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1.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2502-2516, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981214

ABSTRACT

Bacillus subtilis is recognized as a generally-regarded-as-safe strain, and has been widely used in the biosynthesis of high value-added products, including N-acetylneuraminic acid (NeuAc) which is widely used as a nutraceutical and a pharmaceutical intermediate. Biosensors responding to target products are widely used in dynamic regulation and high-throughput screening in metabolic engineering to improve the efficiency of biosynthesis. However, B. subtilis lacks biosensors that can efficiently respond to NeuAc. This study first tested and optimized the transport capacity of NeuAc transporters, and obtained a series of strains with different transport capacities for testing NeuAc-responsive biosensors. Subsequently, the binding site sequence of Bbr_NanR responding to NeuAc was inserted into different sites of the constitutive promoter of B. subtilis, and active hybrid promoters were obtained. Next, by introducing and optimizing the expression of Bbr_NanR in B. subtilis with NeuAc transport capacity, we obtained an NeuAc-responsive biosensor with wide dynamic range and higher activation fold. Among them, P535-N2 can sensitively respond to changes in intracellular NeuAc concentration, with the largest dynamic range (180-20 245) AU/OD. P566-N2 shows a 122-fold of activation, which is 2 times of the reported NeuAc-responsive biosensor in B. subtilis. The NeuAc-responsive biosensor developed in this study can be used to screen enzyme mutants and B. subtilis strains with high NeuAc production efficiency, providing an efficient and sensitive analysis and regulation tool for biosynthesis of NeuAc in B. subtilis.


Subject(s)
N-Acetylneuraminic Acid/metabolism , Bacillus subtilis/metabolism , Promoter Regions, Genetic/genetics , Binding Sites , Biosensing Techniques
2.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2215-2230, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981199

ABSTRACT

Functional membrane microdomains (FMMs) that are mainly composed of scaffold proteins and polyisoprenoids play important roles in diverse cellular physiological processes in bacteria. The aim of this study was to identify the correlation between MK-7 and FMMs and then regulate the MK-7 biosynthesis through FMMs. Firstly, the relationship between FMMs and MK-7 on the cell membrane was determined by fluorescent labeling. Secondly, we demonstrated that MK-7 is a key polyisoprenoid component of FMMs by analyzing the changes in the content of MK-7 on cell membrane and the changes in the membrane order before and after destroying the integrity of FMMs. Subsequently, the subcellular localization of some key enzymes in MK-7 synthesis was explored by visual analysis, and the intracellular free pathway enzymes Fni, IspA, HepT and YuxO were localized to FMMs through FloA to achieve the compartmentalization of MK-7 synthesis pathway. Finally, a high MK-7 production strain BS3AT was successfully obtained. The production of MK-7 reached 300.3 mg/L in shake flask and 464.2 mg/L in 3 L fermenter.


Subject(s)
Bacillus subtilis/metabolism , Vitamin K 2/metabolism , Bioreactors/microbiology , Membrane Microdomains/metabolism
3.
Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B ; (12): 496-509, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982390

ABSTRACT

Engineered probiotics can serve as therapeutics based on their ability of produce recombinant immune-stimulating properties. In this study, we built the recombinant Bacillus subtilis WB800 expressing antimicrobial peptide KR32 (WB800-KR32) using genetic engineering methods and investigated its protective effects of nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)‍-Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1) pathway activation in intestinal oxidative disturbance induced by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) K88 in weaned piglets. Twenty-eight weaned piglets were randomly distributed into four treatment groups with seven replicates fed with a basal diet. The feed of the control group (CON) was infused with normal sterilized saline; meanwhile, the ETEC, ETEC+WB800, and ETEC+WB800-KR32 groups were orally administered normal sterilized saline, 5×1010 CFU (CFU: colony forming units) WB800, and 5×1010 CFU WB800-KR32, respectively, on Days 1‍‒‍14 and all infused with ETEC K88 1×1010 CFU on Days 15‍‒‍17. The results showed that pretreatment with WB800-KR32 attenuated ETEC-induced intestinal disturbance, improved the mucosal activity of antioxidant enzyme (catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx)) and decreased the content of malondialdehyde (MDA). More importantly, WB800-KR32 downregulated genes involved in antioxidant defense (GPx and SOD1). Interestingly, WB800-KR32 upregulated the protein expression of Nrf2 and downregulated the protein expression of Keap1 in the ileum. WB800-KR32 markedly changed the richness estimators (Ace and Chao) of gut microbiota and increased the abundance of Eubacterium_rectale_ATCC_33656 in the feces. The results suggested that WB800-KR32 may alleviate ETEC-induced intestinal oxidative injury through the Nrf2-Keap1 pathway, providing a new perspective for WB800-KR32 as potential therapeutics to regulate intestinal oxidative disturbance in ETEC K88 infection.


Subject(s)
Animals , Swine , Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli , Kelch-Like ECH-Associated Protein 1 , Bacillus subtilis , NF-E2-Related Factor 2 , Antioxidants , Oxidative Stress
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: 1-8, 2023. tab, ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1468837

ABSTRACT

Endophytic bacteria serve key roles in the maintenance of plant health and growth. Few studies to date, however, have explored the antagonistic and plant growth-promoting (PGP) properties of Prunus cerasifera endophytes. To that end, we isolated endophytic bacteria from P. cerasifera tissue samples and used a dual culture plate assay to screen these microbes for antagonistic activity against Verticillium dahliae, Botryosphaeria dothidea, Fusarium oxysporum, F. graminearum, and F. moniliforme. Of the 36 strains of isolated bacteria, four (strains P1, P10, P16, and P20) exhibited antagonistic effects against all five model pathogens, and the P10 strain exhibited the strongest antagonistic to five pathogens. This P10 strain was then characterized in-depth via phenotypic assessments, physiological analyses, and 16s rDNA sequencing, revealing it to be a strain of Bacillus subtilis. Application of a P10 cell suspension (1×108 CFU/mL) significantly enhanced the seed germination and seedling growth of tomato in a greenhouse setting. This P10 strain further significantly suppressed tomato Verticillium wilt with much lower disease incidence and disease index scores being observed following P10 treatment relative to untreated plants in pot-based experiments. Tomato plants that had been treated with strain P10 also enhanced defense-related enzymes, peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, and catalase activity upon V. dahliae challenge relative to plants that had not been treated with this endophytic bacterium. The results revealed that the P10 bacterial strain has potential value as a biocontrol agent for use in the prevention of tomato Verticillium wilt.


As bactérias endofíticas desempenham papel fundamental na manutenção da saúde e do crescimento das plantas. Poucos estudos até o momento, no entanto, exploraram as propriedades antagônicas e promotoras de crescimento de plantas (PGP) de endófitos de Prunus cerasifera. Para esse fim, isolamos bactérias endofíticas de amostras de tecido de P. cerasifera e usamos um ensaio de placa de cultura dupla para rastrear esses micróbios quanto à atividade antagonista contra Verticillium dahliae, Botryosphaeria dothidea, Fusarium oxysporum, F. graminearum e F. moniliforme. Das 36 cepas de bactérias isoladas, quatro (cepas P1, P10, P16 e P20) exibiram efeitos antagônicos contra todos os cinco patógenos modelo, e a cepa P10 exibiu o antagonista mais forte para cinco patógenos. Essa cepa P10 foi então caracterizada em profundidade por meio de avaliações fenotípicas, análises fisiológicas e sequenciamento de rDNA 16s, revelando ser uma cepa de Bacillus subtilis. A aplicação de uma suspensão de células P10 (1 × 108 UFC / mL) aumentou significativamente a germinação das sementes e o crescimento das mudas de tomate em casa de vegetação. Essa cepa P10 suprimiu ainda mais a murcha de Verticillium do tomate com incidência de doença muito menor e pontuações de índice de doença sendo observadas após o tratamento com P10 em relação a plantas não tratadas em experimentos baseados em vasos. As plantas de tomate que foram tratadas com a cepa P10 também aumentaram as enzimas relacionadas à defesa, peroxidase, superóxido dismutase e atividade da catalase após o desafio de V. dahliae em relação às plantas que não foram tratadas com essa bactéria endofítica. Os resultados revelaram que a cepa bacteriana P10 tem valor potencial como agente de biocontrole para uso na prevenção da murcha de Verticillium em tomate.


Subject(s)
Bacillus subtilis/physiology , Bacillus subtilis/genetics , Endophytes/isolation & purification , Fusarium/pathogenicity , Prunus/microbiology , Verticillium/pathogenicity
5.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: 1-8, 2023. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1468890

ABSTRACT

Now a day’s multidrug resistance phenomenon has become the main cause for concern and there has been an inadequate achievement in the development of novel antibiotics to treat the bacterial infections. Therefore, there is an unmet need to search for novel adjuvant. Vitamin C is one such promising adjuvant. The present study was aimed to elucidate the antibacterial effect of vitamin C at various temperatures (4°C, 37°C and 50°C) and pH (3, 8, and 11), against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria at various concentrations (5-20 mg/ml) through agar well diffusion method. Growth inhibition of all bacterial strains by vitamin C was concentration-dependent. Vitamin C significantly inhibited the growth of Gram-positive bacteria: Bacillus licheniformis (25.3 ± 0.9 mm), Staphylococcus aureus (22.0 ± 0.6 mm), Bacillus subtilis (19.3 ± 0.3 mm) and Gram-negative bacteria: Proteus mirabilis (27.67 ± 0.882 mm), Klebsiella pneumoniae (21.33±0.9 mm), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (18.0 ± 1.5 mm) and Escherichia coli (18.3 ± 0.3 mm). The stability of vitamin C was observed at various pH values and various temperatures. Vitamin C showed significant antibacterial activity at acidic pH against all bacterial strains. Vitamin C remained the stable at different temperatures. It was concluded that vitamin C is an effective and safe antibacterial agent that can be used in the future as an adjunct treatment option to combat infections in humans.


Agora, a resistência antimicrobiana de um dia em patógenos aos antibióticos tornou-se a principal causa de preocupação e houve uma realização inadequada no desenvolvimento de novos antibióticos para tratar infecções bacterianas. Portanto, há uma necessidade de pesquisar um novo adjuvante, e a vitamina C é um desses adjuvantes promissores. O objetivo do presente estudo foi elucidar o efeito antibacteriano da vitamina C em diferentes temperaturas (4 °C, 37 °C e 50 °C) e pH (3, 8 e 11), contra Gram-positivos e Gram-cepas bacterianas negativas em várias concentrações (5-20 mg / ml) através do método de difusão em ágar bem. A inibição do crescimento de todas as cepas bacterianas pela vitamina C era dependente da concentração. A vitamina C inibiu significativamente o crescimento de bactérias Gram-positivas: Bacillus licheniformis (25,3 ± 0,9 mm), Staphylococcus aureus (22,0 ± 0,6 mm), Bacillus subtilis (19,3 ± 0,3 mm) e bactérias Gram- negativas: Proteus mirabilis (27,7 ± 0,9 mm), Klebsiella pneumoniae (21,3 ± 0,9 mm), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (18,0 ± 1,5 mm) e Escherichia coli (18,3 ± 0,3 mm). A estabilidade da vitamina C foi observada em vários valores de pH e várias temperaturas. A vitamina C mostrou atividade antibacteriana significativa em pH ácido contra todas as cepas bacterianas. A estabilidade da vitamina C permaneceu nas mesmas diferentes temperaturas (4 °C, 37 °C e 50 °C). Concluímos que a vitamina C é um agente antibacteriano eficaz e seguro que pode ser usado no futuro como uma opção de tratamento auxiliar para combater infecções em humanos, pois pode apoiar o sistema imunológico diretamente.


Subject(s)
Humans , Anti-Bacterial Agents/analysis , Bacillus licheniformis , Bacillus subtilis , Escherichia coli , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Proteus mirabilis , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Staphylococcus aureus , Ascorbic Acid/analysis
6.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: 1-9, 2023. map, ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1468908

ABSTRACT

Isla Arena is located in the coordinate 20° 70´ N - 90° 45´ W, from Campeche, Mexico. In these estuaries, the ocean mixes with fresh water, and ecosystems are concentrated where petenes and pink flamingos proliferate. Crustaceans and mollusks abound in the sea. Despite its enormous marine wealth, there are no studies carried out on which halophilic microorganisms are present in these waters. In this work, the diversity and structure of the microbial community was investigated through a metagenomics approach and corroborated for sequencing of 16S rRNA genes. It was found that the phylum Fimicutes predominates with more than 50%, in almost the same proportion of the class Bacilli and with almost 41% of relative abundance of the order Bacillales. The sequencing results showed that one of the samples presented a high percentage of similarity (99.75%) using the Nucleotide BLAST program with a peculiar microorganism: Bacillus subtilis. This microorganism is one of the best characterized bacteria among the gram-positive ones. Our results demonstrate that B. subtilis can be an efficient source of proteases, lipases and cellulases, from halophilic microbial communities located in poorly explored areas.


Isla Arena está localizada na coordenada 20°70’N - 90°45’W, de Campeche, México. Nesses estuários, o oceano se mistura com a água doce e os ecossistemas se concentram onde proliferam petenos e flamingos rosa. Crustáceos e moluscos abundam no mar. Apesar de sua enorme riqueza marinha, não há estudos realizados sobre a presença de microrganismos halofílicos nessas águas. Neste trabalho, a diversidade e estrutura da comunidade microbiana foram investigadas através de uma abordagem metagenômica e corroboradas para o sequenciamento de genes 16S rRNA. Verificou-se que o filo Fimicutes predomina com mais de 50%, quase na mesma proporção da classe Bacilli e com quase 41% de abundância relativa da ordem Bacillales. Os resultados do sequenciamento mostraram que uma das amostras apresentou alto percentual de similaridade (99,75%) pelo programa Nucleotide BLAST com um microrganismo peculiar: Bacillus subtilis. Nossos resultados demonstram que B. subtilis pode ser uma fonte eficiente de proteases, lipases e celulases, provenientes de comunidades microbianas halofílicas localizadas em áreas pouco exploradas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bacillales/isolation & purification , Bacillus subtilis/growth & development , Ecosystem , Microbiota/genetics , /analysis
7.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e250550, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345536

ABSTRACT

Abstract Vanillin is the major component which is responsible for flavor and aroma of vanilla extract and is produced by 3 ways: natural extraction from vanilla plant, chemical synthesis and from microbial transformation. Current research was aimed to study bacterial production of vanillin from native natural sources including sewage and soil from industrial areas. The main objective was vanillin bio-production by isolating bacteria from these native sources. Also to adapt methodologies to improve vanillin production by optimized fermentation media and growth conditions. 47 soil and 13 sewage samples were collected from different industrial regions of Lahore, Gujranwala, Faisalabad and Kasur. 67.7% bacterial isolates produced vanillin and 32.3% were non-producers. From these 279 producers, 4 bacterial isolates selected as significant producers were; A3, A4, A7 and A10. These isolates were identified by ribotyping as A3 Pseudomonas fluorescence (KF408302), A4 Enterococcus faecium (KT356807), A7 Alcaligenes faecalis (MW422815) and A10 Bacillus subtilis (KT962919). Vanillin producers were further tested for improved production of vanillin and were grown in different fermentation media under optimized growth conditions for enhanced production of vanillin. The fermentation media (FM) were; clove oil based, rice bran waste (residues oil) based, wheat bran based and modified isoeugenol based. In FM5, FM21, FM22, FM23, FM24, FM30, FM31, FM32, FM34, FM35, FM36, and FM37, the selected 4 bacterial strains produced significant amounts of vanillin. A10 B. subtilis produced maximum amount of vanillin. This strain produced 17.3 g/L vanillin in FM36. Cost of this fermentation medium 36 was 131.5 rupees/L. This fermentation medium was modified isoeugenol based medium with 1% of isoeugenol and 2.5 g/L soybean meal. ech gene was amplified in A3 P. fluorescence using ech specific primers. As vanillin use as flavor has increased tremendously, the bioproduction of vanillin must be focused.


Resumo A vanilina é o principal componente responsável pelo sabor e aroma do extrato de baunilha e é produzida de três formas: extração natural da planta da baunilha, síntese química e transformação microbiana. A pesquisa atual teve como objetivo estudar a produção bacteriana de vanilina a partir de fontes naturais nativas, incluindo esgoto e solo de áreas industriais. O objetivo principal era a bioprodução de vanilina por meio do isolamento de bactérias dessas fontes nativas. Também para adaptar metodologias para melhorar a produção de vanilina por meio de fermentação otimizada e condições de crescimento. Foram coletadas 47 amostras de solo e 13 de esgoto de diferentes regiões industriais de Lahore, Gujranwala, Faisalabad e Kasur; 67,7% dos isolados bacterianos produziram vanilina e 32,3% eram não produtores. Desses 279 produtores, 4 isolados bacterianos selecionados como produtores significativos foram: A3, A4, A7 e A10. Esses isolados foram identificados por ribotipagem como fluorescência A3 Pseudomonas (KF408302), A4 Enterococcus faecium (KT356807), A7 Alcaligenes faecalis (MW422815) e A10 Bacillus subtilis (KT962919). Os produtores de vanilina foram posteriormente testados para produção aprimorada de vanilina e foram cultivados em diferentes meios de fermentação sob condições de crescimento otimizadas para produção aprimorada de vanilina. Os meios de fermentação (FM) foram: à base de óleo de cravo, à base de resíduos de farelo de arroz (resíduos de óleo), à base de farelo de trigo e à base de isoeugenol modificado. Em FM5, FM21, FM22, FM23, FM24, FM30, FM31, FM32, FM34, FM35, FM36 e FM37, as 4 cepas bacterianas selecionadas produziram quantidades significativas de vanilina. A10 B. subtilis produziu quantidade máxima de vanilina. Essa cepa produziu 17,3 g / L de vanilina em FM36. O custo desse meio de fermentação 36 foi de 131,5 rúpias / L. Esse meio de fermentação foi um meio à base de isoeugenol modificado com 1% de isoeugenol e 2,5 g / L de farelo de soja. O gene ech foi amplificado em A3 P. fluorescence usando primers específicos para ech. Como o uso da vanilina como sabor aumentou tremendamente, a bioprodução da vanilina deve ser focada.


Subject(s)
Benzaldehydes/metabolism , Flavoring Agents/metabolism , Bacillus subtilis/metabolism , Industrial Microbiology , Pseudomonas fluorescens/metabolism , Enterococcus faecium/metabolism , Culture Media , Alcaligenes faecalis/metabolism , Fermentation
8.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e244261, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285633

ABSTRACT

Abstract Endophytic bacteria serve key roles in the maintenance of plant health and growth. Few studies to date, however, have explored the antagonistic and plant growth-promoting (PGP) properties of Prunus cerasifera endophytes. To that end, we isolated endophytic bacteria from P. cerasifera tissue samples and used a dual culture plate assay to screen these microbes for antagonistic activity against Verticillium dahliae, Botryosphaeria dothidea, Fusarium oxysporum, F. graminearum, and F. moniliforme. Of the 36 strains of isolated bacteria, four (strains P1, P10, P16, and P20) exhibited antagonistic effects against all five model pathogens, and the P10 strain exhibited the strongest antagonistic to five pathogens. This P10 strain was then characterized in-depth via phenotypic assessments, physiological analyses, and 16s rDNA sequencing, revealing it to be a strain of Bacillus subtilis. Application of a P10 cell suspension (1×108 CFU/mL) significantly enhanced the seed germination and seedling growth of tomato in a greenhouse setting. This P10 strain further significantly suppressed tomato Verticillium wilt with much lower disease incidence and disease index scores being observed following P10 treatment relative to untreated plants in pot-based experiments. Tomato plants that had been treated with strain P10 also enhanced defense-related enzymes, peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, and catalase activity upon V. dahliae challenge relative to plants that had not been treated with this endophytic bacterium. The results revealed that the P10 bacterial strain has potential value as a biocontrol agent for use in the prevention of tomato Verticillium wilt.


Resumo As bactérias endofíticas desempenham papel fundamental na manutenção da saúde e do crescimento das plantas. Poucos estudos até o momento, no entanto, exploraram as propriedades antagônicas e promotoras de crescimento de plantas (PGP) de endófitos de Prunus cerasifera. Para esse fim, isolamos bactérias endofíticas de amostras de tecido de P. cerasifera e usamos um ensaio de placa de cultura dupla para rastrear esses micróbios quanto à atividade antagonista contra Verticillium dahliae, Botryosphaeria dothidea, Fusarium oxysporum, F. graminearum e F. moniliforme. Das 36 cepas de bactérias isoladas, quatro (cepas P1, P10, P16 e P20) exibiram efeitos antagônicos contra todos os cinco patógenos modelo, e a cepa P10 exibiu o antagonista mais forte para cinco patógenos. Essa cepa P10 foi então caracterizada em profundidade por meio de avaliações fenotípicas, análises fisiológicas e sequenciamento de rDNA 16s, revelando ser uma cepa de Bacillus subtilis. A aplicação de uma suspensão de células P10 (1 × 108 UFC / mL) aumentou significativamente a germinação das sementes e o crescimento das mudas de tomate em casa de vegetação. Essa cepa P10 suprimiu ainda mais a murcha de Verticillium do tomate com incidência de doença muito menor e pontuações de índice de doença sendo observadas após o tratamento com P10 em relação a plantas não tratadas em experimentos baseados em vasos. As plantas de tomate que foram tratadas com a cepa P10 também aumentaram as enzimas relacionadas à defesa, peroxidase, superóxido dismutase e atividade da catalase após o desafio de V. dahliae em relação às plantas que não foram tratadas com essa bactéria endofítica. Os resultados revelaram que a cepa bacteriana P10 tem valor potencial como agente de biocontrole para uso na prevenção da murcha de Verticillium em tomate.


Subject(s)
Solanum lycopersicum , Verticillium , Prunus domestica , Plant Diseases/prevention & control , Ascomycota , Bacillus subtilis , Fusarium
9.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1096-1106, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970425

ABSTRACT

L-asparaginase (L-ASN) is widely applied in the treatment of malignant tumor and low-acrylamide food production, however, the low expression level hampers its application. Heterologous expression is an effective strategy to increase the expression level of target enzymes, and Bacillus is generally used as the host for efficient production of enzymes. In this study, the expression level of L-asparaginase in Bacillus was enhanced through optimization of expression element and host. Firstly, five signal peptides (SPSacC, SPAmyL, SPAprE, SPYwbN and SPWapA) were screened, among which SPSacC showed the best performance, reaching an activity of 157.61 U/mL. Subsequently, four strong promoters (P43, PykzA-P43, PUbay and PbacA) from Bacillus were screened, and tandem promoter PykzA-P43 showed the highest yield of L-asparaginase, which was 52.94% higher than that of control strain. Finally, three Bacillus expression hosts (B. licheniformis Δ0F3 and BL10, B. subtilis WB800) were investigated, and the maximum L-asparaginase activity, 438.3 U/mL, was reached by B. licheniformis BL10, which was an 81.83% increase compared with that of the control. This is also the highest level of L-asparaginase in shake flask reported to date. Taken together, this study constructed a B. licheniformis strain BL10/PykzA-P43-SPSacC-ansZ capable of efficiently producing L-asparaginase, which laid the foundation for industrial production of L-asparaginase.


Subject(s)
Bacillus licheniformis/metabolism , Asparaginase/genetics , Bacillus/genetics , Protein Sorting Signals , Promoter Regions, Genetic/genetics , Bacillus subtilis/genetics , Bacterial Proteins
10.
Malaysian Journal of Microbiology ; : 455-462, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-979386

ABSTRACT

Aims@#Palm kernel cake (PKC) is a high-protein, high-energy food that is widely utilized in the animal feed business. However, the high fibre and limited amino acid content of untreated PKC were the main issues for it to be used as animal feed, particularly in non-ruminants. To improve the quality of PKC, this study combined the use of solid-state fermentation (SSF) and consortia of fungi and bacteria to treat the PKC.@*Methodology and results@#Two fungi, Emericella nidulans (4DP5) and Cladosporium herbarum (7DF12) and three strains of bacteria, Bacillus subtilis, which were active mannanase producers, were used in different combinations to reduce the hemicellulose content and improve the crude protein content of PKC in a lab-scale solid-state fermentation. PKC inoculated separately with five types of mixed culture treatments were allowed to ferment. The fermentation conditions were 20% inoculum (w/v), 85-92% humidity, pH 7.0 and PKC particle size 0.8 mm. PKC treatments with two fungi, E. nidulans (4DP5) and C. herbarum (7DF12), as well as a fungus-bacterium combination, E. nidulans (4DP5) and B. subtilis, outperformed the other three treatments. The crude protein levels were increased by 3.34% and 1.86%, respectively, due to these treatments. Furthermore, the level of aflatoxins produced increased marginally but remained within the permissible limits.@*Conclusion, significance and impact of study@#The treated PKC has more sugar and crude protein and less than 20 parts per billion (ppb) of aflatoxin, making it appropriate for animal consumption. The SSF technique of combining fungi and Bacilli enhanced the nutritional and market value of PKC substantially, which can be upscaled.


Subject(s)
Aspergillus nidulans , Cladosporium , Bacillus subtilis , Palm Oil , Fermentation
11.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: 1-8, 2022. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1468571

ABSTRACT

Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) is an ecofriendly, cost-effective and promising approach for discovery of novel therapeutics. The aim of the current work was to biogenic synthesize, characterize AgNPs using seed extracts of three economically important varieties of date palm (Iklas, Irziz and Shishi), and assess their anti-pathogenic bacterial activities. AgNPs were synthesised then characterised using electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared analyses. The bactericidal activities of AgNPs against five different bacterial pathogens, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae, were determined in vitro. In particular, changes in membrane integrity of virulent bacterial strains in response to AgNPs were investigated. Results of lactate dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase activity assays, and measurement of membrane potential revealed that the cytotoxic effects of the AgNPs were mainly centred on the plasma membrane of bacterial cells, leading to loss of its integrity and eventually cell death. In conclusion, green synthesis of AgNPs is an efficient, cost-effective and promising strategy to combat virulent antibiotic-resistant strains.


A síntese verde de nanopartículas de prata (AgNPs) é uma abordagem ecologicamente correta, econômica e promissora para a descoberta de novas terapêuticas. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi sintetizar biogênica, caracterizar AgNPs usando extratos de sementes de três variedades economicamente importantes de tamareira (Iklas, Irziz e Shishi) e avaliar suas atividades bacterianas antipatogênicas. AgNPs foram sintetizados e caracterizados usando microscopia eletrônica e análise de infravermelho por transformada de Fourier. As atividades bactericidas de AgNPs contra cinco diferentes patógenos bacterianos, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus aureus resistente à meticilina e Streptococcus pneumoniae, foram determinadas in vitro. Em particular, foram investigadas alterações na integridade da membrana de cepas bacterianas virulentas em resposta a AgNPs. Os resultados da lactato desidrogenase, dos ensaios da atividade da fosfatase alcalina e da medição do potencial de membrana revelaram que os efeitos citotóxicos dos AgNPs estavam principalmente centrados na membrana plasmática das células bacterianas, levando à perda de sua integridade e, eventualmente, à morte celular. A síntese verde de AgNPs é uma estratégia eficiente, econômica e promissora para combater cepas virulentas resistentes a antibióticos.


Subject(s)
Antibiosis , Bacillus subtilis/drug effects , Escherichia coli/drug effects , Nanoparticles/analysis , Phoeniceae , Silver/analysis , Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Streptococcus pneumoniae/drug effects , Microscopy , In Vitro Techniques
12.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e18373, 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364428

ABSTRACT

Abstract The aim of this study was to determine antimicrobial activities of Alchemilla mollis, Alchemilla persica as well as ellagic acid and miquelianin against Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans by using microbroth dilution method and anti-inflammatory activity by using human red blood cell (HRBC) membrane stabilization method. Microbroth dilution method was used to determine the antimicrobial activities. Extracts possessed activity having MIC values of 2.5-5-10mg/ mL, compounds possessed activity having MIC values of 1.25-2.5-4-5mg/mL. A.mollis aerial parts displayed the highest anti-inflammatory activity (IC50=1.22±0.07mg/mL). Ellagic acid and miquelianin were also determined as anti-inflammatory agents with 0.57±0.01mg/mL and 1.23±0.02mg/mL IC50 values, respectively. Total phenolic content and tannin content of the A.mollis and A.persica were determined as 357.00±75.80mg, 282.50±28.70mg PGE/g plant material and 18.02%, 18.63% respectively according to the method described by European Pharmacopoeia. Ellagic acid, miquelianin and catechin were analyzed by HPLC. The highest catechin content was detected in A.persica roots (6.69±0.05g/100g plant material). A.mollis aerial parts contain higher miquelianin (0.39±0.02g/plant material) and ellagic acid (1.56±0.01g/ plant material) than A.persica.


Subject(s)
Alchemilla/classification , Staphylococcus aureus , Bacillus subtilis , Candida albicans , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Dilution/methods , Ellagic Acid/pharmacology , Membranes , Anti-Inflammatory Agents
13.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e20013, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1394062

ABSTRACT

The aim of the present study is to improve the solubility and antimicrobial activity of 3-(3-(2-chlorophenyl)prop-2-enoyl)-4-hydroxycoumarin by formulating its inclusion complexes with 2-hydroxypropyl-ß-cyclodextrin in solution and in solid state. The phase solubility study was used to investigate the interactions between 3-(3-(2-chlorophenyl)prop-2-enoyl)-4-hydroxycoumarin and 2-hydroxypropyl-ß-cyclodextrin and to estimate the molar ratio between them. The structural characterization of binary systems (prepared by physical mixing, kneading and solvent evaporation methods) was analysed using the FTIR-ATM spectroscopy. The antimicrobial activity of 3-(3-(2-chlorophenyl)prop-2-enoyl)-4-hydroxycoumarin and inclusion complexes prepared by solvent evaporation method was tested by the diffusion and dilution methods on various strains of microorganisms. The results of phase solubility studies showed that 3-(3-(2-chlorophenyl)prop-2-enoyl)-4-hydroxycoumarin formed the inclusion complexes with 2-hydroxypropyl-ß-cyclodextrin of AP type. The solubility of 3-(3-(2-chlorophenyl)prop-2-enoyl)-4-hydroxycoumarin was increased 64.05-fold with 50% w/w of 2-hydroxypropyl-ß-cyclodextrin at 37 oC. The inclusion complexes in solid state, prepared by the solvent evaporation method, showed higher solubility in purified water and in phosphate buffer solutions in comparison with 3-(3-(2-chlorophenyl)prop-2-enoyl)-4-hydroxycoumarin alone. The inclusion complexes prepared by solvent evaporation method showed higher activity on Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus compared to uncomplexed 3-(3-(2-chlorophenyl)prop-2-enoyl)-4-hydroxycoumarin due to improved aqueous solubility, thus increasing the amount of available 3-(3-(2-chlorophenyl)prop-2-enoyl)-4-hydroxycoumarin that crosses the bacterial membrane.


Subject(s)
Solubility , Cyclodextrins/agonists , Anti-Infective Agents , Spectrum Analysis/instrumentation , Staphylococcus aureus/classification , Bacillus subtilis/classification , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared , Dilution
14.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e19736, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1383992

ABSTRACT

Abstract Bacillus species are promising producers of various compounds that have pronounced antimicrobial, antiviral and antitumor activities. Due to its GRAS status, Bacillus subtilis represents an excellent candidate for the usage in plant pathogens biocontrol. In this research, evaluation of antifungal metabolites biosynthesis by Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633 and optimization of glycerol-based medium composition, using response surface methodology, for the production of compounds effective against Neurospora crassa were investigated. The results of disc-diffusion method indicate that applied Bacillus strain produces compounds with antifungal activity against tested fungus. In order to find optimal cultivation medium composition, the experiments were carried out in accordance with Box-Behnken design, and optimization was performed using the concept of desirability function combined with previously defined mathematical equation, which describes examined bioprocess. The optimization model predicts that maximum inhibition zone diameter against Neurospora crassa of 32.24 mm is achieved when initial content of glycerol, NaNO2 and K2HPO4 were 49.68 g/L, 2.90 g/L and 6.49 g/L, respectively. Additionally, the second optimization set was made to minimize the consumption of medium components and costs of medium preparation. The obtained results are the basis for further research aimed to develop medium appropriate for economically justified production of bioactive compounds at industrial scale.


Subject(s)
Bacillus subtilis/metabolism , Process Optimization , Glycerol/analogs & derivatives , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Costs and Cost Analysis/classification , Methodology as a Subject , Evaluation Studies as Topic
15.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1768-1783, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927817

ABSTRACT

Bacillus spp. are probiotics and can secrete a variety of natural antimicrobiol active substances, of which lipopeptides are an important class. Up to now, about 90 lipopeptides have been identified, and most of them are cyclic lipopeptides. surfactin, iturin, fengycin, bacillomycin and polymyxins are widely studied, and the first three have huge potential for application due to their properties of surfactants and anti-fungal, anti-bacterial, anti-viral, anti-tumor and anti-inflammatory functions. In this paper, the research progress in the structure, function, synthesis regulation, separation, purification and production of surfactin, iturin and fengycin was reviewed. Synthetic biology is a vital means to increase the yield of lipopeptides, and in the future, lipopeptides can be used in crop cultivation, animal farming, food, medicine and petroleum industries as well as environmental protection. Future research should be strengthened on the discovery of new lipopeptides, synthesis of high-activity lipopeptides, economical production of lipopeptides on a large scale and their safety evaluation.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Bacillus , Bacillus subtilis , Lipopeptides/pharmacology , Peptides, Cyclic/pharmacology
16.
Rev. argent. microbiol ; 53(4): 31-40, Dec. 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1376419

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Increasing antimicrobial resistance amongStaphylococcus aureusnecessitates a new antimicrobial with a different site of action. We have isolated a novel cyclic peptide-1 (ASP-1) fromBacillussubtiliswith potent activity against methicillin-resistantS. aureus(MRSA) at a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 8-64μg/ml. Scanning electron micrographs demonstrated drastic changes in the cellular architecture of ASP-1 treated cells ofS. aureusATCC 29213 and an MRSA clinical isolate at MICs, with damages to the cell wall, membrane lysis and probable leakage of cytoplasmic contents at minimum bactericidal concentrations. The ultrastructure alterations induced by ASP-1 have also been compared with those of oxacillin-treated MRSA cells at its MIC using scanning electron microscopy.


RESUMEN El incremento de la resistencia antimicrobiana entre los tipos deS. aureusexige un nuevo agente antimicrobiano con un sitio de acción diferente. Aislamos un nuevo péptido cíclico (ASP-1) deBacillussubtiliscon potente actividad frente aS. aureusresistente a meticilina (SARM) en una concentración inhibitoria mínima (CIM) de 8-64μg/ml. Las micrografías obtenidas con microscopio electrónico de barrido mostraron cambios drásticos en la arquitectura celular de las células deS. aureusATCC 29213 tratadas con ASP-1, y un aislamiento clínico de SARM a la CIM, con daños a la pared celular, lisis de la membrana y probable fuga de contenido citoplasmático a concentraciones bactericidas mínimas. Comparamos también, las alteraciones de la ultraestructura inducidas por ASP-1 con las de células de SARM tratadas con oxacilina a su CIM, utilizando microscopio electrónico de barrido.


Subject(s)
Peptides, Cyclic/pharmacology , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Bacillus subtilis/chemistry , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/ultrastructure , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
17.
Int. j. morphol ; 39(5): 1493-1501, oct. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385512

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: This study evaluates the effect of probiotics Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bacillus subtilis on production parameters and intestinal histomorphology of broilers of 45 days of age. Eleven 45-day-old Ross 500 broilers were used and classified as control group (CG) (n = 5) or supplemented with probiotics group (n = 8). Histopathological evaluation of duodenum, ileum, and jejunum was performed. The area of the villi height, base and apex were evaluated as well as the size and number of crypts. In addition, mucus production was quantified in different portions of the small intestine. The villi present duodenum of broilers supplemented with probiotics had a greater area (p = 0.0127), a greater basal width (p = 0.0049) and a greater apical width (p = 0.0024), as well as a greater crypt area (p = 0.0189). Significantly higher levels of mucus were noted in the duodenum (p = 0.0480) and jejunum (p = 0.0480) of broilers supplemented with probiotics. We suggest that probiotic supplementation improve the intestinal nutrients absorption.


RESUMEN: Este estudio evalúa el efecto del uso de probióticos como: Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bacillus subtilis en parámetros productivos e histomorfologia intestinal de pollos de engorde de 45 días de edad. Fueron usados 11, los cuales fueron clasificados en grupo control (CG) (n = 5) y grupo suplementado con probióticos (PG) (n = 8). Fue realizado análisis histopatológico de secciones de duodeno, íleon y yeyuno. Fue evaluado ancho, altura y área del ápice de la vellosidad, área y número de criptas. Además, fue estimada la producción de moco en los diferentes segmentos del intestino delgado. Fue observada mayor área de la vellosidad en duodeno, PG (p = 0.0127), ancho basal mayor en PG (p = 0.0049) ancho apical mayor en PG (p = 0.0024), así como mayor área de criptas en PG (p = 0.0189). No fueron encontradas diferencias significativas respecto a los segmentos de yeyuno e íleon. PG presentó mayor producción de moco en duodeno (p = 0.0480) y en yeyuno (p = 0.0480). Concluimos que la suplementación con probióticos en pollos de engorde genera cambios en la histomorfologia intestinal, evidenciables en áreas apicales y basales de las vellosidades intestinales. Soporte financiero: Dirección General de Investigaciones - Universidad de los Llanos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Poultry , Probiotics/administration & dosage , Intestines/anatomy & histology , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/physiology , Bacillus subtilis/physiology , Chickens , Dietary Supplements , Intestines/microbiology , Lactobacillus acidophilus/physiology
18.
Electron J Biotechnol ; 49: 56-63, Jan. 2021. tab, ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1291900

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: 2R,3R-butanediol dehydrogenase (R-BDH) and other BDHs contribute to metabolism of 3R/3S-Acetoin (3R/3S-AC) and 2,3-butanediol (2,3-BD), which are important bulk chemicals used in different industries. R-BDH is responsible for oxidizing the hydroxyl group at their (R) configuration. Bacillus species is a promising producer of 3R/3S-AC and 2,3-BD. In this study, R-bdh gene encoding R-BDH from Bacillus sp. DL01 was isolated, expressed and identified. RESULTS: R-BDH exerted reducing activities towards Diacetyl (DA) and 3R/3S-AC using NADH, and oxidizing activities towards 2R,3R-BD and Meso-BD using NAD+ , while no activity was detected with 2S,3S-BD. The R-BDH showed its activity at a wide range of temperature (25 C to 65 C) and pH (5.0­8.0). The R-BDH activity was increased significantly by Cd2+ when DA, 3R/3S-AC, and Meso-BD were used as substrates, while Fe2+ enhanced the activity remarkably at 2R,3R-BD oxidation. Kinetic parameters of the R-BDH from Bacillus sp. DL01 showed the lowest Km, the highest Vmax, and the highest Kcat towards the racemic 3R/3S-AC substrate, also displayed low Km towards 2R,3R-BD and Meso-BD when compared with other reported R-BDHs. CONCLUSIONS: The R-BDH from Bacillus sp. DL01 was characterized as a novel R-BDH with high enantioselectivity for R-configuration. It considered NAD+ and Zn2+ dependant enzyme, with a significant affinity towards 3R/3S-AC, 2R,3R-BD, and Meso-BD substrates. Thus, R-BDH is providing an approach to regulate the production of 3R/3S-AC or 2,3-BD from Bacillus sp. DL01.


Subject(s)
Bacillus subtilis/enzymology , Alcohol Oxidoreductases/isolation & purification , Alcohol Oxidoreductases/metabolism , Temperature , Kinetics , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Acetoin
19.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1619-1636, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878658

ABSTRACT

As a typical food safety industrial model strain, Bacillus subtilis has been widely used in the field of metabolic engineering due to its non-pathogenicity, strong ability of extracellular protein secretion and no obvious codon preference. In recent years, with the rapid development of molecular biology and genetic engineering technology, a variety of research strategies and tools have been used to construct B. subtilis chassis cells for efficient synthesis of biological products. This review introduces the research progress of B. subtilis from the aspects of promoter engineering, gene editing, genetic circuit, cofactor engineering and pathway enzyme assembly. Then, we also summarized the application of B. subtilis in the production of biological products. Finally, the future research directions of B. subtilis are prospected.


Subject(s)
Bacillus subtilis/genetics , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Gene Editing , Metabolic Engineering , Promoter Regions, Genetic
20.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 923-938, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878604

ABSTRACT

Bacillus subtilis is a model strain for studying the physiological and biochemical mechanisms of microorganism, and is also a good chassis cell for industrial application to produce biological agents such as small molecule compounds, bulk chemicals, industrial enzymes, precursors of drugs and health product. In recent years, studies on metabolic engineering methods and strategies of B. subtilis have been increasingly reported, providing good tools and theoretical references for using it as chassis cells to produce biological agents. This review provides information on systematically optimizing the Bacillus subtilis chassis cell by regulating global regulatory factors, simplifying and optimizing the genome, multi-site and multi-dimensional regulating, dynamic regulating through biosensors, membrane protein engineering. For producing the protein reagent, the strain is optimized by optimizing the promoters, signal peptides, secretion components and building the expression system without chemical inducers. In addition, this review also prospects the important issues and directions that need to be focused on in the further optimization of B. subtilis in industrial production.


Subject(s)
Bacillus subtilis/genetics , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Biotechnology , Metabolic Engineering , Promoter Regions, Genetic , Protein Sorting Signals/genetics
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