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1.
Vitae (Medellín) ; 31(1): 1-8, 2024-05-03. Ilustraciones
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1538067

ABSTRACT

Background: Potato peel extract has demonstrated the ability to reduce platelet aggregation in vitro, suggesting its potential as a dietary intervention for preventing atherothrombotic disorders. Objective: This study aims to evaluate the impact of a potato peel-rich diet on platelet aggregation. Methods: A randomized, crossover-controlled, open two-period study was carried out with the participation of 12 healthy volunteers. Platelet aggregation was assessed before and after a seven-day dietary intervention. Participants consumed either a diet rich in potato peel (2 g/kg/d) or acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) as a reference (100 mg/d). Platelet aggregation percentages were measured following stimulation with arachidonic acid (AA, 150 µg/mL), adenosine diphosphate (ADP, 10 µM), and collagen (COL, 10 µg/mL). Results: The potato peel-rich diet resulted in a slight but significant reduction in platelet aggregation when stimulated with arachidonic acid compared to baseline values (85.0±2.0% vs. 91.3±1.7%, p<0.05). This effect was less pronounced than the reduction achieved with ASA (16±1.9%, p<0.001). Conclusion: The administration of a diet rich in potato peel reduces platelet aggregation induced by arachidonic acid, suggesting its potential role in the prevention of atherothrombotic disorders.


Introducción: El extracto de cáscara de patata ha demostrado su capacidad para reducir la agregación plaquetaria in vitro, lo que sugiere su potencial como intervención dietética para prevenir trastornos aterotrombóticos. Objetivo: Evaluar el impacto de una dieta rica en cáscara de patata en la agregación plaquetaria. Materiales y métodos: Se llevó a cabo un estudio aleatorizado, controlado, cruzado y abierto con la participación de 12 voluntarios sanos. Se evaluó la agregación plaquetaria antes y después de una intervención dietética de siete días. Los participantes consumieron una dieta rica en cáscara de patata (2 g/kg/d) o ácido acetilsalicílico (ASA) como referente (100 mg/d). Se midieron los porcentajes de agregación plaquetaria después de la estimulación con ácido araquidónico (AA, 150 µg/mL), difosfato de adenosina (ADP, 10 µM) y colágeno (COL, 10 µg/mL). Resultados: La dieta rica en cáscara de patata resultó en una ligera pero significativa reducción en la agregación plaquetaria cuando se estimuló con ácido araquidónico en comparación con los valores iniciales (85,0 ± 2,0% vs. 91,3 ± 1,7%, p <0,05). Este efecto fue menos pronunciado que la reducción lograda con ASA (16 ± 1,9%, p <0,001). Conclusión: La administración de una dieta rica en cáscara de patata reduce la agregación plaquetaria inducida por ácido araquidónico, lo que sugiere su papel potencial en la prevención de trastornos aterotrombóticos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Platelet Aggregation , Solanum tuberosum , Chlorogenic Acid , Arachidonic Acid , Diet
2.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 492-506, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970486

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to investigate the effective substances and mechanism of Yishen Guluo Mixture in the treatment of chronic glomerulonephritis(CGN) based on metabolomics and serum pharmacochemistry. The rat model of CGN was induced by cationic bovine serum albumin(C-BSA). After intragastric administration of Yishen Guluo Mixture, the biochemical indexes related to renal function(24-hour urinary protein, serum urea nitrogen, and creatinine) were determined, and the efficacy evaluations such as histopathological observation were carried out. The serum biomarkers of Yishen Guluo Mixture in the treatment of CGN were screened out by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight/mass spectrometry(UPLC-Q-TOF-MS) combined with multivariate statistical analysis, and the metabolic pathways were analyzed. According to the mass spectrum ion fragment information and metabolic pathway, the components absorbed into the blood(prototypes and metabolites) from Yishen Guluo Mixture were identified and analyzed by using PeakView 1.2 and MetabolitePilot 2.0.4. By integrating metabolomics and serum pharmacochemistry data, a mathematical model of correlation analysis between serum biomarkers and components absorbed into blood was constructed to screen out the potential effective substances of Yishen Guluo Mixture in the treatment of CGN. Yishen Guluo mixture significantly decreased the levels of 24-hour urinary protein, serum urea nitrogen, and creatinine in rats with CGN, and improved the pathological damage of the kidney tissue. Twenty serum biomarkers of Yishen Guluo Mixture in the treatment of CGN, such as arachidonic acid and lysophosphatidylcholine, were screened out, involving arachidonic acid metabolism, glycerol phosphatide metabolism, and other pathways. Based on the serum pharmacochemistry, 8 prototype components and 20 metabolites in the serum-containing Yishen Guluo Mixture were identified. According to the metabolomics and correlation analysis of serum pharmacochemistry, 12 compounds such as genistein absorbed into the blood from Yishen Guluo Mixture were selected as the potential effective substances for the treatment of CGN. Based on metabolomics and serum pharmacochemistry, the effective substances and mechanism of Yishen Guluo Mixture in the treatment of CGN are analyzed and explained in this study, which provides a new idea for the development of innovative traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of CGN.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Arachidonic Acid , Biomarkers/blood , Blood Proteins , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Creatinine , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Glomerulonephritis/metabolism , Metabolomics , Urea , Chronic Disease , Disease Models, Animal , Complex Mixtures/therapeutic use
3.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 3224-3234, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981459

ABSTRACT

This study aims to investigate the efficacy and possible mechanism of Liuwei Dihuang Pills in the treatment of diminished ovarian reserve(DOR) by using proteomic techniques. Firstly, cyclophosphamide(60 mg·kg~(-1)) combined with busulfan(6 mg·kg~(-1)) was injected intraperitoneally to establish the mouse model of DOR. After drug injection, the mice were continuously observed and the success of modeling was evaluated by the disturbance of the estrous cycle. After successful modeling, the mice were administrated with the suspension of Liuwei Dihuang Pills by gavage for 28 days. At the end of the gavage, four female mice were selected and caged together with males at a ratio of 2∶1 for the determination of the pregnancy rate. Blood and ovary samples were collected from the remaining mice on the next day after the end of gavage. Hematoxylin-eosin(HE) staining and transmission electron microscopy(TEM) were then employed to observe the morphological and ultrastructural changes in the ovaries. The serum levels of hormones and oxidation indicators were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Quantitative proteomics techniques were used to compare the ovarian protein expression before and after modeling and before and after the intervention with Liuwei Dihuang Pills. The results showed that Liuwei Dihuang Pills regulated the estrous cycle of DOR mice, elevated the serum levels of hormones and anti-oxidation indicators, promoted follicle development, protected the mitochondrial morphology of ovarian granulosa cells, and increased the litter size and survival of DOR mice. Furthermore, Liuwei Dihuang Pills negatively regulated the expression of 12 differentially expressed proteins associated with DOR, which were mainly involved in lipid catabolism, inflammatory response, immune regulation, and coenzyme biosynthesis. These differentially expressed proteins were significantly enriched in sphingolipid metabolism, arachidonic acid metabolism, ribosomes, ferroptosis, and cGMP-PKG signaling pathway. In summary, the occurrence of DOR and the treatment of DOR with Liuwei Dihuang Pills are associated with multiple biological pathways, mainly including oxidative stress response, inflammatory response, and immune regulation. "Mitochondria-oxidative stress-apoptosis" is the key to the treatment of DOR by Liuwei Dihuang Pills. YY1 and CYP4F3 may be the key upstream targets that trigger mitochondrial dysfunction and ROS accumulation, and the metabolism of arachidonic acid is the main signaling pathway of drug action.


Subject(s)
Female , Male , Pregnancy , Animals , Mice , Arachidonic Acid , Ovarian Reserve , Proteomics , Ovary , Lipid Metabolism
4.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2193-2202, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981350

ABSTRACT

This study aims to explore the effect of tryptanthrin on potential metabolic biomarkers in the serum of mice with ulcerative colitis(UC) induced by dextran sulfate sodium(DSS) based on liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry(LC-MS) and predict the related metabolic pathways. C57BL/6 mice were randomly assigned into a tryptanthrin group, a sulfasalazine group, a control group, and a model group. The mouse model of UC was established by free drinking of 3% DSS solution for 11 days, and corresponding drugs were adminsitrated at the same time. The signs of mice were observed and the disease activity index(DAI) score was recorded from the first day. Colon tissue samples were collected after the experiment and observed by hematoxylin-eosin(HE) staining. The levels of interleukin-4(IL-4), interleukin-10(IL-10), tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α), interleukin-6(IL-6), and interleukin-8(IL-8) in the serum were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA). The serum samples were collected from 6 mice in each group for widely targeted metabolomics. The metabolic pathways were enriched by MetaboAnalyst 5.0. The results showed that compared with the model group, tryptanthrin treatment decreased the DAI score(P<0.05), alleviated the injury of the colon tissue and the infiltration of inflammatory cells, lowered the levels of proinflammatory cytokines, and elevated the levels of anti-inflammatory cytokines in the serum. The metabolomic analysis revealed 28 differential metabolites which were involved in 3 metabolic pathways including purine metabolism, arachidonic acid metabolism, and tryptophan metabolism. Tryptanthrin may restore the metabolism of the mice with UC induced by DSS to the normal level by regulating the purine metabolism, arachidonic acid metabolism, and tryptophan metabolism. This study employed metabolomics to analyze the mechanism of tryptanthrin in the treatment of UC, providing an experimental basis for the utilization and development of tryptanthrin.


Subject(s)
Mice , Animals , Colitis, Ulcerative/drug therapy , Tryptophan , Arachidonic Acid/metabolism , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Colon , Cytokines/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Metabolomics , Purines/therapeutic use , Dextran Sulfate/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Colitis/chemically induced
5.
Chinese journal of integrative medicine ; (12): 44-51, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971324

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate and reveal the underlying mechanism of the effect of total saponins from Dioscoreae nipponica Makino (TSDN) on the arachidonic acid pathway in monosodium urate (MSU) crystal-induced M1-polarized macrophages.@*METHODS@#M1 polarization of RAW264.7 cells were induced by 1 µ g/mL lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The methylthiazolyldiphenyl-tetrazolium bromide method was then used to screen the concentration of TSDN. MSU (500 µ g/mL) was used to induce the gouty arthritis model. Afterwards, 10 µ g/L TSDN and 8 µ mol/L celecoxib, which was used as a positive control, were added to the above LPS and MSU-induced cells for 24 h. The mRNA and protein expressions of cyclooxygenase (COX) 2, 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX), microsomal prostaglandin E synthase derived eicosanoids (mPGES)-1, leukotriene B (LTB)4, cytochrome P450 (CYP) 4A, and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) were tested by real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting, respectively. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to test the contents of M1 markers, including inducible nitric oxid synthase (NOS) 2, CD80, and CD86.@*RESULTS@#TSDN inhibited the proliferation of M1 macrophages and decreased both the mRNA and protein expressions of COX2, 5-LOX, CYP4A, LTB4, and PGE2 (P<0.01) while increased the mRNA and protein expression of mPGES-1 (P<0.05 or P<0.01). TSDN could also significantly decrease the contents of NOS2, CD80, and CD86 (P<0.01).@*CONCLUSION@#TSDN has an anti-inflammation effect on gouty arthritis in an in vitro model by regulating arachidonic acid signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Uric Acid/metabolism , Arachidonic Acid/metabolism , Dioscorea , Arthritis, Gouty , Lipopolysaccharides , Saponins/pharmacology , Macrophages , Signal Transduction , RNA, Messenger/metabolism
6.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 657-664, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887700

ABSTRACT

Arachidonic acid (AA) is an ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid, which mainly exists in the cell membrane in the form of phospholipid. Three major enzymatic pathways including the cyclooxygenase (COX), lipoxygenase (LOX) and cytochrome P450 monooxygenase (CYP450) pathways are involved in AA metabolism leading to the generation of a variety of lipid mediators such as prostaglandins, leukotrienes, hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids (HETEs) and epoxyeicoastrienoic acids (EETs). These bioactive AA metabolites play an important role in the regulation of many physiological processes including the maintenance of liver glucose and lipid homeostasis. As the central metabolic organ, the liver is essential in metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids and proteins, and its dysfunction is associated with the pathogenesis of many metabolic diseases such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). This article aims to provide an overview of the enzymatic pathways of AA and discuss the role of AA-derived lipid mediators in the regulation of hepatic glucose and lipid metabolism and their associations with the pathogenesis of major metabolic disorders.


Subject(s)
Humans , Arachidonic Acid/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Glucose/metabolism , Homeostasis , Lipid Metabolism , Liver
7.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 631-645, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887698

ABSTRACT

Arachidonic acids (AA) widely exist in multiple organs and can be metabolized into small lipid molecules with strong biological functions through several pathways. Among them, epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) and 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE), which are produced by cytochrome P450 enzymes, have attracted a lot of attentions, especially in vascular homeostasis. The regulation of vascular function is the foundation of vascular homeostasis, which is mainly achieved by manipulating the vascular structure and biological function. In the past 30 years, the roles of EETs and 20-HETE in the regulation of vascular function have been widely explored. In this review, we discussed the effects of EETs and 20-HETE on angiogenesis and vascular inflammation, respectively. Generally, EETs can dilate blood vessels and inhibit vascular inflammation, while 20-HETE can induce vasoconstriction and vascular inflammation. Interestingly, both EETs and 20-HETE can promote angiogenesis. In addition, the roles of EETs and 20-HETE in several vascular diseases, such as hypertension and cardiac ischemia, were discussed. Finally, the therapeutic perspectives of EETs and 20-HETE for vascular diseases were also summarized.


Subject(s)
Humans , Arachidonic Acid , Arachidonic Acids , Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System , Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic Acids , Hypertension , Vasoconstriction
8.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 606-616, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887696

ABSTRACT

Eicosanoids are oxidized derivatives of 20-carbon polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). In recent years, the role and mechanism of eicosanoids in cardiovascular diseases have attracted extensive attention. Substrate PUFAs including arachidonic acid are metabolized by cyclooxygenase, lipoxygenase, cytochrome P450 oxidase enzymes, or non-enzymatic auto-oxidation. Eicosanoid metabolomics is an effective approach to study the complex metabolic network of eicosanoids. In this review, we discussed the biosynthesis and functional activities of eicosanoids, the strategies of eicosanoid metabolomics, and applications and research progress of eicosanoid metabolomics in cardiovascular diseases, which might offer new insights and strategies for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases.


Subject(s)
Humans , Arachidonic Acid , Cardiovascular Diseases , Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System , Eicosanoids , Metabolomics
9.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 584-596, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887694

ABSTRACT

Heart failure (HF), a clinical syndrome with high morbidity and mortality, is becoming a growing public health problem. Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is one of the major causes of HF, yet the molecular mechanisms underlying DCM-mediated HF are not completely understood. Previous studies have shown that dysregulation of arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism could contribute to the development of HF. To explore the roles of microRNAs (miRNAs) in regulating AA metabolism in HF, we used two public datasets to analyze the expression changes of miRNAs in the patients of DCM-mediated HF. A total of 101 and 88 miRNAs with significant abundance alterations in the two dataset were obtained, respectively. Around 1/3 of these miRNAs were predicted to target AA metabolic pathway genes. We also investigated the distribution of known single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the sequences of miRNAs dysregulated in DCM-mediated HF patients, and identified miRNAs harboring high number of SNPs in either the seed regions or the entire sequences. These information could provide clues for further functional studies of miRNAs in the pathogeny of DCM-mediated HF.


Subject(s)
Humans , Arachidonic Acid , Cardiomyopathy, Dilated/genetics , Heart Failure/genetics , MicroRNAs/genetics
10.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 577-583, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887693

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to explore the roles of arachidonic acid cytochrome P450ω hydroxylase CYP4A14 in skeletal muscle regeneration after injury. Wild-type (WT) control mice and Cyp4a14 knockout (A14


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Arachidonic Acid , Cytochromes , Gene Knockout Techniques , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Knockout , Mixed Function Oxygenases , Muscle, Skeletal , Regeneration
11.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 571-576, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887692

ABSTRACT

This study aims to explore the effects of arachidonic acid lipoxygenase metabolism in vascular calcification. We used 5/6 nephrectomy and high-phosphorus feeding to establish a model of vascular calcification in mice. Six weeks after nephrectomy surgery, vascular calcium content was measured, and Alizarin Red S and Von Kossa staining were applied to detect calcium deposition in aortic arch. Control aortas and calcified aortas were collected for mass spectrometry detection of arachidonic acid metabolites, and active molecules in lipoxygenase pathway were analyzed. Real-time quantitative PCR was used to detect changes in the expression of lipoxygenase in calcified aortas. Lipoxygenase inhibitor was used to clarify the effect of lipoxygenase metabolic pathways on vascular calcification. The results showed that 6 weeks after nephrectomy surgery, the aortic calcium content of the surgery group was significantly higher than that of the sham group (P < 0.05). Alizarin Red S staining and Von Kossa staining showed obvious calcium deposition in aortic arch from surgery group, indicating formation of vascular calcification. Nine arachidonic acid lipoxygenase metabolites were quantitated using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis. The content of multiple metabolites (12-HETE, 11-HETE, 15-HETE, etc.) was significantly increased in calcified aortas, and the most abundant and up-regulated metabolite was 12-HETE. Furthermore, we examined the mRNA levels of metabolic enzymes that produce 12-HETE in calcified blood vessels and found the expression of arachidonate lipoxygenase-15 (Alox15) was increased. Blocking Alox15/12-HETE by Alox15 specific inhibitor PD146176 significantly decreased the plasma 12-HETE content, promoted calcium deposition in aortic arch and increased vascular calcium content. These results suggest that the metabolism of arachidonic acid lipoxygenase is activated in calcified aorta, and the Alox15/12-HETE signaling pathway may play a protective role in vascular calcification.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , 12-Hydroxy-5,8,10,14-eicosatetraenoic Acid , Arachidonate 12-Lipoxygenase , Arachidonate 15-Lipoxygenase/metabolism , Arachidonic Acid , Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic Acids , Lipoxygenase/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Vascular Calcification
12.
Rio de Janeiro; s.n; 2019. xviii, 129 p. ilus.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1052603

ABSTRACT

A malária cerebral (MC) é uma das complicações mais graves e letais da infecção por Plasmodium falciparum. O principal tratamento para a MC é o artesunato por via intravenosa, mesmo assim, 15- 25% dos pacientes tratados ainda morrem. A disfunção vascular, com vasoconstrição, leva a diminuição no fluxo sanguíneo cerebral, isquemia, hipóxia tecidual e morte na MC. O óxido nítrico (NO) e metabólitos do ácido araquidônico (AA) são importantes reguladores fisiológicos do fluxo sanguíneo cerebral por suas propriedades vasodilatadoras e vasoconstritoras. Utilizando a técnica de laser speckle com contraste de imagem nós mostramos aqui que animais infectados por Plasmodium berghei ANKA (PbA) que desenvolveram malária cerebral experimental (MCE) apresentaram marcante diminuição no fluxo sanguíneo cerebral e que a administração de L-arginina em combinação com artesunato induziu imediata reversão na isquemia cerebral a curto prazo (1 hora), mas o efeito retrocedeu 3 e 6 horas após o tratamento. O aumento no fluxo sanguíneo cerebral, mesmo que transiente, foi associado a aumentada sobrevida desses animais. L-arginina mais artesunato não foi capaz de reverter a quebra da barreira hematoencefálica presente em animais MCE. Camundongos com MCE apresentaram maior produção de metabólitos do AA com um perfil vasoconstritor, com níveis aumentados de 8-isoprostanos, 20-HETE, 14,15-DHET e níveis diminuídos de 14,15-EET, enquanto camundongos infectados por Plasmodium berghei NK65, uma cepa que não causa MC, mostraram um perfil vasodilatador, com níveis normais de 20-HETE e 14,15-DHET e aumento das concentrações de PGE2


O tratamento de animais que desenvolveram MCE com HET0016 e ozagrel diminuiu as concentrações cerebrais de 20-HETE e 8-isoprostanos, respectivamente. Apesar dos níveis de TXA2 não estarem aumentados em animais com MCE, o tratamento com ozagrel diminuiu a produção desse eicosanoide vasoconstritor no cérebro e aumentou a sobrevida de animais com MCE quando combinado com artesunato. Assim como L-arginina, ozagrel não reverteu a quebra da barreira hematoencefálica na dose testada. A produção de PGE2 no cérebro de animais com MCE não aumentou após tratamento com ozagrel. Utilizando um sistema de miografia pressurizado nós observamos que as artérias cerebrais de animais com MCE apresentaram resposta vasodilatadora dependente (estímulo com metacolina) de endotélio, bem como resposta vasoconstritora à serotonina, semelhante a resposta de artérias cerebrais de animais controles não infectados. Além disso, utilizando ensaio DAF-2 para avaliar a produção de NO, nós observamos que a produção de NO induzida por metacolina foi semelhante em artérias cerebrais oriundas de animais controles e de animais com MCE. Surpreendentemente, ao incubar artérias cerebrais de animais com MCE e de animais controles em plasma de animais com MCE, nós observamos que o plasma por si só aumentou a produção basal de NO pelas artérias de ambos os grupos. Esses resultados mostram que a disfunção vascular observada na MCE não é intrínseca do vaso já que a vasorreatividade e a produção de NO estão preservadas nas artérias cerebrais de animais com MCE, mas pode estar relacionada a um fator tecidual. Metabólitos do AA podem desempenhar um papel na disfunção cerebrovascular e a inibição da produção de eicosanoides vasoconstritores pode ser benéfica em animais com MC. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Malaria, Cerebral , Arachidonic Acid , Nitric Oxide
13.
Nutrition Research and Practice ; : 344-351, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760613

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Adequate dietary fatty acid intake is important for toddlers between 12–24 months of age, as this is a period of dietary transition in conjunction with rapid growth and development; however, actual fatty acid intake during this period seldom has been explored. This study was conducted to assess the intake status of n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids by toddlers during the 12–24-month period using 2010–2015 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Twenty-four-hour dietary recall data of 12–24-month-old toddlers (n = 544) was used to estimate the intakes of α-linolenic acid (ALA; 18:3n-3), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3), linoleic acid (LA; 18:2n-6), and arachidonic acid (AA; 20:4n-6), as well as the major dietary sources of each. The results were compared with the expected intake for exclusively breastfed infants in the first 6 months of life and available dietary recommendations. RESULTS: Mean daily intakes of ALA, EPA, DHA, LA, and AA were 529.9, 22.4, 37.0, 3907.6, and 20.0 mg/day, respectively. Dietary intakes of these fatty acids fell below the expected intake for 0–5-month-old exclusively breastfed infants. In particular, DHA and AA intakes were 4 to 5 times lower. The dietary assessment indicated that the mean intake of essential fatty acids ALA and LA was below the European and the FAO/WHO dietary recommendations, particularly for DHA, which was approximately 30% and 14–16% lower, respectively. The key sources of the essential fatty acids, DHA, and AA were soy (28.2%), fish (97.3%), and animals (53.7%), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Considering the prevailing view of DHA and AA requirements on early brain development, there remains considerable room for improvement in their intakes in the diets of Korean toddlers. Further studies are warranted to explore how increasing dietary intakes of DHA and AA could benefit brain development during infancy and early childhood.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Infant , Arachidonic Acid , Brain , Diet , Eicosapentaenoic Acid , Fatty Acids , Fatty Acids, Essential , Fatty Acids, Unsaturated , Growth and Development , Korea , Linoleic Acid , Nutrition Surveys
14.
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 68(1): 51-58, mar. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LIVECS, LILACS | ID: biblio-1016810

ABSTRACT

The western diet is characterized by a high consumption of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and reduced n-3PUFAs, this phenomenon has been parallel to the increase in the prevalence of obesity. The studies that have analyzed the association between serum PUFAs and the influence on the development of adiposity in children is limited and the findings are controversial. The present study compared the ARA/EPA (arachidonic/eicosapentaenoic) PUFA ratio in children with healthy weight vs. obesity in a cross-sectional study. Thirty children were diagnosed with obesity and 32 children with healthy weight determined through the age-specific body mass index (BMI) Z score, according to the WHO. The variables included were weight, BMI, waist circumference (WC), and the serum ARA/EPA ratio. The Student's t test and Pearson correlation were performed and statistical significance was set at a p <0.05. The project was approved by the local ethics committee of the hospital Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social. The serum ARA/EPA ratio was significantly higher in children with obesity compared with healthy weight (9.0 vs 5.4; p = 0.012). A statistically significant difference was observed between healthy weight boys and obese boys (p=0.003). Furthermore, the ARA/EPA ratio correlated positively with weight (r=0.336; p=0.008), BMI (r=0.373; p=0.003), WC (r=0.319; p=0.012) and cardio-metabolic risk (r=0.302; p=0.017). When performing a multivariate regression analysis, we identified that BMI was the only variable that remained significant and predicted the ARA/EPA ratio. In conclusion, the serum ARA/EPA ratio differed significantly in relation to weight and was higher in the obese children(AU)


La dieta occidental se caracteriza por un alto consumo de ácidos grasos poliinsaturados n-6(AGPI) y AGPIn-3 reducidos, fenómeno que ha sido paralelo al aumento en la prevalencia de la obesidad. Los estudios que han analizado la asociación entre AGPN en suero y adiposidad en niños son limitados y con hallazgos inconsistentes. El presente estudio comparó la relación ARA/EPA (ácido araquidónico/eicosapentaenoico) AGPI en niños con peso normal vs. obesidad. Es un estudio transversal donde treinta niños fueron diagnosticados con obesidad y 32 niños con peso normal determinado mediante el puntaje z del IMC para la edad, de acuerdo a la OMS. Las variables incluidas fueron peso, IMC, circunferencia de cintura (CC) y la relación ARA/EPA en suero. Se realizó prueba de t de Student y correlación de Pearson, la significación estadística se estableció en p <0,05. El proyecto fue aprobado por el comité de ética local del Hospital del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social. La relación ARA/EPA en suero fue significativamente mayor en niños con obesidad en comparación con el peso normal (9,0 frente a 5,4; p = 0,012). Además, la relación ARA/EPA se correlacionó positivamente con el peso (r = 0.336; p = 0.008), IMC (r = 0.373; p = 0.003), CC (r = 0.319; p = 0.012). Al realizar un análisis de regresión multivariable, identificamos que el IMC fue la variable predictora que permaneció significativa. En conclusión, la relación de suero ARA/EPA fue significativamente mayor en los niños con obesidad(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Body Mass Index , Eicosapentaenoic Acid/analysis , Arachidonic Acid/analysis , Obesity/physiopathology , Body Weights and Measures , Anthropometry , Diet, High-Fat
15.
Clinics ; 73(supl.1): e530s, 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-952828

ABSTRACT

Eicosanoids are 20-carbon bioactive lipids derived from the metabolism of polyunsaturated fatty acids, which can modulate various biological processes including cell proliferation, adhesion and migration, angiogenesis, vascular permeability and inflammatory responses. In recent years, studies have shown the importance of eicosanoids in the control of physiological and pathological processes associated with several diseases, including cancer. The polyunsaturated fatty acid predominantly metabolized to generate 2-series eicosanoids is arachidonic acid, which is the major n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid found in animal fat and in the occidental diet. The three main pathways responsible for metabolizing arachidonic acid and other polyunsaturated fatty acids to generate eicosanoids are the cyclooxygenase, lipoxygenase and P450 epoxygenase pathways. Inflammation plays a decisive role in various stages of tumor development including initiation, promotion, invasion and metastasis. This review will focus on studies that have investigated the role of prostanoids and lipoxygenase-derived eicosanoids in the development and progression of different tumors, highlighting the findings that may provide insights into how these eicosanoids can influence cell proliferation, cell migration and the inflammatory process. A better understanding of the complex role played by eicosanoids in both tumor cells and the tumor microenvironment may provide new markers for diagnostic and prognostic purposes and identify new therapeutic strategies in cancer treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Eicosanoids/physiology , Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthases/metabolism , Fatty Acids, Unsaturated/metabolism , Inflammation/enzymology , Neoplasms/pathology , Neovascularization, Pathologic/etiology , Eicosanoids/pharmacology , Prostaglandins , Arachidonic Acid/metabolism , Neoplasms/enzymology , Neoplasms/drug therapy
16.
Rev. chil. nutr ; 45(1): 80-88, 2018. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-899858

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN El estudio focalizado en dilucidar el rol neuroprotector del ARA y del DHA a lo largo del ciclo vital ha cobrado cada vez más interés puesto que se continúan descubriendo mecanismos mediante los cuales estos ácidos grasos poliinsaturados de cadena larga (AGPICL) modulan el metabolismo. Tanto el ARA como el DHA se encuentran depositados en los lípidos de las membranas de las células que forman la materia gris y representan aproximadamente el 25% del contenido total de ácidos grasos cerebrales. El ARA y el DHA tienen efectos sobre el crecimiento y la diferenciación neuronal a través de la modulación de las propiedades físicas de la membrana, de la transducción de señales asociada a proteínas G y la modulación de la expresión génica, adquiriendo un rol relevante en la neuro-génesis y el desarrollo cerebral. Además, se les atribuye un rol neuroprotector en patologías neurodegenerativas como la enfermedad de Alzheimer y la enfermedad de Parkinson, pudiendo disminuir la disfunción mitocondrial, la neuro-inflamación y el estrés oxidativo, expresiones características de estas patologías. La presente revisión analiza y discute acerca del rol del ARA y del DHA en la neuro-protección y en la neurodegeneración a través de una visión integradora.


ABSTRACT The study focused on elucidating the neuro-protective effects of ARA and DHA throughout the life cycle has become of increasingly interest since the continue discovering of mechanisms by which these long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) modulate the metabolism. Both ARA and DHA are deposited into the membrane lipids of the cells that form the gray matter of the brain and represent approximately 25% of the total content of cerebral fatty acids. ARA and DHA have effects on the growth and neuronal differentiation through the modulation of the physical properties of the membrane, the signal transduction associated to G proteins and by the modulation of gene expression, acquiring a relevant role in neurogenesis and brain development. In addition, it is attributed to these fatty acids a neuro-protective role in neurodegenerative pathologies such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease by decreasing the mitochondrial dysfunction, neuroinflammation and oxidative stress, characteristic of these pathologies. This review analyzes and discusses the role of ARA and DHA in neuro-protection and neuro-degeneration through an integrative vision.


Subject(s)
Humans , Parkinson Disease , Docosahexaenoic Acids , Arachidonic Acid , Alzheimer Disease , Neurons , Neurodegenerative Diseases
17.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 591-599, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-777226

ABSTRACT

Kidney diseases are important causes of mortality world widely. Renal microvascular dysfunction plays a pivotal role in the development of kidney diseases. Pharmacological and biochemical tools have been used to conduct detailed studies on the metabolization of arachidonic acid by cytochrome P450 (CYP450) in renal microvasculature. CYP450 epoxygenase metabolites epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) are mainly produced in renal microvessels. EETs exhibit renoprotective effects through vasodilation, anti-hypertension, anti-apoptosis and anti-inflammation, and were reported as therapeutic targets of renal diseases. However, the ability of the kidney in generating EETs is reduced in renal diseases. Recently, the studies from transgenic animal overexpressing CYP450 epoxygenases and application of soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitors revealed that increasing of EETs exhibits renoprotective effects in vivo. The present review focuses on the protective mechanisms of EETs in kidney physiology and diseases.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Animals, Genetically Modified , Arachidonic Acid , Metabolism , Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System , Physiology , Disease Models, Animal , Inflammation , Kidney , Physiology , Kidney Diseases , Vasodilation
18.
Clinical Nutrition Research ; : 21-30, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739621

ABSTRACT

Studies have reported different changes in the fatty acid composition of red blood cell (RBC) total lipids in patients with various types of cancer. It has been indicated that n-3/n-6 ratio plays a key role in the general consequence of skin photocarcinogenesis. However, to our knowledge there was no study examining the unsaturated fatty acid profile in basal cell carcinoma (BCC) patients. So, we explore the fatty acid composition of RBCs in newly diagnosed BCC patients in a hospital-based case-control study. This study has been conducted on new case BCC patients in Razi Hospital, Tehran, Iran. Fatty acid concentration in erythrocyte membranes defined as relative values after extraction, purification and preparation, by gas chromatography.Analysis revealed that heptadecenoic acid (p = 0.010) and oleic acid (p < 0.001) was significantly higher in BCC patients in comparison with control group. Among polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), linoleic acid (LA), and arachidonic acid (AA) were significantly higher in BCC patients (p < 0.001). It has been indicated that n-3 was significantly lower (p = 0.040) and n-6 was significantly higher (p = 0.002) in BCC patients. In addition, total PUFA (p < 0.001) and n-6 PUFAs/n-3 PUFAs (p = 0.002) were significantly higher in BCC patients compared to the control group. Here we indicated that new case BCC patient had significantly higher n-6 PUFA and lower n-3 along with other differences in unsaturated fatty acid in comparison with healthy subjects. Our study provides evidence that lipids are important in BCC development.


Subject(s)
Humans , Arachidonic Acid , Carcinoma, Basal Cell , Case-Control Studies , Erythrocyte Membrane , Erythrocytes , Fatty Acids , Fatty Acids, Unsaturated , Healthy Volunteers , Iran , Linoleic Acid , Oleic Acid , Skin
19.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 522-531, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714640

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Although epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), which is found in high contents in the dried leaves of green tea, has been reported to have an anti-platelet effect, synergistic effects of EGCG in addition to current anti-platelet medications remains to be elucidated. METHODS: Blood samples were obtained from 40 participants who took aspirin (ASA, n = 10), clopidogrel (CPD, n = 10), ticagrelor (TCG, n = 10) and no anti-platelet medication (Control, n = 10). Ex vivo platelet aggregation and adhesion under various stimulators were analyzed by multiple electrode aggregometry (MEA) and Impact-R systems. PAC-1 and P-selectin expressions in human platelets were analyzed by flow cytometry. RESULTS: In MEA analysis, adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and thrombin receptor activating peptide (TRAP)-induced platelet aggregations were lower in the CPD and the TCG groups; arachidonic acid (AA)-induced platelet aggregation was lower in the ASA group, whereas collagen (COL)-induced platelet aggregations were comparable among four groups. EGCG significantly reduced ADP- and COL-induced platelet aggregation in dose-dependent manner (ADP, p = 0.04; COL, p < 0.01). There were no additional suppressions of platelet aggregation stimulated by AA in the ASA group, and by ADP in the CPD and TCG groups. Moreover, EGCG suppressed shear stress-induced platelet adhesion on Impact-R, and had no effect on P-selectin and PAC-1 expressions. CONCLUSIONS: Ex vivo treatment of EGCG inhibited platelet adhesion and aggregation without changes in P-selectin and PAC-1 expression. There was no additional suppressions in platelet aggregation stimulated by AA in the ASA group and ADP in the CPD and TCG groups.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adenosine Diphosphate , Arachidonic Acid , Aspirin , Blood Platelets , Catechin , Collagen , Electrodes , Flow Cytometry , P-Selectin , Platelet Aggregation , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors , Receptors, Thrombin , Tea
20.
Asia Pacific Allergy ; (4): e38-2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-750158

ABSTRACT

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) hypersensitivity reactions (HSRs) are often nonimmunologically mediated reactions which present with immediate HSR type manifestations. These are mediated by cyclooxygenase inhibition resulting in shunting towards the excessive production of leukotrienes. Important disease associations include asthma, nasal polyposis, and chronic spontaneous urticaria, especially among adults. The European Network on Drug Allergy/Global Allergy and Asthma European Network 2013 classification of NSAID HSR comprises nonselective HSR i.e., NSAID exacerbated respiratory disease (NERD), NSAIDs exacerbated cutaneous disease (NECD), NSAIDs induced urticarial-angioedema (NIUA); and selective (allergic) HSR i.e., single NSAID induced urticaria/angioedema or anaphylaxis, NSAIDs-induced delayed HSR. Much of the literature on genetic associations with NSAID HSR originate from Korea and Japan; where genetic polymorphisms have been described in genes involved in arachidonic acid metabolism, basophil/mast cell/eosinophil activation, various inflammatory mediators/cytokines, and different HLA genotypes. The Asian phenotype for NSAID HSR appears to be predominantly NIUA with overlapping features in some adults and children. NECD also appears to be more common than NERD, although both are not common in the Asian paediatric population. Between adults and children, children seem to be more atopic, although over time when these children grow up, it is likely that the prevalence of atopic adults with NSAID HSR will increase. Low-dose aspirin desensitization has been shown to be effective in the treatment of coronary artery disease, especially following percutaneous coronary intervention.


Subject(s)
Adult , Child , Humans , Anaphylaxis , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal , Arachidonic Acid , Asian People , Aspirin , Asthma , Classification , Coronary Artery Disease , Drug Hypersensitivity , Genotype , Hypersensitivity , Japan , Korea , Leukotrienes , Metabolism , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , Phenotype , Polymorphism, Genetic , Prevalence , Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthases , Urticaria
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