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1.
Chinese journal of integrative medicine ; (12): 251-259, 2024.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010332

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the mechanism of electroacupuncture (EA) in promoting recovery of the facial function with the involvement of autophagy, glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), and phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway.@*METHODS@#Seventy-two male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly allocated into the control, sham-operated, facial nerve injury (FNI), EA, EA+3-methyladenine (3-MA), and EA+GDNF antagonist groups using a random number table, with 12 rats in each group. An FNI rat model was established with facial nerve crushing method. EA intervention was conducted at Dicang (ST 4), Jiache (ST 6), Yifeng (SJ 17), and Hegu (LI 4) acupoints for 2 weeks. The Simone's 10-Point Scale was utilized to monitor the recovery of facial function. The histopathological evaluation of facial nerves was performed using hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining. The levels of Beclin-1, light chain 3 (LC3), and P62 were detected by immunohistochemistry (IHC), immunofluorescence, and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, respectively. Additionally, IHC was also used to detect the levels of GDNF, Rai, PI3K, and mTOR.@*RESULTS@#The facial functional scores were significantly increased in the EA group than the FNI group (P<0.05 or P<0.01). HE staining showed nerve axons and myelin sheaths, which were destroyed immediately after the injury, were recovered with EA treatment. The expressions of Beclin-1 and LC3 were significantly elevated and the expression of P62 was markedly reduced in FNI rats (P<0.01); however, EA treatment reversed these abnormal changes (P<0.01). Meanwhile, EA stimulation significantly increased the levels of GDNF, Rai, PI3K, and mTOR (P<0.01). After exogenous administration with autophagy inhibitor 3-MA or GDNF antagonist, the repair effect of EA on facial function was attenuated (P<0.05 or P<0.01).@*CONCLUSIONS@#EA could promote the recovery of facial function and repair the facial nerve damages in a rat model of FNI. EA may exert this neuroreparative effect through mediating the release of GDNF, activating the PI3K/mTOR signaling pathway, and further regulating the autophagy of facial nerves.


Subject(s)
Rats , Male , Animals , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Electroacupuncture , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase/metabolism , Facial Nerve Injuries/therapy , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/metabolism , Beclin-1 , Glial Cell Line-Derived Neurotrophic Factor , Signal Transduction , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism , Autophagy , Mammals/metabolism
2.
Biol. Res ; 57: 3-3, 2024. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1550058

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) poses a major threat to both physical and mental health; however, there is still a lack of effective drugs to treat the disease. Recently, novel biological therapies, such as mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and their products, namely, exosomes, are showing promising therapeutic potential due to their low immunogenicity, few ethical concerns, and easy accessibility. Nevertheless, the precise mechanisms underlying the therapeutic effects of MSC-derived exosomes remain unclear. RESULTS: Exosomes derived from MSCs reduced hearing and hair cell loss caused by neomycin-induced damage in models in vivo and in vitro. In addition, MSC-derived exosomes modulated autophagy in hair cells to exert a protective effect. Mechanistically, exogenously administered exosomes were internalized by hair cells and subsequently upregulated endocytic gene expression and endosome formation, ultimately leading to autophagy activation. This increased autophagic activity promoted cell survival, decreased the mitochondrial oxidative stress level and the apoptosis rate in hair cells, and ameliorated neomycin-induced ototoxicity. CONCLUSIONS: In summary, our findings reveal the otoprotective capacity of exogenous exosome-mediated autophagy activation in hair cells in an endocytosis-dependent manner, suggesting possibilities for deafness treatment.


Subject(s)
Neomycin/metabolism , Neomycin/toxicity , Exosomes/metabolism , Autophagy/physiology , Hair Cells, Auditory
3.
Biomedical and Environmental Sciences ; (12): 54-70, 2024.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007908

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#The aim of this study is to explore the potential modulatory role of quercetin against Endotoxin or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced septic cardiac dysfunction.@*METHODS@#Specific pathogen-free chicken embryos ( n = 120) were allocated untreated control, phosphate buffer solution (PBS) vehicle, PBS with ethanol vehicle, LPS (500 ng/egg), LPS with quercetin treatment (10, 20, or 40 nmol/egg, respectively), Quercetin groups (10, 20, or 40 nmol/egg). Fifteen-day-old embryonated eggs were inoculated with abovementioned solutions via the allantoic cavity. At embryonic day 19, the hearts of the embryos were collected for histopathological examination, RNA extraction, real-time polymerase chain reaction, immunohistochemical investigations, and Western blotting.@*RESULTS@#They demonstrated that the heart presented inflammatory responses after LPS induction. The LPS-induced higher mRNA expressions of inflammation-related factors (TLR4, TNFα, MYD88, NF-κB1, IFNγ, IL-1β, IL-8, IL-6, IL-10, p38, MMP3, and MMP9) were blocked by quercetin with three dosages. Quercetin significantly decreased immunopositivity to TLR4 and MMP9 in the treatment group when compared with the LPS group. Quercetin significantly decreased protein expressions of TLR4, IFNγ, MMP3, and MMP9 when compared with the LPS group. Quercetin treatment prevented LPS-induced increase in the mRNA expression of Claudin 1 and ZO-1, and significantly decreased protein expression of claudin 1 when compared with the LPS group. Quercetin significantly downregulated autophagy-related gene expressions (PPARα, SGLT1, APOA4, AMPKα1, AMPKα2, ATG5, ATG7, Beclin-1, and LC3B) and programmed cell death (Fas, Bcl-2, CASP1, CASP12, CASP3, and RIPK1) after LPS induction. Quercetin significantly decreased immunopositivity to APOA4, AMPKα2, and LC3-II/LC3-I in the treatment group when compared with the LPS group. Quercetin significantly decreased protein expressions of AMPKα1, LC3-I, and LC3-II. Quercetin significantly decreased the protein expression to CASP1 and CASP3 by immunohistochemical investigation or Western blotting in treatment group when compared with LPS group.@*CONCLUSION@#Quercetin alleviates cardiac inflammation induced by LPS through modulating autophagy, programmed cell death, and myocardiocytes permeability.


Subject(s)
Chick Embryo , Animals , Quercetin/therapeutic use , Lipopolysaccharides/toxicity , Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 , Caspase 3 , Matrix Metalloproteinase 3 , Toll-Like Receptor 4 , Claudin-1 , Inflammation/metabolism , Apoptosis , RNA, Messenger , Autophagy , NF-kappa B
4.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 35-49, 2024.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010657

ABSTRACT

Acute hypobaric hypoxic brain damage is a potentially fatal high-altitude sickness. Autophagy plays a critical role in ischemic brain injury, but its role in hypobaric hypoxia (HH) remains unknown. Here we used an HH chamber to demonstrate that acute HH exposure impairs autophagic activity in both the early and late stages of the mouse brain, and is partially responsible for HH-induced oxidative stress, neuronal loss, and brain damage. The autophagic agonist rapamycin only promotes the initiation of autophagy. By proteome analysis, a screen showed that protein dynamin2 (DNM2) potentially regulates autophagic flux. Overexpression of DNM2 significantly increased the formation of autolysosomes, thus maintaining autophagic flux in combination with rapamycin. Furthermore, the enhancement of autophagic activity attenuated oxidative stress and neurological deficits after HH exposure. These results contribute to evidence supporting the conclusion that DNM2-mediated autophagic flux represents a new therapeutic target in HH-induced brain damage.


Subject(s)
Mice , Animals , Hypoxia , Oxidative Stress , Autophagy , Cognition , Sirolimus/therapeutic use
5.
Chinese Journal of Cellular and Molecular Immunology ; (12): 89-94, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009480

ABSTRACT

Early secreted antigenic target of 6 kDa protein (ESAT-6) is the major virulence factor of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB), which can resist the clearance of MTB in bodies by inhibiting macrophage phagocytosis and autophagy reaction, thus impeding the immune defense function of the body against MTB infection. In addition, ESAT-6-induced apoptosis of macrophage and massive necrosis of innate immune cells can foster MTB proliferation and colonization, leading to systemic MTB infection. Moreover, ESAT-6 hampers the protective immune response of Th1 cells, reducing the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines and contributing to immune dysfunction, thus accelerating the course of MTB infection. During the process, the high immunogenicity of ESAT-6 can be leveraged as a dominant antigen in the development of new TB vaccines, making it a promising candidate with broad prospects for further development.


Subject(s)
Humans , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Vaccines , Cytokines , Apoptosis , Autophagy , Sepsis
6.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(6): 1816-1823, dic. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1528777

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: To evaluate the anti-cancer effects of yeast extract on resistant cells, autophagy and necroptosis were investigated in 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)-resistant colorectal cancer cells. Further underlying characteristics on drug resistance were evaluated, focused on ERK-RSK-ABCG2 linkage. SNU-C5 and 5-FU resistant SNU-C5 (SNU-C5/5-FUR) colorectal cancer cells were adopted for cell viability assay and Western blotting to examine the anti-cancer effects of yeast extract. Yeast extract induced autophagy in SNU-C5 cells with increased Atg7, Atg12-5 complex, Atg16L1, and LC3 activation (LC3-II/LC3-I), but little effects in SNU-C5/5-FUR cells with increased Atg12-5 complex and Atg16L1. Both colorectal cancer cells did not show necroptosis after yeast extract treatment. Based on increased ABCG2 and RSK expression after yeast extract treatment, drug resistance mechanisms were further evaluated. As compared to wild type, SNU-C5/5-FUR cells showed more ABCG2 expression, less RSK expression, and less phosphorylation of ERK. ABCG2 inhibitor, Ko143, treatment induces following changes: 1) more sensitivity at 500 mM 5-FU, 2) augmented proliferation, and 3) less phosphorylation of ERK. These results suggest that protective autophagy in SNU-C5/5-FUR cells with increased ABCG2 expression might be candidate mechanisms for drug resistance. As the ERK responses were different from each stimulus, the feasible mechanisms among ERK-RSK-ABCG2 should be further investigated in 5-FU-resistant CRC cells.


Para evaluar los efectos anticancerígenos del extracto de levadura en células resistentes, se investigaron la autofagia y la necroptosis en células de cáncer colorrectal resistentes al 5-fluorouracilo (5-FU). Además se evaluaron otras características subyacentes de la resistencia a los medicamentos centrándose en el enlace ERK-RSK-ABCG2. Se usaron células de cáncer colorrectal SNU-C5 (SNU-C5/5-FUR) resistentes a SNU-C5 y 5- FU para el ensayo de viabilidad celular y la transferencia Western para examinar los efectos anticancerígenos del extracto de levadura. El extracto de levadura indujo autofagia en células SNU-C5 con mayor activación de Atg7, complejo Atg12-5, Atg16L1 y LC3 (LC3-II/LC3-I), pero pocos efectos en células SNU-C5/5-FUR con aumento de Atg12-5 complejo y Atg16L1. Ambas células de cáncer colorrectal no mostraron necroptosis después del tratamiento con extracto de levadura. Se evaluaron los mecanismos de resistencia a los medicamentos. en base al aumento de la expresión de ABCG2 y RSK después del tratamiento con extracto de levadura.En comparación con las de tipo salvaje, las células SNU-C5/5-FUR mostraron más expresión de ABCG2, menos expresión de RSK y menos fosforilación de ERK. El tratamiento con inhibidor de ABCG2, Ko143, induce los siguientes cambios: 1) más sensibilidad a 5-FU 500 mM, 2) proliferación aumentada y 3) menos fosforilación de ERK. Estos resultados sugieren que la autofagia protectora en células SNU-C5/5-FUR con mayor expresión de ABCG2 podría ser un mecanismo candidato para la resistencia a los medicamentos. Como las respuestas de ERK fueron diferentes de cada estímulo, los mecanismos factibles entre ERK-RSK- ABCG2 deberían investigarse más a fondo en células CCR resistentes a 5-FU.


Subject(s)
Autophagy , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Colorectal Neoplasms/drug therapy , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Yeasts , Tumor Cells, Cultured , Cell Survival/drug effects , Blotting, Western , Drug Resistance, Neoplasm , Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinases, 90-kDa , Electrophoresis , Fluorouracil , ATP Binding Cassette Transporter, Subfamily G, Member 2 , Necroptosis
7.
Journal of Southern Medical University ; (12): 637-643, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986972

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the regulatory mechanism of human hepatocyte apoptosis induced by lysosomal membrane protein Sidt2 knockout.@*METHODS@#The Sidt2 knockout (Sidt2-/-) cell model was constructed in human hepatocyte HL7702 cells using Crispr-Cas9 technology.The protein levels of Sidt2 and key autophagy proteins LC3-II/I and P62 in the cell model were detected using Western blotting, and the formation of autophagosomes was observed with MDC staining.EdU incorporation assay and flow cytometry were performed to observe the effect of Sidt2 knockout on cell proliferation and apoptosis.The effect of chloroquine at the saturating concentration on autophagic flux, proliferation and apoptosis of Sidt2 knockout cells were observed.@*RESULTS@#Sidt2-/- HL7702 cells were successfully constructed.Sidt2 knockout significantly inhibited the proliferation and increased apoptosis of the cells, causing also increased protein expressions of LC3-II/I and P62(P < 0.05) and increased number of autophagosomes.Autophagy of the cells reached a saturated state following treatment with 50 μmol/L chloroquine, and at this concentration, chloroquine significantly increased the expressions of LC3B and P62 in Sidt2-/- HL7702 cells.@*CONCLUSION@#Sidt2 gene knockout causes dysregulation of the autophagy pathway and induces apoptosis of HL7702 cells, and the latter effect is not mediated by inhibiting the autophagy-lysosomal pathway.


Subject(s)
Humans , Lysosomal Membrane Proteins/metabolism , Autophagy , Apoptosis , Hepatocytes , Lysosomes/metabolism , Chloroquine/pharmacology , Nucleotide Transport Proteins/metabolism
8.
Journal of Southern Medical University ; (12): 552-559, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986961

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To evaluate the regulatory effect of berberine on autophagy and apoptosis balance of fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLSs) from patients with in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and explore the mechanism.@*METHODS@#The inhibitory effect of 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, and 80 μmol/L berberine on RA-FLS proliferation was assessed using CCK-8 method. Annexin V/PI and JC-1 immunofluorescence staining was used to analyze the effect of berberine (30 μmol/L) on apoptosis of 25 ng/mL TNF-α- induced RA-FLSs, and Western blotting was performed to detect the changes in the expression levels of autophagy- and apoptosis-related proteins. The cells were further treated with the autophagy inducer RAPA and the autophagy inhibitor chloroquine to observe the changes in autophagic flow by laser confocal detection of mCherry-EGFP-LC3B. RA-FLSs were treated with the reactive oxygen species (ROS) mimic H2O2 or the ROS inhibitor NAC, and the effects of berberine on ROS, mTOR and p-mTOR levels were observed.@*RESULTS@#The results of CCK-8 assay showed that berberine significantly inhibited the proliferation of RA-FLSs in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Flow cytometry and JC-1 staining showed that berberine (30 μmol/L) significantly increased apoptosis rate (P < 0.01) and reduced the mitochondrial membrane potential of RA-FLSs (P < 0.05). Berberine treatment obviously decreased the ratios of Bcl-2/Bax (P < 0.05) and LC3B-II/I (P < 0.01) and increased the expression of p62 protein in the cells (P < 0.05). Detection of mCherry-EGFP-LC3B autophagy flow revealed obvious autophagy flow block in berberine-treated RA-FLSs. Berberine significantly reduced the level of ROS in TNF-α-induced RA-FLSs and upregulated the expression level of autophagy-related protein p-mTOR (P < 0.01); this effect was regulated by ROS level, and the combined use of RAPA significantly reduced the pro-apoptotic effect of berberine in RA-FLSs (P < 0.01).@*CONCLUSION@#Berberine can inhibit autophagy and promote apoptosis of RA-FLSs by regulating the ROS-mTOR pathway.


Subject(s)
Humans , Synoviocytes , Berberine/metabolism , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Hydrogen Peroxide/metabolism , Sincalide/metabolism , Cell Proliferation , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/metabolism , Signal Transduction , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism , Apoptosis , Fibroblasts , Autophagy , Cells, Cultured
9.
Journal of Central South University(Medical Sciences) ; (12): 1152-1162, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010338

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#The phosphoinositide 3-kinase/protein kinase B/mammalian target of rapamycin (PI3K/Akt/mTOR) pathway is one of the main signaling pathways related to autophagy. Autophagy plays a key role in the formation of silicosis fibrosis. The phenotypic transformation of lung fibroblasts into myofibroblasts is a hallmark of the transition from the inflammatory phase to the fibrotic phase in silicosis. This study aims to investigate whether the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway affects the phenotypic transformation of silicosis-induced lung fibroblasts into myofibroblasts via mediating macrophage autophagy.@*METHODS@#The human monocytic leukemia cell line THP-1 cells were differentiated into macrophages by treating with 100 ng/mL of phorbol ester for 24 h. Macrophages were exposed to different concentrations (0, 25, 50, 100, 200, 400 μg/mL) and different times (0, 6, 12, 24, 48 h) of SiO2 dust suspension. The survival rate of macrophages was measured by cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) method. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to measure the contents of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in the cell supernatant. The co-culture system of macrophages and HFL-1 cells was established by transwell. A blank control group, a SiO2 group, a LY294002 group, a SC79 group, a LY294002+SiO2 group, and a SC79+SiO2 group were set up in this experiment. Macrophages in the LY294002+SiO2 group were pretreated with LY294002 (PI3K inhibitor) for 18 hours, and macrophages in the SC79+SiO2 group were pretreated with SC79 (Akt activator) for 24 hours, and then exposed to SiO2 (100 μg/mL) dust suspension for 12 hours. The expression of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) protein in macrophages was detected by the immunofluorescence method. The protein expressions of PI3K, Akt, mTOR, Beclin-1, LC3 in macrophages, and collagen III (Col III), α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), fibronectin (FN), matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1), tissue metalloproteinase inhibitor-1 (TIMP-1) in HFL-1 cells were measured by Western blotting.@*RESULTS@#After the macrophages were exposed to SiO2 dust suspension of different concentrations for 12 h, the survival rates of macrophages were gradually decreased with the increase of SiO2 concentration. Compared with the 0 μg/mL group, the survival rates of macrophages in the 100, 200, and 400 μg/mL groups were significantly decreased, and the concentrations of TGF-β1 and TNF-α in the cell supernatant were obviously increased (all P<0.05). When 100 μg/mL SiO2 dust suspension was applied to macrophages, the survival rates of macrophages were decreased with the prolonged exposure time. Compared with the 0 h group, the survival rates of macrophages were significantly decreased (all P<0.05), the concentrations of TGF-β1 and TNF-α in the cell supernatant were significantly increased, and the protein expression levels of Beclin-1 and LC3II were increased markedly in the 6, 12, 24, and 48 h groups (all P<0.05). Immunofluorescence results demonstrated that after exposure to SiO2 (100 μg/mL) dust for 12 h, LC3 exhibited punctate aggregation and significantly higher fluorescence intensity compared to the blank control group (P<0.05). Compared with the blank control group, the protein expressions of Col III, FN, α-SMA, MMP-1, and TIMP-1 in HFL-1 cells were up-regulated in the SiO2 group (all P<0.05). Compared with the SiO2 group, the protein expressions of PI3K, Akt, and mTOR were down-regulated and the protein expressions of LC3II and Beclin-1 were up-regulated in macrophages (all P<0.05), the contents of TNF-α and TGF-β1 in the cell supernatant were decreased (both P<0.01), and the protein expressions of Col III, FN, α-SMA, MMP-1, and TIMP-1 in HFL-1 cells were down-regulated (all P<0.05) in the LY294002+SiO2 group. Compared with the SiO2 group, the protein expressions of PI3K, Akt, and mTOR were up-regulated and the protein expressions of LC3II and Beclin-1 were down-regulated in macrophages (all P<0.05), the contents of TNF-α and TGF-β1 in the cell supernatant were increased (both P<0.01), and the protein expressions of Col III, FN, α-SMA, MMP-1, and TIMP-1 in HFL-1 cells were up-regulated (all P<0.05) in the SC79+SiO2 group.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Silica dust exposure inhibits the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway, increases autophagy and concentration of inflammatory factors in macrophages, and promotes the phenotype transformation of HFL-1 cells into myofibroblasts. The regulation of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway can affect the autophagy induction and the concentration of inflammatory factors of macrophages by silica dust exposure, and then affect the phenotype transformation of HFL-1 cells into myofibroblasts induced by silica dust exposure.


Subject(s)
Humans , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Transforming Growth Factor beta1/metabolism , Silicon Dioxide/metabolism , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/metabolism , Matrix Metalloproteinase 1/metabolism , Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-1 , Sirolimus , Beclin-1/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Dust , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism , Lung/metabolism , Fibroblasts/metabolism , Silicosis/metabolism , Macrophages/metabolism , Autophagy
10.
Chinese journal of integrative medicine ; (12): 699-706, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010277

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the effect of curcumin on the proliferation of renal cell carcinoma and analyze its regulation mechanism.@*METHODS@#In RCC cell lines of A498 and 786-O, the effects of curcumin (2.5, 5, 10 µ mo/L) on the proliferation were analyzed by Annexin V+PI staining. Besides, A498 was inoculated into nude mice to establish tumorigenic models, and the model mice were treated with different concentrations of curcumin (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg), once daily for 30 days. Then the tumor diameter was measured, the tumor cells were observed by hematoxylin-eosin staining, and the protein expressions of miR-148 and ADAMTS18 were detected by immunohistochemistry. In vitro, after transfection of miR-148 mimics, miR-148 inhibitor or si-ADAMTS18 in cell lines, the expression of ADAMTS18 was examined by Western blotting and the cell survival rate was analyzed using MTT. Subsequently, Western blot analysis was again used to examine the autophagy phenomenon by measuring the relative expression level of LC3-II/LC3-I; autophagy-associated genes, including those of Beclin-1 and ATG5, were also examined when miR-148 was silenced in both cell lines with curcumin treatment.@*RESULTS@#Curcumin could inhibit the proliferation of RCC in cell lines and nude mice. The expression of miR-148 and ADAMTS18 was upregulated after curcumin treatment both in vitro and in vivo (P<0.05). The cell survival rate was dramatically declined upon miR-148 or ADAMTS18 upregulated. However, si-ADAMTS18 treatment or miR-148 inhibitor reversed these results, that is, both of them promoted the cell survival rate.@*CONCLUSION@#Curcumin can inhibit the proliferation of renal cell carcinoma by regulating the miR-148/ ADAMTS18 axis through the suppression of autophagy in vitro and in vivo. There may exist a positive feedback loop between miR-148 and ADAMTS18 gene in RCC.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Carcinoma, Renal Cell/metabolism , Curcumin/therapeutic use , MicroRNAs/metabolism , Mice, Nude , Cell Line, Tumor , Kidney Neoplasms/metabolism , Autophagy , Cell Proliferation , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic , ADAMTS Proteins/metabolism
11.
Chinese journal of integrative medicine ; (12): 801-808, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010274

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effect of emodin on high glucose (HG)-induced podocyte apoptosis and whether the potential anti-apoptotic mechanism of emodin is related to induction of adenosine-monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)-mediated autophagy in podocytes (MPC5 cells) in vitro.@*METHODS@#MPC5 cells were treated with different concentrations of HG (2.5, 5, 10, 20, 40, 80 and 160 mmol/L), emodin (2, 4, 8 µ mol/L), or HG (40 mmol/L) and emodin (4 µ mol/L) with or without rapamycin (Rap, 100 nmol/L) and compound C (10 µ mol/L). The viability and apoptosis of MPC5 cells were detected using cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay and flow cytometry analysis, respectively. The expression levels of cleaved caspase-3, autophagy marker light chain 3 (LC3) I/II, and AMPK/mTOR signaling pathway-related proteins were determined by Western blot. The changes of morphology and RFP-LC3 fluorescence were observed under microscopy.@*RESULTS@#HG at 20, 40, 80 and 160 mmol/L dose-dependently induced cell apoptosis in MPC5 cells, whereas emodin (4 µ mol/L) significantly ameliorated HG-induced cell apoptosis and caspase-3 cleavage (P<0.01). Emodin (4 µ mol/L) significantly increased LC3-II protein expression levels and induced RFP-LC3-containing punctate structures in MPC5 cells (P<0.01). Furthermore, the protective effects of emodin were mimicked by rapamycin (100 nmol/L). Moreover, emodin increased the phosphorylation of AMPK and suppressed the phosphorylation of mTOR. The AMPK inhibitor compound C (10 µ mol/L) reversed emodin-induced autophagy activation.@*CONCLUSION@#Emodin ameliorated HG-induced apoptosis of MPC5 cells in vitro that involved induction of autophagy through the AMPK/mTOR signaling pathway, which might provide a potential therapeutic option for diabetic nephropathy.


Subject(s)
Emodin/pharmacology , AMP-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism , Podocytes , Caspase 3/metabolism , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Apoptosis , Sirolimus/pharmacology , Glucose/metabolism , Autophagy
12.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 1916-1920, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010060

ABSTRACT

Iron metabolism is involved in the development and drug resistance of many malignancies, including multiple myeloma (MM). Based on recent studies on iron metabolism and MM, this paper reviews the relationship between iron metabolism and disease process of MM in terms of iron overload leading to ferroptosis in MM cells, the role of iron deficiency in oxidative respiration and proliferation of MM cells, and the interaction between ferroptosis and autophagy in the disease process. The mechanisms by which iron metabolism-related substances lead to MM cells' resistance to proteasome inhibitors (PI) through inducing redox imbalance and M2 macrophage polarization are also briefly described, aiming to provide a theoretical basis for the application of iron metabolism-related drugs to the clinical treatment of MM patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Autophagy , Disease Progression , Iron/metabolism , Multiple Myeloma , Drug Resistance, Neoplasm
13.
Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics ; (12): 751-758, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982023

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To study the effect of ligustrazine injection on mitophagy in neonatal rats with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) and its molecular mechanism.@*METHODS@#Neonatal Sprague-Dawley rats, aged 7 days, were randomly divided into a sham-operation group with 8 rats, a model group with 12 rats, and a ligustrazine group with 12 rats. The rats in the model group and the ligustrazine group were used to establish a neonatal rat model of HIE by ligation of the left common carotid artery followed by hypoxia treatment, and blood vessels were exposed without any other treatment for the rats in the sham-operation group. The rats in the ligustrazine group were intraperitoneally injected with ligustrazine (20 mg/kg) daily after hypoxia-ischemia, and those in the sham-operation group and the model group were intraperitoneally injected with an equal volume of normal saline daily. Samples were collected after 7 days of treatment. Hematoxylin and eosin staining and Nissl staining were used to observe the pathological changes of neurons in brain tissue; immunohistochemical staining was used to observe the positive expression of PINK1 and Parkin in the hippocampus and cortex; TUNEL staining was used to measure neuronal apoptosis; Western blotting was used to measure the expression levels of the mitophagy pathway proteins PINK1 and Parkin and the autophagy-related proteins Beclin-1, microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3), and ubiquitin-binding protein (P62).@*RESULTS@#Compared with the sham-operation group, the model group had a significant reduction in the number of neurons, an increase in intercellular space, loose arrangement, lipid vacuolization, and a reduction in Nissl bodies. The increased positive expression of PINK1 and Parkin, apoptosis rate of neurons, and protein expression levels of PINK1, Parkin, Beclin1 and LC3 (P<0.05) and the decreased protein expression level of P62 in the hippocampus were also observed in the model group (P<0.05). Compared with the model group, the ligustrazine group had a significant increase in the number of neurons with ordered arrangement and an increase in Nissl bodies, significant reductions in the positive expression of PINK1 and Parkin, the apoptosis rate of neurons, and the protein expression levels of PINK1, Parkin, Beclin1, and LC3 (P<0.05), and a significant increase in the protein expression level of P62 (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Ligustrazine can alleviate hypoxic-ischemic brain damage and inhibit neuronal apoptosis in neonatal rats to a certain extent, possibly by inhibiting PINK1/Parkin-mediated autophagy.


Subject(s)
Rats , Animals , Hypoxia-Ischemia, Brain/metabolism , Animals, Newborn , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Beclin-1 , Autophagy , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases/metabolism , Protein Kinases/metabolism
14.
Chinese Journal of Cellular and Molecular Immunology ; (12): 626-632, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981909

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the effect of H2O2-induced oxidative stress on autophagy and apoptosis of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs). Methods hBMSCs were isolated and cultured. The cells were divided into control group, 3-MA group, H2O2 group, H2O2 combined with 3-MA group. DCFH-DA staining was used to analyze the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS). hBMSCs were treated with 0, 50, 100, 200, 400 μmol/L H2O2, and then the cell viability was detected by CCK-8 assay. The level of autophagy was detected by monodansylcadaverine (MDC) staining and LysoTracker Red staining. The cell apoptosis was detected by flow cytometry. Western blotting was used to detect the expression of beclin 1, mTOR, phosphorylated mTOR (p-mTOR), cleaved caspase-3(c-caspase-3) and caspase-3 proteins. Results Compared with the control group and 3-MA group, ROS level and autophagosomes were increased and the proliferation and apoptosis were decreased in H2O2 group. The protein expression of beclin 1, mTOR, c-caspase-3 was up-regulated, while the p-mTOR was down-regulated. Compared with the 3-MA group, the H2O2 combined with 3-MA group also had an increased ROS level and autophagosomes, but not with significantly increased apoptosis rate; The protein expression of beclin 1, mTOR, c-caspase-3 was up-regulated, and the p-mTOR was down-regulated. Conclusion H2O2 can induce hMSCs to trigger oxidative stress response. It enhances the autophagy and inhibits the proliferation and apoptosis of hBMSCs.


Subject(s)
Humans , Beclin-1/metabolism , Caspase 3/metabolism , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Hydrogen Peroxide/pharmacology , Apoptosis , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism , Oxidative Stress , Autophagy , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/metabolism , Cell Proliferation
15.
Biol. Res ; 56: 14-14, 2023. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1429914

ABSTRACT

The endocannabinoid system (ECS) regulates energy metabolism, has been implicated in the pathogenesis of metabolic diseases and exerts its actions mainly through the type 1 cannabinoid receptor (CB1). Likewise, autophagy is involved in several cellular processes. It is required for the normal development of muscle mass and metabolism, and its deregulation is associated with diseases. It is known that the CB1 regulates signaling pathways that control autophagy, however, it is currently unknown whether the ECS could regulate autophagy in the skeletal muscle of obese mice. This study aimed to investigate the role of the CB1 in regulating autophagy in skeletal muscle. We found concomitant deregulation in the ECS and autophagy markers in high-fat diet-induced obesity. In obese CB1-KO mice, the autophagy-associated protein LC3 II does not accumulate when mTOR and AMPK phosphorylation levels do not change. Acute inhibition of the CB1 with JD-5037 decreased LC3 II protein accumulation and autophagic flux. Our results suggest that the CB1 regulates autophagy in the tibialis anterior skeletal muscle in both lean and obese mice.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Cannabinoids/metabolism , Autophagy/physiology , Muscle, Skeletal/metabolism , Receptor, Cannabinoid, CB1/metabolism , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Obese
16.
Acta cir. bras ; 38: e387823, 2023. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1527591

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To evaluate the neuroprotective effects of Rilmenidine on diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) in a rat model of diabetes induced by streptozotocin (STZ). Methods: STZ (60 mg/kg) was administered to adult Sprague-Dawley rats to induce diabetes. On the 30th day after STZ administration, electromyography (EMG) and motor function tests confirmed the presence of DPN. Group 1: Control (n = 10), Group 2: DM + 0.1 mg/kg Rilmenidine (n = 10), and Group 3: DM + 0.2 mg/kg Rilmenidine (n = 10) were administered via oral lavage for four weeks. EMG, motor function test, biochemical analysis, and histological and immunohistochemical analysis of sciatic nerves were then performed. Results: The administration of Rilmenidine to diabetic rats substantially reduced sciatic nerve inflammation and fibrosis and prevented electrophysiological alterations. Immunohistochemistry of sciatic nerves from saline-treated rats revealed increased perineural thickness, HMGB-1, tumor necrosis factor-α, and a decrease in nerve growth factor (NGF), LC-3. In contrast, Rilmendine significantly inhibited inflammation markers and prevented the reduction in NGF expression. In addition, Rilmenidine significantly decreased malondialdehyde and increased diabetic rats' total antioxidative capacity. Conclusions: The findings of this study suggest that Rilmenidine may have therapeutic effects on DNP by modulating antioxidant and autophagic pathways.


Subject(s)
Autophagy , Diabetic Neuropathies , Rilmenidine , Anti-Inflammatory Agents
17.
Chinese Journal of Cellular and Molecular Immunology ; (12): 356-362, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981874

ABSTRACT

Objective To explore the role of autophagy, apoptosis of neutrophils and neutrophils extracellular traps (NET) formation in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Methods Thirty-six patients with SLE were recruited as research subjects, and 32 healthy controls matched accordingly were enrolled as control subjects. The expression levels of microtubule associated protein 1 light chain 3B (LC3B), autophagy-related gene5(ATG5), P62, B-cell lymphoma 2(Bcl2), Bcl2-related X protein (BAX) in neutrophils were detected by Western blot analysis. Flow cytometry was employed to analyze the expression of LC3B on neutrophils. The expression level of myeloperoxidase(MPO) in plasma was estimated by ELISA. Furthermore, neutrophils were cultured in vitro and stimulated by 100 nmol/L rapamycin and 10 μg/mL lipopolysaccharide (LPS) for 6 hours, respectively. And then, the expression levels of LC3B, ATG5, P62, Bcl2 and BAX in neutrophils were detected by Western blot analysis. The level of MPO in culture supernatant was detected by ELISA. The change of fluorescence intensity of NET in culture supernatant was assayed by SytoxTM Green staining combined with fluorescence spectrophotometry. Results Compared with healthy controls, the levels of autophagy and apoptosis of neutrophils and NET formation in SLE patients were increased. The level of apoptosis and NET formation was positively associated with neutrophil autophagy. The level of autophagy showed an increase but had no effect on apoptosis and NET formation for neutrophil stimulated by rapamycin. The levels of autophagy and NET formation also increased with no significant effect on apoptosis for neutrophil induced by LPS. Conclusion The autophagy, apoptosis and NET formation of neutrophils increase in SLE patients. The activation of autophagy and NET in neutrophils possibly result from the inflammatory internal environment in SLE patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Neutrophils , Extracellular Traps/metabolism , Lipopolysaccharides/pharmacology , bcl-2-Associated X Protein/metabolism , Sirolimus/pharmacology , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic , Autophagy
18.
China Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology ; (12): 357-363, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981697

ABSTRACT

Osteoclast (OC) is multinucleated, bone-resorbing cells originated from monocyte/macrophage lineage of cells, excessive production and abnormal activation of which could lead to many bone metabolic diseases, such as osteoporosis, osteoarthritis, etc. Autophagy, as a highly conserved catabolic process in eukaryotic cells, which plays an important role in maintaining cell homeostasis, stress damage repair, proliferation and differentiation. Recent studies have found that autophagy was also involved in the regulation of osteoclast generation and bone resorption. On the one hand, autophagy could be induced and activated by various factors in osteocalsts, such as nutrient deficiency, hypoxia, receptor activator of nuclear factor(NF)-κB ligand(RANKL), inflammatory factors, wear particles, microgravity environment, etc, different inducible factors, such as RANKL, inflammatory factors, wear particles, could interact with each other and work together. On the other hand, activated autophagy is involved in regulating various stages of osteoclast differentiation and maturation, autophagy could promote proliferation of osteoclasts, inhibiting apoptosis, and promoting differentiation, migration and bone resorption of osteoclast. The classical autophagy signaling pathway mediated by mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1(mTORC1) is currently a focus of research, and it could be regulated by upstream signalings such as phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase(PI-3K)/protein kinase B (PKB), AMP-activated protein kinase(AMPK). However, the paper found that mTORC1-mediated autophagy may play a bidirectional role in regulating differentiation and function of osteoclasts, and its underlying mechanism needs to be further ciarified. Integrin αvβ3 and Rab protein families are important targets for autophagy to play a role in osteoclast migration and bone resorption, respectively. In view of important role of osteoclast in the occurrence of various bone diseases, it is of great significance to elucidate the role of autophagy on osteoclast and its mechanism for the treatment of various bone diseases. The autophagy pathway could be used as a new therapeutic target for the treatment of clinical bone diseases such as osteoporosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Osteoclasts , Bone Resorption/metabolism , Cell Differentiation , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Autophagy , Osteoporosis , Mechanistic Target of Rapamycin Complex 1/metabolism , RANK Ligand/metabolism
19.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 3066-3073, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981437

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to investigate the effect of Wenyang Zhenshuai Granules(WYZSG) on autophagy and apoptosis of myocardial cells in rats with sepsis via regulating the expression of microRNA-132-3p(miR-132-3p)/uncoupling protein 2(UCP2). Sixty SD rats were randomly divided into modeling group(n=50) and sham operation group(n=10). The sepsis rat model was constructed by cecal ligation and perforation in the modeling group. The successfully modeled rats were randomly divided into WYZSG low-, medium-and high-dose groups, model group and positive control group. Rats in the sham operation group underwent opening and cecum division but without perforation and ligation. Hematoxylin-eosin(HE) staining was used to observe the pathological changes of rat myocardial tissue. Myocardial cell apoptosis was detected by TdT-mediated dUTP nick end labeling(TUNEL) assay. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction(RT-qPCR) was performed to detect the expression of miR-132-3p and the mRNA expressions of UCP2, microtubule-associated protein light chain 3(LC3-Ⅱ/LC3-Ⅰ), Beclin-1 and caspase-3 in rat myocardial tissue. The protein expressions of UCP2, LC3-Ⅱ/LC3-Ⅰ, Beclin-1 and caspase-3 in myocardial tissue were detected by Western blot. Dual luciferase reporter assay was used to verify the regulatory relationship between miR-132-3p and UCP2. The myocardial fibers of sepsis model rats were disordered, and there were obvious inflammatory cell infiltration as well as myocardial cell edema and necrosis. With the increase of the WYZSG dose, the histopathological changes of myocardium were improved to varying degrees. Compared with the conditions in the sham operation group, the survival rate and left ventricular ejection fraction(LVEF) of rats in the model group, positive control group and WYZSG low-, medium-and high-dose groups were decreased, and the myocardial injury score and apoptosis rate were increased. Compared with the model group, the positive control group and WYZSG low-, medium-and high-dose groups had elevated survival rate and LVEF, and lowered myocardial injury score and apoptosis rate. The expression of miR-132-3p and the mRNA and protein expressions of UCP2 in myocardial tissue in the model group, positive control group and WYZSG low-, medium-and high-dose groups were lower, while the mRNA and protein expressions of LC3-Ⅱ/LC3-Ⅰ, Beclin-1 and caspase-3 were higher than those in the sham operation group. Compared with model group, the positive control group and the WYZSG low-, medium-and high-dose groups had an up-regulation in the expression of miR-132-3p and the mRNA and protein expressions of UCP2, while a down-regulation in the mRNA and protein expressions of LC3-Ⅱ/LC3-Ⅰ, Beclin-1 and caspase-3. WYZSG inhibited excessive autophagy and apoptosis of myocardial cells in septic rats and improved myocardial injury, possibly by regulating the expression of miR-132-3p/UCP2.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Caspase 3 , Beclin-1/genetics , Stroke Volume , Ventricular Function, Left , Apoptosis/genetics , Autophagy/genetics , Heart Injuries , MicroRNAs/genetics
20.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 3022-3031, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981432

ABSTRACT

This study aims to investigate the effect and mechanism of arctigenin(ARC) in the treatment of vascular endothelial injury in rats with pregnancy-induced hypertension(PIH). Fifty SD rats pregnant for 12 days were randomly assigned into a control group, a model group, an ARC group, a rapamycin(RAP, autophagy inducer) group, and an ARC+3-methyladenine(3-MA, autophagy inhibitor) group, with 10 rats in each group. The rats in the other groups except the control group were intraperitoneally injected with nitrosyl-L-arginine methyl ester(50 mg·kg~(-1)·d~(-1)) to establish the PIH model on the 13th day of pregnancy. On the 15th day of pregnancy, the rats in ARC, RAP, and ARC+3-MA groups were intraperitoneally injected with ARC(50 mg·kg~(-1)·d~(-1)), RAP(1 mg·kg~(-1)·d~(-1)), and 3-MA(15 mg·kg~(-1)·d~(-1))+ARC(50 mg·kg~(-1)·d~(-1)), respectively. The pregnant rats in the control group and the model group were intraperitoneally injected with the same amount of normal saline. The blood pressure and 24 h urine protein(24 h-UP) of pregnant rats in each group were measured before and after intervention. Cesarean section was performed to terminate pregnancy on day 21, and the body weight and body length of fetal rats were compared among groups. Hematoxylin-eosin(HE) staining was employed to observe the pathological changes of placenta. The expression of endothelin-1(ET-1) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase(eNOS) in placenta was detected by immunohistochemistry. The serum levels of ET-1 and nitric oxide(NO) were determined with corresponding kits. The expression of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3(LC3), Beclin-1, NOD-like receptor protein 3(NLRP3), apoptosis-associated speck-like protein with CARD domain(ASC), caspase-1, interleukin(IL)-1β, and IL-18 was determined by immunofluorescence and Western blot. The level of reactive oxygen species(ROS) in placenta was measured by fluorescence staining. The results showed that on day 12 of pregnancy, the blood pressure and 24 h-UP had no significant differences among groups. On days 15, 19, and 21, the blood pressure and 24 h-UP in the model group were higher than those in the control group(P<0.05). On days 19 and 21, the blood pressure and 24 h-UP in ARC group and RAP group were lower than those in the model group(P<0.05), and they were higher in the ARC+3-MA group than in the ARC group(P<0.05). On day 21, the model group had lower body weight and body length of fetal rats(P<0.05), higher serum level of ET-1, and lower serum level of NO(P<0.05) than the control group. Moreover, the placental tissue showed typical pathological damage, down-regulated expression of LC3-Ⅱ/LC3-Ⅰ, Beclin-1 and eNOS(P<0.05), up-regulated expression of ET-1, NLRP3, ASC, caspase-1, IL-1β, and IL-18(P<0.05), and elevated ROS level. Compared with the model group, ARC and RAP groups showed increased body weight and body length of fetal rats(P<0.05), lowered serum level of ET-1, elevated serum level of NO(P<0.05), reduced pathological damage of placental tissue, up-regulated expression of LC3-Ⅱ/LC3-Ⅰ, Beclin-1, and eNOS(P<0.05), down-regulated expression of ET-1, NLRP3, ASC, caspase-1, IL-1β, and IL-18(P<0.05), and lowered ROS level. Compared with ARC group, 3-MA reversed the effects of ARC on the above indicators. In conclusion, ARC can inhibit the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome and mitigate vascular endothelial damage in PIH rats by inducing autophagy of vascular endothelial cells.


Subject(s)
Female , Pregnancy , Animals , Rats , Humans , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Hypertension, Pregnancy-Induced/drug therapy , Endothelial Cells , Inflammasomes , Interleukin-18 , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/genetics , Beclin-1 , Cesarean Section , Reactive Oxygen Species , Placenta , Caspase 1 , Autophagy
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