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An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 80(4): 749-761, Dec. 2008. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-497117


This work aimed to evaluate density of associative diazotrophic bacteria populations in soil and grass root samples from heavy metal contaminated sites, and to characterize isolates from these populations, both, phenotypically (Zinc, Cadmium and NaCl tolerance in vitro, and protein profiles) and genotypically (16S rDNA sequencing), as compared to type strains of known diazotrophic species. Densities were evaluated by using NFb, Fam and JNFb media, commonly used for enrichment cultures of diazotrophic bacteria. Bacterial densities found in soil and grass root samples from contaminated sites were similar to those reported for agricultural soils. Azospirillum spp. isolates from contaminated sites and type strains from non-contaminated sites varied substantially in their in vitro tolerance to Zn+2 and Cd+2, being Cd+2 more toxic than Zn+2. Among the most tolerant isolates (UFLA 1S, 1R, S181, S34 and S22), some (1R, S34 and S22) were more tolerant to heavy metals than rhizobia from tropical and temperate soils. The majority of the isolates tolerant to heavy metals were also tolerant to salt stress as indicated by their ability to grow in solid medium supplemented with 30 g L-1 NaCl. Five isolates exhibited high dissimilarity in protein profiles, and the 16S rDNA sequence analysis of two of them revealed new sequences for Azospirillum.

Objetivou-se avaliar a densidade de populações de bactérias diazotróficas associativas em amostras de solos e de raízes de gramíneas oriundas de sítios contaminados com metais pesados, e caracterizar isolados destas populações através da análise fenotípica (tolerância aos metais pesados zinco e cádmio e à NaCl in vitro, perfis protéicos), e genotípica (seqüenciamento de 16S rDNA), comparados às estirpes tipo das mesmas espécies. As densidades foram avaliadas nos meios NFb, Fam e LGI, comumente utilizados para culturas de enriquecimento de populações de bactérias diazotróficas associativas. As densidades encontradas em amostras de solo e raiz de sítios contaminados foram semelhantes àquelas relatadas na literatura para solos agrícolas. Isolados de Azospirillum spp. de solos contaminados e estirpes tipo oriundas de solos não contaminados variaram substancialmente com relação à tolerância a Zn+2 e Cd+2, sendo que Cd+2 mais tóxico que Zn+2. Dentre os isolados mais tolerantes (UFLA 1S, 1R, S181, S34, e S22), alguns(1R, S34 e S22) foram mais tolerantes a metais pesados que rizóbios isolados de solos de áreas tropicais e temperadas. A maioria dos isolados mais tolerantes a metais pesados também foi tolerante ao estresse salino, o que foi indicado por seu crescimento em meio sólido suplementado com 30 g L-1 de NaCl in vitro. Cinco isolados apresentaram alta dissimilaridade em perfis protéicos e o seqüenciamento do gene 16S rDNA em dois deles revelou que apresentam novas seqüências de Azospirillum.

Azospirillum/drug effects , Burkholderia/drug effects , Herbaspirillum/drug effects , Metals, Heavy/toxicity , Plant Roots/microbiology , Poaceae/microbiology , Soil Microbiology , Azospirillum/genetics , Azospirillum/growth & development , Burkholderia/genetics , Burkholderia/growth & development , Colony Count, Microbial , DNA, Bacterial/genetics , Drug Resistance, Bacterial/genetics , Genotype , Herbaspirillum/genetics , Herbaspirillum/growth & development , Metals, Heavy/analysis , Phenotype , /genetics
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2004 Dec; 42(12): 1186-94
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-60155


Molecular and functional characteristics of seven azospirilla and five phosphorus solubilizing bacteria (PSB) isolates of rice rhizosphere, growth promotion ability of two efficient strains, Azospirillum amazonense A10 (MTCC4716) and Bacillus megaterium P5 (MTCC4714) and their persistence based on streptomycin resistant derivatives (SRD), were determined. SDS-PAGE and isozyme banding patterns of the isolates were used to arbitrarily group the azospirilla into 4 and PSB into 3 clusters and as markers to ascertain their identity. The azospirilla produced 2.0 to 10.5 ppm of IAA like substances and showed nitrogenase activity of 0.02 to 3.55 nmole C2H4/hr/ml of pure culture. PSB isolates produced 7.8 to 15.0 ppm IAA like substances and 20 to 128 ppm soluble P. Induction of resistance to streptomycin resulted in changes of these properties. Co-inoculation of rice with SRD A10 and SRD P5 and their parental strains in separate treatments enhanced grain yield over control by 31 and 12.4%, respectively. Nitrogenase activity of rice roots under SRD co-inoculated treatment was higher (4.16 nmole C2H4/hr/hill) than that-under parental strains co-inoculated treatment (3.76 nmole C2H4/hr/hill). SDS-PAGE profile and population count of the strains confirmed their establishment in rice rhizosphere and persistence over a year after inoculation.

Azospirillum/drug effects , Bacillus megaterium/drug effects , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Oryza/growth & development , Streptomycin/pharmacology
Indian J Biochem Biophys ; 1994 Dec; 31(6): 454-8
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-29087


Total tRNAs isolated from N2- and NH4(+)-grown Azospirillum lipoferum cells were compared with respect to amino acid acceptance, isoacceptor tRNA species levels and extent of nucleotide modifications. Amino-acylation of these two tRNA preparations with ten different amino acids indicated differences in the relative acceptor activities. Comparison of aminoacyl-tRNA patterns by RPC-5 column chromatography revealed no qualitative differences in the elution profiles. However, quantitative differences in the relative amounts of some isoacceptors were observed. These results indicate that alterations of relative amounts of functional tRNA species occur to match cellular requirements of the bacterial cells using N2 or NH4+ as nitrogen source. In addition, the content of modified nucleotides in total tRNAs of N2- and NH4(+)-grown cells was determined. In the NH4(+)-grown cells, content of most of the modified nucleotides decreased significantly. Based upon these results, the relationship of chargeability of tRNAs to base modifications is discussed.

Acylation , Amino Acids/metabolism , Azospirillum/drug effects , Nitrogen/pharmacology , Nucleotides/metabolism , Quaternary Ammonium Compounds/pharmacology , RNA Processing, Post-Transcriptional , RNA, Transfer/metabolism