Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 857
Filter
1.
Biomedical and Environmental Sciences ; (12): 96-107, 2024.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007911

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#Anemia is a common public health concern in patients with type 2 diabetes worldwide. This study aimed to identify the prevalence of anemia among patients with diabetes.@*METHODS@#Electronic databases, including PubMed, Scopus, Web of Sciences, and Google Scholar, were searched systematically for studies published between 2010 and 2021. After removing duplicates and inappropriate reports, the remaining manuscripts were reviewed and appraised using theNewcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS) tool. A random-effects model was used to calculate the pooled estimates of the extracted data using Stata version 17. Heterogeneity of the studies was assessed using the Q statistic.@*RESULTS@#A total of 51 articles containing information on 26,485 patients with diabetes were included in this study. The articles were mainly from Asia (58.82%) and Africa (35.29%). The overall prevalence of anemia was 35.45% (95% CI: 30.30-40.76), with no evidence of heterogeneity by sex. Among the two continents with the highest number of studies, the prevalence of anemia in patients with diabetes was significantly higher in Asia [40.02; 95% CI: 32.72-47.54] compared to Africa [28.46; 95% CI: 21.90-35.50] ( P for heterogeneity = 0.029). Moreover, there has been an increasing trend in the prevalence of anemia in patients with diabetes over time, from [15.28; 95% CI: 9.83-22.21] in 2012 to [40.70; 95% CI: 10.21-75.93] in 2022.@*CONCLUSION@#Globally, approximately 4 in 10 patients with diabetes suffer from anemia. Therefore, routine anemia screening and control programs every 3 months might be useful in improving the quality of life of these patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Prevalence , Quality of Life , Anemia/etiology , Asia/epidemiology
2.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 999-1005, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985625

ABSTRACT

Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of a risk-adapted colorectal cancer screening strategy constructed utilizing genetic and environmental risk score (ERS). Methods: A polygenic risk score (PRS) was constructed based on 20 previously published single nucleotide polymorphisms for colorectal cancer in East Asian populations, using 2 160 samples with MassARRAY test results from a multicenter randomized controlled trial of colorectal cancer screening in China. The ERS was calculated using the Asia-Pacific Colorectal Screening Score system. Logistic regression was used to analyze the association between PRS alone and PRS combined with ERS and colorectal neoplasms risk, respectively. We also designed a risk-adapted screening strategy based on PRS and ERS (high-risk participants undergo a single colonoscopy, low-risk participants undergo an annual fecal immunochemical test, and those with positive results undergo further diagnostic colonoscopy) and compared its effectiveness with the all-acceptance colonoscopy strategy. Results: The high PRS group had a 26% increased risk of colorectal neoplasms compared with the low PRS group (OR=1.26, 95%CI: 1.03-1.54, P=0.026). Participants with the highest PRS and ERS were 3.03 times more likely to develop advanced colorectal neoplasms than those with the lowest score (95%CI: 1.87-4.90, P<0.001). As the risk-adapted screening simulation reached the third round, the detection rate of the PRS combined with ERS strategy was not statistically different from the all-acceptance colonoscopy strategy (8.79% vs. 10.46%, P=0.075) and had a higher positive predictive value (14.11% vs. 10.46%, P<0.001) and lower number of colonoscopies per advanced neoplasms detected (7.1 vs. 9.6, P<0.001). Conclusion: The risk-adapted screening strategy combining PRS and ERS helps achieve population risk stratification and better effectiveness than the traditional colonoscopy-based screening strategy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Early Detection of Cancer , Risk Factors , Colorectal Neoplasms/genetics , Asia , China/epidemiology
3.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 313-321, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-984724

ABSTRACT

Objective: To analyze the trends of incidence and age change for global female breast cancer in different regions of the world according to the database from Cancer Incidence in Five Continents Time Trends (CI5plus) published by the International Association of Cancer Registries (IACR). Methods: The recorded annual female breast cancer (ICD-10: C50) incidence data and corresponding population at-risk data (1998-2012) were extracted from CI5plus published by IACR. The annual change percentage and average annual change percentage (AAPC) were calculated to examine the trends of incidence. The age-standardized mean age at diagnosis and proportion of incidence cases by age were calculated to analyze the relationship between incidence and age. Results: For crude incidence, except in Northern America, all other regions showed an upward trend, with Asia showing the most obvious upward trend (AAPC: 4.1%, 95% CI: 3.9%, 4.3%). For age-standardized incidence, in Asia, Latin America and Europe, the rising trends had slowed down, in Oceania and Africa, the trends began to be stable, and in Northern America, the trend showed a downward trend (APPC: -0.6%; 95% CI: -1.0%, -0.1%). The mean age at diagnosis were increased from 1998 to 2012 in Asia, Latin America, Oceania and Europe, with an annual increase of 0.12 years, 0.09 years, 0.04 years and 0.03 years, respectively. But after age-standardized, only Europe still kept increasing year by year, with an annual increase of 0.02 years, while Northern America showed a decreasing trend, with an annual decrease of about 0.03 years. Conclusions: From 1998 to 2012, the trends of incidence and age change for global female breast cancer vary in different regions of the world, and the global population aging is widespread, which affects the trend of the actual age change. Prevention and control strategies should be targeted at different age groups in different regions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Breast Neoplasms/epidemiology , Incidence , Asia/epidemiology , Europe/epidemiology , Risk Factors
4.
Journal of Medicine University of Santo Tomas ; (2): 1222-1228, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-998851

ABSTRACT

Background@#Stroke is currently the second leading cause of death worldwide and is one of the leading causes of long-term disability . Mood disorders are prevalent after a stroke and may hinder physical, functional, and cognitive recovery; hence, it is undeniably necessary to recognize them early. Stroke mortality is generally higher in Asia as most of the countries therein are in economic transition . Socioeconomic status is a major contributor to stroke burden as greater odds of disability are found in patients with lower educational status and income. @*Objectives@#The primary objective of this study is to identify the psychiatric morbidities commonly seen after a stroke in Asia. @*Search Methods@#The following databases were utilized for extensive literature search: PubMed (January 2002 to June 2022), Cochrane Library (January 2002 to June 2022), and EBSCO (January 2002 to June 2022). The search made use of keyword combinations, Boolean operators "AND" and "OR," truncations, and field tags last October 2022. @*Selection Criteria@#Articles on the prevalence and cross-sectional studies were included if they involved stroke survivors who developed post-stroke psychiatric morbidities in Asia. Additional inclusion criteria consisted of studies that have to be written in the English language and having free full texts available. @*Data Collection and Analysis@#This systematic review made use of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) standards and guidelines. The JBI Critical Appraisal Checklist for Studies Reporting Prevalence Data was used in the assessment for the quality of articles to be included in this systematic review. @*Results and Conclusion@#Affective disorders and generalized anxiety disorder were the common psychiatric morbidities identified post-stroke. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) may be used to diagnose post-stroke depression and anxiety. Males in their middle to late adulthood with higher National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) scores and poor stroke outcomes (higher scores in the Modified Rankin Scale) were associated with a higher likelihood of developing the aforementioned psychiatric morbidities.


Subject(s)
Depression , Anxiety , Mania , Psychotic Disorders , Asia
5.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 221-229, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969828

ABSTRACT

Objective: To demonstrate the disease burden and epidemiological characteristics of colorectal cancer in different regions by analyzing the incidence and mortality data in China and worldwide in 2020. Methods: Estimation of the incidence and mortality data of colorectal cancer were obtained from the GLOBOCAN 2020 database. The incidence, death, age standardized incidence rate (ASIR) and age standardized mortality rate (ASMR) of colorectal cancer in China and 20 regions in the world were compared. The correlation between the Human Development Index (HDI) and ASIR/ASMR was analyzed. Results: In 2020, the number of new cases of colorectal cancer in the world reached 1 931 600, and the number of deaths reached 935 200. The incidence and mortality in all regions of the world continued to rise in the age group above 50 years old. The morbidity and mortality in male were higher than those in female. East Asia ranked the highest number of incidence cases and deaths in the world, which were 740 000 and 360 100 respectively. There were significant differences in incidence and mortality among regions in the world. The highest ASIR and ASMR were observed in Northern Europe (33.61/100 000) and Eastern Europe (14.53/100 000), whereas the lowest ASIR and ASMR were both observed in South-Central Asia (5.46/100 000 and 3.16/100 000). HDI had significant exponential relationship with ASIR (r(2)=0.59, P<0.001) and ASMR (r(2)=0.38, P<0.001). There were 555 500 new cases and 286 200 death cases of colorectal cancer in China, accounting for about 30% of the world and more than 75% of East Asia. The ASIR of China was 24.07/100 000, ranking at the medium level, while the ASMR was 12.07/100 000, ranking at the high level of world. Conclusion: The incidence and mortality of colorectal cancer are highly correlated with HDI. China is one of the countries with the heaviest disease burden of colorectal cancer in the world.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Prevalence , China/epidemiology , Asia/epidemiology , Incidence , Colorectal Neoplasms/epidemiology
6.
Singapore medical journal ; : 155-162, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969674

ABSTRACT

Addressing weight stigma is essential to obesity management as it causes inequalities in healthcare and impacts the outcomes of health. This narrative review summarises systematic review findings about the presence of weight bias in healthcare professionals, and interventions to reduce weight bias or stigma in these professionals. Two databases (PubMed and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature [CINAHL]) were searched. Seven eligible reviews were identified from 872 search results. Four reviews identified the presence of weight bias, and three investigated trials to reduce weight bias or stigma in healthcare professionals. The findings may help further research and the treatment, health and well-being of individuals with overweight or obesity in Singapore. Weight bias was prevalent among qualified and student healthcare professionals globally, and there is a lack of clear guidance for effective interventions to reduce it, particularly in Asia. Future research is essential to identify the issues and inform initiatives to reduce weight bias and stigma among healthcare professionals in Singapore.


Subject(s)
Humans , Weight Prejudice , Singapore , Asia , Databases, Factual , Health Facilities
7.
Acta Medica Philippina ; : 10-16, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-980230

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#Early studies on COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy showed varied intensity across countries, which was linked to various factors such as socio-economic conditions, information sources, and issues of trust in government, scientific experts, and the health sector. This study aims to evaluate the determinants of vaccine hesitancy to offer insights into the strategies that may be successful in designing communications campaigns for enhanced vaccination uptake. @*Methods@#Through logistic regression, this study examines correlates of survey data from five Southeast Asian countries, namely Indonesia (ID), Malaysia (MY), Philippines (PH), Thailand (TH), Vietnam (VN) collected by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Initiative on Digital Economy and Facebook between July 2020 and March 2021.@*Results@#Some significant determinants at the 5% or 1% level of significance of COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy in the countries of interest include gender [ID: 1.17 (1.01, 1.15), MY: 1.35 (1.2,1.53), PH: 1.92 (1.68,2.19), VN: 1.28 (1.04,1.58)], age [MY:1.11 (1.06,1.17), PH: 0.92 (0.88, 0.97), TH: 1.17 (1.11, 1.23)], knowing someone who tested positive for COVID-19 [ID: 0.75 (0.65,0.88), MY: 0.82 (0.71,0.95), PH: 0.76 (0.67, 0.87), TH: 0.76 (0.59, 0.99), VN: 0.72 (0.54,0.97)], and perceived effectiveness of mask wearing [ID: 0.83 (0.74, 0.94), MY: 0.86 (0.79, 0.95), TH: 0.88 (0.8,0.98)]. Vaccine hesitancy is particularly strong among women in 3 countries—peaking at 52% in Indonesia, 42% in Malaysia, and 56% in the Philippines.@*Conclusion@#Results from the survey highlight the significance of a targeted vaccine education and research campaign. This study calls for streamlining of communications campaigns towards messages that promote vaccine uptake in the region, while better targeting those groups most vulnerable guided by the empirical findings herein.


Subject(s)
Asia
8.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e240219, 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285585

ABSTRACT

Snow leopard (Panthera unica) is a felid which lives in the highly rugged areas of alpine regions in different mountain ranges of South and Central Asia. This solitary animal needs large spaces for its ranges but due to climate change and relatively faster rate of global warming in South Asian mountain ranges, its habitat is going to shrink and fragment by tree-line shifts and change in hydrology of the area. Vegetative modification of montane flora and competition with domestic goats will create its prey's population to decline along with a chance of a direct conflict and competition with the common leopard. Common leopard being more adaptable, grouped, and larger in size can be a significant stressor for a smaller and solitary snow leopard. Habitat would shrink, and snow leopard can possibly move upslope or northward to central Asian ranges and their predicted migratory patterns are unknown.


O leopardo-das-neves (Panthera uncia) é um felídeo que vive nas áreas altamente acidentadas das regiões alpinas, em diferentes cadeias de montanhas do sul e do centro da Ásia. A revisão atual tem o objetivo de abordar a questão da possível perda de hábitat do leopardo da neve em razão da interferência humana nas montanhas do sul e do centro da Ásia. Esse animal solitário precisa de grandes espaços para suas faixas, mas, devido às mudanças climáticas e à taxa relativamente mais rápida de aquecimento global nas cadeias montanhosas do sul da Ásia, seu hábitat vai encolher e fragmentar-se por mudanças nas linhas de árvores e na hidrologia da área. Este artigo teve o objetivo de rever vários estudos sobre os impactos das mudanças climáticas em um futuro próximo e distante sobre os hábitats do leopardo-da-neve. O estudo revelou que a modificação vegetativa da flora da montanha e a competição com cabras domésticas poderiam ocasionar na diminuição da população de suas presas, com a chance de um conflito direto e competição com leopardo comum. Leopardo comum sendo mais adaptável, agrupado e maior em tamanho pode ser um estressor significativo para um leopardo-da-neve menor e solitário. Conclusão: devido ao encolhimento do hábitat, o leopardo-da-neve pode, possivelmente, mover-se para cima ou para o norte, para faixas da Ásia Central com padrões migratórios não previstos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Felidae , Panthera , Asia , Climate Change , Ecosystem , Conservation of Natural Resources
9.
Philippine Journal of Health Research and Development ; (4): 61-72, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-987159

ABSTRACT

Background@#India has the highest incidence of retinoblastoma globally and is one of the six Asian countries identified to contribute 43% to the global retinoblastoma cases. Data on clinical presentation, treatment, and outcomes were reviewed which can serve as basis in the creation of clinical guidelines, policies and programs, and resource allocation in the diagnosis and management of retinoblastoma in India. @*Methodology@#Articles on retinoblastoma in India gathered from different databases were reviewed for clinical features, treatment, and outcomes. @*Result@#Fourteen articles with 3,666 patients involving around 4,945 eyes seen from 1983-2017 were reviewed. The median age at consult ranged from 14-48 months. The median delay of consult ranged from 2-9 months. Majority of the patients were males (59%) and unilateral disease was present in 63%. Family history was reported in 4%. Retinoblastoma was intraocular in at least 75% of eyes. Systemic chemotherapy was the most used treatment option given to >2,042 eyes. Enucleation was done in >1,695 eyes. The mean follow-up period ranged from 4-50 months. Three hundred fifty six (356) patients were lost to follow-up. The functional vision was retained in 134 eyes. The globe salvage rate for Group A was 100%, 94-100% for Group B, and 50-100% in Group C. The highest globe salvage rate for Group D eyes was 85% and 58% for group E. The overall survival rate was 75% (2,233 patients).@*Conclusion@#Common among the articles was the relatively high proportion of extraocular disease attributed to delay in consult attributed to financial factors and lack of knowledge on the disease.


Subject(s)
Retinoblastoma , Therapeutics , India , Asia
10.
Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery ; (12): 612-620, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-943043

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the effects of high risk factors questionnaire (HRFQ), Asia-Pacific colorectal screening (APCS) score and their combinations with fecal immunochemical test (FIT) in screening advanced colorectal neoplasia, in order to provide an evidence for further optimization of cancer screening program. Methods: A retrospective cohort study method was used to summarize and analyze the results of colorectal tumor screening in Jiashan County, Zhejiang Province from March 2017 to July 2018. Those with severe diseases that were not suitable for colonoscopy and those with mental and behavioral abnormalities who can not cooperate with the screening were excluded. Those who met any one or more of the followings in the HRFQ questionnaire were classified as high-risk people of HRFQ: (1) first-degree relatives with a history of colorectal cancer; (2) subjects with a history of cancer or any other malignant tumor; (3) subjects with a history of intestinal polyps; (4) those with two or more of the followings: chronic constipation (constipation lasted for more than 2 months per year in the past two years), chronic diarrhea (diarrhea lasted for more than 3 months in the past two years, and the duration of each episode was more than one week), mucus and bloody stools, history of adverse life events (occurring within the past 20 years and causing greater trauma or distress to the subject after the event), history of chronic appendicitis or appendectomy, history of chronic biliary disease or cholecystectomy. In this study, those who were assessed as high risk by HRFQ were recorded as "HRFQ (+)", and those who were not at high risk were recorded as "HRFQ (-)". The APCS questionnaire provided risk scores based on 4 risk factors including age, gender, family history and smoking: (1) age: 2 points for 50-69 years old, 3 points for 70 years old and above; (2) gender: 1 point for male, 0 point for women; (3) family history: 2 points for first-degree relatives suffering from colorectal cancer; (4) smoking: 1 point for current or past smoking, 0 point for non-smokers. The population was divided into low-risk (0-1 point), intermediate-risk (2-3 points), and high-risk (4-7 points). Those who were assessed as high risk by APCS were recorded as "APCS (+)", and those with intermediate and low risk were recorded as "APCS (-)". The hemoglobin threshold for a positive FIT was set to 100 μg/L. Those who were assessed as high risk by APCS with positive FIT were recorded as "APCS+FIT (+)". Those who were assessed as high risk by APCS with negative FIT, those who were assessed by APCS as low-middle risk with positive FIT, and those who were assessed by APCS as low-middle with negative FIT were all recorded as "APCS+FIT(-)". Observation indicators in this study were as follows: (1) the screening compliance rate of the cohort and the detection of advanced colorectal tumors; (2) positive predictive value, negative predictive value, sensitivity and specificity of HRFQ and APCS and their combination with FIT for screening advanced colorectal tumors; (3) comparison of the detection rate between HRFQ and APCS questionnaire for different colorectal lesions. Using SPSS 21.0 software, the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was drawn to evaluate the clinical value of HRFQ and APCS combined with FIT in screening advanced colorectal tumors. Results: From 2017 to 2018 in Jiashan County, a total of 53 268 target subjects were screened, and 42 093 people actually completed the questionnaire, with a compliance rate of 79.02%. A total of 8145 cases underwent colonoscopy. A total of 3607 cases among HRFQ positive population (5320 cases) underwent colonoscopy, and the colonoscopy compliance rate was 67. 80%; 8 cases were diagnosed with colorectal cancer and 88 cases were advanced colorectal adenoma. A total of 2977 cases among APCS positive population (11 942 cases) underwent colonoscopy, and the colonoscopy compliance rate was 24.93%; 17 cases were diagnosed with colorectal cancer and 148 cases were advanced colorectal adenoma. The positive rate of HRFQ screening was lower than that of APCS [12.6% (5320/42 093) vs. 28.4% (11 942/42 093), χ2=3195. 547, P<0.001]. In the FIT positive population (6223 cases), a total of 4894 cases underwent colonoscopy, and the colonoscopy compliance rate was 78.64%; 34 cases were diagnosed with colorectal cancer and 224 cases were advanced adenoma. The positive predictive values of HRFQ and APCS and their combination with FIT for screening advanced colorectal tumors were 2.67%, 5.54%, 5.44%, and 8.56%; negative predictive values were 94.89%, 96.85%, 96.11% and 96.99%; sensitivity was 29.27%, 50.30%, 12.20 % and 39.02%; specificity was 55.09%, 64.03%, 91.11% and 82.51%, respectively. The ROC curves constructed by HRFQ, APCS, FIT, HRFQ+FIT and APCS+FIT indicated that APCS+FIT presented the highest efficacy in screening advanced colorectal tumors (AUC: 0.608, 95%CI: 0.574-0.642). The comparison of the detection rates of different colorectal lesions between HRFQ and APCS questionnaires showed that there were no significant differences in detection rate of inflammatory polyps and hyperplastic polyps between the two questionnaires (both P>0.05). However, as compared to HRFQ questionnaire, APCS questionnaire had higher detection rates in non-advanced adenomas [26.10% (777/2977) vs. 19.43% (701/3607), χ2=51.228, P<0.001], advanced adenoma [4.97% (148/2977) vs. 2.44% (88/3607), χ2=30.249, P<0.001] and colorectal cancer [0.57% (17 /2977) vs. 0.22% (8/3607), χ2=5.259, P=0.022]. Conclusions: APCS has a higher detection rate of advanced colorectal tumors than HRFQ. APCS combined with FIT can further improve the effectiveness of advanced colorectal tumor screening.


Subject(s)
Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Adenoma/diagnosis , Asia , Colonoscopy , Colorectal Neoplasms/pathology , Constipation , Diarrhea , Early Detection of Cancer/methods , Feces , Mass Screening/methods , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires
11.
Journal of Peking University(Health Sciences) ; (6): 536-542, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-942214

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To analyze the recent severity of COVID-19 in various countries.@*METHODS@#Data were ollected on the epidemic situation of COVID-19 in various countries as of January 16, 2021, and the scale and overall trend of the epidemic were retrospectively described; combined with the recent trend of newly confirmed cases, from January 10 to 16 (the 54th week) and the newly confirmed cases indexes, such as the number and incidence density the severity of the epidemic was classified. Feasible suggestions were put forward based on the variation of the virus, actual data of vaccine research and development and possible existence in many countries.@*RESULTS@#Up to January 16, 2021, there were 92 510 419 confirmed cases worldwide; 4 849 301 new confirmed cases were confirmed in the 54th week, and they were still growing. Among all the continents, the cumulative number of confirmed cases in Europe, North America, and Asia has exceeded 21 million, and the number of new confirmed cases in a single week in North America, South America and Asia were all increasing. Among the countries, the cumulative number of confirmed cases in 18 countries including the United States, India, and Brazil was more than 1 million, accounting for 77.04% of the total number of cumulative confirmed cases in the world. Eleven countries including the United States, Brazil, France, Spain, Colombia, The United Kingdom, Russia, Germany, South Africa, Italy, and India are at higher risk of the epidemic; The United States, Brazil, France, Spain, and Colombia were still experiencing new confirmed cases and increasing status, the risk of the epidemic was greater. Novel coronavirus mutates frequently, up to February 2021, there had been 3 931 mutant genotypes in the world. At the same time, a total of 11 vaccines were successfully launched, however we were still facing some troubles, such as the global shortage of vaccines, the public's willingness to vaccinate needed to be improved, and equity in the distribution of vaccines.@*CONCLUSION@#The global epidemic situation is still getting worse, with repeated epidemics in all the continents and countries, and has not been fundamentally controlled. At the continent level, North America, South America, and Europe have the most severe epidemics; at the national level, The United States, Brazil, France, Spain, Colombia and other countries have higher epidemic risks. Focusing on the severely affected countries will help bring the global epidemic under control as soon as possible. Under the premise of ensuring the safety and effectiveness of the vaccines, it is a key and feasible direction to improve the yield and vaccination rate of the vaccines, shorten the onset time of the vaccines and prolong the immune persistence.


Subject(s)
Humans , Asia , Brazil , COVID-19 , Europe , France , India , Italy , North America , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Spain , United Kingdom , United States
13.
Hist. ciênc. saúde-Manguinhos ; 27(supl.1): 29-48, Sept. 2020.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134097

ABSTRACT

Abstract According to David Fidler, the governance of infectious diseases evolved from the mid-nineteenth to the twenty-first century as a series of institutional arrangements: the International Sanitary Regulations (non-interference and disease control at borders), the World Health Organization vertical programs (malaria and smallpox eradication campaigns), and a post-Westphalian regime standing beyond state-centrism and national interest. But can international public health be reduced to such a Westphalian image? We scrutinize three strategies that brought health borders into prominence: pre-empting weak states (eastern Mediterranean in the nineteenth century); preventing the spread of disease through nation-building (Macedonian public health system in the 1920s); and debordering the fight against epidemics (1920-1921 Russian-Polish war and the Warsaw 1922 Sanitary Conference).


Resumo Segundo David Fidler, a gestão de doenças infecciosas entre meados do século XIX e e o XXI guiou-se por uma série de acordos institucionais: Regulamento Sanitário Internacional (não interferência e controle de doenças em fronteiras), programas verticais da OMS (campanhas de erradicação da malária e varíola), e posicionamento pós-vestefaliano além do estado-centrismo e interesse nacional. Mas pode a saúde pública internacional ser reduzida à tal imagem vestefaliana? Examinamos três estratégias que destacaram as fronteiras sanitárias: prevenção em estados vulneráveis (Mediterrâneo oriental, século XIX); prevenção à disseminação de doenças via construção nacional (sistema público de saúde macedônico, anos 1920); remoção de fronteiras no combate às epidemias (guerra polaco-soviética, 1920-1921 e Conferência Sanitária de Varsóvia, 1922).


Subject(s)
History, 18th Century , History, 19th Century , History, 20th Century , History, 21st Century , Public Health Practice/history , Communicable Disease Control/history , Politics , Asia , World Health Organization/history , Quarantine/history , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Global Health/history , Europe , Hospitals, Isolation/history , Malaria/history , Malaria/prevention & control
14.
Endocrinology and Metabolism ; : 157-164, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-816617

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas (PPGLs) are rare endocrine tumors originating from chromaffin cells. PPGLs are associated with a high mortality rate and several complications. To date, no epidemiological studies have been conducted on PPGLs in Asia. This study aimed to investigate the epidemiology and prognosis of PPGLs in Korea using nationwide data.METHODS: Using the National Health Insurance Service Database, subjects with a principal diagnosis of PPGLs on two or more occasions between 2003 and 2014 who satisfied the operational definition of PPGLs were included. Incidence, prevalence, complications, metastasis, and mortality were investigated.RESULTS: In total, 1048 subjects with a mean age of 47.6±16.1 years were included. There was no sex preponderance. The overall prevalence of PPGLs was 2.13 per 100,000 persons, and the overall age-standardized incidence rate was 0.18 per 100,000 person-years. Malignant PPGLs accounted for 17.7% (185 of 1,048) of cases, and 94 subjects exhibited metastasis at the time of diagnosis. Among initially non-metastatic PPGLs, 9.5% (nine of 954) eventually metastasized after a mean duration of 78.1±41.4 months. The 5-year survival rates for non-metastatic and metastatic PPGLs at diagnosis were 97% and 84%, respectively. Multivariable Cox regression models adjusted for covariates showed that metastatic PPGLs were associated with a 2.40-fold higher risk of mortality than non-metastatic PPGLs (95% confidence interval, 1.38 to 4.17; P=0.002).CONCLUSION: PPGLs are rare in Korea, and the prognosis of these endocrine tumors varies depending on whether they are benign or malignant. This epidemiological study paves the way for further research on PPGLs.


Subject(s)
Humans , Asia , Chromaffin Cells , Diagnosis , Epidemiologic Studies , Epidemiology , Incidence , Korea , Mortality , National Health Programs , Neoplasm Metastasis , Paraganglioma , Pheochromocytoma , Prevalence , Prognosis , Survival Rate
15.
Journal of the Korean Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons ; : 66-69, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811267

ABSTRACT

Hydatid disease is a zoonotic infection in humans. The disease is endemic in some parts of the world, including Africa, Australia, and Asia, where cattle grazing is common; the disease is spread by an enteric route following the consumption of food contaminated with the eggs of the parasite. Failure to identify this parasite results in delayed diagnosis and increased morbidity to the patient. Upon diagnosis, every possible step should be taken, both surgical and medical, to prevent anaphylactic reactions from the cystic fluid. Postsurgical long-term follow up along with periodical ultrasonography of the liver and computed tomography scan of the abdomen is essential to rule out possible recurrence.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Humans , Abdomen , Africa , Anaphylaxis , Asia , Australia , Delayed Diagnosis , Diagnosis , Echinococcosis , Eggs , Follow-Up Studies , Liver , Ovum , Parasites , Recurrence , Ultrasonography , Zoonoses
16.
Diabetes & Metabolism Journal ; : 11-32, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811151

ABSTRACT

The prevalence of obesity in Asia is of epidemic proportions, with an estimated 1 billion overweight/obese individuals in the region. The majority of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are overweight/obese, which increases the risk of cardiorenal outcomes in these patients; hence, sustained reductions in body weight and visceral adiposity are important management goals. However, most of the glucose-lowering therapies such as insulin, sulfonylureas, glinides, and thiazolidinediones induce weight gain, which makes the management of overweight/obese T2DM patients challenging. Sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors are the only oral glucose-lowering agents that have been shown to reduce body weight and visceral adiposity. In addition, SGLT-2 inhibitors therapy reduces ectopic fat deposition and improves adipose tissue function and weight-related quality of life. In this article, we aim to consolidate the existing literature on the effects of SGLT-2 inhibitors in Asian patients with T2DM and to produce clinical recommendations on their use in overweight or obese patients with T2DM. Recommendations from international and regional guidelines, as well as published data from clinical trials in Asian populations and cardiovascular outcomes trials are reviewed. Based on the available data, SGLT-2 inhibitors represent an evidence-based therapeutic option for the management of overweight/obese patients with T2DM.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adipose Tissue , Adiposity , Asia , Asian People , Body Weight , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Insulin , Obesity , Obesity, Abdominal , Overweight , Prevalence , Quality of Life , Thiazolidinediones , Weight Gain
17.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 5-14, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-782174
20.
Asia Pacific Allergy ; (4): 6-2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785459

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of peanut allergy (PA) among children has increased significantly over the past decade. Even though the prevalence of PA in Singapore is considered low, peanut is the top trigger for food-induced anaphylaxis in Singaporean children.OBJECTIVE: To describe the demographic characteristics and clinical features of children with PA.METHODS: This is a 5-year retrospective review of children diagnosed with PA based on clinical history coupled with a positive skin prick test to peanut or positive oral food challenge results.RESULTS: There were 269 patients (53.9% males) with a clinical diagnosis of PA. The median age at first allergic presentation for the PA group was 24 months old, with interquartile range of 13–39 months. The most common form of peanut introduced was roasted peanut. The rate of peanut anaphylaxis was 7.1%. Concomitant tree nut sensitization was found in 32.3% of this cohort, predominantly to cashew nut. Majority of them have a personal history of atopy – 75.8% with eczema, 63.6% with allergic rhinitis, and 19.7% with asthma.CONCLUSION: This is the first large review of peanut-allergic children in Singapore. Prospective population-based studies are needed to establish the true prevalence and risk factors associated with the development of this potentially life-threatening condition.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Anacardium , Anaphylaxis , Arachis , Asia , Asthma , Cohort Studies , Diagnosis , Eczema , Nuts , Peanut Hypersensitivity , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , Rhinitis, Allergic , Risk Factors , Singapore , Skin , Trees
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL