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Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-943043


Objective: To investigate the effects of high risk factors questionnaire (HRFQ), Asia-Pacific colorectal screening (APCS) score and their combinations with fecal immunochemical test (FIT) in screening advanced colorectal neoplasia, in order to provide an evidence for further optimization of cancer screening program. Methods: A retrospective cohort study method was used to summarize and analyze the results of colorectal tumor screening in Jiashan County, Zhejiang Province from March 2017 to July 2018. Those with severe diseases that were not suitable for colonoscopy and those with mental and behavioral abnormalities who can not cooperate with the screening were excluded. Those who met any one or more of the followings in the HRFQ questionnaire were classified as high-risk people of HRFQ: (1) first-degree relatives with a history of colorectal cancer; (2) subjects with a history of cancer or any other malignant tumor; (3) subjects with a history of intestinal polyps; (4) those with two or more of the followings: chronic constipation (constipation lasted for more than 2 months per year in the past two years), chronic diarrhea (diarrhea lasted for more than 3 months in the past two years, and the duration of each episode was more than one week), mucus and bloody stools, history of adverse life events (occurring within the past 20 years and causing greater trauma or distress to the subject after the event), history of chronic appendicitis or appendectomy, history of chronic biliary disease or cholecystectomy. In this study, those who were assessed as high risk by HRFQ were recorded as "HRFQ (+)", and those who were not at high risk were recorded as "HRFQ (-)". The APCS questionnaire provided risk scores based on 4 risk factors including age, gender, family history and smoking: (1) age: 2 points for 50-69 years old, 3 points for 70 years old and above; (2) gender: 1 point for male, 0 point for women; (3) family history: 2 points for first-degree relatives suffering from colorectal cancer; (4) smoking: 1 point for current or past smoking, 0 point for non-smokers. The population was divided into low-risk (0-1 point), intermediate-risk (2-3 points), and high-risk (4-7 points). Those who were assessed as high risk by APCS were recorded as "APCS (+)", and those with intermediate and low risk were recorded as "APCS (-)". The hemoglobin threshold for a positive FIT was set to 100 μg/L. Those who were assessed as high risk by APCS with positive FIT were recorded as "APCS+FIT (+)". Those who were assessed as high risk by APCS with negative FIT, those who were assessed by APCS as low-middle risk with positive FIT, and those who were assessed by APCS as low-middle with negative FIT were all recorded as "APCS+FIT(-)". Observation indicators in this study were as follows: (1) the screening compliance rate of the cohort and the detection of advanced colorectal tumors; (2) positive predictive value, negative predictive value, sensitivity and specificity of HRFQ and APCS and their combination with FIT for screening advanced colorectal tumors; (3) comparison of the detection rate between HRFQ and APCS questionnaire for different colorectal lesions. Using SPSS 21.0 software, the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was drawn to evaluate the clinical value of HRFQ and APCS combined with FIT in screening advanced colorectal tumors. Results: From 2017 to 2018 in Jiashan County, a total of 53 268 target subjects were screened, and 42 093 people actually completed the questionnaire, with a compliance rate of 79.02%. A total of 8145 cases underwent colonoscopy. A total of 3607 cases among HRFQ positive population (5320 cases) underwent colonoscopy, and the colonoscopy compliance rate was 67. 80%; 8 cases were diagnosed with colorectal cancer and 88 cases were advanced colorectal adenoma. A total of 2977 cases among APCS positive population (11 942 cases) underwent colonoscopy, and the colonoscopy compliance rate was 24.93%; 17 cases were diagnosed with colorectal cancer and 148 cases were advanced colorectal adenoma. The positive rate of HRFQ screening was lower than that of APCS [12.6% (5320/42 093) vs. 28.4% (11 942/42 093), χ2=3195. 547, P<0.001]. In the FIT positive population (6223 cases), a total of 4894 cases underwent colonoscopy, and the colonoscopy compliance rate was 78.64%; 34 cases were diagnosed with colorectal cancer and 224 cases were advanced adenoma. The positive predictive values of HRFQ and APCS and their combination with FIT for screening advanced colorectal tumors were 2.67%, 5.54%, 5.44%, and 8.56%; negative predictive values were 94.89%, 96.85%, 96.11% and 96.99%; sensitivity was 29.27%, 50.30%, 12.20 % and 39.02%; specificity was 55.09%, 64.03%, 91.11% and 82.51%, respectively. The ROC curves constructed by HRFQ, APCS, FIT, HRFQ+FIT and APCS+FIT indicated that APCS+FIT presented the highest efficacy in screening advanced colorectal tumors (AUC: 0.608, 95%CI: 0.574-0.642). The comparison of the detection rates of different colorectal lesions between HRFQ and APCS questionnaires showed that there were no significant differences in detection rate of inflammatory polyps and hyperplastic polyps between the two questionnaires (both P>0.05). However, as compared to HRFQ questionnaire, APCS questionnaire had higher detection rates in non-advanced adenomas [26.10% (777/2977) vs. 19.43% (701/3607), χ2=51.228, P<0.001], advanced adenoma [4.97% (148/2977) vs. 2.44% (88/3607), χ2=30.249, P<0.001] and colorectal cancer [0.57% (17 /2977) vs. 0.22% (8/3607), χ2=5.259, P=0.022]. Conclusions: APCS has a higher detection rate of advanced colorectal tumors than HRFQ. APCS combined with FIT can further improve the effectiveness of advanced colorectal tumor screening.

Adenoma/diagnosis , Aged , Asia , Colonoscopy , Colorectal Neoplasms/pathology , Constipation , Diarrhea , Early Detection of Cancer/methods , Feces , Female , Humans , Male , Mass Screening/methods , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e240219, 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285585


Abstract Snow leopard (Panthera unica) is a felid which lives in the highly rugged areas of alpine regions in different mountain ranges of South and Central Asia. This solitary animal needs large spaces for its ranges but due to climate change and relatively faster rate of global warming in South Asian mountain ranges, its habitat is going to shrink and fragment by tree-line shifts and change in hydrology of the area. Vegetative modification of montane flora and competition with domestic goats will create its prey's population to decline along with a chance of a direct conflict and competition with the common leopard. Common leopard being more adaptable, grouped, and larger in size can be a significant stressor for a smaller and solitary snow leopard. Habitat would shrink, and snow leopard can possibly move upslope or northward to central Asian ranges and their predicted migratory patterns are unknown.

Resumo O leopardo-das-neves (Panthera uncia) é um felídeo que vive nas áreas altamente acidentadas das regiões alpinas, em diferentes cadeias de montanhas do sul e do centro da Ásia. A revisão atual tem o objetivo de abordar a questão da possível perda de hábitat do leopardo da neve em razão da interferência humana nas montanhas do sul e do centro da Ásia. Esse animal solitário precisa de grandes espaços para suas faixas, mas, devido às mudanças climáticas e à taxa relativamente mais rápida de aquecimento global nas cadeias montanhosas do sul da Ásia, seu hábitat vai encolher e fragmentar-se por mudanças nas linhas de árvores e na hidrologia da área. Este artigo teve o objetivo de rever vários estudos sobre os impactos das mudanças climáticas em um futuro próximo e distante sobre os hábitats do leopardo-da-neve. O estudo revelou que a modificação vegetativa da flora da montanha e a competição com cabras domésticas poderiam ocasionar na diminuição da população de suas presas, com a chance de um conflito direto e competição com leopardo comum. Leopardo comum sendo mais adaptável, agrupado e maior em tamanho pode ser um estressor significativo para um leopardo-da-neve menor e solitário. Conclusão: devido ao encolhimento do hábitat, o leopardo-da-neve pode, possivelmente, mover-se para cima ou para o norte, para faixas da Ásia Central com padrões migratórios não previstos.

Animals , Felidae , Panthera , Asia , Climate Change , Ecosystem , Conservation of Natural Resources
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-942214


OBJECTIVE@#To analyze the recent severity of COVID-19 in various countries.@*METHODS@#Data were ollected on the epidemic situation of COVID-19 in various countries as of January 16, 2021, and the scale and overall trend of the epidemic were retrospectively described; combined with the recent trend of newly confirmed cases, from January 10 to 16 (the 54th week) and the newly confirmed cases indexes, such as the number and incidence density the severity of the epidemic was classified. Feasible suggestions were put forward based on the variation of the virus, actual data of vaccine research and development and possible existence in many countries.@*RESULTS@#Up to January 16, 2021, there were 92 510 419 confirmed cases worldwide; 4 849 301 new confirmed cases were confirmed in the 54th week, and they were still growing. Among all the continents, the cumulative number of confirmed cases in Europe, North America, and Asia has exceeded 21 million, and the number of new confirmed cases in a single week in North America, South America and Asia were all increasing. Among the countries, the cumulative number of confirmed cases in 18 countries including the United States, India, and Brazil was more than 1 million, accounting for 77.04% of the total number of cumulative confirmed cases in the world. Eleven countries including the United States, Brazil, France, Spain, Colombia, The United Kingdom, Russia, Germany, South Africa, Italy, and India are at higher risk of the epidemic; The United States, Brazil, France, Spain, and Colombia were still experiencing new confirmed cases and increasing status, the risk of the epidemic was greater. Novel coronavirus mutates frequently, up to February 2021, there had been 3 931 mutant genotypes in the world. At the same time, a total of 11 vaccines were successfully launched, however we were still facing some troubles, such as the global shortage of vaccines, the public's willingness to vaccinate needed to be improved, and equity in the distribution of vaccines.@*CONCLUSION@#The global epidemic situation is still getting worse, with repeated epidemics in all the continents and countries, and has not been fundamentally controlled. At the continent level, North America, South America, and Europe have the most severe epidemics; at the national level, The United States, Brazil, France, Spain, Colombia and other countries have higher epidemic risks. Focusing on the severely affected countries will help bring the global epidemic under control as soon as possible. Under the premise of ensuring the safety and effectiveness of the vaccines, it is a key and feasible direction to improve the yield and vaccination rate of the vaccines, shorten the onset time of the vaccines and prolong the immune persistence.

Asia , Brazil , COVID-19 , Europe , France , Humans , India , Italy , North America , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Spain , United Kingdom , United States
Hist. ciênc. saúde-Manguinhos ; 27(supl.1): 29-48, Sept. 2020.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134097


Abstract According to David Fidler, the governance of infectious diseases evolved from the mid-nineteenth to the twenty-first century as a series of institutional arrangements: the International Sanitary Regulations (non-interference and disease control at borders), the World Health Organization vertical programs (malaria and smallpox eradication campaigns), and a post-Westphalian regime standing beyond state-centrism and national interest. But can international public health be reduced to such a Westphalian image? We scrutinize three strategies that brought health borders into prominence: pre-empting weak states (eastern Mediterranean in the nineteenth century); preventing the spread of disease through nation-building (Macedonian public health system in the 1920s); and debordering the fight against epidemics (1920-1921 Russian-Polish war and the Warsaw 1922 Sanitary Conference).

Resumo Segundo David Fidler, a gestão de doenças infecciosas entre meados do século XIX e e o XXI guiou-se por uma série de acordos institucionais: Regulamento Sanitário Internacional (não interferência e controle de doenças em fronteiras), programas verticais da OMS (campanhas de erradicação da malária e varíola), e posicionamento pós-vestefaliano além do estado-centrismo e interesse nacional. Mas pode a saúde pública internacional ser reduzida à tal imagem vestefaliana? Examinamos três estratégias que destacaram as fronteiras sanitárias: prevenção em estados vulneráveis (Mediterrâneo oriental, século XIX); prevenção à disseminação de doenças via construção nacional (sistema público de saúde macedônico, anos 1920); remoção de fronteiras no combate às epidemias (guerra polaco-soviética, 1920-1921 e Conferência Sanitária de Varsóvia, 1922).

History, 18th Century , History, 19th Century , History, 20th Century , History, 21st Century , Public Health Practice/history , Communicable Disease Control/history , Politics , Asia , World Health Organization/history , Quarantine/history , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Global Health/history , Europe , Hospitals, Isolation/history , Malaria/history , Malaria/prevention & control
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811267


Hydatid disease is a zoonotic infection in humans. The disease is endemic in some parts of the world, including Africa, Australia, and Asia, where cattle grazing is common; the disease is spread by an enteric route following the consumption of food contaminated with the eggs of the parasite. Failure to identify this parasite results in delayed diagnosis and increased morbidity to the patient. Upon diagnosis, every possible step should be taken, both surgical and medical, to prevent anaphylactic reactions from the cystic fluid. Postsurgical long-term follow up along with periodical ultrasonography of the liver and computed tomography scan of the abdomen is essential to rule out possible recurrence.

Abdomen , Africa , Anaphylaxis , Animals , Asia , Australia , Cattle , Delayed Diagnosis , Diagnosis , Echinococcosis , Eggs , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Liver , Ovum , Parasites , Recurrence , Ultrasonography , Zoonoses
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811151


The prevalence of obesity in Asia is of epidemic proportions, with an estimated 1 billion overweight/obese individuals in the region. The majority of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are overweight/obese, which increases the risk of cardiorenal outcomes in these patients; hence, sustained reductions in body weight and visceral adiposity are important management goals. However, most of the glucose-lowering therapies such as insulin, sulfonylureas, glinides, and thiazolidinediones induce weight gain, which makes the management of overweight/obese T2DM patients challenging. Sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors are the only oral glucose-lowering agents that have been shown to reduce body weight and visceral adiposity. In addition, SGLT-2 inhibitors therapy reduces ectopic fat deposition and improves adipose tissue function and weight-related quality of life. In this article, we aim to consolidate the existing literature on the effects of SGLT-2 inhibitors in Asian patients with T2DM and to produce clinical recommendations on their use in overweight or obese patients with T2DM. Recommendations from international and regional guidelines, as well as published data from clinical trials in Asian populations and cardiovascular outcomes trials are reviewed. Based on the available data, SGLT-2 inhibitors represent an evidence-based therapeutic option for the management of overweight/obese patients with T2DM.

Adipose Tissue , Adiposity , Asia , Asians , Body Weight , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Humans , Insulin , Obesity , Obesity, Abdominal , Overweight , Prevalence , Quality of Life , Thiazolidinediones , Weight Gain
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-816617


BACKGROUND: Pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas (PPGLs) are rare endocrine tumors originating from chromaffin cells. PPGLs are associated with a high mortality rate and several complications. To date, no epidemiological studies have been conducted on PPGLs in Asia. This study aimed to investigate the epidemiology and prognosis of PPGLs in Korea using nationwide data.METHODS: Using the National Health Insurance Service Database, subjects with a principal diagnosis of PPGLs on two or more occasions between 2003 and 2014 who satisfied the operational definition of PPGLs were included. Incidence, prevalence, complications, metastasis, and mortality were investigated.RESULTS: In total, 1048 subjects with a mean age of 47.6±16.1 years were included. There was no sex preponderance. The overall prevalence of PPGLs was 2.13 per 100,000 persons, and the overall age-standardized incidence rate was 0.18 per 100,000 person-years. Malignant PPGLs accounted for 17.7% (185 of 1,048) of cases, and 94 subjects exhibited metastasis at the time of diagnosis. Among initially non-metastatic PPGLs, 9.5% (nine of 954) eventually metastasized after a mean duration of 78.1±41.4 months. The 5-year survival rates for non-metastatic and metastatic PPGLs at diagnosis were 97% and 84%, respectively. Multivariable Cox regression models adjusted for covariates showed that metastatic PPGLs were associated with a 2.40-fold higher risk of mortality than non-metastatic PPGLs (95% confidence interval, 1.38 to 4.17; P=0.002).CONCLUSION: PPGLs are rare in Korea, and the prognosis of these endocrine tumors varies depending on whether they are benign or malignant. This epidemiological study paves the way for further research on PPGLs.

Asia , Chromaffin Cells , Diagnosis , Epidemiologic Studies , Epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Korea , Mortality , National Health Programs , Neoplasm Metastasis , Paraganglioma , Pheochromocytoma , Prevalence , Prognosis , Survival Rate
Asia Pacific Allergy ; (4): 6-2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785459


BACKGROUND: The prevalence of peanut allergy (PA) among children has increased significantly over the past decade. Even though the prevalence of PA in Singapore is considered low, peanut is the top trigger for food-induced anaphylaxis in Singaporean children.OBJECTIVE: To describe the demographic characteristics and clinical features of children with PA.METHODS: This is a 5-year retrospective review of children diagnosed with PA based on clinical history coupled with a positive skin prick test to peanut or positive oral food challenge results.RESULTS: There were 269 patients (53.9% males) with a clinical diagnosis of PA. The median age at first allergic presentation for the PA group was 24 months old, with interquartile range of 13–39 months. The most common form of peanut introduced was roasted peanut. The rate of peanut anaphylaxis was 7.1%. Concomitant tree nut sensitization was found in 32.3% of this cohort, predominantly to cashew nut. Majority of them have a personal history of atopy – 75.8% with eczema, 63.6% with allergic rhinitis, and 19.7% with asthma.CONCLUSION: This is the first large review of peanut-allergic children in Singapore. Prospective population-based studies are needed to establish the true prevalence and risk factors associated with the development of this potentially life-threatening condition.

Anacardium , Anaphylaxis , Arachis , Asia , Asthma , Child , Cohort Studies , Diagnosis , Eczema , Humans , Nuts , Peanut Hypersensitivity , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , Rhinitis, Allergic , Risk Factors , Singapore , Skin , Trees
Asia Pacific Allergy ; (4): 8-2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785457


There are geographical, regional, and ethnic differences in the phenotypes and endotypes of patients with drug hypersensitivity reactions (DHRs) in different parts of the world. In Asia, aspects of drug hypersensitivity of regional importance include IgE-mediated allergies and T-cell-mediated reactions, including severe cutaneous adverse reactions (SCARs), to beta-lactam antibiotics, antituberculous drugs, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and radiocontrast agents. Delabeling of low-risk penicillin allergy using direct oral provocation tests without skin tests have been found to be useful where the drug plausibility of the index reaction is low. Genetic risk associations of relevance to Asia include human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-B*1502 with carbamazepine SCAR, and HLA-B*5801 with allopurinol SCAR in some Asian ethnic groups. There remains a lack of safe and accurate diagnostic tests for antituberculous drug allergy, other than relatively high-risk desensitization regimes to first-line antituberculous therapy. NSAID hypersensitivity is common among both adults and children in Asia, with regional differences in phenotype especially among adults. Low dose aspirin desensitization is an important therapeutic modality in individuals with cross-reactive NSAID hypersensitivity and coronary artery disease following percutaneous coronary intervention. Skin testing allows patients with radiocontrast media hypersensitivity to confirm the suspected agent and test for alternatives, especially when contrasted scans are needed for future monitoring of disease relapse or progression, especially cancers.

Adult , Allopurinol , Anaphylaxis , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Asia , Asians , Aspirin , Asthma , Carbamazepine , Child , Cicatrix , Contrast Media , Coronary Artery Disease , Diagnostic Tests, Routine , Drug Hypersensitivity , Ethnicity , Humans , Hypersensitivity , Penicillins , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , Phenotype , Recurrence , Skin Tests
Asia Pacific Allergy ; (4): 10-2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785455


No abstract available.

Anniversaries and Special Events , Asia , Hypersensitivity
Asia Pacific Allergy ; (4): 11-2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785454


Air pollution, climate change, and reduced biodiversity are major threats to human health with detrimental effects on a variety of chronic noncommunicable diseases in particular respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. The extent of air pollution both outdoor and indoor air pollution and climate change including global warming is increasing-to alarming proportions particularly in the developing world especially rapidly industrializing countries worldwide. In recent years, Asia has experienced rapid economic growth and a deteriorating environment and increase in allergic diseases to epidemic proportions. Air pollutant levels in many Asian countries especially in China and India are substantially higher than are those in developed countries. Moreover, industrial, traffic-related, and household biomass combustion, indoor pollutants from chemicals and tobacco are major sources of air pollutants, with increasing burden on respiratory allergies. Here we highlight the major components of outdoor and indoor air pollutants and their impacts on respiratory allergies associated with asthma and allergic rhinitis in the Asia-Pacific region. With Asia-Pacific comprising more than half of the world's population there is an urgent need to increase public awareness, highlight targets for interventions, public advocacy and a call to action to policy makers to implement policy changes towards reducing air pollution with interventions at a population-based level.

Administrative Personnel , Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , Air Pollution, Indoor , Allergy and Immunology , Asia , Asians , Asthma , Biodiversity , Biomass , Cardiovascular Diseases , China , Climate Change , Climate , Consumer Advocacy , Developed Countries , Economic Development , Family Characteristics , Global Warming , Humans , Hypersensitivity , India , Rhinitis, Allergic , Tobacco
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785349


Pulmonary paragonimiasis and tuberculosis are endemic in Asia, South America, and Africa. However, differential diagnosis among the diseases is difficult because they present with similar clinical symptoms and diagnostic features. Here, we report a case of pulmonary paragonimiasis that was identified using Ziehl-Neelsen stain after initially being assessed for pulmonary tuberculosis. Following anti-Paragonimus chemotherapy, the patient's symptoms, laboratory test results, and lung lesions improved. Thus, the identification of Paragonimus westermani using Ziehl-Neelsen stain can be considered in the diagnosis.

Africa , Asia , Diagnosis , Diagnosis, Differential , Drug Therapy , Lung , Paragonimiasis , Paragonimus westermani , South America , Tuberculosis , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 29(3): e001620, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138104


Abstract More than 1.450 marine fish species are commercialized as ornamental fish and approximately 90% of these are wild-caught. Rainford's butterflyfish, Chaetodon rainfordi (McCulloch, 1923), is endemic to the western Pacific. This fish species belongs to one of the main ornamental fish families imported into Brazil. Haliotrema is a genus of the family Dactylogyridae. Species of this genus have very interesting host associations and geographic distributions. The aim of this study was to report on occurrences of exotic Haliotrema aurigae in diseased Rainford butterflyfish that were imported to Brazil. One Rainford's butterflyfish with suspected parasitic disease was euthanized and subjected to skin and gill scraping. The parasite specimens were mounted on semi-permanent slides with Hoyer's solution for morphological analysis of sclerotized structures. The hard-sclerotized structures of these specimens were compared and were identified as those of Haliotrema aurigae (Yamaguti, 1968). These results emphasize the importance of implementation of correct control measures at the country's borders, to avoid the introduction of exotic parasites. In addition, it can be emphasized that the easy adaptation of this parasite to new environments is a concern for ornamental fish farmers.

Resumo Mais de 1.450 espécies de peixes marinhos são comercializados como peixes ornamentais e, aproximadamente, 90% são extraídos na natureza. O peixe borboleta Rainford, Chaetodon rainfordi (McCulloch, 1923), é endêmico no Pacífico Ocidental. Esta espécie de peixe pertence a uma das principais famílias importadas para o Brasil. Haliotrema é um gênero da família Dactylogyridae. Espécies desse gênero têm associação com hospedeiros e distribuição geográfica. O objetivo deste estudo é relatar a ocorrência de Haliotrema aurigae exótico, em peixes-borboleta doentes, que foram importados para o Brasil. Um peixe-borboleta Rainford, suspeito de estar infectado com doença parasitária, foi eutanasiado e submetido à raspagem de pele e brânquias. As amostras foram montadas em lâminas semipermanentes com Hoyer, para análise morfológica de estruturas esclerotizadas. A morfologia e as estruturas esclerotizadas duras das amostras foram comparadas e identificadas como Haliotrema aurigae (Yamaguti, 1968). Esses resultados enfatizam a importância da implementação de medidas de controle pós-fronteira para evitar a introdução de parasitas exóticos no país. Além disso, pode-se enfatizar que a fácil adaptação do parasita a um novo ambiente é uma preocupação para os pscicultores ornamentais.

Animals , Trematoda/anatomy & histology , Trematoda/physiology , Perciformes/parasitology , Fish Diseases/parasitology , Asia , Pacific Ocean , Brazil , Introduced Species
Rev. panam. salud pública ; 44: e2, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1101776


ABSTRACT Alzheimer's disease and related dementias (ADRD) affect over 50 million persons globally, and the number is expected to rise. In response, health ministries are developing and implementing policies and programs to systemically address the needs of individuals and families affected by ADRD. While national plans of action on ADRD are advancing among European Member States of World Health Organization (WHO), those in the Asia-Pacific and Americas are lagging behind. Since previous studies have largely ignored the Americas and Asia-Pacific—where approximately two-thirds of the global ADRD population resides—this study sought to identify (a) the socioeconomic factors associated with the likelihood of having a national dementia policy, and (b) to examine common and differing features among the national plans in these regions. Employing the dementia policy guidelines of WHO and the Pan American Health Organization as an extraction guide for data collection and analysis, the national dementia plans and available socioeconomic data of 10 Member States were analyzed with comparative and qualitative analyses. Findings suggested at least a 14-fold increase in the likelihood of having a national dementia plan if a Member State had one of the following: a universal health care system, more than 14% of the population 65 years of age or older, or high-income. All the Member States in the study identified dementia as a public health priority, but priorities differed. Inconsistencies included development of information systems, training for health care professionals, and long-term care systems.(AU)

RESUMEN La enfermedad de Alzheimer y otras demencias relacionadas afectan a más de 50 millones de personas a nivel mundial y se espera que esta cifra aumente. En respuesta, los ministerios de salud están elaborando y ejecutando políticas y programas para abordar de manera sistemática las necesidades de las personas y familias afectadas. Si bien los planes nacionales de acción sobre la enfermedad de Alzheimer y otras demencias progresan en los Estados Miembros europeos de la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS), los de las regiones de Asia y el Pacífico y las Américas están a la zaga. Puesto que en anteriores estudios se ha pasado por alto en gran parte a las regiones de las Américas y Asia y el Pacífico, donde residen aproximadamente dos terceras partes de la población mundial con estas enfermedades, en este estudio se ha tratado de: a) determinar los factores socioeconómicos relacionados con la probabilidad de contar con una política nacional en materia de demencia, y b) examinar las características comunes y distintas de los planes nacionales en esas regiones. Se examinaron los planes nacionales sobre demencia y los datos socioeconómicos disponibles de diez Estados Miembros mediante análisis comparativos y cualitativos en los que se emplearon las directrices para la formulación de políticas en materia de demencia de la OMS y la Organización Panamericana de la Salud a modo de guía de extracción para la recopilación y el análisis de datos. Los resultados indicaron que había un aumento de las probabilidades de al menos 14 veces de disponer de un plan nacional en materia de demencia siempre que el estado miembro contase con al menos uno de los siguientes elementos: un sistema de atención de salud universal, más de 14% de su población en la edad de 65 años o más, o ingresos elevados. Todos los Estados Miembros del estudio establecían la demencia como una cuestión prioritaria de salud pública, si bien las prioridades diferían. Entre las diferencias se encontraban el desarrollo de los sistemas de información, la capacitación de los profesionales de la salud y los sistemas de cuidados a largo plazo.(AU)

RESUMO A doença de Alzheimer e demências relacionadas (DADR) afetam mais de 50 milhões de pessoas em todo o mundo, e este número deverá aumentar no futuro. Em resposta, os ministérios da saúde estão desenvolvendo e implementando políticas e programas para atender sistematicamente às necessidades das pessoas e famílias afetadas pela DADR. Embora os planos de ação nacionais para a DADR estejam avançando entre os Estados Membros europeus da Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS), os das regiões das Américas e Ásia-Pacífico estão ficando para trás. Estudos anteriores ignoraram amplamente as regiões das Américas e Ásia-Pacífico, onde encontram-se aproximadamente dois terços da população mundial com DADR; por isso, este estudo procurou (a) identificar os fatores socioeconômicos associados à probabilidade de que um país conte com uma política nacional para demência e (b) examinar as características comuns e diferentes dos planos nacionais existentes nessas regiões. Empregando as diretrizes para políticas sobre demência da OMS e da Organização Pan-Americana da Saúde como um guia para a coleta e análise de dados, examinamos os planos nacionais para demência e os dados socioeconômicos disponíveis em 10 Estados Membros, realizando análises comparativas e qualitativas. Os resultados sugeriram um aumento de pelo menos 14 vezes na probabilidade de que um Estado Membro conte com um plano nacional para demência quando esse Estado Membro apresenta um dos seguintes fatores: um sistema de atenção universal à saúde, mais de 14% da população com 65 anos de idade ou mais, ou alta renda. Todos os Estados Membros incluídos no estudo identificaram a demência como uma prioridade de saúde pública, mas com prioridades distintas. As diferenças incluíram o desenvolvimento de sistemas de informação, a formação oferecida aos profissionais da saúde e os sistemas de atenção à saúde de longa duração.(AU)

Humans , Alzheimer Disease/epidemiology , Universal Health Care , Health Policy/trends , Asia/epidemiology , Americas/epidemiology
Rev. argent. radiol ; 83(4): 151-159, oct. 2019. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057417


Resumen El colangiocarcinoma (CC) es el segundo tumor primario maligno más frecuente del hígado. La mayor incidencia se registra en Asia y su pronóstico es poco alentador. La resección quirúrgica del tumor es el único tratamiento potencialmente curativo. Sin embargo, la mayoría de los CC se diagnostican en estadios avanzados de la enfermedad y la recurrencia del tumor es común. Este trabajo pretende demostrar las características imagenológicas de los CC, su clasificación, así como también la evaluación preoperatoria por tomografía computada (TC) y resonancia magnética (RM) que el radiólogo debe realizar actualmente.

Abstract The cholangiocarcinoma (CC) is the second most common malignant primary tumor of the liver. The highest incidence is registered in Asia and its prognosis is not very encouraging. The surgical resection is the only potentially curative treatment, however most of the CCs are diagnosed in advanced stages and the tumor recurrence is frequently presented. The purpose of this study is to show the imagenologic characteristics of CC, its classification as well as the preoperative evaluation by Computed Tomography (CT) and Magnetic Resonance (MR) that the radiologist must perform currently.

Klatskin Tumor , Cholangiocarcinoma/diagnostic imaging , Asia , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Tomography , Disease , Classification , Neoplasms