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1.
Rev. bras. ortop ; 57(5): 741-746, Sept.-Oct. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1407699

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective Aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid, ASA) and rivaroxaban are anticoagulants that have increased in popularity due to ease of use in the prevention of venous thromboembolism (VTE) after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The present study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of ASA compared with that of rivaroxaban on VTE prophylaxis in patients who underwent TKA. Method Forty patients who had primary knee osteoarthritis and would undergo TKA were randomized into two groups. In total, 20 patients in the ASA group used oral aspirin, at a dose of 300 mg/day, for VTE prophylaxis after TKA, while 20 patients in the rivaroxaban group received oral rivaroxaban, at a dose of 10 mg/day. On days 4 and 14 after the operation, deep vein thrombosis (DVT) in the lower limbs on the operated side was detected through duplex ultrasonography. Other complications were recorded for 14 days. Results There were no positive findings of DVT detected with duplex ultrasonography in the groups of patients, and the occurrence of pulmonary embolism was not observed. In total, 4 patients had subcutaneous ecchymosis on the fourth postoperative day (2 patients in the ASA group and 2 patients in the rivaroxaban group; p= 1.0), and another 4 patients on the fourteenth postoperative day (1 patient in the ASA group and 3 patients in the rivaroxaban group; p= 0.292). No cases of wound hematoma, major organ bleeding, wound infection, or reoperation were observed in the sample. Conclusion Aspirin and rivaroxaban had comparable efficacy to prevent VTE, without increasing the incidence of wound complications and bleeding after TKA.


Resumo Objetivo A aspirina (ácido acetilsalicílico, AAS) e a rivaroxabana são anticoagulantes que vêm ganhando popularidade devido à facilidade de uso na prevenção do tromboembolismo venoso (TEV) após artroplastia total do joelho (ATJ). Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a eficácia do AAS em comparação com a da rivaroxabana na profilaxia de TEV em pacientes submetidos a ATJ. Método Quarenta pacientes com osteoartrite primária do joelho, que seriam submetidos a ATJ, foram randomizados em dois grupos. No total, 20 pacientes do grupo AAS usaram aspirina oral, na dose de 300 mg/dia, para a profilaxia do TEV após ATJ; e 20 pacientes do grupo rivaroxabana receberam uma dose oral de 10 mg/dia. No 4° e 14° dias do pós-operatório, trombose venosa profunda (TVP) dos membros inferiores no lado da cirurgia foi detectada por meio de ultrassonografia duplex. Foram registradas outras complicações durante catorze dias. Resultados Não foram detectados achados positivos de TVP com a ultrassonografia duplex nos grupos de pacientes, e não se observou a ocorrência de embolia pulmonar. No total, 4 pacientes apresentaram equimose subcutânea no 4° dia do pós-operatório (2 pacientes no grupo AAS e 2 pacientes no grupo rivaroxabana; p= 1,0), e outros 4 pacientes, no 14° dia do pós-operatório (1 paciente no grupo AAS e 3 pacientes no grupo rivaroxabana; p= 0,292). Nenhum paciente da amostra apresentou hematoma da ferida cirúrgica, sangramento de órgão importante, infecção da ferida, ou necessidade de nova cirurgia. Conclusão A aspirina e a rivaroxabana apresentaram eficácia comparável na prevenção do TEV, sem aumentar a incidência de complicações da ferida e sangramento após ATJ.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aspirin/therapeutic use , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee , Venous Thromboembolism/prevention & control , Rivaroxaban/therapeutic use , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use
2.
Int. j. high dilution res ; 21(1): 24-24, May 6, 2022.
Article in English | LILACS, HomeoIndex | ID: biblio-1396564

ABSTRACT

Under LPS-stimulus, platelets can activate macrophagesby a cell-to-cell contact or through cytokine degranulation. Rebound effects of anti-thrombotic agents, such as prostanoids and COX inhibitors can lead to thrombosis, infarct, and stroke. Aspirin has been prescribed for decades due to its powerful antiplatelet action, but it is also related to paradoxical effects such as withdrawal syndrome peaks, resistance, and thrombogenesis. Ultra-diluted aspirin can also produce the same effect in one hour, regardless of Cox-2, by still unknown pathways. Antithrombotic effects of aspirin are also reversed by its high dilutions.Aims: This study aims to characterize the effects of aspirin 15cH on macrophages challenged with LPS, a Cox-2 activator.Methodology: RAW 264.7 macrophages were sown in 24 wells plates using R10medium, boosted with 1µg/ml LPS,and treated with aspirin 15 cH and controls. The activity was evaluated after 24 hours. Supernatants were evaluated for cytokines, nitric oxide, and dielectric oscillations, through solvatochromic dyes (Cartwright's method).Results and discussion: macrophage spreading was increased by aspirin 15 cH, anLPS-like effect. Paradoxically, a significant reduction of this effect was noted when both, LPS and aspirin 15 cH, were added. Succussed water reversed the effect of LPS, leading to TNF (p<0.05) production close to baseline levels. Also, the single treatment with succussed water inhibited IL-10 production (p<0.05), but aspirin 200 µg/mL (positive control) highly increased it (p<0.0001), showing the validity of the model. Nitric oxide production was strengthened by LPS presence (p<0.0001), as expected, but partially downregulated after treatment with aspirin 200 µg/mL, water and succussed water. A pilot study with solvatochromic dyes showed no significant difference among treatments.Conclusion: The main data suggest that aspirin 15 cH increases macrophage activity but presents a paradoxal effect when mixed with LPS. On the other hand, succussed water itself has modulatory effects on macrophages.


Subject(s)
Preparation Scales , Aspirin/therapeutic use , Macrophage Activation
3.
Rev. Odontol. Araçatuba (Impr.) ; 43(1): 31-40, jan.-abr. 2022. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1361656

ABSTRACT

Introdução: A Doença Periodontal tem caráter multifatorial, já que depende de condições microbiológicas, imunogenéticas e sistêmicas do hospedeiro. Representa inflamação crônica das estruturas de suporte e proteção dental. Desencadeia uma complexa estimulação imunológica, bem como a produção de citocinas inflamatórias, que mediam a destruição óssea e de tecido conjuntivo, provocando perda dental e complicações à distância. A compreensão da etiopatogênese, permitiu os conceitos de modulação, que referem-se às modificações dos aspectos danosos da resposta inflamatória. Objetivo: O presente artigo tem como objetivo realizar uma revisão dos estudos sobre as principais terapêuticas adjuvantes na modulação da resposta imune frente à doença periodontal. Revisão de Literatura: Foi realizada uma revisão da literatura, onde foram selecionados artigos científicos em inglês, publicados entre os anos 2005 a 2020, por meio das bases de dados PubMed e ScienceDirect. No decorrer das buscas, foram utilizadas as palavraschaves "Inflamation", "Periodontal Disease", "Subantimicrobial Dose of Doxycycline", "Periodontal Disease", "Host Response Modulation". Resultados e Conclusão: A literatura é bem promissora em relação à terapia de controle complementar da doença periodontal. Dessa forma, novas pesquisas nessa área podem trazer inúmeros beneficos aos pacientes, sendo, assim, um novo caminho para o contorno da resistência bacteriana(AU)


Introduction: Periodontal disease has a multifactorial character, depending on the host's microbiological, immunogenetic and systemic conditions. It represents chronic inflammation of dental support and protection structures. It triggers a complex immune stimulation, as well as the production of inflammatory cytokines, which mediate bone and connective tissue destruction, causing tooth loss and complications at a distance. The understanding of etiopathogenesis allowed the concepts of modulation, which refers to the modifications of the harmful aspects of the inflammatory response. This article has the escape of conducting a review of studies on the main mechanisms of modulation against periodontal disease. Objective: This article aims to rev iew the studies on the main modulation mechanisms in the face of periodontal disease. Literature Review: A literature review was carried out in which scientific articles were selected in English, published between 2005 and 2020, through the PubMed and ScienceDirect databases. During the searches, the keywords "Inflammation", "Periodontal Disease", "Subantimicrobial Dose of Doxycycline", "Periodontal Disease", "Host Response Modulation". Results and Conclusion: The literature is very promising with complementary control therapy for periodontal disease. Thus, new research in this area can bring countless benefits to patients, thus being a new way to bypass bacterial resistance(AU)


Subject(s)
Periodontal Diseases/therapy , Doxycycline , Periodontal Diseases , Periodontitis , Prostaglandins E , Dinoprostone , Fatty Acids, Omega-3 , Aspirin , Probiotics , Matrix Metalloproteinases , Matrix Metalloproteinase Inhibitors
4.
Chinese Journal of Cardiology ; (12): 466-470, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935171

ABSTRACT

Objective: To compare the efficacy and safety between indobufen and aspirin in the prevention of restenosis of bridge vessels at 1 year after off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting. Methods: This study was a prospective cohort study. We selected 152 patients who received coronary artery bypass grafting in Beijing Anzhen Hospital from December 2016 to December 2018. Patients were divided into the indobufen group and the aspirin group. Patients in the aspirin group were treated with aspirin and clopidogrel, and patients in the indobufen group were treated with indobufen and clopidogrel. During the 1-year follow-up, the rate of restenosis of saphenous vein bridge and internal mammary artery bridge, the rate of adverse cardiac events and adverse reactions were compared between the two groups. The levels of fibrinogen (FIB), D-dimer (D-D), thrombomodulin (TM) and thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI) were compared before and after antiplatelet therapy. Results: There were 76 cases in the indobufen group, including 57 males (75.0%), aged (60.3±6.6) years. There were 76 cases in the aspirin group, including 62 males (81.6%), aged (59.7±7.2) years. Baseline data were comparable between the two groups (P>0.05). During the follow-up, 3 cases were lost to follow up. Follow-up was completed in 74 patients in the indobufen group and 75 in the aspirin group. A total of 268 bridging vessels were grafted in the indobufen group and 272 in the aspirin group. One year after surgery, the patency rates of great saphenous vein bridge and internal mammary artery bridge were 94.5% (189/200) and 97.1% (66/68) in the indobuphen group, and 91.3% (189/207) and 96.9% (63/65) in the aspirin group, respectively. There was no significant difference in patency rate of great saphenous vein bridge and internal mammary artery bridge between the two groups (χ²=0.282, 0.345, P>0.05). The total incidence of adverse cardiac events was 5.4% (4/74) in the indobufen group and 6.7% (5/75) in the aspirin group (χ²=0.126, P>0.05). The overall incidence of gastrointestinal adverse reactions was significantly lower in the indobufen group than in the aspirin group (4.1% (3/74) vs. 13.3% (10/75), χ²=4.547, P<0.05). The levels of FIB, D-D, TM and TAFI in the two groups were lower than those before surgery (P<0.05), and there was no statistical significance between the two groups at baseline and post-operation (P>0.05). Conclusion: The efficacy of indobufen combined with clopidogrel in the prevention of 1-year restenosis after coronary artery bypass graft is similar to that of aspirin combined with clopidogrel, but the incidence of adverse reactions is lower, and the safety is higher in patients treated with indobufen combined with clopidogrel compared to aspirin combined with clopidogrel strategy.


Subject(s)
Aspirin/therapeutic use , Clopidogrel/therapeutic use , Coronary Artery Bypass/adverse effects , Drug Therapy, Combination , Humans , Isoindoles , Male , Phenylbutyrates , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Prospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939815

ABSTRACT

In this study, we reported a young male patient with acute chest pain who was diagnosed as myocardial infarction. The regular medication was performed following coronary intervention. Under such condition, this patient had 3 times myocardial infarction within a half month. The laboratory results showed that there might be a state of hypercoagulability. Aspirin combined with clopidogrel and other treatment were administrated. Meanwhile, the examination demonstrated that there was aspirin-resistant in the patient. The antiplatelet drug and extended anticoagulation therapy were carried out. There was no further myocardial infarction, and no coronary arteries stenosis was found in the re-examination angiography. Aspirin resistance and hypercoagulability should be considered when patients occurred the repeated myocardial infarction after regular medication and coronary intervention. Replacement of the antiplatelet treatment or combination with anticoagulant therapy is necessary in similar patient to avoid the sever consequence.


Subject(s)
Aspirin/therapeutic use , Clopidogrel/therapeutic use , Drug Therapy, Combination , Humans , Male , Myocardial Infarction/drug therapy , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Thrombophilia/drug therapy , Treatment Outcome
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939802

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#Steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs have certain side effects in the treatment of hypertrophic scar, and the scar recurrence is easy after withdrawal of steroid anti-inflammatory drugs. Finding reliable alternative drugs is an effective means to improve this defect. Aspirin, a traditional non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, is safe for topical use and has anti-inflammatory effects similar to those of steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, which may have similar effects on the treatment of hypertrophic scar. This study aims to investigate the inhibitory effect of aspirin on the proliferation of hypertrophic scar in rabbit ears and the underlying mechanism.@*METHODS@#The rabbit ear hypertrophic scar models were prepared. The rabbits were randomly divided into a normal skin group (group A), a blank control group (group B), a 0.9% NaCl group (group C), a 0.2% aspirin group (group D), a 0.5% aspirin group (group E), a 2% aspirin group (group F), and a triamcinolone acetonide group (group G). Macroscopic observation of hyperplasia was performed 8 weeks after local injection of the scar, followed by collecting the scar tissue samples for HE staining, Masson staining, and immunohistochemistry, respectively to assess the proliferation of fibroblasts and collagen fibers, and calculate the hypertrophic index, microvessel density, and immunohistochemical score.@*RESULTS@#All rabbit ear hypertrophic scar models were successfully constructed. In groups B and C, the hypertrophic scar edge was irregular, with reddish protruding epidermis, significant contracture and hard touch. In group D, E, and F, with the increase of aspirin administration concentration, the scar became thinner and gradually flat, the proliferation of fibrocytes and collagen fibers was weakened, and the hypertrophic index was gradually decreased (P<0.05). Immunohistochemistry showed that the expression of β-catenin was decreased in the group D, E and F in turn, and the immunohistochemical score was gradually decreased (P<0.05). There was no significant difference in hypertrophic index, microvessel density, and immunohistochemical score (all P>0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Local injection of aspirin can reduce the generation of hypertrophic scar in a dose-dependent manner within a certain concentration range; aspirin inhibits the growth of hypertrophic scar in rabbit ears by inhibiting Wnt/β-catenin signal pathway; 2% aspirin and 40 mg/mL triamcinolone acetonide have similar curative efficacy on hypertrophic scar.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Aspirin/therapeutic use , Cicatrix, Hypertrophic/pathology , Collagen , Rabbits , Signal Transduction , Triamcinolone Acetonide/therapeutic use , beta Catenin/metabolism
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939636

ABSTRACT

Kawasaki disease (KD) is one of the common acquired heart diseases in children aged <5 years and is an acute systemic vasculitis. After nearly 60 years of research, intravenous immunoglobulin combined with oral aspirin has become the first-line treatment for the prevention of coronary artery lesion in acute KD; however, there are still controversies over the role and optimal dose of aspirin. The consensus was formulated based on the latest research findings of KD treatment in China and overseas and comprehensive discussion of pediatric experts in China and put forward recommendations on the dose, usage, and course of aspirin treatment in the first-line treatment of KD.


Subject(s)
Aspirin/therapeutic use , Child , Consensus , Coronary Vessels/pathology , Humans , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/pathology
8.
Arch. pediatr. Urug ; 93(nspe1): e312, 2022. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BNUY, UY-BNMED | ID: biblio-1393874

ABSTRACT

En abril de 2020, durante el pico de la pandemia COVID-19 producida por el coronavirus emergente SARS-CoV-2, en el Reino Unido se comunicaron casos de shock hiperinflamatorio de características similares a la enfermedad de Kawasaki y el síndrome de shock tóxico en un grupo de ocho niños. El Royal College of Pediatrics and Child Health lo denominó síndrome inflamatorio multisistémico pediátrico temporalmente asociado con COVID-19 (SIM-C). Actualmente, el SIM-C es una enfermedad infrecuente, solapada con otras entidades, que requiere una alta sospecha clínica para identificarlo oportunamente. El síndrome inflamatorio multisistémico temporal asociado con SARS-CoV-2 pediátrico (PIMST) es una nueva entidad clínica con un amplio espectro de presentación postexposición al virus, inmunomediado con hiperinflamación y activación de una tormenta de citoquinas. Ocurre típicamente entre la segunda y cuarta semana de evolución. Se describen marcadores de inflamación característicamente elevados, como son la ferritina, proteína C reactiva (PCR), velocidad de eritrosedimentación (VES), lactato deshidrogenasa y dímero-D, asociados a neutropenia, linfopenia y anemia. La Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) define: caso a menores de 19 años con fiebre ≥3 días, marcadores inflamatorios elevados, evidencia de infección por SARS-CoV-2 y ninguna otra etiología microbiana; con afectación de al menos dos sistemas: dermatológico (rash, conjuntivitis no exudativa, inflamación mucocutánea), hemodinámico (hipotensión, shock), cardíaco (disfunción de miocardio, pericardio, valvular o coronario), hematológico (coagulopatía), digestivo (vómitos, diarrea, dolor abdominal). Considerando la gravedad de esta nueva entidad, es necesario el reconocimiento oportuno y referencia temprana para atención especiaizada y tratamiento oportuno.


Summary: In April 2020, during the peak of the COVID-19 pandemic caused by the emerging coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, 8 children reported cases of hyperinflammatory toxic shock with characteristics similar to Kawasaki disease and syndrome in the United Kingdom. The Royal College of Pediatrics and Child Health has called it pediatric Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome (MIS) temporally associated with COVID-19. Currently, MIS-C is a rare disease, overlapping with other conditions, which requires a high clinical suspicion for its timely identification. Pediatric SARS-CoV-2-associated temporary multisystem inflammatory syndrome (TMIS-C) is a new clinical entity with a broad spectrum of presentation after exposure to the virus, immune-mediated with hyperinflammation and activation of a cytokine storm. It typically occurs between the 2nd to 4th week of evolution. Characteristically elevated markers of inflammation are described, such as ferritin, C-reactive protein (CRP), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), lactate dehydrogenase and D-dimer, associated with neutropenia, lymphopenia and anemia. The World Health Organization (WHO) defines it as: a case under 19 years of age with fever ≥ 3 days, elevated inflammatory markers, evidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection and no other microbial etiology; with involvement of at least 2 systems: dermatological (rash, non-exudative conjunctivitis, mucocutaneous inflammation), hemodynamic (hypotension, shock), cardiac (myocardial, pericardial, valvular, or coronary dysfunction), hematologic (coagulopathy), digestive (vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain) Considering the seriousness of this new entity, timely recognition and early referral for specialized care and timely treatment are key.


No mês de abril de 2020, durante o pico da pandemia de COVID-19 causada pelo emergente coronavírus SARS-CoV-2, 8 casos de crianças com choque hiperinflamatório com características semelhantes à doença e síndrome de Kawasaki foram relatados no Reino Unido. O Royal College of Pediatrics and Child Health nomeou-o como síndrome inflamatória multissistêmica pediátrica (MIS) temporariamente associada ao COVID-19. Atualmente, o SIM-C é uma doença rara, sobrepondo-se a outras entidades, o que requer alta suspeição clínica para sua identificação oportuna. A síndrome inflamatória multissistêmica temporária associada ao SARS-CoV-2 pediátrico (SIMT) é uma nova entidade clínica com amplo espectro de apresentação após exposição ao vírus, imunomediada com hiperinflamação e ativação de uma tempestade de citocinas. Geralmente ocorre entre a 2ª a 4ª semana de evolução. São descritos marcadores de inflamação caracteristicamente elevados, como ferritina, proteína C reativa (PCR), velocidade de hemossedimentação (VHS), lactato desidrogenase e D-dímero, associados a neutropenia, linfopenia e anemia. A Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS) a define como: caso de menor de 19 anos com febre ≥ 3 dias, marcadores inflamatórios elevados, evidência de infecção por SARS-CoV-2 e nenhuma outra etiologia microbiana; com envolvimento de pelo menos 2 sistemas: dermatológico (erupção cutânea, conjuntivite não exsudativa, inflamação mucocutânea), hemodinâmica (hipotensão, choque), cardíaca (disfunção miocárdica, pericárdica, valvar ou coronariana), hematológica (coagulopatia), digestiva (vômitos, diarreia, dor abdominal) Considerando a gravidade dessa nova entidade, é necessário o reconhecimento oportuno e encaminhamento precoce para atendimento especializado e tratamento oportuno.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis , COVID-19/complications , Cardiomyopathies/etiology , Immunoglobulins/administration & dosage , Methylprednisolone/administration & dosage , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/administration & dosage , Aspirin/administration & dosage , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/drug therapy , Diagnosis, Differential , Immunologic Factors/administration & dosage , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/administration & dosage
9.
In. Soeiro, Alexandre de Matos; Leal, Tatiana de Carvalho Andreucci Torres; Accorsi, Tarso Augusto Duenhas; Gualandro, Danielle Menosi; Oliveira Junior, Múcio Tavares de; Caramelli, Bruno; Kalil Filho, Roberto. Manual da residência em cardiologia / Manual residence in cardiology. Santana de Parnaíba, Manole, 2 ed; 2022. p.830-834, tab.
Monography in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1353529
10.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 117(2): 365-375, ago. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1339149

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento Pacientes com HIV têm maior probabilidade de apresentar doenças cardiovasculares quando comparados à população em geral. Objetivo Este foi um estudo de caso-controle que teve como objetivo avaliar quais fatores estavam associados a uma redução na espessura médio-intimal da carótida (IMT) da carótida e ao aumento na dilatação mediada por fluxo (DMF) da artéria braquial em pacientes com HIV que receberam atorvastatina + aspirina por um período de 6 meses. Métodos Foi realizada uma análise secundária de um ensaio clínico, que incluiu pessoas vivendo com HIV e baixo risco cardiovascular. Um total de 38 pacientes alocados para o braço de intervenção e tratados por 6 meses com uma combinação de atorvastatina + aspirina foram incluídos. Todos os participantes foram submetidos a ultrassonografia da carótida e da artéria braquial, tanto no início quanto no final do estudo. Os casos que responderam com aumento >10% da dilatação braquial (DMF) e redução da espessura médio-intimal da carótida (IMT) foram considerados casos, e aqueles que não responderam foram considerados controles. Avaliamos os fatores associados às respostas positivas obtidas através da IMT e DMF. Resultados A redução do IMT não se associou significativamente a nenhum dos fatores de risco avaliados: idade (p = 0,211), sexo (p = 0,260), tabagismo (p = 0,131) ou tempo de diagnóstico do HIV (p = 0,836). Um aumento na DMF foi significativamente associado com a idade entre aqueles na faixa etária de 40-59 anos, p = 0,015 (OR = 4,37; IC 95%: 1,07-17,79). Conclusões Os indivíduos mais velhos foram mais propensos a apresentar um aumento na DMF após 6 meses de tratamento com atorvastatina + aspirina.


Abstract Background Patients with HIV are more likely to present with cardiovascular disease when compared to the general population. Objective This was a case-control study that aimed to assess which factors were associated with a reduction in the carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and an increase in the brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) in HIV patients who received atorvastatin + aspirin during a period of 6 months. Methods A secondary analysis of a clinical trial was conducted, which included people living with HIV infection and low cardiovascular risk. A total of 38 patients allocated to the intervention arm and treated for 6 months with a combination of atorvastatin + aspirin were included. All participants underwent a carotid and brachial artery ultrasound, both at the beginning and the end of the study. Cases that responded with an increase of >10% of the brachial dilatation (FMD) and reduction of the carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) were considered cases, and those who did not respond were considered controls. We assessed the factors associated with the positive responses obtained through IMT and FMD. Results A reduction in the IMT was not significantly associated with any of the evaluated risk factors: age (p=0.211), gender (p=0.260), smoking (p=0.131) or time since HIV diagnosis (p=0.836). An increase in the FMD was significantly associated with age amongst those in the 40-59 age group, p = 0.015 (OR = 4.37; 95% CI: 1.07-17.79). Conclusions Older individuals were more likely to present with an increased FMD after 6 months of treatment with atorvastatin + aspirin.


Subject(s)
Humans , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Vasodilation , Brachial Artery/diagnostic imaging , Endothelium, Vascular/diagnostic imaging , Carotid Arteries/diagnostic imaging , Case-Control Studies , Aspirin/therapeutic use , Risk Factors , Ultrasonography , Carotid Intima-Media Thickness , Atorvastatin/therapeutic use
12.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 119(4): S198-S211, agosto 2021. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1281043

ABSTRACT

La pandemia ocasionada por el nuevo coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), declarada por la Organización Mundial de la Salud OMS) en marzo de 2020, afecta a un reducido número de pacientes pediátricos, quienes presentan, en su mayoría, compromiso respiratorio leve y evolución favorable. Sin embargo, en niños previamente sanos, comenzó a observarse un aumento de casos definidos como síndrome inflamatorio multisistémico (SIM-C) o similar a Kawasaki (Kawasaki-like) asociado a la enfermedad por el nuevo coronavirus (COVID-19) (KL-C) que evolucionan al shock y requieren internación en la unidad de cuidados intensivos.Los cuadros de SIM-C y los KL-C se caracterizan por fiebre, signos de inflamación, síntomas gastrointestinales y disfunción cardiovascular; las formas graves de presentación tienen mayor incidencia de hipotensión y/o shock. En el laboratorio se observan marcadores de inflamación, hipercoagulabilidad y daño miocárdico. El tratamiento farmacológico de primera línea consiste en la administración de inmunoglobulina por vía intravenosa más ácido acetilsalicílico por vía oral.Se recomienda un abordaje multidisciplinario para un diagnóstico certero y un tratamiento temprano y eficaz para disminuir la morbimortalidad.


The pandemic caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus declared by the WHO in March 11th 2020, affects a small number of pediatric patients, who mostly present mild respiratory compromise and favorable evolution.However began to be observed in previously healthy children, an increase in cases defined as "Multisystemic Inflammatory Syndrome" (MIS-C) or "Kawasaki-like" post-COVID 19 (KL-C) that evolve to shock and require hospitalization in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit.MIS-C and KL-C are characterized by fever; signs of inflammation, gastrointestinal symptoms, and cardiovascular dysfunction, associated with sever forms of presentation with higher incidence of hypotension and/or shock. In the laboratory, markers of inflammation, hypercoagulability and myocardial damage are observed. First-line drug treatment consists of intravenous immunoglobulin plus oral acetylsalicylic acid.A multidisciplinary approach is recommended for an accurate diagnosis and an early and effective treatment, in order to reduce morbidity and mortality.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/therapy , COVID-19/therapy , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/therapeutic use , Aspirin/therapeutic use , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/complications , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis , Critical Care , Diagnosis, Differential , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/complications , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/diagnosis , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/therapy
13.
Rev. bras. med. esporte ; 27(spe2): 99-103, Apr.-June 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1280097

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Generally speaking, the physiological index of the human body is in a relatively stable state, which refers to the function of various organ systems with the characteristics of high-tide period, low-tide period and critical period. However, for competitive athletes, it is necessary to maintain physiological activation in both training and competition. In view of this, this study will analyze the physiological arousal degree of aspirin and acetaminophen in order to provide a reference for athletes to take analgesic drugs. In this study, the analytic hierarchy process (AHP), principal component analysis and factor analysis, were used to construct a scientific evaluation system of physiological arousal level, and the medication and non-medication status of 90 athletes were evaluated. The results showed that aspirin was better than acetaminophen in blood urea and serum creatine kinase, and the comprehensive score of some athletes was higher than 0.95. Aspirin is better in arousing athletes' physiology. The research results will provide scientific guidance for athletes to take antipyretic and analgesic drugs.


RESUMO Em termos gerais, o índice fisiológico do corpo humano encontra-se num estado relativamente estável, que se refere à função de vários sistemas de órgãos no corpo humano, com as características do período de altas, período de baixas e período crítico. No entanto, para atletas competitivos, é necessário manter a ativação fisiológica em treinamento e competição. Em vista disso, este estudo irá analisar o grau fisiológico de excitação de aspirina e acetaminofeno, a fim de fornecer referência para os atletas a tomar medicamentos analgésicos. Neste estudo, o Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), análise de componentes principal e análise de fatores foram usados para construir um sistema de avaliação científica de nível de excitação fisiológica, e o estado de medicação e de não medicação de 90 atletas foram avaliados. Os resultados mostraram que a aspirina foi melhor do que o acetaminofeno na ureia sanguínea e na creatina quinase sérica, e o escore abrangente de alguns atletas foi maior do que 0.95. A aspirina é melhor no despertar da fisiologia dos atletas. Os resultados da pesquisa fornecerão orientação científica para os atletas tomarem medicamentos antipiréticos e analgésicos.


RESUMEN En términos generales, el índice fisiológico del cuerpo humano se encuentra en un estado relativamente estable, que se refiere a la función de varios sistemas de órganos en el cuerpo humano, con las características del período de altas, período de bajas y período crítico. Mientras tanto, para atletas competitivos, es necesario mantener la activación fisiológica en entrenamiento y competición. En vista de eso, este estudio analizará el grado fisiológico de excitación de aspirina y acetaminofeno, a fin de proveer referencia para los atletas para tomar medicamentos analgésicos. En este estudio, el Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), análisis de componentes principal y análisis de fatores fueron usados para construir un sistema de evaluación científica de nivel de excitación fisiológica, y el estado de medicación y de no medicación de 90 atletas fueron evaluados. Los resultados mostraron que la aspirina fue mejor que el acetaminofeno en la urea sanguínea y en la creatina quinasa sérica, y el escore abarcador de algunos atletas fue mayor de 0.95. La aspirina es mejor en el despertar de la fisiología de los atletas. Los resultados de la investigación proveerán orientación científica para que los atletas tomen medicamentos antipiréticos y analgésicos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adolescent , Young Adult , Track and Field/physiology , Aspirin/pharmacology , Analgesics, Non-Narcotic/pharmacology , Athletes , Acetaminophen/pharmacology
14.
Rev. colomb. cardiol ; 28(1): 67-73, ene.-feb. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1341262

ABSTRACT

Resumen El ácido acetilsalicílico (Aspirina) es un inhibidor irreversible de la acetil ciclooxigenasa (COX) y su actividad no es restaurada hasta la formación de nuevas plaquetas. Sus efectos benéficos terapéuticos cardiovasculares lo han convertido en la piedra angular del tratamiento del paciente con enfermedad arterial coronaria. Existe una población de pacientes con indicación absoluta para su uso; sin embargo, la presencia o antecedente de hipersensibilidad a esta molécula conlleva un alto riesgo de complicaciones no relacionadas con enfermedad cardiovascular. En algunos de estos pacientes es crucial conocer e implementar protocolos de desensibilización para el ácido acetilsalicílico y, de esta manera, continuar con el uso de esta estrategia terapéutica necesaria e idónea en esta población.


Abstract Acetylsalicylic acid (Aspirin) is an irreversible inhibitor of acetyl cyclooxygenase (COX) and its activity is not restored until new platelets are formed. Its beneficial therapeutic cardiovascular effects have made it the cornerstone of the treatment of patients with coronary artery disease. There is a population of patients with absolute indication for its use, however, the presence or history of hypersensitivity to this molecule leads to a high risk of complications unrelated to their cardiovascular disease. It is vital to know and implement in some of these patients, desensitization protocols for acetyl salicylic acid and in this way to continue the use of this therapeutic strategy necessary and appropriate in this population.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aspirin , Guideline , Coronary Disease , Guidelines as Topic , Intensive Care Units , Myocardial Infarction
15.
Bol. méd. postgrado ; 37(1): 27-33, Ene-Jun 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1147875

ABSTRACT

Se realizó una investigación descriptiva transversal retrospectiva con el fin de determinar el perfil clínico y epidemiológico de la enfermedad de Kawasaki (EK) en 95 niños egresados del Hospital Pediátrico Dr. Agustín Zubillaga durante el período 2014-2017. El promedio de edad de los pacientes se ubicó en 3,9 ± 3,3 años, siendo 69,5% del sexo masculino. El tiempo de evolución de la enfermedad fue menor de 10 días en el 68,4% de los casos. Las manifestaciones clínicas predominantes fueron fiebre (100%), edema y/o descamación de palmas y plantas (85,3%), alteración de la mucosa oral (65,3%), inyección conjuntival (59%) y eritema polimorfo (55,8%). El tratamiento recibido consistió en aspirina (100%) e inmunoglobulina (96,8%). La respuesta al tratamiento fue satisfactoria en el 95,8% de los pacientes. Los hallazgos de laboratorio evidenciaron una PCR elevada (51,6%) y trombocitosis (97,9%) con hemoglobina normal en 62,1% de los casos. 41% de los pacientes presentaron ecocardiograma anormal y 97,9% presentaron ultrasonido abdominal normal. El diagnóstico de ingreso de la EK fue incompleto en 53,7% de los pacientes y el diagnóstico de egreso de la EK fue completo en 51,6%. Los resultados de este estudio brindan datos epidemiológicos recientes sobre la enfermedad de Kawasaki en nuestra institución prestadora de salud(AU)


A descriptive cross-sectional retrospective investigation was carried out to evaluate the clinical and epidemiological profile of Kawasaki disease (KD) in 95 children discharged from the Pediatric Hospital Dr. Agustín Zubillaga during the period 2014-2017. Mean age of children was 3.9 ± 3.3 years and 69.5% were male. Time of symptom onset was less than ten days in 68.4% patients. Predominant clinical manifestations were fever (100%), edema and/or desquamation of palms and soles (85.3%), alteration of the oral mucosa (65.3%), conjunctival injection (59%) and polymorphic erythema (55.8%). Treatment received included aspirin (100%) and immunoglobulin (96.8%). Response to treatment was satisfactory in 95.8% of cases. Laboratory findings showed elevated CRP (51.6%), thrombocytosis (97.9%) and normal hemoglobin in 62.1% patients. 41% had an abnormal echocardiogram and 97.9% showed a normal abdominal ultrasound. The diagnosis of CHD admission was incomplete in 53.7% of cases and the diagnosis of EK was complete in 51.6%. Results of this study show recent epidemiological data about Kawasaki disease in our healthcare institution(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Immunoglobulins/therapeutic use , Aspirin/therapeutic use , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronary Disease/etiology , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/epidemiology , Signs and Symptoms , Vasculitis , Edema , Fever
17.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 164-172, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878008

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Aspirin has demonstrated safety and efficacy for venous thromboembolism (VTE) prophylaxis following total hip arthroplasty (THA); however, inconsistent dose regimens have been reported in the literature. This study aimed to evaluate and compare the safety and efficacy of 100 mg aspirin twice daily with rivaroxaban in VTE prophylaxis following THA.@*METHODS@#Patients undergoing elective unilateral primary THA between January 2019 and January 2020 were prospectively enrolled in the study and randomly allocated to receive 5 weeks of VTE prophylaxis with either oral enteric-coated aspirin (100 mg twice daily) or rivaroxaban (10 mg once daily). Medication safety and efficacy were comprehensively evaluated through symptomatic VTE incidence, deep vein thrombosis (DVT) on Doppler ultrasonography, total blood loss (TBL), laboratory bloodwork, Harris hip score (HHS), post-operative recovery, and the incidence of other complications.@*RESULTS@#We included 70 patients in this study; 34 and 36 were allocated to receive aspirin and rivaroxaban prophylaxis, respectively. No cases of symptomatic VTE occurred in this study. The DVT rate on Doppler ultrasonography in the aspirin group was not significantly different from that in the rivaroxaban group (8.8% vs. 8.3%, χ2 = 0.01, P = 0.91), confirming the non-inferiority of aspirin for DVT prophylaxis (χ2 = 2.29, P = 0.01). The calculated TBL in the aspirin group (944.9 mL [658.5-1137.8 mL]) was similar to that in the rivaroxaban group (978.3 mL [747.4-1740.6mL]) (χ2 = 1.55, P = 0.12). However, there were no significant inter-group differences in HHS at post-operative day (POD) 30 (Aspirin: 81.0 [78.8-83.0], Rivaroxaban: 81.0 [79.3-83.0], χ2 = 0.43, P = 0.67) and POD 90 (Aspirin: 90.0 [89.0-92.0], Rivaroxaban: 91.5 [88.3-92.8], χ2 = 0.77, P = 0.44), the incidence of bleeding events (2.9% vs. 8.3%, χ2 = 0.96, P = 0.33), or gastrointestinal complications (2.9% vs. 5.6%, χ2 = 1.13, P = 0.29).@*CONCLUSION@#In terms of safety and efficacy, the prophylactic use of 100 mg aspirin twice daily was not statistically different from that of rivaroxaban in preventing VTE and reducing the risk of blood loss following elective primary THA. This supports the use of aspirin chemoprophylaxis following THA as a less expensive and more widely available option for future THAs.@*TRIAL REGISTRATION@#Chictr.org, ChiCTR18000202894; http://www.chictr.org.cn/showproj.aspx?proj=33284.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Hip/adverse effects , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee , Aspirin/therapeutic use , Humans , Rivaroxaban/therapeutic use , Venous Thromboembolism/prevention & control
18.
Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion ; (12): 1241-1247, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921039

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To observe the effect of acupuncture for regulating spleen and stomach on aspirin resistance in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and explore the effect mechanism.@*METHODS@#A total of 68 T2DM patients complicated with aspirin resistance were randomized into an observation group and a control group, 34 cases in each one. On the base of the conventional treatment for diabetes, aspirin enteric-coated tablets were prescribed for oral administration, 100 mg each time, once daily in the control group. In the observation group, on the basis of the treatment as the control group, acupuncture was used for regulating spleen and stomach at Zhongwan (CV 12), Zusanli (ST 36), Yinlingquan (SP 9), Hegu (LI 4), etc., once daily. The treatment for 1 week was as one course and 4 courses of treatment were required totally in two groups. Before and After treatment, the indexes of platelet function (platelet aggregation rate [PAG] and salicylic acid concentration), the indexes of vascular endothelial function (6-keone prostaglandin F1α[6-keto-PGF1α], thromin B2 [TXB2] and cyclooxysynthase-2 [COX-2]), blood glucose (fasting plasma glucose [FPG], 2 h plasma glucose [2h PG] and glycosylated hemoglobin [HbA1c]), insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR), blood lipid indexes (total cholesterol [TC], triacylglycerol [TG], high-density lipoprotein cholesterol [HDL-C] and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol [LDL-C]) and the total score of TCM symptoms were observed in the patients of two groups. Clinical therapeutic effect and safety was compared in the patients between the two groups after treatment and the recurrence rate of cardiocerebrovascular events was followed up 6 months after treatment.@*RESULTS@#After treatment, PAG, salicylic acid concentration, TXB2, COX-2, FPG, 2h PG, HbA1c, HOMA-IR, LDL-C, TC, TG and the total scores of TCM symptoms were all reduced as compared with those before treatment in the two groups (@*CONCLUSION@#Acupuncture for regulating spleen and stomach combined with aspirin enteric-coated tablets relieve insulin resistance and reduces blood glucose and lipid as well as the recurrence rate of cardiocerebrovascular events in the patients with T2DM, which is probably related to the regulation of insulin resistance and the improvement of vascular endothelial function. This combined therapy achieves the better effect on aspirin resistance as compared with simple aspirin enteric-coated tablets.


Subject(s)
Acupuncture Points , Acupuncture Therapy , Aspirin , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Humans , Spleen , Stomach
19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-942418

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the effect of perioperative airway management based on the concept of enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) on the improvement of preoperative pulmonary function in patients with aspirin intolerance triad (AIT). Methods: Thirty patients with AIT (including 13 males and 17 females, aged from 29 to 75 years old) for sinus surgery from January 2018 to December 2019 were selected, 172 patients (including 105 males and 67 females, aged from 17 to 83 years old) with chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) without lower airway disease were selected by random number table at the same period, and their clinical data and preoperative pulmonary function were analyzed and compared retrospectively. FEV1%pred<80% after bronchodilation test was considered as high risk for surgery. Preoperative evaluation and standardized drug intervention were applied in patients with pulmonary function abnormalities at risk for surgery, and improvement of preoperative pulmonary function and tolerability to general anesthesia surgery in the two groups were evaluated. All the statistical analyses were conducted using SPSS 22.0. Results: The main pulmonary function indexes (FEV1%pred, FEV1/FVC%pred, FEF50%pred, FEF75%pred, MMEF%pred) in AIT group decreased significantly than those in CRSwNP group (t values were 10.882, 10.506, 9.141, 10.182, 9.099, respectively, all P<0.001). At admission 86.7% (26/30) patients in the AIT group and 11.6% (20/172) patients in CRSwNP group had high surgical risk for lung function, with significantly difference (χ2 = 81.788, P<0.05); after 3 days with individualized drug intervention, 57.7% (15/26) patients in AIT group reached the standard for surgery, which was significantly less than 90.0% (18/20) patients in CRSwNP group (χ²=4.335,P<0.05); and after 6 days with drug intervention, the patients who reached the standard for surgery in pulmonary function accounted for 92.3% (24/26) in the AIT group and 100% (20/20) in the CRSwNP group. FEV1%pred in the two groups before surgery were significantly improved compared with those at admission respectively ((90.00±6.32)% vs. (64.79±13.60)%,t value was 10.110 in AIT group; (91.65±11.86)% vs. (76.40±9.35)%, t value was 9.346 in CRSwNP group; all P<0.05), and also FEV1/FVC%pred, FEF50%pred, FEF75%pred and MMEF%pred were all significantly improved (all P<0.05). Surgery was completed successfully in the two groups of patients with lung function meeting the surgical standard, and no intraoperative or postoperative airway adverse events occurred. Conclusion: AIT patients have high airway risk for sinus surgery due to poor pulmonary function. Standardized airway management based on the concept of ERAS can improve the pulmonary function of patients, and decrease the incidence of perioperative airway adverse events.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Airway Management , Aspirin , Enhanced Recovery After Surgery , Female , Humans , Lung/surgery , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Young Adult
20.
Chinese Journal of Cardiology ; (12): 873-879, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-941370

ABSTRACT

Objective: This analysis was performed to evaluate the efficacy and the safety of rivaroxaban-aspirin combination therapy in secondary prevention of major adverse cardiovascular events in Chinese patients enrolled in the COMPASS trial. Methods: COMPASS was a prospective, international multi-center and randomized controlled trial. From September 2014 to February 2017, 1 086 patients with stable coronary artery disease and peripheral artery diseases were recruited from 31 centers in China. Patients were randomly assigned to separately receive the therapy of rivaroxaban (2.5 mg twice a day) plus aspirin (100 mg once a day,) group (n=366), rivaroxaban (5 mg twice a day) alone group (n=365), and aspirin (100 mg once a day) alone group (n=355). Baseline information such as age, sex, etc. of all three groups was collected. Finally, 1 081 patients were followed up successfully, with the follow-up rate 99.5% and the average follow-up time was 19 months. The primary efficacy endpoint was the composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction and stroke. The primary safety endpoint was major bleeding evaluated by modified International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis criteria. Results: Age of patients was (64.2±8.3) years and there were 293 male in rivaroxaban plus aspirin group. Age of patients was (63.8±9.0) years, and there were 301 male patients in rivaroxaban alone group. Age of patients was (63.6±8.8) years, and there were 282 male patients in the aspirin alone group. The incidences of primary efficacy endpoint occurred in 9 cases (1.5%) in rivaroxaban with aspirin group, 21 cases (3.7%) in rivaroxaban alone group and 14 cases (2.5%) in aspirin alone group. Meanwhile, the incidences of primary safety endpoint occurred in 6 cases (1.0%) in rivaroxaban with aspirin group, 9 cases (1.6%) in rivaroxaban alone group and 7 cases (1.2%) in aspirin alone group. The net clinical benefit events were 10 cases (1.7%) in rivaroxaban with aspirin group, 22 cases (3.9%) in rivaroxaban alone group and 15 cases (2.7%) in aspirin alone group (P>0.5%). Conclusions: The combination of rivaroxaban with aspirin can be safe and effectively used for the secondary prevention in Chinese patients with stable coronary artery disease and peripheral artery diseases.


Subject(s)
Aged , Aspirin/therapeutic use , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , China , Drug Therapy, Combination , Factor Xa Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Prospective Studies , Rivaroxaban/therapeutic use , Secondary Prevention
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