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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888171

ABSTRACT

Astragali Radix is a traditional Chinese herbal medicine with a long history, which has the functions of tonifying Qi and promoting urination and granulation. Astragalosides are the main effective components of Astragali Radix, and more than 40 triterpenoid saponins have been obtained from Astragalus membranaceus and its related plants, mainly including astragalosides Ⅰ-Ⅷ, isoastragalosides Ⅰ, Ⅱ, and Ⅳ, acetylastragalosides, and soyasaponins. Astragalosides have a wide range of biological activities, such as immunomodulation, antioxidation, and neuroprotection. Nervous system diseases seriously affect people's quality of life, threaten human physical and mental health, and impose a burden on families and society. As natural drugs, astragalosides have good preventive and therapeutic effects on central nervous system diseases. This paper reviews the main pharmacological effects and mechanisms of astragalosides in the treatment of multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, and cerebral ischemic stroke and proposes the research prospects and potential problems, aiming to provide reference for the clinical application and basic research of astragalosides.


Subject(s)
Astragalus Plant , Astragalus propinquus , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Humans , Nervous System Diseases , Quality of Life , Saponins/pharmacology
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887980

ABSTRACT

The effects of water regulation on the biosynthesis of calycosin-7-O-β-D-glucoside in 2-year-old Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus were studied,and the mechanism was explained from the aspects of key enzyme gene expression and antioxidant enzyme system. The content of calycosin-7-O-β-D-glucoside was determined by HPLC,and the expression levels of six key enzyme genes( PAL,4 CL,CHS,CHI,IFS,13'H) in the synthesis pathway were analyzed by q RT-PCR. The activities of protective enzymes and contents of osmoregulation substances and malondialdehyde were also determined. In the water deficit group,the maximum concentration of calycosin-7-O-β-D-glucoside was 0. 49 mg·g-1 on the 24 th day of treatment. In the whole water regulation,the water deficit group outweighed the water adequate group in osmoregulation substance and MDA contents. The activities of A. membranaceus var.mongholicus antioxidant enzymes SOD,POD,and CAT increased during the initial period of water regulation,but decreased with time.The expression of PAL,CHS,and 13'H in the water deficit group was at a low level,and the 4 CL had active expression,slightly lower than that in the water adequate group. The expression of CHI and IFS elevated rapidly when water deficit occurred. Correlation analysis showed that the content of calycosin-7-O-β-D-glucoside was positively correlated with CHI expression( P<0. 01) and IFS expression( P<0. 05). Therefore,water regulation can change the accumulation pattern of calycosin-7-O-β-D-glucoside,and water deficit may be an effective way to increase its content. CHI and IFS are the key genes in response to water deficit.


Subject(s)
Astragalus propinquus/genetics , Biosynthetic Pathways , Glucosides , Isoflavones , Water
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828431

ABSTRACT

In this study, HPLC was used to determine the content of the four isoflavones of Astragalus membranceus var. mongholicus from different regions(calycosin-7-glucoside, ononin, calycosin and formononetin), and gray correlation analysis and path analysis were used to explore the influence of climate factors on the content of isoflavone components in A. membranceus var. mongholicus. The results showed that there were significant differences in the content of the four isoflavones in different areas(P<0.05); grey correlation analysis showed that the highest temperature in July, the lowest temperature in January and the daily average temperature had a greater impact on the content of flavonoid glycosides, meanwhile precipitation and relative humidity were the more important factors for the accumulation of flavonoid aglycones. According to the general analysis, the direct positive effects of the lowest temperature in January and altitude on the contents of four isoflavones in A. membranceus var. mongholicus were significant. High altitude and extreme temperature conditions might be more adverse to the formation and accumulation of isoflavone components. Therefore, the religions of A. membranceus var. mongholicus with high contents of isoflavones should be chosen the low altitude region with higher minimum temperature in January. This study provides a reference basis for the quality evaluation of A. membranceus var. mongholicus, and basic data for the selection of suitable habitat, construction of planting standards and directional cultivation of medicinal materials in A. membranceus var. mongholicus.


Subject(s)
Astragalus Plant , Astragalus propinquus , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Isoflavones , Plant Roots , Chemistry
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827999

ABSTRACT

This work is to establish the fingerprint of Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus by HPLC-ELSD method, and to analyze the simulated wildness degree of A. membranaceus var. mongholicus in the genuine region of Inner Mongolia, Ningxia and Gansu. Compared with wild A. membranaceus var. mongholicus, the quality differences of A. membranaceus var. mongholicus in the genuine region were analyzed by identification of chromatographic peaks and similarity evaluation, cluster analysis(CA), principal components analysis(PCA) and orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis(OPLS-DA). HPLC fingerprints of A. membranaceus var. mongholicus in different genuine regions are established. The qualitative analysis of mass spectrometry identified 18 components. The similarity evaluation shows that the similarity of 32 batches of A. membranaceus var. mongholicus samples was 0.688-0.993. Among them, the similarity of samples in Shanxi, Inner Mongolia, Ningxia is 0.688-0.993, 0.835-0.989, 0.934-0.988, respectively and the similarity of samples in Gansu is 0.729-0.876 except No. 25 sample. The results of CA show that the samples of A. membranaceus var. mongholicus can be grouped into four categories according to the production area except the No. 11 and No. 25 samples. The results of PCA indicate that 32 batches of A. membranaceus var. mongholicus samples can be clustered according to quality and origin, and the quality of A. membranaceus var. mongholicus in Inner Mongolia is the closest to the wild breed. The results of OPLS-DA indicate that there are six components that can distinguish the wild and domestic A. membranaceus var. mongholicus, which are malonylastragaloside Ⅰ, astragaloside Ⅰ, calycosin-7-O-β-D-glycoside-6″-O-malonate, calycosin-7-O-β-D-glycoside, formononetin-7-O-β-D-glycoside-6″-O-malonate, and astrapterocarpan-3-O-β-D-glycoside-6″-O-malonate. The established method can be used to analyze differences between A. membranaceus var. mongholicus origin and planting environment, and can provide references for the protection and replacement of wild A. membranaceus var. mongholicus resources, and the cultivation, processing and production of A. membranaceus var. mongholicus.


Subject(s)
Astragalus propinquus , China
5.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766003

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Astragalus membranaceus (AM) is an important traditional medicinal herb. Pharmacological research has indicated that AM has various physiological activities such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, immunoregulatory, anticancer, hypolipidemic, antihyperglycemic, and hepatoprotective activities. The bioactive substances responsible for the physiological activities in AM, including many antioxidant substances, change during the roasting process. This study investigated and compared the changes in the antioxidant constituents of AM caused by roasting. METHODS: DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl) and ABTS⁺ (2,2′-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt) radical scavenging activities and their total phenolic content (TPC) were measured. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis was performed to confirm any changes in the isoflavonoids of roasted AM (R-AM),. The cell viability of UVB-induced HDF (Human dermal fibroblast) cells treated with AM and R-AM extracts was investigated. The comet assay was used to examine the inhibitory effects of R-AM extracts on DNA damage caused by oxidative stress. RESULTS: The DPPH and ABTS⁺ radical scavenging activities were 564.6±20.9 and 108.2±3.1 (IC₅₀ value) respectively, from the 2R-AM. The total phenol content was 47.80±1.40 mg GAE/g from the 1R-AM. The values of calycosin and formononetin, which are the known isoflavonoid constituents of AM, were 778.58±2.72 and 726.80±3.45 µg/g respectively, from the 2R-AM. Treatment of the HDF cells with R-AM (50 ~ 200 µg/mL) did not affect the cell viability. Furthermore, the R-AM extracts effectively protected against UVB-induced DNA damage. CONCLUSION: The findings of this study indicate that R-AM increases its isoflavonoid constituents and protects against UVB-induced DNA damage in HDF cells.


Subject(s)
Astragalus propinquus , Cell Survival , Chromatography, Liquid , Comet Assay , DNA Damage , Oxidative Stress , Phenol , Plants, Medicinal
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773241

ABSTRACT

We studied the seed germination of Astragalus membranaceus under PEG and Na Cl osmotic stress gradients( 0,-0. 1,-0. 3,-0. 5,-0. 7 MPa) respectively applied with light( continuous light,light 12 h/dark 12 h circulation and continuous dark) and temperature( constant 15 ℃,15 ℃ 12 h/30 ℃ 12 h circulation and constant 30 ℃) treatments. The results showed as following: ① Under the light and temperature interactive treatments,total germination percentage( TGP) was restrained by high temperature and continuous light also decreased TGP under high temperature. Mean germination time( MGT) was not changed by light mode. Root development was enhanced by dark and low temperature. Shoot development was enhanced by light and high temperature. Hypocotyl length was enhanced by dark and high temperature. ② Under the light and temperature interactive treatments combined respectively with PEG and NaCl stress conditions,although the inhibitions of seed germination and growth were gradually strengthened with the increases of osmotic stresses,slight osmotic stress can promote seed germination. Under the same osmotic potential,the effects of PEG on TGPs and MGTs were stronger than that of NaCl. As the temperature increase,the seeds may change from photo-neutrality to photo-phobia. Decreased TGP under drought and continuous light interactive treatment is an adaptation strategy to avoiding drought. Hypocotyl growth accelerated under continuous dark treatment is an ecological trait which could increase dry matter input in stem and height for more light. Seed development under high concentration of NaCl treatment is better than that of PEG treatment due to low water potential caused by Na~+,which can enter into seed coat and promote water absorption.


Subject(s)
Astragalus propinquus , Physiology , Radiation Effects , Droughts , Germination , Light , Salt Stress , Seeds , Physiology , Radiation Effects , Temperature
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773185

ABSTRACT

To evaluate the safety of heavy metals contaminated Astragalus membranaceus,an appropriate protocol was established to study the heavy metals pollution level by health risk assessment. This study provided a detailed procedure to assess the medicinal herbs in quality control and safety evaluation,and expected to create awareness among the public on the safety of consuming of A. membranaceus or any other kinds of medicinal herbs. The heavy metals content of Cu,As,Cd,Pb and Hg in a total of 45 batches of A. membranaceus were carefully analyzed with a developed inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry( ICP-MS). Besides,the heavy metal contamination level was further evaluated through 4 main assessment parameters,including maximum residue limit( MRL) set by International Standard Organization,estimated daily intake( EDI) set by IUPAC,target hazard quotients( THQ) and Total THQ set by USEPA and total THQs in raw herbs of A. membranaceus. In addition,the recommended MRLs of 5 main heavy metals aimed to A. membranaceus were calculated based on the regulated consumption quantity. The result showed that,under the ISO international standard of Chinese medicine-Chinese herbal medicine heavy metals,the unqualified rate was 8. 89% for A. membranaceus,which including 4 batches of A. membranaceus exceeded the MRL of As. Here,the standard THQ value of A. membranaceus was firstly proposed as 0. 02 and 0. 011 25 for adults and children,respectively,which were calculated with the recommended consumption quantity of 30 g and 9 g for adults and children. Furthermore,the values of THQ for As and total THQs in adults and children were exceeded the standard THQ in A. membranaceus,and the recommended MRLs of Pb,Cd,Hg and Cu in above medicinal materials that calculated based on health risk assessment model were higher than the regulated MRLs that set by ISO and Chinese Pharmacopeia. The research showed that the contents of heavy metals in A. membranaceus were not in the safe range and the certain non-carcinogenic risks to human body cannot be neglected. Based on above investigation result,it is easily known that the common evaluation method for raw herbs based on the comparison of MRL of heavy metals was not precise enough,and the international model of health risk assessment should be built for each medicinal herb. Above all,this study provided a more realistic research approach for safety evaluation of any other kinds of heavy metals contaminated medicinal herbs,including the establishment of heavy metals standard limit in a specified medicinal herb under recommended consumption quantity,and it is expected to create awareness among the public on the safety of consuming any other medicinal herbs.


Subject(s)
Astragalus propinquus , Chemistry , Drug Contamination , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Reference Standards , Humans , Metals, Heavy , Plants, Medicinal , Chemistry , Risk Assessment
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776887

ABSTRACT

Astragalus membranaceus may be a potential therapy for childhood asthma but its driving mechanism remains elusive. The main components of A. membranaceus were identified by HPLC. The children with asthma remission were divided into two combination group (control group, the combination of budesonide and terbutaline) and A. membranaceus group (treatment group, the combination of budesonide, terbutaline and A. membranaceus). The therapeutic results were compared between two groups after 3-month therapy. Porcine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated from venous blood by using density gradient centrifugation on percoll. The levels of FoxP3, EGF-β, IL-17 and IL-23 from PBMCs and serum IgE were measured. The relative percentage of Treg/Th17 cells was determined using flow cytometry. The main components of A. membranaceus were calycosin-7-O-glucoside, isoquercitrin, ononin, calycosin, quercetin, genistein, kaempferol, isorhamnetin and formononetin, all of which may contribute to asthma therapy. Lung function was significantly improved in the treatment group when compared with a control group (P < 0.05). The efficacy in preventing the occurrence of childhood asthma was higher in the treatment group than the control group (P < 0.05). The levels of IgE, IL-17 and IL-23 were reduced significantly in the treatment group when compared with the control group, while the levels of FoxP3 and TGF-β were increased in the treatment group when compared with the control group (P < 0.05). A. membranaceus increased the percentage of Treg cells and reduced the percentage of Th17 cells. A. membranaceus is potential natural product for improving the therapeutic efficacy of combination therapy of budesonide and terbutaline for the children with asthma remission by modulating the balance of Treg/Th17 cells.


Subject(s)
Animals , Asthma , Drug Therapy , Allergy and Immunology , Astragalus propinquus , Chemistry , Budesonide , Cells, Cultured , Child , Child, Preschool , Cytokines , Metabolism , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Pharmacology , Female , Humans , Immunologic Factors , Pharmacology , Leukocytes, Mononuclear , Metabolism , Lung , Physiology , Male , Swine , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory , Cell Biology , Terbutaline , Th17 Cells , Cell Biology , Treatment Outcome
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773572

ABSTRACT

Astragalus membranaceus (Radix Astragali, RA) and Atractylodes macrocephala (Rhizoma Atractylodis Macrocephalae, RAM) are often used to treat gastrointestinal diseases. In the present study, we determined the effects of polysaccharides extracts from these two herbs on IEC-6 cell migration and explored the potential underlying mechanisms. A migration model with IEC-6 cells was induced using a single-edged razor blade along the diameter of cell layers in six-well polystyrene plates. The cells were grown in control media or media containing spermidine (5 μmol·L, SPD), alpha-difluoromethylornithine (2.5 mmol·L, DFMO), 4-Aminopyridine (40 μmol·L, 4-AP), the polysaccharide extracts of RA or RAM (50, 100, or 200 mg·L), DFMO plus SPD, or DFMO plus polysaccharide extracts of RA or RAM for 12 or 24 h. Next, cytosolic free Ca ([Ca]) was measured using laser confocal microscopy, and cellular polyamine content was quantified with HPLC. Kv1.1 mRNA expression was assessed using RT-qPCR and Kv1.1 and RhoA protein expressions were measured with Western blotting analysis. A cell migration assay was carried out using Image-Pro Plus software. In addition, GC-MS was introduced to analyze the monosaccharide composition of both polysaccharide extracts. The resutls showed that treatment with polysaccharide extracts of RA or RAM significantly increased cellular polyamine content, elevated [Ca] and accelerated migration of IEC-6 cells, compared with the controls (P < 0.01). Polysaccharide extracts not only reversed the inhibitory effects of DFMO on cellular polyamine content and [Ca], but also restored IEC-6 cell migration to control level (P < 0.01 or < 0.05). Kv1.1 mRNA and protein expressions were increased (P < 0.05) after polysaccharide extract treatment in polyamine-deficient IEC-6 cells and RhoA protein expression was increased. Molar ratios of D-ribose, D-arabinose, L-rhamnose, D-mannose, D-glucose, and D-galactose was 1.0 : 14.1 : 0.3 : 19.9 : 181.3 : 6.3 in RA and 1.0 : 4.3 : 0.1 : 5.7 : 2.8 : 2.2 in RAM. In conclusion, treatment with RA and RAM polysaccharide extracts stimulated migration of intestinal epithelial cells via a polyamine-Kv1.1 channel activated signaling pathway, which facilitated intestinal injury healing.


Subject(s)
Animals , Astragalus propinquus , Chemistry , Atractylodes , Chemistry , Cell Line , Cell Movement , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Epithelial Cells , Cell Biology , Metabolism , Intestines , Cell Biology , Genetics , Metabolism , Polyamines , Metabolism , Polysaccharides , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Rats , Rhizome , Chemistry , Signal Transduction , rhoA GTP-Binding Protein , Metabolism
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773568

ABSTRACT

Astragali Radix, the root of Astragalus membranaceus (Fisch.) Bge. var. mongholicus (Bge.) Hsiao or Astragalus membranaceus (Fisch.) Bge., is widely used as a tonic decoction pieces in the clinic of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Astragali Radix has various processed products with varying pharmacological actions. There is no modern scientific evidence to explain the differences in pharmacological activities and related mechanisms. In the present study, we explore the changes in chemical components in Astragali Radix after processing, by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF-MS) combined with novel informatics UNIFI platform and multivariate statistical analysis. Our results showed that the crude and various processed products could be clearly separated in PCA scores plot and 15 significant markers could be used to distinguish crude and various processed products by OPLS-DA in UNIFI platform. In conclusion, the present study provided a basis of chemical components for revealing connotation of different processing techniques on Astragali Radix.


Subject(s)
Astragalus propinquus , Chemistry , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Mass Spectrometry , Metabolomics , Plant Roots , Chemistry , Technology, Pharmaceutical
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812361

ABSTRACT

Astragalus membranaceus (Radix Astragali, RA) and Atractylodes macrocephala (Rhizoma Atractylodis Macrocephalae, RAM) are often used to treat gastrointestinal diseases. In the present study, we determined the effects of polysaccharides extracts from these two herbs on IEC-6 cell migration and explored the potential underlying mechanisms. A migration model with IEC-6 cells was induced using a single-edged razor blade along the diameter of cell layers in six-well polystyrene plates. The cells were grown in control media or media containing spermidine (5 μmol·L, SPD), alpha-difluoromethylornithine (2.5 mmol·L, DFMO), 4-Aminopyridine (40 μmol·L, 4-AP), the polysaccharide extracts of RA or RAM (50, 100, or 200 mg·L), DFMO plus SPD, or DFMO plus polysaccharide extracts of RA or RAM for 12 or 24 h. Next, cytosolic free Ca ([Ca]) was measured using laser confocal microscopy, and cellular polyamine content was quantified with HPLC. Kv1.1 mRNA expression was assessed using RT-qPCR and Kv1.1 and RhoA protein expressions were measured with Western blotting analysis. A cell migration assay was carried out using Image-Pro Plus software. In addition, GC-MS was introduced to analyze the monosaccharide composition of both polysaccharide extracts. The resutls showed that treatment with polysaccharide extracts of RA or RAM significantly increased cellular polyamine content, elevated [Ca] and accelerated migration of IEC-6 cells, compared with the controls (P < 0.01). Polysaccharide extracts not only reversed the inhibitory effects of DFMO on cellular polyamine content and [Ca], but also restored IEC-6 cell migration to control level (P < 0.01 or < 0.05). Kv1.1 mRNA and protein expressions were increased (P < 0.05) after polysaccharide extract treatment in polyamine-deficient IEC-6 cells and RhoA protein expression was increased. Molar ratios of D-ribose, D-arabinose, L-rhamnose, D-mannose, D-glucose, and D-galactose was 1.0 : 14.1 : 0.3 : 19.9 : 181.3 : 6.3 in RA and 1.0 : 4.3 : 0.1 : 5.7 : 2.8 : 2.2 in RAM. In conclusion, treatment with RA and RAM polysaccharide extracts stimulated migration of intestinal epithelial cells via a polyamine-Kv1.1 channel activated signaling pathway, which facilitated intestinal injury healing.


Subject(s)
Animals , Astragalus propinquus , Chemistry , Atractylodes , Chemistry , Cell Line , Cell Movement , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Epithelial Cells , Cell Biology , Metabolism , Intestines , Cell Biology , Genetics , Metabolism , Polyamines , Metabolism , Polysaccharides , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Rats , Rhizome , Chemistry , Signal Transduction , rhoA GTP-Binding Protein , Metabolism
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812357

ABSTRACT

Astragali Radix, the root of Astragalus membranaceus (Fisch.) Bge. var. mongholicus (Bge.) Hsiao or Astragalus membranaceus (Fisch.) Bge., is widely used as a tonic decoction pieces in the clinic of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Astragali Radix has various processed products with varying pharmacological actions. There is no modern scientific evidence to explain the differences in pharmacological activities and related mechanisms. In the present study, we explore the changes in chemical components in Astragali Radix after processing, by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF-MS) combined with novel informatics UNIFI platform and multivariate statistical analysis. Our results showed that the crude and various processed products could be clearly separated in PCA scores plot and 15 significant markers could be used to distinguish crude and various processed products by OPLS-DA in UNIFI platform. In conclusion, the present study provided a basis of chemical components for revealing connotation of different processing techniques on Astragali Radix.


Subject(s)
Astragalus propinquus , Chemistry , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Mass Spectrometry , Metabolomics , Plant Roots , Chemistry , Technology, Pharmaceutical
13.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 516-526, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-691042

ABSTRACT

<p><b>Background</b>Postmenopausal women with metabolic syndrome (MetS) have increased cardiovascular morbidity and left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (LVDD). The various protective effects of astragalus membranaceus (AM) have been described in previous studies. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the effects of different doses of AM on diastolic function in postmenopausal hypertensive women with MetS.</p><p><b>Methods</b>This was a prospective, randomized controlled study. The postmenopausal hypertensive patients with MetS were enrolled from Lanzhou University Second Hospital from March 2014 to April 2015. Patients were divided into three groups: control group (received conventional medical treatment), AM Group 1 (received AM capsules at 5 g/d additionally), and AM Group 2 (received AM capsules at 10 g/d additionally). Echocardiographic and clinical characteristics were evaluated before and 12 months after treatment. Quantitative data were analyzed using unpaired t-test, analysis of variance, and multiple linear regression analysis.</p><p><b>Results</b>A total of 154 patients were subjected to final analysis. In the AM Group 2, significant improvements were noted in diastolic function 12 months after treatment than those of the control group, including the early diastolic mitral annular velocity (E'; 0.065 ± 0.007 m/s vs. 0.061 ± 0.008 m/s, P = 0.014), the ratio of the early diastolic mitral peak flow velocity to the late diastolic mitral peak flow velocity (E/A; 0.81 ± 0.05 vs. 0.80 ± 0.06, P = 0.012), the ratio of E' to the late diastolic mitral annular velocity (E'/A'; 0.56 ± 0.12 vs. 0.51 ± 0.13, P = 0.048), and the ratio of the early diastolic mitral peak flow velocity (E) to E' (E/E'; 10.70 ± 1.30 vs. 11.37 ± 1.73, P = 0.031). After treatment, E/E' (10.70 ± 1.30 vs. 11.24 ± 1.56, P = 0.021), deceleration time (DT; 261.49 ± 44.41 ms vs. 268.74 ± 53.87 ms, P = 0.046), and E'/A' (0.56 ± 0.12 vs. 0.52 ± 0.13, P = 0.019) values improved more significantly than those of AM Group 2 before treatment. Besides, waist circumference was positively correlated with E' (r = 0.472; P = 0.003) and E'/A' (r = 0.321; P = 0.047). In addition, the waist-to-hip ratio was a significant predictor of DT (r = 0.276; P = 0.041), E' (r = -0.590; P < 0.001), E/E' (r = 0.454; P = 0.004), and E'/A' (r = -0.377; P = 0.018).</p><p><b>Conclusions</b>Conventional medical plus AM therapy improved diastolic function. Moreover, WC and WHR might be risk factors for LVDD.</p><p><b>Chinese Clinical Trial Register</b>ChiCTR-TRC-11001747. http://www.chictr.org.cn/showprojen.aspx?proj=7798.</p>


Subject(s)
Astragalus propinquus , Chemistry , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Therapeutic Uses , Female , Humans , Hypertension , Drug Therapy , Metabolic Syndrome , Drug Therapy , Postmenopause , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left , Drug Therapy
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812104

ABSTRACT

Astragali Radix (AR) is one of the most popular herbal medicines in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Wild AR is believed to be of high quality, and substitution with cultivated AR is frequently encountered in the market. In the present study, two types of ARs (wild and cultivated) from Astragalus membranaceus (Fisch.) Bge. and A. membranaceus var. mongholicus (Bge.) Hsiao, growing in different regions of China, were analyzed by NMR profiling coupled with multivariate analysis. Results showed that both could be differentiated successfully and cultivation patterns or growing years might have greater impact on the metabolite compositions than the variety; the metabolites responsible for the separation were identified. In addition, three extraction methods were compared and the method (M1) was used for further analysis. In M1, the extraction solvent composed of water, methanol, and chloroform in the ratio of 1 : 1 : 2 was used to obtain the aqueous methanol (upper layer) and chloroform (lower layer) fractions, respectively, showing the best separation. The differential metabolites among different methods were also revealed. Moreover, the sucrose/glucose ratio could be used as a simple index to differentiate wild and cultivated AR. Meanwhile, the changes of correlation pattern among the differential metabolites of the two varieties were found. The work demonstrated that NMR-based non-targeted profiling approach, combined with multivariate statistical analysis, can be used as a powerful tool for differentiating AR of different cultivation types or growing years.


Subject(s)
Astragalus propinquus , Chemistry , Classification , Metabolism , China , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Methods , Metabolomics , Plant Extracts , Chemistry , Metabolism , Plant Roots , Chemistry , Classification , Plants, Medicinal , Chemistry , Metabolism
15.
Mycobiology ; : 430-433, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-730008

ABSTRACT

We characterized two endophyte fungi from the leaves of Astragalus membranaceus in Korea. The isolated strains were identified on the basis of the morphological characters and sequences analysis of the internal transcribed spacer and large subunit regions of the rDNA and β-tubulin gene. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of Diaporthe oncostoma and Diaporthe infecunda in Korea, and we have provided descriptions and figures.


Subject(s)
Astragalus propinquus , DNA, Ribosomal , Fungi , Korea
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-289475

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To study the efficacy of Huai Qi Huang granules in the treatment of childhood primary nephrotic syndrome.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Between July 2009 and December 2011, patients who were admitted and diagnosed for the first time as childhood primary nephrotic syndrome were randomized into a treatment group (Huai Qi Huang granules plus glucocorticoid; n=23) and a control group (glucocorticoid alone; n=19) for a prospective study. The two groups were compared for regression time of edema, time to urinary protein clearance, relapse rate, incidence of infection, dosage of glucocorticoid, and humoral and cellular immunological indicators.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>There were no significant differences in regression time of edema, time to urinary protein clearance, and relapse rate between the treatment and control groups (P>0.05). The treatment group had significantly lower incidence of infection and daily dose of glucocorticoid (at month 6) than the control group (P<0.05). Humoral and cellular immunological indicators showed no significant differences between the two groups (P>0.05). No Huai Qi Huang-related adverse events were observed in this study.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>Huai Qi Huang granules treatment can reduce the dose of glucocorticoid and the incidence of infection in children with primary nephrotic syndrome and has a favourable safety.</p>


Subject(s)
Astragalus propinquus , Child , Child, Preschool , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Therapeutic Uses , Female , Glucocorticoids , Therapeutic Uses , Humans , Infant , Male , Nephrotic Syndrome , Drug Therapy , Prospective Studies
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-305301

ABSTRACT

The main objective of this research is to investigate the effects of astragaloside IV, calycosin separately glucoside, formononetin on oxidative stress in Chang Liver cells induced by H2O2. In the experiments, Chang Liver cells (a kind of normal human hepatocytes) were used as the research object, bifendate which has a clear hepatoprotective effect was used as the positive control drug, then the oxidative damage model of Chang Liver cells were established by H2O2. Cells were divided into six groups: blank control group, oxidative stress group, astragaloside IV group, calycosin separately glucoside group, formononetin group and positive control group. Then endogenous antioxidant system related indexes were detected by micro plate and colorimetric method; intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) were detected by DCFH-DA fluorescent probe; and the expressions of CYP2E1 were evaluated by liver microsomes, mRNA, and protein, respectively with spectrophotometry, Real-time PCR method, and Western blot technique. Results showed that H2O2 decreased antioxidant activity, and increased ROS level and expression of CYP2E1. The above oxidative stress status had been changed with protections of the three components of Astragalus membranaceus (compared with oxidative stress group, P < 0.05, P < 0.01), which taken as a whole had equivalent effects as the drug of positive control group( bifendate). Taken together, three Astragalus membranaceus ingredients all had significant or extremely significant inhibiting effects on oxidative damaged Chang Liver cells which were induced by H2O2, and the oxidative damage of Chang Liver cells had been relieved.


Subject(s)
Astragalus propinquus , Chemistry , Cells, Cultured , Cytochrome P-450 CYP2E1 , Metabolism , Humans , Isoflavones , Pharmacology , Liver , Oxidative Stress , Reactive Oxygen Species , Metabolism , Saponins , Pharmacology , Triterpenes , Pharmacology
18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-286392

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To observe the effect of the couplet medicines (Astragalus Membranaceus and Jiaozhen) on intestinal barrier functions of postoperative colorectal cancer patients.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Totally 90 inpatients with confirmed colorectal cancer by pathological diagnosis were recruited as subjects in this study. They were assigned to the Chinese medicine group (CM, treated with Astragalus Membranaceus and Jiaozhen), the Western medicine group (WM, treated with glutamine), and the blank control group (treated with normal saline) according to random digit table, 30 in each group. The treatment course consisted of eight days. Levels of blood D-lactic acid, diamine oxidase (DAO), urinary lactulose/mannitol ratio (L/M), ET, TNF-alpha, and postoperative recovery time of bowel sound were observed before surgery and after surgery. The effect of the couplet medicines (Astragalus Membranaceus and Jiaozhen) on intestinal barrier functions of postoperative colorectal cancer patients were comprehensively assessed by taking blood D-lactic acid levels, DAO levels, urinary L/M as main potency indices; ET and TNF-alpha, recovery time of bowel sound as the secondary potency indices.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>CM showed similar effect with that of WM in improving blood D-lactic acid levels and DAO levels, and urinary L/M ratio, with no statistical difference between them (P > 0.05). But they showed better effect than that of the blank control group (P < 0.05). Levels of ET and TNF-alpha were decreased more in the CM group than in the WM group (P < 0.05). The recovery time of bowel sound was shorter in the CM group than in the WM group (P < 0.05, P < 0.01). Levels of ET and TNF-alpha were decreased more in the WM group than in the blank control group (P < 0.05). There was no statistical difference in the recovery time of bowel sound between the WM group and the blank control group (P > 0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>The couplet medicines (Astragalus Membranaceus and Jiaozhen) had obvious protection for intestinal barrier dysfunction of postoperative colorectal cancer patients, showing similar efficacy to that of WM. It was even superior to glutamine in restoring bowel functions, reducing toxin absorption, and lowering levels of pro-inflammatory factors.</p>


Subject(s)
Amine Oxidase (Copper-Containing) , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , Astragalus propinquus , Chemotherapy, Adjuvant , Methods , Colorectal Neoplasms , Drug Therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , Glutamine , Therapeutic Uses , Humans , Intestinal Mucosa , Intestines , Lactic Acid , Metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Metabolism
19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-237892

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To realize quadratic formula optimization of Renshen Jianxin Capsule (RJC) by screening Chinese herbs with major anti-myocardial ischemia effect in RJC and optimize their optimal dosages.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>By following "uniform design-pharmacodynamic experiment-mathematical modeling-formula optimization", authors employed U10(10(8)) uniform design in the experiment. Eight Chinese herbs contained in RJC were taken as observatory factors. Electrocardiograph (ECG) changes of myocardial ischemia induced by isoproterenol were taken as pharmacodynamic indices. The mathematical model between herbal factors and pharmacodynamic indices was established using stepwise regression analysis to screen Chinese herbs with major anti-myocardial ischemia effect. Their optimal dosages were optimized using the grid algorithm.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The regression equation was y =1. 7889 -0. 3247 Ginseng xSalvia Miltiorrhiza -0. 0663 Astragalus membranaceus xOriental Waterplantain tuber. Forecasting factors included were Ginseng, Salvia Miltiorrhiza, Astragalus membranaceus, and Oriental Waterplantain tuber. The optimal formula dosage calculated by the grid algorithm was Ginseng 1. 62 g, Astragalus membranaceus 4. 62 g, Salvia Miltiorrhiza 2. 43 g, and Oriental Waterplantain tuber 1. 66 g.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Uniform design combined with stepwise regression analysis and grid algorithm were able to realize quadratic formula optimization of RJC.</p>


Subject(s)
Astragalus propinquus , Chemistry, Pharmaceutical , Reference Standards , Coronary Artery Disease , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , Electrocardiography , Humans , Isoproterenol , Myocardial Ischemia , Drug Therapy , Panax , Salvia miltiorrhiza
20.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 1625-1631, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-320032

ABSTRACT

Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus and Hedysarum polybotrys belong to different genera, but have similar drug efficacy in traditional Chinese medicine theory, and H. polybotrys was used as the legal A. membranaceus var. mongholicus previously. In this study, similarities and differences between them were analyzed via their ITS/ITS2 fragments information. The ITS (internal transcribed spacer) regions were amplified using polymerase chain reaction and then sequenced in two-way. The alignment lengths of ITS regions were 616 bp, in which 508 loci were consistent, and 103 loci were different, accounting for 82.47% and 16.72% of the total ITS nucleotides in length, respectively. As genotype determines phenotype, 1HNMR-based metabolomic approach was further used to reveal the chemical similarities and differences between them. Thirty-four metabolites were identified in the 1H NMR spectra, and twenty-seven metabolites were the common components. Amino acids, carbohydrates and other primary metabolites were similar, while a large difference existed in the flavonoids and astragalosides. This study suggests that A. membranaceus var. mongholicus and H. polybotrys show similarities and differences from molecular and chemical perspectives, which has laid a foundation for elucidating the effective material basis of drug with similar efficacy and resources utilization.


Subject(s)
Astragalus propinquus , Chemistry , Genetics , DNA, Plant , Genetics , DNA, Ribosomal Spacer , Genetics , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Fabaceae , Chemistry , Genetics , Flavonoids , Chemistry , Metabolome , Metabolomics
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