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1.
Int. j. med. surg. sci. (Print) ; 8(4): 1-8, dic. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1348217

ABSTRACT

La epilepsia engloba un conjunto de trastornos convulsivos heterogéneos, con diversas características clínicas que excluyen un mecanismo etiológico singular. Individuos con epilepsia presentan una tasa significativamente mayor de condiciones psiquiátricas y neurológicas asociadas. Niños con epilepsia tienen dos a tres veces más riesgo de desarrollar trastornos por déficit de atención e hiperactividad (TDAH) cuando son comparados con individuos sanos, mientras que uno de cada cinco adultos epilépticos presentan síntomas de TDAH. En los niños con epilepsia, la gravedad y frecuencia de las crisis y una edad más temprana de inicio de las crisis son factores de riesgo comunes para padecer TDAH. Se realizó una revisión narrativa de la literatura y se seleccionaron artículos publicados en el periodo entre el año 2003 y 2021 en bases digitales del área de la salud (LILACS, Medline, Web of Science, SciELO y PubMed). La revisión evidenció que la epilepsia puede aumentar el riesgo de desarrollar TDAH en los niños, y que la epilepsia rolándica benigna es el tipo más diagnosticado en estos niños, que incluso tiene alta tasa de trastornos neuroconductuales con síntomas de TDAH asociados. El diagnóstico temprano y un manejo apropiado, llevan a mejor pronóstico en este grupo de pacientes


Epilepsy encompasses a set of heterogeneous seizure disorders, with various clinical characteristics that exclude a unique etiological mechanism. Individuals with this disease have a significantly higher rate for the development of psychiatric and neurological conditions. Children with epilepsy have two to three times increased risk of developing ADHD when compared to healthy individuals, while one in five epileptic adults have ADHD symptoms. In children with epilepsy, the severity and frequency of seizures and an earlier age at the onset of seizures are common risk factors for ADHD. A narrative review of the literature was carried out and articles published in the period between 2003 and 2021 in digital databases of the health area (LILACS, Medline, Web of Science, SciELO and PubMed) were selected. The review showed that epilepsy can increase the risk of developing ADHD in children, and that benign rolandic epilepsy is the most diagnosed type in these children, which even has a high rate of neurobehavioral disorders with associated ADHD symptoms. Early diagnosis and appropriate management lead to a better prognosis in this group of patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity , Epilepsy
2.
Edumecentro ; 13(3): 253-270, jul.-sept. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1286265

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Fundamento: el trastorno por déficit de atención e hiperactividad en infantes afecta la adaptación y bienestar de sus cuidadores primarios, lo cual reclama la superación de los profesionales de la enfermería para su atención. Objetivo: determinar la efectividad de un curso de superación, dirigido a profesionales de enfermería sobre la atención a cuidadores primarios de infantes con déficit de atención e hiperactividad. Métodos: se realizó un estudio prexperimental, en el Policlínico Universitario "Chiqui Gómez Lubián" del municipio Santa Clara, en Villa Clara, de 2018 a 2020. Se utilizaron métodos teóricos: histórico-lógico, analítico-sintético, sistematización, inductivo-deductivo y sistémico-estructural; empíricos: análisis documental, cuestionario y entrevista abierta; y matemáticos-estadísticos. Resultados: se diseñó y aplicó el curso de superación dirigido a profesionales de la Enfermería, sustentado en la integración de fundamentos teóricos a partir de la identificación de necesidades de aprendizaje, y conformado por siete temas con sus objetivos, temáticas, materiales y medios de enseñanza y sistema de evaluación, el cual fue aprobado por el consejo científico de la Universidad de Ciencias Médicas de Villa Clara. Conclusiones: el curso de superación implementado sobre la atención a cuidadores primarios de infantes con déficit de atención e hiperactividad se considera efectivo al producir cambios significativos en el nivel de conocimientos de los profesionales y la satisfacción expresada por ellos.


ABSTRACT Background: attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder in infants affects the adaptation and well-being of their primary caregivers, which demands the upgrading of nursing professionals for their care. Objective: to determine the effectiveness of an upgrading course, aimed at nursing professionals on the care of primary caregivers of infants with attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder. Methods: a pre-experimental study was carried out at the "Chiqui Gómez Lubián" University Polyclinic of the Santa Clara municipality, in Villa Clara, from 2018 to 2020. Theoretical methods were used: historical-logical, analytical-synthetic, systematization, inductive-deductive and systemic-structural; empirical ones: documentary analysis, questionnaire and open interview; and mathematical-statistics. Results: an upgrading course aimed at nursing professionals was designed and applied, based on the integration of theoretical foundations from the identification of learning needs, and made up of seven topics with their objectives, topics, materials and teaching aids and evaluation system, which was approved by the scientific council of Villa Clara University of Medical Sciences. Conclusions: the upgrading course implemented on the care of primary caregivers of infants with attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder is considered effective as it produces meaningful changes in the level of knowledge of the professionals and the satisfaction expressed by them.


Subject(s)
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity , Behavioral Medicine , Caregivers , Community Medicine , Program
3.
Estud. Interdiscip. Psicol ; 12(1): 27-51, jan-abr.2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1337693

ABSTRACT

Esta pesquisa teve por objetivo analisar as trajetórias escolares de jovens universitários diagnosticados com Transtorno de Déficit de Atenção e Hiperatividade (TDAH) e os efeitos de subjetivação decorrentes da experiência e apropriação desse diagnóstico. Foram entrevistados três estudantes matriculados em uma universidade da Grande Florianópolis (SC). A análise das narrativas foi realizada a partir da perspectiva teórico-metodológica da "análise de práticas discursivas", tal como proposta por Spink e Medrado (2013). Destacaram-se os efeitos de subjetivação dos processos de patologização e medicalização, com ênfase nas trajetórias escolares. Considerou-se que os sentidos das experiências do diagnóstico de TDAH são construídos, sobretudo, a partir de referentes discursivos típicos das racionalidades médico-psiquiátricas, que operam como um significativo regime de saber-poder subjetivante. Observou-se, também, que a medicalização da educação e da vida é um processo recorrente para adaptar os sujeitos em suas trajetórias escolares.


The goal of this study was to analyze educational trajectories of university students diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and the subjectivation effects arising from the experience and appropriation of this diagnosis. Three students enrolled at a university in Greater Florianópolis (SC) were interviewed. The analyses of the narratives were carried out from the theoreticalmethodological perspective of the "discursive practices analyses", as it has been proposed by Spink and Medrado (2013). The subjectification effects of pathologization and medicalization processes were highlighted, with emphasis on educational trajectories. It was considered that the meanings of the experiences of the diagnosis of ADHD are constructed, mainly, from typical psychiatric discursive referents, which operate as a significant power-knowledge subjectivation regime. It was also observed that the medicalization of life and education is a recurrent process to adapt the subjects in their educational trajectories.


Esta investigación tuvo como objetivo analizar las trayectorias escolares de jóvenes universitarios diagnosticados con trastorno de déficit de atención e hiperactividad (TDAH) y los efectos de la subjetivación, resultantes de la experiencia y de la apropiación de este diagnóstico. Se entrevistó a tres estudiantes matriculados en una universidad en Florianópolis (SC). El análisis de las narrativas se realizó desde la perspectiva teórico-metodológica del "análisis de las prácticas discursivas", según proponen Spink y Medrado (2013). Se destacaron los efectos de subjetivación de los procesos de patologización y medicalización, con énfasis en las trayectorias escolares. Se constató que los sentidos de las experiencias del diagnóstico de TDAH se construyen, sobre todo, a partir de referentes discursivos típicos de las racionalidades médico-psiquiátricas, que operan como un significativo régimen de saber-poder subjetivante. También se observó que la medicalización de la educación y la vida es un proceso recurrente para adaptar a los sujetos en sus trayectorias escolares.


Subject(s)
Psychology, Educational , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity , Medicalization
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879825

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To study the intellectual characteristics of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and developmental dyslexia (DD).@*METHODS@#A total of 55 children with ADHD and DD (ADHD+DD group), 150 children with ADHD alone (ADHD group), and 22 children with DD alone (DD group) were enrolled as subjects. Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) was used to evaluate and compare intellectual characteristics among the three groups.@*RESULTS@#There were significant differences in the scores of full-scale intelligence quotient (FSIQ), verbal comprehension index, perceptual reasoning index, and working memory index among the three groups (@*CONCLUSIONS@#Compared with the children with ADHD alone, the children with ADHD and DD have more severe impairment of FSIQ, verbal comprehension, perceptual reasoning, and working memory, and therefore, it is suggested to enhance the training on similarities, vocabulary, matrix reasoning, picture concepts, and recitation for children with ADHD and DD in clinical practice.


Subject(s)
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity , Child , Dyslexia , Humans , Intelligence Tests , Memory, Short-Term , Wechsler Scales
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-877629

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To observe the clinical curative effect on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and explore the relevant mechanism of acupuncture in treatment.@*METHODS@#A total of 100 ADHD children were randomized into an observation group (50 cases, 2 cases dropped off) and a control group (50 cases, 1 case dropped off). In the control group, the routine psychological intervention was used. In the observation group, on the base of the treatment as the control group, acupuncture was applied to Taichong (LR 3), Neiguan (PC 6), Shenmen (HT 7), Sanyinjiao (SP 6), Baihui (GV 20), Sishencong (EX-HN 1), etc., once daily, for 3 months. The Cambridge neuropsychological tests automated battery (CANTAB) was adopted to evaluate attention and response inhibition in two groups before and after treatment. Digi-Lite color transcranial Doppler was used to measure cerebral arterial blood velocity. The therapeutic effect was compared between the two groups.@*RESULTS@#Regarding evaluation of attention, the mean delay time in the observation group after treatment was shorter than that before treatment and that in the control group separately (@*CONCLUSION@#Acupuncture combined with psychological intervention may improve attention and response inhibition in ADHD children, which is possibly related to the regulation of cerebral blood flow.


Subject(s)
Acupuncture Points , Acupuncture Therapy , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/therapy , Cerebrovascular Circulation , Child , Humans , Psychosocial Intervention
6.
Psicol. Estud. (Online) ; 26: e46549, 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1287640

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Entende-se por medicalização o processo pelo qual situações cotidianas são individualizadas e transformadas em problemas médicos. O ensino superior tem sido alvo de práticas medicalizantes, principalmente em relação ao Transtorno de Déficit de Atenção com/sem Hiperatividade (TDA/H) e dislexia, uma vez que não existe um consenso sobre a existência destes supostos transtornos. Desta forma, esta pesquisa teve como objetivo conhecer e analisar os laudos de dislexia e TDA/H utilizados para o ingresso no ensino superior a partir das contribuições da Teoria Histórico-Cultural. Neste estudo, foi realizado um levantamento dos laudos nos anos de 2003 a 2016 apresentados por candidatos junto ao setor responsável pelos processos seletivos da Universidade Federal de Uberlândia (UFU). Foram elencados 809 requerimentos, em que 96 candidatos tinham laudos de dislexia e/ou TDA/H, sendo 42 do sexo feminino e 54 do masculino, 34 destes com intenção para o curso de medicina. O número de requerimentos aumentou de 2003 para 2016, assim como o uso de medicamentos, sendo que 32 candidatos comprovam o uso do composto cloridrato de metilfenidato. Neste sentido, perguntamo-nos se os diagnósticos e fármacos têm sido utilizados para facilitar o ingresso ao ensino superior. Além disso, é imprescindível que o atendimento especial a candidatos com laudos de dislexia e TDA/H seja repensado e tais pseudodiagnósticos desconstruídos, uma vez que culminam na proliferação de laudos, aumento do consumo de fármacos e, consequentemente, contribuem para o processo de medicalização da vida.


RESUMEN Se entiende por medicalización el proceso por el cual situaciones cotidianas son individualizadas y transformadas en problemas médicos. La enseñanza superior ha sido objeto de prácticas de medicalización, principalmente en relación con el Trastorno de Déficit de Atención con / sin Hiperactividad (TDA / H) y Dislexia, ya que no existe consenso sobre la existencia de estos supuestos trastornos. En este sentido, en esta investigación se tuvo como objetivo conocer y analizar los laudos de Dislexia y TDA / H utilizados para el ingreso en la Enseñanza Superior a partir de las contribuciones de la Teoría Histórico-Cultural. En este estudio, se realizó un levantamiento de los laudos en los años 2003 a 2016 presentados por candidatos junto al sector responsable por los procesos selectivos de la Universidad Federal de Uberlândia (UFU). Se incluyeron 809 solicitudes, en las cuales 96 candidatos tenían laudos de Dislexia y / o TDA / H, siendo 42 del sexo femenino y 54 del masculino, 34 de ellos con intención para el curso de Medicina. El número de solicitudes aumentó de 2003 a 2016, así como el uso de medicamentos, siendo que 32 candidatos comprueban el uso del compuesto de Metilfenidato. En este sentido, nos preguntamos si se han utilizado diagnósticos y fármacos para facilitar el ingreso en la Enseñanza Superior. Además, es imprescindible que la atención especial a candidatos con laudos de Dislexia y TDA / H sea repensada y tales pseudo diagnósticos deconstruidos, una vez que culminan en la proliferación de laudos, aumento del consumo de fármacos y, consecuentemente, contribuyen al proceso de medicalización de la vida.


ABSTRACT Medicalization is understood as the process by which daily situations are individualized and transformed into medical problems. Higher Education has been the target of medicalizing practices, especially in relation to Attention Deficit Disorder with/without Hyperactivity (ADHD) and Dyslexia, since there is no consensus about the existence of these supposed disorders. In this regard, the general objective was to know and to analyze Dyslexia and ADHD technical reports used for entry to Higher Education through Cultural-Historical Theory contributions. Technical reports of candidates presented to the sector responsible for selection processes at the Federal University of Uberlândia (UFU), between 2003 and 2016, were examined. There were 809 applications, 96 candidates with reports for dyslexia and/or ADHD, 42 females and 54 males, 34 candidates with intention for Medical school. The number of requests increased between 2003 and 2016, as well as the use of medication; 32 candidates used methylphenidate hydrochloride. In this sense, we ask ourselves if diagnoses and medications have been used to facilitate entry to higher education. In addition, it is necessary to rethink the special attention given to candidates with dyslexia and ADHD reports and to deconstruct these supposed pseudodiagnoses, since they culminate in the proliferation of reports, increase in drug consumption and, consequently, contribute to the process of life medicalization.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/psychology , Education, Higher , Dyslexia/psychology , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Diagnosis , Medicalization , Methylphenidate/therapeutic use
7.
Rev. CEFAC ; 23(2): e12120, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1250695

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: to investigate the association of symptoms of inattention and hyperactivity with language development and cognitive, environmental, socioeconomic, and quality of life aspects in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Methods: an observational, analytical, cross-sectional study with a sex-stratified sample of 38 children 7 to 12 years old, diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. The assessments approached sociodemographic and environmental aspects, the quality of life, language comprehension, rapid automatic naming, phonological working memory, vocabulary, reading and writing processes and metalinguistic skills. Descriptive and bivariate analyses were conducted at the 5% significance level. Results: there was a statistically significant association between the profile of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and behavioral aspects. There was no significant association of the forms of manifestation of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder with the quality of life, oral language, written language and phonological processing skills. Conclusion: children with hyperactive profiles had a better performance, whereas children with combined and predominantly inattentive profiles had similar performances. Although no statistically significant associations were found between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and most of the variables analyzed in this research, it contributes to the discussion of the speech-language-hearing diagnosis.


RESUMO Objetivo: investigar a associação de sintomas de desatenção e hiperatividade com o desenvolvimento de linguagem, aspectos cognitivos, ambientais, socioeconômicos e de qualidade de vida, em crianças com Transtorno do Déficit de Atenção e Hiperatividade. Métodos: estudo observacional, analítico, transversal, com amostra estratificada por sexo e composta por 38 crianças de sete a doze anos de idade, com diagnóstico de Transtorno do Déficit de Atenção e Hiperatividade. Foram avaliados aspectos sociodemográficos e ambientais, qualidade de vida, compreensão da linguagem, nomeação automática rápida, memória de trabalho fonológica, vocabulário, processos de leitura, escrita e habilidades metalinguísticas. Foram realizadas análises descritiva e bivariada, adotando nível de significância de 5%. Resultados: houve associação com significância estatística entre perfil do Transtorno do Déficit de Atenção e Hiperatividade e aspectos comportamentais. Não houve associação significante das formas de apresentação do Transtorno do Déficit de Atenção e Hiperatividade com qualidade de vida, linguagem oral, linguagem escrita e habilidades de processamento fonológico. Conclusão: verificou-se melhor desempenho das crianças com perfil hiperativo e desempenho semelhante entre os perfis combinado e predominantemente desatento. Embora não tenham sido encontradas associações estatisticamente significantes entre Transtorno do Déficit de Atenção e Hiperatividade e a maioria das variáveis analisadas nesta pesquisa, ela contribui para a discussão do diagnóstico fonoaudiológico.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Child , Quality of Life , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/complications , Language Disorders/etiology , Socioeconomic Factors , Cross-Sectional Studies
8.
Clin. biomed. res ; 41(2): 100-106, 2021. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1293189

ABSTRACT

Este artigo apresenta o processo de ideação e prototipação de um aplicativo para auxílio de pacientes com TDAH no autogerenciamento de hábitos diários para uma maior adesão ao tratamento e no gerenciamento de tempo, agregando assim muito valor à sociedade. Este processo foi proposto na primeira edição do evento "Experiência HCPA ­ TDAH Hackathon". O método usado foi a pesquisa de campo com pacientes com TDAH e validação de hipóteses. Justifica-se pela necessidade de uma ferramenta confiável, permitindo que os pacientes com TDAH possam centralizar as ações em apenas um aplicativo no celular: seus compromissos, lembretes de medicação e gerenciamento de tempo, entre outras facilidades, sendo o meio mais viável e efetivo para a adesão ao tratamento. (AU)


This article presents the process of ideation and prototyping of an application to helppatients with ADHD in self-management of daily habits to a greater adherence to treatment and time management, thus adding a lot of value to society. This process was proposed in the first edition of the HCPA Experience ­ ADHD Hackathon event. The method used was field research of patients with ADHD and validation of hypotheses. The need for a reliable tool is justified, where ADHD patients will be able to centralize their appointments, medication reminders, time management, among other facilities in just one mobile application, being the most viable and effective means of adhering to treatment. (AU)


Subject(s)
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity , Mobile Applications , Treatment Adherence and Compliance
9.
Article in English | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1154972

ABSTRACT

Abstract Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children and adolescents manifests itself in a heterogeneous manner as regards personality aspects. This study aimed to evaluate, by using the Ego Impairment Index, the personality functioning characteristics of children and adolescents between 9 and 15 years old (to be completed), diagnosed with the disorder (clinical group) and compare them with a non-clinical group. The groups included 42 participants each. The Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children - Present and Lifetime version was used for diagnosis, and the Rorschach Performance Assessment System (R-PAS) was utilized for personality traits. When compared to their peers, the participants in the clinical group showed ability to discern adaptive behaviors through proper judgment, difficulty in keeping thinking and reasoning processes stable, a negative view of themselves and others, in addition to difficulty in establishing cooperative relationships.


Resumo O transtorno da falta de atenção com hiperatividade em crianças e adolescentes manifesta-se de forma heterogênea com relação aos aspectos de personalidade. O presente estudo teve por objetivo avaliar, por meio do Índice de Enfraquecimento do Ego, características do funcionamento da personalidade de crianças e adolescentes, entre 9 e 15 anos incompletos, com o diagnóstico do transtorno (grupo clínico) e compará-las com um grupo não-clínico. Os grupos contemplaram 42 participantes cada. Utilizou-se para o diagnóstico a entrevista Kiddie-Sads Referente ao Momento Presente e ao Longo da Vida, e o Sistema de Avaliação por Performance no Rorschach (R-PAS) para as características de personalidade. Os participantes do grupo clínico, quando comparados com seus pares, mostraram capacidade de discernir comportamentos adaptativos por meio de julgamento adequado, dificuldade em manter estáveis os processos de pensamento e raciocínio, visão negativa de si próprios e dos demais, dificuldade para estabelecer relacionamentos cooperativos.


Resumen El trastorno por déficit de atención con hiperactividad es uno de los más encontrados entre las patologías infantiles y se manifiesta de forma no homogénea con relación a los aspectos de personalidad. Este estudio comparó a través de lo Índice de Enflaquecimiento del Ego características de personalidad de niños y adolescentes entre 9 y 15 años incompletos con diagnóstico con un grupo de mismo sexo y edad sin diagnóstico. Cada grupo estaba compuesto por 42 participantes. Se utilizó la entrevista Kiddie-Sads sobre el momento presente y al largo de la vida para el diagnóstico y el Sistema de Evaluación por Performance en el Rorschach (R-PAS), para las características de personalidad. El grupo clínico mostró capacidad para discernir conductas adaptativas a través del juicio adecuado, dificultad para mantener estables los procesos de pensamiento y razonamiento, visión negativa de sí mismos y de los demás, dificultad para establecer relaciones de cooperación.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Aptitude , Rorschach Test , Schizophrenia , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity , Adaptation, Psychological , Mood Disorders , Wool Fiber , Judgment
10.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 80(6): 685-695, dic. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1250292

ABSTRACT

Resumen La diabetes durante el embarazo se asocia a un mayor riesgo perinatológico para los niños. Este puede reducirse significativamente con un control glucémico adecuado en estadios tempranos de la gestación. En la última década nuevos estudios han mostrado los efectos deletéreos de la diabetes materna en la salud de los hijos a largo plazo, como las alteraciones del neurodesarrollo y los efectos sobre el pronóstico educacional y ocupacional. Las mismas pueden ser clasificadas, desde el punto de vista clínico-diagnóstico en tres grupos principales: trastornos del aprendizaje y del desarrollo intelectual, trastorno por déficit de atención e hiperactividad y trastornos del espectro autista. El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo realizar una actualización no sistemática de la evidencia más reciente en el tema y comprender los mecanismos subyacentes que provocan el daño, con el fin de desarrollar estrategias preventivas.


Abstract Diabetes during pregnancy is associated with adverse effects on offspring perinatal outcomes. These could be reduced significantly with an adequate glycemic control in early stages of gestation. In the last decade, new studies have shown the effects of maternal diabetes in the long-term health of the offspring, like impaired neurodevelopment and its impact on educational and occupational outcome. This can be classified, from the clinical and diagnostic perspective, in three main groups: learning and cognitive disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and autism spectrum disorders. This paper has the objective to give a non-systematic upgrade of the current evidence on the subject, and to understand the underlying mechanisms of adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes which in turn may lead to strategies for its prevention.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/etiology , Diabetes, Gestational/diagnosis , Neurodevelopmental Disorders/etiology , Neurodevelopmental Disorders/epidemiology , Autism Spectrum Disorder
11.
Rev. SPAGESP ; 21(2): 126-138, jul.-dez. 2020. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1125736

ABSTRACT

O artigo relata uma prática psicológica com um grupo de pais de crianças diagnosticadas com Transtorno de Déficit de Atenção/Hiperatividade (TDAH), no Centro de Referência Especializado de Assistência Social (CRAS) em um município situado ao noroeste do estado do Rio Grande do Sul (RS). Foram realizados seis encontros semanais, com duas horas e meia de duração e participação de treze pais que integraram o grupo. A estrutura dos encontros consistiu no oferecimento do espaço de escuta para as principais queixas dos pais em relação aos aspectos do TDAH apresentados pelos filhos e psicoeducar sobre os sintomas, curso do transtorno e intervenções para execução no manejo de problemas com os filhos. Como resultado da intervenção, os pais relataram ter melhorado a capacidade de compreender as situações relacionadas ao transtorno dos seus filhos e encontrar soluções assertivas. A intervenção grupal com pais de crianças com TDAH contribuiu como dispositivo para melhorar a qualidade de vida das famílias que vivenciam dificuldades relacionadas aos aspectos do transtorno dos seus filhos.


The article reports a psychological practice with a group of parents of children diagnosed with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), at the Centro de Referência Especializado de Assistência Social (CRAS) in a city located in the northwest of the state of Rio Grande do Sul. Six weekly meetings were held, lasting two and a half hours, and with the participation of thirteen parents who were part of the group. The structure of the meetings consisted of offering the space for listening to the main complaints of parents regarding aspects of ADHD presented by their children and psychoeducation about the symptoms, course of the disorder, and interventions for execution in the management of problems with their children. As a result of the intervention, parents reported having improved their ability to understand the situations related to their children's disorder and to find assertive solutions. The group intervention with parents of children with ADHD contributed as a device to improve the quality of life of families that experience difficulties related to the aspects of their children's disorder.


El artículo relata una práctica psicológica con un grupo de padres de niños diagnosticados con el Trastorno por Déficit de Atención e Hiperactividad (TDAH), en el Centro de Referencia Especializado de Asistencia Social (CRAS) de una ciudad situada en el noroeste del estado de Rio Grande do Sul. Se realizaron seis reuniones semanales, de dos horas y media de duración, en las que participaron trece padres que formaban parte del grupo. La estructura de las reuniones consistió en ofrecer un espacio para escuchar las principales quejas sobre los aspectos del TDAH que presentan sus hijos y psicoeducar sobre los síntomas, el curso del trastorno y las intervenciones de ejecución en el manejo de los problemas con sus hijos. Como resultado de la intervención, los padres informaron que habían mejorado su capacidad para comprender las situaciones relacionadas con el trastorno de sus hijos y para encontrar soluciones asertivas. La intervención grupal con padres de niños con TDAH contribuyó como un dispositivo para mejorar la calidad de vida de las familias que experimentan dificultades relacionadas con los aspectos del trastorno de sus hijos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Parents , Practice, Psychological , Psychology, Clinical , Quality of Life , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity , Family
12.
Rev. colomb. psiquiatr ; 49(3): 208-210, jul.-set. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1149829

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: El TDAH tiene una prevalencia del 1-4% de la población escolar española. Su tratamiento se realiza con derivados anfetamínicos y, recientemente, con fármacos no esti mulantes; los estudios realizados no han encontrado diferencias de eficacia. Caso clínico: Niña de 7 arios llegó derivada desde neurología por retraso en el aprendizaje y trastornos de conducta. Orientada como TDAH, se inició tratamiento con metilfenidato de liberación inmediata y posteriormente con la fórmula OROS; apareció alopecia areata y se retiró el tratamiento. Tras la reintroducción de metilfenidato de liberación modificada 30:70, se consiguió controlar los síntomas sin que apareciera alopecia. Discusión: Hay antecedentes publicados de 2 casos de alopecia areata con metilfenidato OROS, que se resolvieron tras el aumento de dosis del fármaco, aunque no se conoce clara mente el motivo de este suceso. No hay consenso sobre el uso prioritario de la fórmula de liberación inmediata o la fórmula OROS del metilfenidato.


ABSTRACT Introduction: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder has a prevalence of 1-4% of the Spanish school population. Its treatment consists of giving amphetamine derivatives and, recently, non-stimulant drugs, without finding any differences in efficacy in the studies performed. Clinical case: A 7-year-old girl was referred from neurology due to learning delay and behaviour disorders. Diagnosed as likely ADHD, treatment was started with immediate release methylphenidate, and later with an osmotic release oral system (OROS) methylphenidate. When alopecia areata appeared, this treatment was withdrawn. After the re-introduction of modified release methylphenidate 30:70, symptom control was achieved without the appearance of alopecia. Discussion: There is a published history of two cases of alopecia areata with OROS methylp henidate that resolved after increasing the dose of the drug without clearly knowing the reason for this event. There is no consensus on the priority use of the immediate release formula or the OROS methylphenidate.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Child , Alopecia , Methylphenidate , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Alopecia Areata , Dosage
13.
Edumecentro ; 12(3): 221-240, jul.-set. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1124712

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Fundamento: el Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad (TDAH) es una perturbación del desarrollo neurológico frecuente en edades pediátricas. Afecta el comportamiento infantil y las relaciones con sus cuidadores primarios. Objetivo: diseñar acciones de intervención educativa en la comunidad para cuidadores primarios de infantes con TDAH. Métodos: se realizó un estudio mixto de tipo triangulación concomitante, en el Policlínico Universitario "Chiqui Gómez Lubián" de Santa Clara, de 2016 a 2019. Se utilizaron métodos teóricos: analítico-sintético, sistematización, inductivo-deductivo, modelación y sistémico-estructural; empíricos: escalas autoadministrables, entrevista abierta y cuestionario a expertos. Resultados: se constató un predominio de mediana capacidad de afrontamiento y adaptación en los cuidadores primarios. Las dimensiones más afectadas de calidad de vida fueron las emociones y conductas, descanso y sueño, y la preparación recibida para brindar cuidados a su familiar. Se diseñó un programa de intervención educativa en la comunidad, basado en la integración del modelo de la adaptación de Callista Roy y el sistema de apoyo educativo de Dorothea Orem; estructurado en cinco temas, con medios de enseñanza conformados con la aplicación de tecnologías educativas. Conclusiones: el programa fue valorado como muy adecuado por los expertos por su contribución a la adaptación, afrontamiento, calidad de vida y satisfacción de cuidadores primarios de infantes con TDAH, en modos adaptativos, con un enfoque grupal, interdisciplinario y sistémico.


ABSTRACT Basis: Attention Deficit /Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that is common in pediatric age. It can affect children's behavior and relationships with their primary caregivers. Objective: to design educational intervention actions in the community for primary caregivers of infants with ADHD. Methods: a mixed method study was conducted at the "Chiqui Gómez Lubian" University Polyclinic in Santa Clara, from 2016 to 2019. Theoretical methods were used: analytical-synthetic, systematization, inductive-deductive, modeling and systemic-structural; empirical methods: self-administered scales, open interview and questionnaire for experts. Results: a predominance of medium coping and adaptation capacity in primary caregivers was noted. The most affected indicators of quality of life were emotions and behaviors, rest and sleep, and readiness to provide care for his/her family member. An educational intervention program, based on the integration of Callista Roy's adaptation model and Dorothea Orem's educational support system, was designed in the community ; it was organized under five themes, with learning resources developed by using educational technologies. Conclusions: the program was evaluated by experts as very appropriate for its contribution to adaptation, coping, quality of life and satisfaction of primary caregivers of children with ADHD, in adaptive modes, with a focus group and interdisciplinary and systemic approach.


Subject(s)
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity , Behavioral Medicine , Caregivers , Community Medicine , Program
14.
Fractal rev. psicol ; 32(2): 154-161, maio-ago. 2020.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1133942

ABSTRACT

Esse estudo teve como objetivo abordar o processo de medicalização da infância, realizando um mapeamento dos alunos do primeiro ciclo do ensino fundamental da rede municipal de uma cidade paranaense, que foram diagnosticados e medicados devido aos ditos transtornos de aprendizagem, entre eles o Transtorno de Déficit de Atenção e Hiperatividade (TDAH). Teve como intuito, também, discutir como o sistema de progressão continuada influencia o processo de escolarização destes alunos. Para tanto, foram combinadas as pesquisas empírica e bibliográfica, em que os dados da investigação de campo, obtidos por meio de questionários respondido pelos pais ou responsáveis, foram submetidos a análise quantitativa e qualitativa, e os resultados foram discutidos em conjunto com a revisão bibliográfica, a partir do referencial teórico da Psicologia Histórico-Cultural. Por meio desta pesquisa, foi possível compreender que o fenômeno da medicalização cresce exponencialmente, sobretudo no cenário educacional, e que o sistema de progressão continuada, da forma como foi implantado, colabora para que essa problemática seja encoberta.(AU)


This study aimed to address the childhood medicalization process, making a mapping of the students of the first cycle of elementary education in the municipal network of a city in Paraná, who were diagnosed and medicated due to the said learning disorders, among them, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). It was also intended to discuss how the system of continued progression influences the schooling process of these students. For this purpose, an empirical and bibliographic research was combined, in which the data of the field investigation, obtained through questionnaires answered by the parents or guardians, were submitted to quantitative and qualitative analysis and the results were discussed together with the bibliographic review, from the theoretical framework of Historical-Cultural Psychology. Through this research, it was clarified that the phenomenon of medicalization grows exponentially, especially in the educational scenario, and that the system of continued progression, as it was implemented, collaborates so that this problem is covered up.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity , Child , Medicalization , Learning Disabilities
15.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 118(4): e405-e409, agosto 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1118592

ABSTRACT

El trastorno por déficit de atención e hiperactividad afecta al 5 % de los niños en edad escolar. Se presenta una serie de 82 niños con este trastorno no asociado a enfermedades neurológicas ni a discapacidad intelectual o trastorno del espectro autista, atendidos durante un período de 8 meses en Neuropediatría: 57 casos de tipo combinado, 23 de tipo inatento y 2 de predominio hiperactivo. Tiempo medio de seguimiento: 7 ± 2,8 años (rango: 4-14,6). Compartían seguimiento con Psiquiatría 16 pacientes. Nunca recibieron tratamiento por decisión parental 12 pacientes. De los 70 que recibieron, en 20, hubo demora en el inicio del tratamiento. Tiempo medio de demora: 20 meses ± 1,6 años (rango: 1 mes y 6 años). Tiempo medio de tratamiento: 44 meses ± 2,6 años (rango: 1 mes y 10,5 años). El 90 % de los pacientes (63) que iniciaron tratamiento continuaban tomándolo en la última revisión


Attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity has a high prevalence affecting 5 % of school-age children. We present a case series of 82 children with said disorder not associated with neurological diseases or intellectual disability or autism spectrum disorder, treated during a period of 8 months in a neuropediatrics clinic: 57 cases of combined type, 23 of inattentive type and 2 of overactive predominance. Average follow-up time: 7 ± 2.8 years (range: 4-14.6); 16 patients shared follow-up with Psychiatry; 12 patients never received treatment by parental decision. Of the 70 who received it, in 20 there was a delay in the start of treatment. Average delay time: 20 months ± 1.6 years (range: 1 month and 6 years). Average treatment time: 44 months ± 2.6 years (range: 1 month and 10.5 years); 90 % of the patients (63) who started treatment were under treatment at the last control


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/diagnosis , Pediatrics , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/therapy , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Retrospective Studies , Tics , Learning Disabilities , Neurology
16.
Rev. cuba. pediatr ; 92(2): e793, abr.-jun. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1126745

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El índice de masa corporal es un indicador de la densidad corporal. El trastorno por déficit de atención con hiperactividad es un síndrome que presenta tres síntomas: inatención, hiperactividad e impulsividad. Objetivo: Analizar la relación entre el índice de masa corporal y el trastorno por déficit de atención con hiperactividad en niños. Métodos: Investigación observacional, transversal, analítica bivariada y ambispectiva, desarrollada en 111 niñas y 125 niños, de 10 a 12 años de edad estudiantes de la Unidad Educativa Hispano América de la ciudad de Ambato, Ecuador, en el período septiembre 2017- febrero 2018. Los datos del índice de masa corporal y el trastorno por déficit de atención se procesaron en Microsoft Excel, el software Minitab® 18.1 para el cálculo de los coeficientes de correlación de Pearson y Spearman, y prueba de Grubbs para comprobar normalidad y análisis de valores atípicos. Resultados: La media del índice de masa corporal fue de 20,15 en niños y 20,63 en niñas, lo que se consideró normal. El trastorno por déficit de atención: 93,7 por ciento de niñas y 90,4 por ciento de niños, también fue normal. En estos últimos, existió una ligera predisposición por este trastorno. La correlación entre ambas variables fue ligeramente positiva: niñas 0,02 y niños 0,457. Conclusiones: El índice de masa corporal y el trastorno por déficit de atención con hiperactividad tienen parámetros normales en niñas y niños y existe entre ambos una correlación positiva débil. Es necesario establecer estrategias educativas para la disminución de la obesidad y malnutrición infantil(AU)


Introduction: The body mass index is an indicator of body density, determined by the relationship between body weight and height. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is a syndrome with three symptoms: inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity. Objective: To analyze the relationship between the body mass index and the attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in students. Methods: Observational, cross-sectional, bivariate and ambispective analytical research, carried out in a population of 111 girls and 125 boys, from 10 to 12 years of the Hispanic American Education Unit of the city of Ambato, Ecuador, in the period September 2017 - February 2018. Processing data in Microsoft Excel for body mass index and for the attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and with Minitab® 18.1 software for the calculation of coefficients of Pearson and Spearman correlation, as well as the normality tests and analysis of outliers with the Grubbs test. Results: The average for body mass index was 20.15 in boys and 20.63 in girls, considered normal. Normal results were obtained in the attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in 93.7 percent of girls and 90.4 percent of boys, there being a slight predisposition for this disorder. The correlation between both variables was slightly positive: girls 0.202 and boys 0.457. Conclusions: Both, body mass index and the attention deficit hyperactivity disorder have normal parameters in girls and boys, with a weak positive correlation between them. It was proposed to establish educational strategies for the reduction of obesity and child malnutrition(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/complications , Body Mass Index , Pediatric Obesity/complications , Cross-Sectional Studies , Ecuador
17.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 24(1): 61-66, jan-abr. 2020.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1096004

ABSTRACT

O processo humano do aprendizado é marcado pelo dinamismo e complexidade, estruturado a partir do ato motor e da percepção, dando origem à cognição. Contudo, a influência da prática de atividade física e das aulas de educação física no desenvolvimento da função cognitiva ainda não são consenso entre os pesquisadores. Sendo assim, este estudo tem como objetivo verificar se crianças com problemas na aprendizagem escolar apresentam maior atraso motor e se a prática de atividade física contribui para melhora do processo cognitivo de aprendizagem. Foram selecionados neste estudo 8 artigos que investigaram (n=835) escolares de 6 a 12 anos. Os resultados demonstraram que a dificuldade na aprendizagem escolar está relacionada ao maior atraso motor e que grupos que participaram de atividades físicas e das aulas de educação física melhoraram o desempenho das funções cognitivas de aprendizagem. Portanto, torna-se fundamental a prática de atividade física e a participação das aulas de educação física, devido sua contribuição no processo de fortalecimento do desenvolvimento infantil.


Human learning is marked by dynamism and complexity. It is structured from the human motor skills and perception, and thus originating cognition. However, there is no agreement among researchers on the influence of physical activity and physical education classes on the development of cognitive function. Therefore, this work aims at verifying if schoolchildren with learning disabilities present greater human motor delay and if physical activity contributes towards a better cognitive leaning process. Moreover, this study also aims at verifying if physical activity improves cognitive learning. In this study, a total of eight (8) journal articles were chosen, which investigated (n=835) students aged from 6 to 12 years old. The results showed that learning disability is related to a higher human motor delay. It also demonstrated that groups which participated in physical activities and in physical education classes presented better human motor skills and better performance of the cognitive functions in learning. Thus, it can be concluded that physical activity and physical education classes play an important role on the progress of children development.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Students , Cognition , Learning Disabilities/rehabilitation , Motor Activity , Motor Skills , Physical Education and Training , Schools , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/psychology , Exercise , Child Development , Growth and Development , Learning
18.
Acta bioeth ; 26(1): 73-80, mayo 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1114600

ABSTRACT

Las experiencias tempranas de vida impactan de manera significativa en la arquitectura del cerebro del infante, pudiendo fortalecerla o debilitarla permanentemente. La sintomatología psicológica presente en la infancia no es transitoria, por lo que la intervención temprana supone beneficios directos, tanto sociales como económicos. El presente trabajo propone fundamentar, con base en los hallazgos de la literatura más reciente, la incorporación en Chile de nuevas Garantías Explícitas en Salud, destinadas específicamente a tratar patologías mentales de la infancia. Se argumenta que se trata de una política pública altamente eficiente, capaz de aportar significativamente en la disminución tanto de los costes asociados a Salud Mental como de las brechas de equidad en salud.


Early life experiences can make an important impact in the architecture of the infant's brain, which can strengthen or weaken it permanently. The childhood psychological symptomatology is not fleeting, so early intervention involves direct social and economic benefits. This paper offers, based on the most recent findings, the addition of new Health Care Guarantees specifically aimed to treating mental pathologies in childhood. This public policy has been shown to be highly efficient and capable to make a real contribution to the reduction of both, the costs associated with Mental Health and the equity gaps in child health care.


As experiências iniciais da vida afetam significativamente a arquitetura do cérebro da criança, que pode fortalecê-lo ou enfraquecê-lo permanentemente. A sintomatologia psicológica presente na infância não é transitória, portanto a intervenção precoce envolve benefícios sociais e econômicos diretos. O presente trabalho propõe basear, com base nos achados da literatura mais recente, a incorporação no Chile de novas Garantias Explícitas de Saúde especificamente voltadas ao tratamento de patologias mentais da infância. Argumenta-se que se trata de uma política pública altamente eficiente, capaz de contribuir significativamente para a redução tanto dos custos associados à Saúde Mental quanto das disparidades de equidade em saúde.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Health Services Coverage , Mental Health Services/economics , Mental Health Services/supply & distribution , Anxiety , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Chile , Child Health , Delivery of Health Care , Depression
20.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 78(4): 193-198, Apr. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1098090

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To compare the ways of evaluating arithmetic skills in Brazilian children with ADHD by combining three validated neuropsychological tests and determining whether they are sensitive to the methylphenidate treatment. Methods: Forty-two children (9‒12 years old) participated in the present study: 20 were children with ADHD (DSM-IV) and 22 were age-matched controls. A classification criterion was used for each test separately and one, for their combination to detect the presence of arithmetic difficulties at two time points: baseline (time 1); and when children with ADHD were taking 0.3‒0.5 mg/kg of methylphenidate (time 2). The study also assessed children's subtraction performance, combining parts of these tests. Results: Separately, the tests were only sensitive to differences between groups without medication. However, by combining the three neuropsychological tests, we observed a difference and detected a reduction in arithmetic difficulties associated with the methylphenidate treatment. The same effects were found in subtraction exercises, which require a borrowing procedure. Conclusions: The present study detected arithmetic difficulties in Brazilian children with ADHD and the effects of methylphenidate. Given this improvement in sensitivity, combining tests could be a promising alternative when working with limited samples.


Resumo Objetivo: Comparar as formas de avaliar as habilidades aritméticas em crianças brasileiras com TDAH, combinando três testes neuropsicológicos validados, e verificar se são sensíveis ao tratamento com metilfenidato. Métodos: Quarenta e duas crianças (9‒12 anos) participaram deste estudo: 20 eram crianças com TDAH (DSM-IV) e 22 eram controles pareados por idade. Usamos um critério de classificação para cada teste separadamente e outro para a combinação entre eles, visando detectar a presença de dificuldades aritméticas em dois momentos: início (tempo 1) e quando as crianças com TDAH estavam tomando 0,3‒0,5 mg/kg de metilfenidato (tempo 2). O estudo também avaliou o desempenho dessas crianças em operações de subtração, combinando partes desses testes. Resultados: Separadamente, os testes foram sensíveis apenas às diferenças entre os grupos sem medicação. Entretanto, ao combinar os três testes neuropsicológicos, foi possível observar uma diferença e detectar uma redução das dificuldades aritméticas associadas ao tratamento com metilfenidato. Os mesmos efeitos foram encontrados em exercícios de subtração que exigem o procedimento de empréstimo. Conclusões: O estudo foi capaz de detectar dificuldades aritméticas em crianças brasileiras com TDAH e os efeitos do metilfenidato. Dada essa melhora na sensibilidade, combinar testes poderia ser uma alternativa promissora ao trabalhar com amostras limitadas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity , Brazil , Central Nervous System Stimulants , Methylphenidate , Neuropsychological Tests
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