fruit, with a number of gene and cell therapeutics reaching the market in the past decade. To take full advantage of these developments, it is important that a proactive approach to nurturing appropriate human and material resources is adopted in the country.


Subject(s)
Genes , Tissues , Therapeutics , Appointments and Schedules , Forecasting , Africa
18.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-765966

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Fecal incontinence (FI) is a common complaint that increases in prevalence with age. Our aim was to determine the prevalence of FI and assess its severity by self-report in a male-predominant Veteran outpatient clinic setting. METHODS: An anonymous 28 item questionnaire was administered to a convenience sample of veterans awaiting appointments. FI was defined as a loss of liquid or solid stool at least monthly. Multivariable logistic and linear models were used to identify predictors of FI prevalence and severity. RESULTS: One hundred thirty-three gastroenterology (GI) participants and 126 primary care (PC) participants completed the survey. Ninety-four of 259 participants (36.3%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 30.4–42.5) reported an episode of FI (41.4% GI participants vs 31.0% PC participants; P = 0.078) with 33.6% having FI within the last 30 days (36.8% GI participants vs 30.2% PC participants; P = 0.122). Participants with more bowel movements per week (P = 0.005) and per day (P < 0.001) and with a higher Bristol Stool Scale form (P = 0.010) were more likely to have FI. Of participants with FI, mean Fecal Incontinence Severity Index score was 23.0 ± 9.5 with a significantly higher symptom score in GI participants compared to PC participants (25.2 ± 10.0 vs 20.1 ± 8.2; P = 0.011). Few participants had ever been asked by (35.0%) or evaluated by (18.0%) a doctor for FI symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: FI is a common complaint and under-recognized problem in the male-dominant Veteran population. Despite its prevalence, relatively few participants were asked about FI, with even less being treated. Due to the possible effects and implications on quality of life, more should be done to recognize this condition and arrange treatment.


Subject(s)
Ambulatory Care Facilities , Anonyms and Pseudonyms , Appointments and Schedules , Fecal Incontinence , Gastroenterology , Humans , Linear Models , Prevalence , Primary Health Care , Quality of Life , Veterans
19.
Article in Korean | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-765639

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Clinical microbiological tests are conducted at night, on weekends, and during public holidays in various manners due to the fact that both manual processes and the form of working type, are not well known. Therefore, we surveyed the current running condition of these laboratories and made some suggestions for better-quality clinical microbiology tests. METHODS: We conducted a survey, both online and offline, focusing on the operating styles of clinical microbiological tests within laboratories that had participated in an external quality assessment program, conducted by the Korean Association of External Quality Assessment Service (KEQAS). RESULTS: Out of 341 laboratories that participated in the microbiology program of KEQAS, 128 replied to our questionnaires. In Korea, various types of operations occur within clinical microbiology laboratories. Those in night duty operate in either shifts or dedicated duties. In the case of weekend shifts, they either operated on single-day schedules (either on a Saturday or a Sunday), or over the entire weekend. For public holidays, the laboratories operated in various manners, depending on the number of days off. Among the clinical microbiological tests conducted at night, on weekends, and during public holidays, Gram staining and inoculations are the most common tasks carried out, with some laboratories conducting antibiotic susceptibility tests as well. CONCLUSIONS: Rapid reporting of clinical microbiological test results is currently inadequate due to both cost and labor constraints, despite its many advantages. It would be ultimately beneficial for both the patient and the hospital to switch to a 24/7 operating schedule through the utilization of a variety of methods, including cost control, coordination of a fine workforce, and prioritization of tests needing to be reported.


Subject(s)
Appointments and Schedules , Consensus , Cost Control , Holidays , Humans , Korea , Running
20.
Article in Korean | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-765187

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study examined the functional disabilities of patients with chronic schizophrenia using WHO Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0 (WHODAS 2.0) and its related factors. METHODS: The subjects consisted of 86 patients with schizophrenia with more than 10 years' duration of illness and 40 healthy volunteers. The functional disabilities and psychopathology were evaluated using the WHODAS 2.0 and 18-items Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS-18), respectively. This study analyzed the six sub-domains ('cognition', 'mobility', 'self-care', 'getting along', 'life activities', and 'participation') of WHODAS 2.0 and the four sub-scales ('positive symptoms', 'negative symptoms', 'affect', and 'resistance') of BPRS-18. RESULTS: Patients with chronic schizophrenia experienced severe functional disabilities across all six sub-domains of WHODAS 2.0 compared to healthy people. Hierarchical regression showed that 'negative symptoms' explained the disabilities in the WHODAS 2.0 sub-domains of 'cognition' (p<0.05), 'self-care' (p<0.05), 'getting along' (p<0.01), and 'life activities' (p<0.05). 'Positive symptoms' and 'affect' explained the disabilities in 'cognition' (p<0.01 and p<0.05, respectively) and 'participation' (p<0.05 and p<0.01, respectively). 'Resistance' was found to be a predictor of 'getting along' disabilities (p<0.01). CONCLUSION: Negative symptoms mainly accounted for the multiple domains of functional disabilities in the WHODAS 2.0 but residual positive and affective symptoms could also deteriorate the cognition and social participation of patients with chronic schizophrenia.


Subject(s)
Affective Symptoms , Appointments and Schedules , Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale , Cognition , Disability Evaluation , Global Health , Healthy Volunteers , Humans , Psychopathology , Schizophrenia , Social Participation , World Health Organization
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