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1.
Braz. j. oral sci ; 20: e213867, jan.-dez. 2021. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1254427

ABSTRACT

Aim: This study aimed to compare the microbiological potential and gustatory perception of essential oils (EO) mouthrinses containing and not containing alcohol. Methods: Twenty healthy adult volunteers rinsed with 10mL of the following test solutions: EO with alcohol, EO without alcohol, or a control solution (saline solution with mint essence). A washout period of at least seven days was adopted after a single-use protocol of the respective solution. All participants used all three tested substances. Antimicrobial potential was assessed by counting salivary total viable bacteria both before and after each rinse. Gustatory perception was evaluated using the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). Multiple comparisons were performed with the Wilcoxon test, using Bonferroni correction. Results: Both EO solutions presented a higher antimicrobial potential in comparison to the control solution (p<0.017). However, no significant difference in antimicrobial potential was observed between EO containing or not containing alcohol (p=0.218). VAS of EO with alcohol (median: 2.7) was similar to control solution (median: 1.6) (p=0.287). A better gustatory perception was observed of the EO without alcohol (median 7.6) when compared to the control solution (p<0.0001). When EO groups were compared, EO without alcohol also demonstrated a significantly better gustatory perception (p=0.001). Conclusion: Mouthrinse containing EO without alcohol presented a better taste perception when compared to the EO with alcohol, but no difference was observed in the antimicrobial potential of both EO solutions after a single rinse protocol


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Bacteria , Oils, Volatile , Alcohols , Taste Perception , Mouthwashes
2.
Infectio ; 25(4): 212-240, oct.-dic. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1286716

ABSTRACT

Abstract Intra-abdominal infections are frequent at all levels of health care, therefore, it is necessary to maintain a high level of clinical suspicion, performing the fastest and most cost-effective measures to confirm the diagnosis and offer a precise and targeted multidisciplinary therapy, this being the only way to have an impact on the morbidity of this infection, reducing mortality and minimizing the complications and costs of health care. Intra-abdominal infections are linked to the appearance and selection of resistant mutants in both bacteria and fungi, becoming currently a major public health problem. Increasing bacterial resistance when associated with a greater possibility of difficulties in antimicrobial treatment increases mortality. This evidence-based consensus brings together the recommendations for the diagnosis and treatment of intra-abdominal infections in the pediatric and adult population. With strict monitoring of bacterial resistance and stimulating the control of the risk factors that have the greatest impact on the appearance of this phenomenon, this consensus is intended to be a practical guide that is easy to implement, and with periodic updates it will favor and facilitate multidisciplinary and the adequacy of the therapeutic management of intra-abdominal infections.


Resumen Las infecciones intrabdominales son frecuentes en todos los niveles de atención en salud, por ende, es necesario mantener un alto nivel de sospecha clínica, realizando las medidas más rápidas y costoefectivas para confirmar el diagnóstico y así ofrecer de una forma precisa y dirigida la terapéutica multidisciplinaria, siendo esta la única manera de tener impacto en la morbilidad de esta infección, disminuyendo la mortalidad y minimizando las complicaciones y los costos de la atención en salud. Las infecciones intrabdominales se encuentran ligadas a la aparición y selección de las mutantes resistentes tanto en las bacterias como en los hongos, convirtiéndose en la actualidad en una gran problemática en la salud pública. La creciente resistencia bacteriana al asociarse a mayor posibilidad de dificultades en el tratamiento antimicrobiano incrementa la mortalidad. Este consenso basado en la evidencia, reúne las recomendaciones en el diagnóstico y en el tratamiento de las infecciones intrabdominales en la población pediátrica y de adultos. Con un estricto seguimiento de la resistencia bacteriana y estimulando el control de los factores de riesgo que tienen mas impacto en la aparición de este fenómeno, este consenso pretende ser una practica guía de fácil implementación, y con periódicas actualizaciones favorecerá y facilitará el manejo multidisciplinario y la adecuación del manejo terapéutico de las infecciones intrabdominales.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Adult , Intraabdominal Infections , Peritonitis , Bacteria , Risk Factors , Mortality , Colombia , Sepsis , Delivery of Health Care , Infections , Anti-Bacterial Agents
3.
Con-ciencia (La Paz) ; 9(2): [1-20], nov. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1348981

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: la resistencia a los antimicrobianos plantea una amenaza para la salud pública a nivel mundial. Las infecciones por bacterias ESKAPE representan mayores problemas de resistencia, debido a que pueden presentar más de un mecanismo de resistencia y además tienen la facultad de transmitirlo. En Bolivia no existen artículos publicados que muestren la multirresistencia de bacterias ESKAPE en hospitales de tercer nivel. OBJETIVO: describir el perfil de sensibilidad y resistencia antimicrobiana de las bacterias ESKAPE aisladas en todas las unidades de internación del Hospital Del Norte durante la gestión 2019. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: estudio observacional, descriptivo, incluyó 836 aislamientos obtenidos de enero a diciembre del 2019 provenientes de pacientes internados en todas las unidades del Hospital del Norte. Se empleó el sistema WHONET y las variables estudiadas fueron: edad, género, tipo de muestra, sala de internación, perfil de sensibilidad y resistencia de cada uno de los microorganismos en estudio. RESULTADOS: Se elaboró y describió el perfil de sensibilidad y resistencia antimicrobiana de las bacterias ESKAPE, encontrándose que los Enterobacterales tienen mayor frecuencia, siendo Escherichia coli el patógeno más prevalente; se determinó que existe mayor frecuencia en pacientes adultos, con mayor prevalencia en el género femenino. La frecuencia por tipo de muestra se observa que los tres primeros lugares lo ocupan las muestras de orina, vías respiratorias bajas y abscesos. Los servicios de Terapia intensiva, Medicina Interna y Cirugía son las áreas más críticas. Se obtuvieron los porcentajes de resistencia que presentan cada uno de los microorganismos estudiados según sala de internación. Los principales mecanismos de resistencia fenotípica encontrados en este estudio, son BLEE y MRSA. CONCLUSIONES: los resultados obtenidos demuestran que el mapa epidemiológico de resistencia antimicrobiana del Hospital del Norte, presenta porcentajes más altos en relación a los mapas epidemiológicos similares de otros hospitales en Latinoamérica.


INTRODUCTION: antimicrobial resistance raises a serious threat to health worldwide. Infections by ESKAPE bacteria represent major resistance problems, since they can present more than one resistance mechanism and also have the ability to transmit other bacteria. In Bolivia, unfortunately, there are no Bolivian authors who have published articles explaining the multi-resistance of ESKAPE Bacteria in third level hospitals. OBJECTIVE: To describe the antimicrobial sensitivity and resistance profile of ESKAPE bacteria isolated in all inpatient units of Hospital Del Norte in 2019. MATERIAL AND METHODS: observational, descriptive study, included 836 isolates obtained from January to December 2019 from patients hospitalized in all units of Hospital del Norte. WHONET software was used and the variables studied were: age, gender, type of sample, hospitalization room and resistance profile of each of the microorganisms under study. RESULTS: the antimicrobial sensitivity and resistance profile of each ESKAPE bacteria was elaborated and described, and it was found that Enterobacteriaceae have a higher frequency, with Escherichia coli is being the most prevalent pathogen; it was determined that there is a higher frequency in adult patients, with a higher prevalence in the female gender. The frequency by type of sample shows that the first three places are occupied by urine, lower respiratory tract and abscess samples. Intensive care, internal medicine, and surgery services are the most critical areas. The percentages of resistance were obtained for each of the microorganisms studied according to the hospitalization room. ESBL and MRSA are the main phenotypic resistance mechanism found in the hospital. CONCLUSIONS: the results obtained show that the epidemiological map of antimicrobial resistance at Hospital del Norte presents higher percentages in relation to similar epidemiological maps of other hospitals in Latin America.


Subject(s)
Bacteria , Escherichia coli , Inpatients , Public Health , Internal Medicine
4.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDNPAR | ID: biblio-1337804

ABSTRACT

La resistencia a los antimicrobianos (RAM), representa un grave problema por el uso indiscriminado de antimicrobianos de amplio espectro. En nuestro país, durante el primer cuatrimestre del año, se observó un aumento inusual en el número de aislamiento de gérmenes multirresistentes, sobre todo de bacilos gramnegativos, los cuales fueron remitidos al laboratorio de referencia con el objetivo de caracterizar los genes de resistencia a los carbapenemes. Estudio observacional y prospectivo de corte transversal en 456 aislamientos de bacilos gramnegativos provenientes de 11 centros colaboradores de la Red Nacional de Vigilancia de la RAM, remitidos al Laboratorio Central de Salud Pública entre enero y abril de 2021, para la detección molecular (reacción en cadena de la polimerasa múltiple) de los genes de resistencia enzimática bla OXA-51, bla OXA-23, bla OXA-24, bla OXA-48, bla OXA-58, bla NDM, bla KPC, bla IMP, bla VIM. Trescientos sesenta correspondieron a bacilos gramnegativos no fermentadores: 346 Acinetobacter baumannii y 14 Pseudomonas aeruginosa; 96 fueron miembros de Enterobacterales, siendo prevalente Klebsiella pneumoniae (81). Todos los aislamientos de Acinetobacter baumannii resultaron ser productores de carbapenemasas: OXA-23 (94%), NDM (4%), NMD+OXA-58 (2%); en Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 7 de los 14 aislamientos (50%) fueron portadores de metalobetalactamasa del genotipo NDM (100%). Los genotipos NDM (92%) y KPC (8%) fueron confirmados en Enterobacterales. La resistencia plasmídica a carbapenemes es endémica en nuestro país, siendo prevalentes los genotipos OXA-23 en Acinetobacter baumannii y NDM en Pseudomonas aeruginosa y Enterobacterales


Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) represents a serious problem due to the indiscriminate use of broad-spectrum antimicrobials. During the first quarter of the year, an unusual increase in the number of isolation multi-resistant germs, especially gram-negative bacilli was observed, specially of Gram-negative bacilli which were referred to the reference laboratory in order to characterize the carbapenems resistance genes. Observational and prospective cross-sectional study in 456 isolates of Gram-negative bacilli from 11 collaborating centers of the National AMR Surveillance Network, referred to the Central Public Health Laboratory (LCSP) between January and April 2021, for molecular detection (multiple polymerase chain reaction) targeting the enzymatic resistance genes: bla OXA-51, bla OXA-23, bla OXA-24, bla OXA-48, bla OXA-58, bla NDM, bla KPC, bla IMP, bla VIM. Of the 456 isolates studied, 360 corresponded to non-fermenting Gram-negative bacilli, of which 346 were confirmed as Acinetobacter baumannii and 14 Pseudomonas aeruginosa; 96 were Enterobacterales, being Klebsiella pneumoniae (81) the most prevalent. All isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii carried genes encoding carbapenemases, being the OXA-23 (94%) followed by NDM (4%) and NDM +OXA-58 (2%). In Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains, 7 of the 14 isolates (50%) were carriers of NDM metallobetalactamase (100%). No carbapenemase gene was detected in the remaining 7. In all Enterobacterales strains, the presence of carbapenemases of the NDM (92%) and KPC (8%) genotypes were confirmed. Plasmid resistance to carbapenems is endemic in our country, being the OXA-23 genotypes prevalent in Acinetobacter baumannii and NDM in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterobacterales


Subject(s)
Pseudomonas Infections , Acinetobacter baumannii , Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Bacteria , Drug Resistance , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Genotype
5.
Braz. dent. j ; 32(3): 10-20, May-June 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1345504

ABSTRACT

Abstract The host defense response to microbial challenge emerging from the root canal system leads to apical periodontitis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of inflammatory cytokines and Nitric Oxide (NO) by macrophages after interaction with Enterococcus faecalis in the: plankton and dislodged biofilm mode; intact biofilm mode stimulated by calcium hydroxide (CH), CH and chlorhexidine (CHX) or Triple Antibiotic Paste (TAP). For this purpose, culture of macrophages from monocytes in human peripheral blood (N=8) were exposed to the different modes of bacteria for 24 hours. Subsequently, the cytokines, such as, Tumor Necrotic Factor- alfa (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-10; and NO were quantified by Luminex xMAP and Greiss reaction, respectively. In addition to the potential therapeutic effects of the intracanal medication, their antimicrobial activity against Enterococcus faecalis biofilm were also tested in vitro by confocal microscopy. The experiments` data were analyzed by the Kruskal-Wallis test with the Dunn post hoc test (α < 0.05). Bacteria in dislodged biofilm mode were shown to be more aggressive to the immune system than bacteria in plankton mode and negative control, inducing greater expression of NO and TNF-α. Relative to bacteria in intact biofilm mode, the weakest antimicrobial activity occurred in Group CH. In Groups CH/CHX and TAP the percentage of dead bacteria was significantly increased to the same extent. Interestingly, the biofilm itself did not induce the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines - except for NO - while the biofilm treated with TAP and CH based pastes enhanced the levels of IL-6 and TNF-α; and IL-1 β, respectively. In contrast, the levels of a potent anti-inflammatory (IL-10) were increased in Group TAP.


Resumo A resposta de defesa do hospedeiro ao desafio microbiano que emerge do sistema de canais radiculares leva à periodontite apical. Os objetivos deste estudo foram avaliar a expressão de citocinas pró e anti-inflamatórias e Óxido Nítrico (NO) por macrófagos após interação com Enterococcus faecalis no modo: planctônio e de biofilme desalojado; biofilme intacto estimulado por hidróxido de cálcio (CH), CH e clorexidina ou Pasta Tri Antibiótica (TAP). Para isto, a cultura de macrófagos originados de monócitos do sangue periférico de humanos (N=8) foi exposta aos diferentes tipos de bactéria por 24 horas. Então, a quantificação da produção de of Fator de Necrose Tumoral- alfa (TNF-α), interleucina (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-10 e NO por macrófagos se deu por meio do Luminex xMAP e reação de Greiss, respectivamente. Além dos potenciais efeitos terapêuticos desses compostos, sua atividade antimicrobiana contra E. faecalis também foi testada através microscopia confocal. Os dados dos experimentos foram analisados através do teste de Kruskal-Wallis com Dunn`s post hoc (α < 0.05). Bactéria em modo de biofilme desalojado se mostrou mais agressivo ao sistema imune que as bactérias planctônicas e controle negativo induzindo a maior excreção de NO e TNF-α. Em relação ao biofilme intacto, a atividade antimicrobiana mais fraca ocorreu no grupo de CH. Os grupos CHX e TAP aumentaram significativamente a porcentagem de bactérias mortas na mesma extensão. Interessantemente, o biofilme por ele mesmo não induziu a liberação de citocinas pro-inflamatórias - exceto por NO - enquanto que o biofilme tratado com TAP ou pastas a base de CH aumentaram os níveis de IL-6; e TNF-α e IL-1 β respectivamente. Em contraste, os níveis da potente citocina anti-inflamatória (IL-10) foram aumentados pelo grupo TAP.


Subject(s)
Humans , Plankton , Biofilms , Root Canal Irrigants , Bacteria , Calcium Hydroxide , Chlorhexidine , Enterococcus faecalis , Anti-Bacterial Agents
6.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 51: 67-78, May. 2021. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1343435

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Endometritis is the most common disease of dairy cows and traditionally treated with antibiotics. Lactic acid bacteria can inhibit the growth of pathogens and also have potential for treatment of endometritis. Using PacBio single-molecule real-time sequencing technology, we sequenced the fulllength l6S rRNA of the microbiota in uterine mucus samples from 31 cows with endometritis, treated with lactic acid bacteria (experimental [E] group) and antibiotics (control [C] group) separately. Microbiota profiles taken before and after treatment were compared. RESULTS: After both treatments, bacterial species richness was significantly higher than before, but there was no significant difference in bacterial diversity. Abundance of some bacteria increased after both lactic acid bacteria and antibiotic treatment: Lactobacillus helveticus, Lactococcus lactis, Lactococcus raffinolactis, Pseudomonas alcaligenes and Pseudomonas veronii. The bacterial species that significantly decreased in abundance varied depending on whether the cows had been treated with lactic acid bacteria or antibiotics. Abundance of Staphylococcus equorum and Treponema brennaborense increased after lactic acid bacteria treatment but decreased after antibiotic treatment. According to COG-based functional metagenomic predictions, 384 functional proteins were significantly differently expressed after treatment. E and C group protein expression pathways were significantly higher than before treatment (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we found that lactic acid bacteria could cure endometritis and restore a normal physiological state, while avoiding the disadvantages of antibiotic treatment, such as the reductions in abundance of beneficial microbiota. This suggests that lactic acid bacteria treatment has potential as an alternative to antibiotics in the treatment of endometritis in cattle.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Cattle , Cattle Diseases/drug therapy , Endometritis/drug therapy , Lactobacillales/metabolism , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing/methods , Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage , Bacteria/isolation & purification , Bacteria/growth & development , Bacteria/drug effects , Uterus/microbiology , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , Lactic Acid , Lactobacillales/genetics , Microbiota
7.
Univ. salud ; 23(2): 151-161, mayo-ago. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1252319

ABSTRACT

Introducción: En producción avícola el uso de antibióticos promotores del crecimiento es limitado, debido al incremento de resistencia bacteriana. Una alternativa evalúa los probióticos microencapsulados y su efecto en la salud intestinal. Objetivo: Determinar el efecto de Lactobacillus plantarum microencapsulado sobre parámetros intestinales e inmunológicos en pollos de engorde. Materiales y métodos: A 240 pollos Ross-308-AP de un día de nacidos se suministró alimento con o sin adición de probiótico bajo el siguiente modelo: sin probiótico-(T0), con probiótico comercial-(T1), con L. plantarum microencapsulado-(T2) y sin microencapsular-(T3). L. plantarum ATCC-8014 se microencapsuló mediante secado por aspersión, determinando su viabilidad en (%). Se evaluaron parámetros intestinales, morfo-histopatológicos e inmunológicos por Azul de Alcian, microscopia de barrido e inmunohistoquímica y la abundancia microbial por UFC/mL. Resultados: El microencapsulado confirió una viabilidad in vivo de L. plantarum del 88,1%. El tratamiento T2 mejoró los parámetros inmunológicos y confirió beneficios intestinales con una abundancia de bacterias benéficas (Lactobacillus) de (9,13x105-UFC/mL), significativamente mayor a la encontrada en los tratamientos T1 (8,91x105) y T3 (8,23x105) y el control T0 (9,18x104), (p<0,05). Conclusiones: La adición de L. plantarum microencapsulado en alimento para pollos mejora parámetros inmunológicos y confiere mayor abundancia de bacterias benéficas presentes en la microbiota intestinal.


Introduction: Usage of growth-promoting antibiotics in poultry production is limited due to the increase in bacterial resistance. An alternative to assess microencapsulated probiotics and their effect on gut health is presented in this study. Objective: To determine the effect of microencapsulated L. plantarum on intestinal and immunological parameters in broilers. Materials and methods: 240 Ross-308-AP chickens (one day old) were fed with or without the addition of a probiotic, under the following model: without probiotic (T0); with commercial probiotic (T1); with probiotic containing either microencapsulated (T2) or non-microencapsulated (T3) L. plantarum. ATCC-8014 was microencapsulated by spray drying, assessing its viability in (%). Alcian blue, scanning microscopy, and immunohistochemistry were used to evaluate intestinal, morpho-histopathological, and immunological parameters. Microbial abundance was quantified by UFC/ml. Results: Microencapsulation of L. plantarum induced an 88.1% in vivo viability. T2 treatment improved both immunological parameters and the intestinal population of beneficial bacteria (Lactobacillus) (9.13x105 UFC/ml), which was significantly higher than that found in T1 (8.91x105), T3 (8.23x105), and control T0 (9.18x104), (p<0.05). Conclusion: Adding microencapsulated L. plantarum to chicken feed improves immunological parameters and increases the population of beneficial bacteria in the intestinal microbiota.


Subject(s)
Functional Food , Lactobacillus , Bacteria , Probiotics , Microbiota
8.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 20(3): 215-225, may. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1342813

ABSTRACT

This review describes the geographical distribution, botanical data, popular use, chemical composition, pharmacological activities and genetic aspects related to Eugenia luschnathiana, a native Brazilian plant popularly known as "bay pitomba". E. luschnathiana leaves are characterized morphologically by the presence of a petiole, an attenuated base, acuminated apex, elliptical shape, and parallel venation. The major chemical compounds found in E. luschnathiana are sesquiterpenes. Literature reports showed that E. luschnathiana extracts have antioxidant properties and antimicrobial activity against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. The extractsfrom the leaf, fruit and stem, and a concentrated residual solution of its essential oil, displayed negligible toxicity. Lastly, a cytogenetic analysis indicated that some markers can be used for the study of genetic diversity, population structure, and genetic improvements. The information available on E. luschnathiana supports the hypothesis that this plant may be a source of compounds with promising pharmacological activity.


Esta revisión describe la distribución geográfica, datos botánicos, uso popular, composición química, actividad farmacológica y el análisis genético de Eugenia luschnathiana, una planta originaria del Brasil conocida popularmente como "pitomba da baía". Las hojas de E. luschnathiana se caracterizan por la presencia de pecíolo, base atenuada, ápice acuminado, forma elíptica y venación paralela. Su composición química presenta mayormente sesquiterpenos. Los informes en la literatura muestran que los extractos de E. luschnathiana presentan propiedades antioxidantes y actividad antimicrobiana contra las bacterias Gram-negativas y Gram-positivas. Los extractos de la hoja, fruto y tallo, y una solución residual concentrada del aceite esencial, presentaron baja toxicidad. Por último, un análisis citogenético indicó que algunos marcadores pueden utilizarse para estudios de diversidad genética, estructura poblacional y mejoramiento genético. Las informaciones disponibles acerca de E. luschnathiana proponen la hipótesis de que esta planta puede ser una fuente de compuestos con actividad farmacológica prometedora.


Subject(s)
Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Eugenia/chemistry , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Terpenes/analysis , Bacteria/drug effects , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Plant Extracts/genetics , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Eugenia/genetics , Medicine, Traditional , Anti-Infective Agents/chemistry
9.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 20(3): 260-269, may. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1342820

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to undertake a screening experiment on essential oils (EO) of Myrcia lundiana, Ocimum basilicum and Lippia alba against six food-spoiling pathogenic bacteria. Seventy-two (72) samples were initially analyzed fo antimicrobial activity based on the agar diffusion test. The minimum inhibitory (MIC) and bactericidal (MBC) concentrations were determined for the 12 samples which showed greatest antimicrobial potential in this stage. Two samples of L. alba, three samples of M. lundiana and seven samples of O. basilicum showed a MIC of 0.12-125 µL/mL for the six tested bacteria. Of these, the EO of O. basilicum cultivar Maria Bonita stood out with the lowest MIC and MBC. Thus, a mixture simulating this essential oil was prepared from commercial standards of the compounds (±)-linalool, geraniol and 1,8-cineole. Significantly higher MIC and MBC were detected in the simulation compared to the respective EO, suggesting a synergistic effect between compounds.


El objetivo de este estudio fue realizar un experimento de detección en aceites esenciales (AE) de Myrcia lundiana, Ocimum basilicum y Lippia alba contra seis bacterias patógenas que estropean los alimentos. Setenta y dos (72) muestras fueron analizadas inicialmente para la actividad antimicrobiana basada en la prueba de difusión en agar. Se determinaron las concentraciones mínimas inhibitoria (CMI) y bactericida (CMB) para las 12 muestras que mostraron el mayor potencial antimicrobiano en esta etapa. Dos muestras de L. alba, tres muestras de M. lundiana y siete muestras de O. basilicum mostraron un CMI de 0.12-125 µL/mL para las seis bacterias analizadas. De estos, el AE de O. basilicum cultivar Maria Bonita se destacó con el CMI y CMB más bajos. Por lo tanto, se preparó una mezcla que simula este aceite esencial a partir de los estándares comerciales de los compuestos de (±)-linalol, geraniol y 1,8-cineol. Se detectaron CMI y CMB significativamente más altos en la simulación en comparación con el AE respectivo, lo que sugiere un efecto sinérgico entre los compuestos.


Subject(s)
Bacteria/drug effects , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Ocimum basilicum/chemistry , Myrtaceae/chemistry , Lippia/chemistry , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Sesquiterpenes/analysis , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Food , Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry
10.
Rev. colomb. gastroenterol ; 36(supl.1): 30-36, abr. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1251543

ABSTRACT

Resumen La tuberculosis es una enfermedad de importancia en la salud pública a nivel mundial, con una alta incidencia a nivel del territorio colombiano. Principalmente, afecta el parénquima pulmonar; sin embargo, en un porcentaje elevado de casos se diagnostica en su forma extrapulmonar y el tracto gastrointestinal es uno de los sitios más frecuentes. Así mismo, la región ileocecal y el íleon terminal son las regiones con más predilección por la bacteria Mycobaterium tuberculosis. Las manifestaciones en esta rara presentación de la enfermedad están dadas por dolor abdominal y sensación de masa principalmente, lesiones ulcerosas en la mucosa intestinal y hallazgos histológicos correspondientes a granulomas caseificantes de gran tamaño y de morfología confluente, que se diferencian de otras entidades como la enfermedad de Crohn. La búsqueda de la enfermedad dentro del tracto gastrointestinal se realiza con ayuda de métodos invasivos como la colonoscopia y de ayudas diagnósticas de laboratorio como cultivos, tinciones o reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR). Dada la complejidad en el diagnóstico de esta forma de tuberculosis, el conocimiento y la manera en que se aborda un paciente con un cuadro sugestivo de esta enfermedad son factores importantes para establecer el manejo terapéutico oportuno. Se comparte un caso inusual de tuberculosis ileocecal como manifestación de síndrome febril prolongado con desenlace fatal.


Abstract Tuberculosis is a disease of public health importance worldwide with a high incidence in Colombia. It mainly affects the lung parenchyma. However, in a large number of cases, it is diagnosed in its extrapulmonary form, with the gastrointestinal tract being one of the most frequent sites. Mycobacterium tuberculosis has a strong predilection for the ileocecal region and the terminal ileum. Manifestations of this rare form of the disease are abdominal pain and mass sensation mainly, as well as ulcerative lesions in the intestinal mucosa and histological findings corresponding to large caseating granulomas of confluent morphology, which distinguish it from other entities such as Crohn's disease. Invasive procedures, such as colonoscopy, and diagnostic laboratory aids, such as cultures, stains, and PCR, are used to find the disease in the gastrointestinal tract. Given the difficulty of diagnosing this type of tuberculosis, knowledge and how a patient with symptoms suggestive of the disease is approached are critical factors for establishing timely treatment. The following is an unusual case of ileocecal TB as a manifestation of prolonged febrile illness with a fatal outcome.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Tuberculosis, Gastrointestinal , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Bacteria , Colonoscopy , Fatal Outcome , Laboratories
11.
Infectio ; 25(1): 33-38, ene.-mar. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1154399

ABSTRACT

Resumen Objetivo: Aislar STEC en las heces del ganado bovino en el municipio de Ulloa, Valle del Cauca y detectar factores de virulencia asociados con la patogénesis. Materiales y métodos: Se tomaron 21 muestras provenientes de bovinos, las cuales fueron tomadas directamente del recto del animal mediante hisopos. Las muestras se procesaron hasta obtener colonias puras a las cuales se les evaluó la presencia de los genes stx1, stx2, eae, saa y hlyA mediante PCR y posteriormente, se evaluó el efecto citotóxico de las muestras positivas sobre células Vero (ATCC-CCL-81.4). Resultados: De las 21 muestras de heces de bovinos,12 presentaron bacterias con uno o ambos genes stx. Se obtuvieron 106 aislamientos totales de STEC y se observaron diferencias en cuanto a la presencia y ausencia de los genes de virulencia evaluados en los aislamientos de cada bovino, obteniendo cinco combinaciones de genes. 48 aislamientos presentaron únicamente el gen stx2 y 58 presentaron tanto el gen stx1 como el gen stx2; de los 106 aislamientos, se detectaron 44 con el gen hlyA y 57 con el gen saa. Conclusiones: Todos los sobrenadantes de STEC analizados mostraron actividad citotóxica sobre las células Vero, mientras que en ausencia de STEC las células formaron monocapa después de 48 h de incubación. Este trabajo es el primer reporte en Colombia que aporta información sobre la presencia de STEC en el ganado bovino, la presencia de factores de virulencia y el potencial efecto citotóxico que poseen estas cepas nativas.


Abstract Objective: To isolate STEC in stool samples from cattle in Ulloa, Valle del Cauca, and to detect virulence factors associated with its pathogenesis. Materials and methods: We took 21 samples from cattle, which were taken directly from the rectum of the animal using swabs. The samples were processed until obtaining pure colonies and evaluated for the presence of the stx1, stx2, eae, saa and hlyA genes by PCR. Afterward, the cytotoxic effect of positive samples were evaluated on Vero cells (ATCC-CCL- 81.4). Results: We observed that from the 21 stools samples, 12 presented bacteria with one or both stx genes. A total of 106 isolates of STEC were obtained and differences among each other were observed regarding the presence and absence of the virulence genes, obtaining five combinations of genes. We found that 48 isolates presented only stx2 gene and 58 presented both the stx1 and stx2 gene. Regarding the other virulence genes, the hlyA gene was detected in 44 isolates and the saa gene was detected in 57 isolates. Conclusions: All the STEC supernatants showed cytotoxic activity on Vero cells, while in its absence the cells formed monolayer after 48 h of incubation. This work is the first report in Colombia that provides information about the presence of STEC in stool cattle, virulence genes and its potential cytotoxic effect in native strains.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Shiga Toxin , Escherichia coli , Shiga-Toxigenic Escherichia coli , Feces , Livestock , Bacteria , Virulence , Polymerase Chain Reaction
12.
Rev. bras. anal. clin ; 53(1): 69-73, 20210330. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1291554

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: A sepse está envolvida com as principais causas de morbidade e mortalidade em pacientes internados em unidades hospitalares. Esses pacientes são vulneráveis a esse tipo de infecção devido a vários fatores como tempo de internamento, procedimentos invasivos, infecções recorrentes e terapias prolongadas por uso de antibióticos. Portanto, este estudo teve como objetivo identificar o perfil microbiológico e de resistência nas hemoculturas positivas de pacientes internados no Pronto-Socorro Cardiológico de Pernambuco (Procape) no ano de 2017. Métodos: Foram analisadas hemoculturas do período de janeiro a dezembro de 2017. As amostras de hemoculturas foram processadas no equipamento de automação BACT/ALERT® 3D sistemas de detecção microbiana e depois identificada pelo Vitek 2 compact da Biomerieux®. Resultados: Do total de 3.323 amostras de hemoculturas enviadas ao Laboratório do Hospital, foi verificada a prevalência de positividade de 120 (3,62%), das quais houve a prevalência de K. pneumoniae 18 (15%), seguido de S. haemolyticus 17 (14,16%), logo após, S. epidermidis 16 (13,33%). Várias bactérias apresentaram perfil de multirresistência como E. cloacae, A. baumannii, K. pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa, S. aureus e Staphylococcus coagulase negativa. Conclusão: Os resultados demonstraram a presença de bactérias resistentes e multirresistentes, com diferentes perfis de resistência. É importante conhecer o perfil de resistência bacteriano, visando o tratamento adequado de pacientes com quadro de sepse, prevenindo infecções hospitalares.


Objective: Sepsis is involved with the main causes of morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients. These patients are vulnerable to this type of infection due to various factors such as length of stay, invasive procedures, recurrent infections, and antibiotic therapy prolonged. Therefore, this study aimed to identify the microbiological and resistance profile in positive blood cultures of patients admitted to the Cardiac Emergency of Pernambuco (Procape) in 2017. Methods: Blood cultures from January to December 2017 were analyzed. Blood cultures were processed on BactT/Alert® 3D automation equipment, microbial detection systems and then identified by Biomerieux® Vitek 2 compact. Results: From a total of 3,323 blood culture samples sent to the Hospital Laboratory, the prevalence of positivity of 120 (3.62%) samples was verified, of which there was the prevalence of K. pneumoniae 18 (15%), followed for S. haemolyticus 17 (14.16%), shortly after, S. epidermidis 16 (13.33%). Several bacteria showed multiresistance profile such as E. cloacae, A. baumannii, K. pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa, S. aureus and coagulase negative Staphylococcus. Conclusion: Results demonstrated the presence of resistant and multiresistant bacteria, with different resistance profiles. It is important to know bacterial resistance profile, aiming at the adequate treatment of patients with sepsis, preventing hospital infections.


Subject(s)
Bacteria , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Sepsis , Blood Culture
13.
Infectio ; 25(1): 22-27, ene.-mar. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1154397

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: La antibiótico-resistencia es un fenómeno por el cual las bacterias logran sobrevivir al tratamiento con antimicrobianos; con incidencia en ambientes intra y extrahospitalarios como: fuentes hídricas, sector agrario/ganadero y fómites. Objetivo: Describir bacterias presentes en fómites de alta circulación en una región centro-occidental de Colombia junto a su perfil de sensibilidad fenotípica y presencia de genes para betalactamasas tipo TEM-full, OXA-3 y SHV-full. Metodología: Se aislaron cepas bacterianas de billetes, pasamanos de escaleras eléctricas y botones de cajeros automáticos; se evaluó su perfil de sensibilidad fenotípica por medio de concentración mínima inhibitoria-técnica automatizada/Vitek2® y genes para betalactamasas tipo TEM-full, OXA-3 y SHV-full mediante PCR convencional. Resultados: Se obtuvo 30 aislados; Acinetobacter baumannii complex, fue la más común; el fómite con mayor aislados y resistencia fueron los billetes; el 53% portó al menos uno de los genes estudiados. Se identificaron bacterias gramnegativas con resistencia frente a: Imipinem, Piperacilina/Tazobactam, Colistina, Ceftazidima, Tigeciclina y Ceftriaxona; bacterias grampositivas con resistencia frente a: Quinupristina/Dalfopristina, Minociclina, Tetraciclina, Teicoplanina, Nitrofuratoina, Oxacilina, Clindamicina, Trimetropina-sulfametoxazol, y Minociclina. Conclusión: Teniendo en cuenta la circulación de cepas con estas resistencias, es importante la educación en la comunidad para evitar la adquisición o propagación de infecciones por manipulación inadecuada de fómites.


Abstract Introduction: Antibiotic-resistance is a phenomenon by which bacteria manage to survive antimicrobial treatment; with incidence in intra and extra hospital environments such as: water sources, agricultural / livestock sector and fomites. Aim: To describe bacteria present in high circulation fomites in a central-western region of Colombia, with their phenotypic sensitivity profile and presence of genes beta-lactamases (TEM, OXA3 and SHV). Methodology: We isolate bacterial strains from banknotes, escalator handrails and ATM buttons. We evaluated its phenotypic sensitivity profile by minimal inhibitory concentration automated technique using Vitek 2® and presence of genes for beta-lactamases type TEM-full, OXA-3 and SHV-full by conventional PCR. Results: A total of 30 isolates were obtained; Acinetobacter baumannii complex, was the most common; banknotes were the form with the highest number of isolates and resistance. Of the total isolates, 53% carried at least one of the genes studied. Phenotypically, gram-negative bacteria were identified with resistance against: Imipinem, Piperacillin / Tazobactam, Colistin, Ceftazidime, Tigecycline and Ceftriaxone; Gram-positive bacteria with resistance to: Quinupristin / Dalfopristin, Minocycline, Tetracycline, Teicoplanin, Nitrofuratoin, Oxacillin, Clindamycin, Trimethropine-sulfamethoxazole, and Minocycline. Conclusion: Taking into account the circulation of strains with these resistances, it is important to educate the community to avoid the acquisition or spread of infections due to the inappropriate handling of this type of inanimate elements.


Subject(s)
Humans , Bacteria , Colombia , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Elevators and Escalators , Fomites , Infections , Anti-Infective Agents , Anti-Bacterial Agents
14.
Infectio ; 25(1): 16-21, ene.-mar. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1154396

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: Los microorganismos capaces de producir carbapenemasas vienen incrementándose a nivel mundial y se han convertido en un problema de salud pública global. En Colombia actualmente la resistencia a carbapenémicos en las unidades de cuidado intensivo está aumentando y se desconoce su impacto en desenlaces clínicos. Objetivos: Determinar las características demográficas, clínicas, y los desenlaces de los pacientes adultos en estado crítico con infección por microorganismos productores de carbapenemasas en una unidad de cuidado intensivo polivalente de una institución de alta complejidad. Métodos: Estudio observacional, descriptivo y retrospectivo, incluyendo pacientes con infección por bacterias resistentes a carbapenémicos, ingresados a la unidad de cuidado intensivo entre el 1 de Enero de 2014 y el 1 de Enero de 2018. Se excluyeron los pacientes colonizados. Se evaluaron complicaciones clínicas, estancia en UCI y hospitalaria, así como la mortalidad en UCI y hospitalaria. Resultados: Se incluyó 58 pacientes. La mortalidad global fue de 67,2%, de los cuales 55,17% murió durante su estancia en la unidad de cuidado intensivo y 12.06% en hospitalización. La mediana de estancia en la unidad de cuidado intensivo fue de 18 días (RIQ 4-28). La causa más frecuente de mortalidad fue choque séptico en 51% y las complicaciones más comunes fueron lesión renal aguda y delirium en un 55,2% y 43,1%, respectivamente. La mediana de estancia en la UCI fue de 18 días (RIQ 4-28). Conclusiones: Las infecciones por bacterias resistentes a carbapenémicos en pacientes críticamente enfermos se relacionan con altas tasas de mortalidad, complicaciones y estancia prolongada en UCI


Abstract Introduction: Microorganisms able to produce carbapenemases are spreading worldwide and have become a concerning global public-health problem. In Colombia, the Gram-negative resistance to carbapenems at intensive care units is currently increasing and its impact on clinical outcomes is not well known. Objectives: To determine the demographic, clinical characteristics and outcomes of critically ill adult patients with infection by carbapenemase producing bacteria in a polyvalent intensive care unit of a highly complex institution. Methods: Single-center retrospective, descriptive observational study including critically ill adult patients infected by carbapenemase-producing bacteria and transferred to a polyvalent intensive care unit from January 1th 2014 to January 1th 2018. Known colonized patients were excluded. Clinical complications, ICU and in-hospital days of stay were evaluated, as ICU and in-hospital mortality. Results: A total of 58 patients were included. Overall mortality was 67.2%, of which 55.17% died during their stay in the intensive care unit and 12.06% in hospitalization. The median stay in the intensive care unit was 18 days (IQR 4-28). The most frequent cause of death was septic shock in 51% and the most common complications were acute renal injury and delirium in 55.2% and 43.1%, respectively. The median stay in the ICU was 18 days (RIQ 4-28). Conclusions: Infections caused by carbapenem-resistant bacteria in critically ill patients are associated with high mortality rates, complications and long stay in ICU.


Subject(s)
Bacteria , Hospital Mortality , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Carbapenems , Cross Infection , Colombia , Hospitalization , Hospitals , Infections , Intensive Care Units
15.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 25(1): 79-85, jan-abr. 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1151426

ABSTRACT

Introdução: O diagnóstico da hanseníase possui números significativos que causam preocupação à saúde pública. Os casos de resistência medicamentosa nessa doença se iniciaram em meados dos anos 60 e diante do problema, a Organização Mundial da Saúde instituiu em 1981 a poliquimioterapia, associação dos antibióticos rifampicina, dapsona e clofazimina, tratamento atual de escolha. A resistência aos fármacos na hanseníase é reportada pela literatura, desvelando um obstáculo à sua eliminação. Apresentamos nessa revisão os principais aspectos da resistência medicamentosa no tratamento para hanseníase e seus impactos. Metodologia: Revisão sistemática sobre os aspectos da resistência medicamentosa utilizando a pesquisa exploratória como metodologia de abordagem. Foram pesquisados os termos resistência medicamentosa, hanseníase, recidiva, alterações genéticas e os operadores booleanos "and" e "or" na busca. Resultados e discussão: A dificuldade de tomar a medicação corretamente foi um dos principais fatores que acarretaram resistência do bacilo Mycobacterium leprae aos fármacos. Homens de países norte e sul-americanos e asiáticos foram os mais atingidos por episódios de resistência. A resistência medicamentosa é uma das principais causas de recidivas em hanseníase. O principal fármaco causador de resistência medicamentosa descrito nos trabalhos foi a dapsona (46,6%) e a maioria das alterações genéticas encontradas estão no gene rpoB; 23,2% dos registros relatados foram de resistência secundária aos fármacos e, também, sete casos de resistência múltipla a esses medicamentos. Conclusão: Os principais aspectos da resistência medicamentosa na hanseníase são os equívocos ao ingerir os medicamentos e as alterações genéticas na bactéria. Os impactos causados estão na dificuldade de refazer o tratamento, a possibilidade de nova transmissão e o aparecimento de sintomas mais graves.


Introduction: The diagnosis of leprosy has significant numbers causing public health concern. Reports of drug resistance in this disease begun in the mid-1960s and due to this problem, the World Health Organization instituted a multidrug therapy with rifampicin, dapsone, and clofazimine antibiotic association in 1981, which is currently the first-choice treatment for leprosy. Cases of drug resistance have been reported in literature, revealing an obstacle to the eradication of the disease. This paper has the purpose of presenting the key aspects and impacts of drug resistance in the treatment for leprosy. Methods: Systematic review of the drug resistance aspects using exploratory research as an approach methodology. The authors searched the terms drug resistance, leprosy, recurrence, genetic alterations, and the Boolean operators "and" and "or" between them. Results and discussion: The difficulty in taking the medication correctly was one of the key factors that led to drug resistance for Mycobacterium leprae. Men from North and South American, as well as from Asian countries, were the most affected by episodes of resistance. Drug resistance is one of the main causes of leprosy recurrences. Dapsone was the most frequently identified drug resistance in the studies (46.6%), while most of the genetic alterations were found in the rpoB gene; 23.2% of the cases were from secondary resistance episodes, and seven cases of multiple resistance were reported. Conclusion: The misconceptions when taking the treatment and the Mycobacterium leprae genetic alterations have been described as the key aspects of drugs resistance in leprosy and the impacts caused are the difficulty in redoing the treatment, the possibility of new transmission, and the appearance of more severe symptoms.


Subject(s)
Drug Resistance/drug effects , Drug Resistance, Bacterial/drug effects , Mycobacterium leprae/drug effects , Rifampin/adverse effects , Bacteria/genetics , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Clofazimine/adverse effects , Fluoroquinolones/adverse effects , Dapsone/adverse effects , Drug Therapy, Combination/adverse effects , Leprosy/drug therapy , Anti-Bacterial Agents/adverse effects
16.
Semina cienc. biol. saude ; 42(1): 15-28, jan./jun. 2021. Tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1247807

ABSTRACT

O objetivo desse trabalho foi determinar a prevalência e o perfil de sensibilidade das espécies bacterianas isoladas de pacientes internados na Unidade de Terapia Intensiva (UTI) de um hospital universitário do Sertão de Pernambuco. Foi realizado um estudo retrospectivo através da análise descritiva dos resultados do diagnóstico microbiológico laboratorial do próprio serviço, provenientes de hemoculturas, uroculturas e aspirados traqueais dos pacientes internados na UTI, durante o período de janeiro a junho de 2019. No total, 394 amostras clínicas foram obtidas, divididas entre hemoculturas, uroculturas e aspirados traqueais; destas, 144 foram positivas para espécies bacterianas. O aspirado traqueal foi o material clínico com maior percentual de culturas positivas (67,4%). A bactéria mais prevalente isolada dos indivíduos na UTI foi Acinetobacter baumannii (22,9%), seguida de Pseudomonas aeruginosa (19,2%), Staphylococcus aureus (16,7%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (15,2%) e Staphylococcus coagulase negativa (SCN- 8,3%). A maioria das espécies isoladas apresentou um perfil de sensibilidade reduzido aos fármacos beta-lactâmicos, especialmente ampicilina, penicilina e carbapênemicos, independente da amostra clínica. Os bacilos Gram-negativos (BGN) apresentaram elevada sensibilidade à colistina. As informações deste estudo permitem reconhecer a frequência das espécies de bactérias mais isoladas envolvidas em infecções relacionadas à assistência à saúde (IRAS) na UTI e poderão nortear o tratamento das infecções e diminuir a pressão seletiva de bactérias multirresistentes, servindo como modelo assistencial na vigilância, bem como no controle das IRAS.(AU)


The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and sensitivity profile of bacterial species isolated from patients admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) of a university hospital in Hinterland of Pernambuco. A retrospective study was carried out through the descriptive analysis of the results at the microbiological laboratory diagnosis of the service itself, from blood cultures, urine cultures and tracheal aspirates of patients admitted to the ICU, during the period from January to June 2019. A total of 394 clinical samples were obtained, divided between blood cultures, urocultures and tracheal aspirates, of which 144 were positive for bacterial species. Tracheal aspirate was the clinical material with the highest percentage of positive cultures (67.4%). The most prevalent bacterium isolated from individuals in the ICU was Acinetobacter baumannii (22.9%), followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (19.2%), Staphylococcus aureus (16.7%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (15.2%) and Staphylococcus coagulase-negative (SCN- 8.3%). Most isolated species showed a reduced sensitivity profile to betalactam drugs, especially ampicillin, penicillin and carbapenems, regardless of the clinical sample. Gram-negative bacilli (GNB) were highly sensitive to colistin. The information in this study allows us to recognize the frequency of the most isolated bacterial species involved in healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) in the ICU and may guide the treatment of infections and reduce the selective pressure of multiresistant bacteria, serving as an assistance model in surveillance as well as in the control of HAIs. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Patients , Bacteria , Hospitals, University , Inpatients , Intensive Care Units , Universities
17.
Semina cienc. biol. saude ; 42(1): 103-112, jan./jun. 2021. Ilus, Tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1247950

ABSTRACT

O glifosato é um herbicida amplamente utilizado. A Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS) reclassificou o glifosato como "provavelmente cancerígeno a humanos". A remoção do glifosato do ambiente pode ser realizada por ação enzimática microbiana. O presente trabalho enfocou o isolamento de microrganismos do solo capazes de tolerar glifosato como única fonte de carbono. As células foram isoladas em meio de cultivo mínimo suplementado com glifosato. Foram isoladas 17 bactérias, 14 fungos e 1 levedura. Foi verificada a produção da biomassa microbiana na presença e na ausência do glifosato. Um fungo (F3) e uma levedura (L1) foram selecionados após teste de tolerância ao glifosato em meio líquido. Os microrganismos toleraram o glifosato, entretanto, o metabolismo foi afetado pelo herbicida, comparado ao controle sem glifosato. Estatisticamente, o tempo de crescimento apresentou diferenças significativas. Microrganismos eucarióticos isolados de solo com glifosato são tolerantes ao composto e podem ser úteis como biorremediadores de ambientes afetados por este herbicida.(AU)


Glyphosate is one of the most widely used herbicides. The World Health Organization (WHO) has reclassified glyphosate as "probably carcinogenic to humans". Glyphosate removal from the environment can be performed by microbial enzymatic action. The present work focused on the isolation of soil microorganisms that can tolerate glyphosate as the sole carbon source. Cells were isolated in minimal culture medium supplemented with glyphosate. Microbial biomass production was verified in the presence and absence of glyphosate. Seventeen, fourteen and one bacteria, fungi and yeast were isolated, respectively. One fungus (F3) and one yeast (L1), were selected after glyphosate tolerance test in liquid medium. Eukaryotic microorganisms tolerate glyphosate, however metabolism was affected by herbicide compared to control without glyphosate. Statistically growth time showed significant differences. Eukaryotic microorganisms isolated from soil with glyphosate are tolerant to the compound and may be useful as bioremediators of environments affected by this herbicide.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Eukaryota , Herbicides , Soil , Bacteria
18.
Electron J Biotechnol ; 49: 34-41, Jan. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1291638

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This work studied how the exposure to an unusual substrate forced a change in microbial populations during anaerobic fermentation of crude glycerol, a by-product of biodiesel production, with freshwater sediment used as an inoculum. RESULTS: The microbial associations almost completely (99.9%) utilized the glycerol contained in crude glycerol 6 g L 1 within four days, releasing gases, organic acids (acetic, butyric) and alcohols (ethanol, n-butanol) under anaerobic conditions. In comparison with control medium without glycerol, adding crude glycerol to the medium increased the amount of ethanol and n-butanol production and it was not significantly affected by incubation temperature (28 C or 37 C), nor incubation time (4 or 8 d), but it resulted in reduced amount of butyric acid. Higher volume of gas was produced at 37 C despite the fact that the overall bacterial count was smaller than the one measured at 20 C. Main microbial phyla of the inoculum were Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria and Firmicutes. During fermentation, significant changes were observed and Firmicutes, especially Clostridium spp., began to dominate, and the number of Actinobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria decreased accordingly. Concentration of Archaea decreased, especially in medium with crude glycerol. These changes were confirmed both by culturing and culture-independent (concentration of 16S rDNA) methods. CONCLUSIONS: Crude glycerol led to the adaptation of freshwater sediment microbial populations to this substrate. Changes of microbial community were a result of a community adaptation to a new source of carbon.


Subject(s)
Bacteria/isolation & purification , Geologic Sediments/microbiology , Fresh Water/microbiology , Glycerol/metabolism , Bacteria/metabolism , Adaptation, Biological , Biofuels , Fermentation , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Anaerobiosis
19.
São Paulo; SES/SP; 2021. 44 p. ilus.
Monography in Portuguese | LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP, SESSP-SUCENPROD, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1151869

ABSTRACT

A Febre Maculosa Brasileira (FMB) é uma Doença de notificação compulsória, causa pela bactéria Rickettsia rickettsi, sendo transmitida por carrapato da espécie Amblyomma. É doença aguda, com curso variável, que pode ocorrer com formas leves ou graves, com alta taxa de letalidade. A dificuldade no diagnóstico oportuno por deficiência no atendimento e ausência de esclarecimentos da população em áreas de transmissão, pode ser a causa da alta letalidade. O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar os materiais das campanhas de mobilização deste tema nos anos de 2017 a 2019, na Região Metropolitana de São Paulo (RMSP), área de relevância epidemiológica para FMB. A expectativa do estudo foi de ampliar o potencial educativo das campanhas direcionadas ao tema. O campo da pesquisa qualitativa utilizado para a avaliação dos materiais utilizou o método de Rubrica, que permitiu a avaliação dos materiais utilizados nas campanhas onde foi possível, identificar, classificar, pontuar e analisar os elementos identificados. Foram observados vários aspectos: público, conteúdo, cor, som, imagem, diagramação e o posicionamento profissional e ético dos conteúdos. Os critérios de classificação consideraram o grau de satisfação (insatisfatório, parcialmente satisfatório, satisfatório e excepcionalmente satisfatório). O método de avaliação por Rubrica mostrou-se adequado aos elementos avaliados, demonstrando resultados onde grande parte dos materiais foram considerados satisfatórios. Indicaram ainda que não houve material classificado como insatisfatório. Sugere-se que isto ocorreu em razão do envolvimento de profissionais de saúde na elaboração de conteúdos e materiais. Os resultados contribuíram para possível redirecionamento das campanhas de mobilização sobre a FMB na RMSP e poderão ser estendidas para avaliação de outros materiais educativos envolvidos em outras campanhas sobre outros temas de saúde. Faz-se necessário uma ponderação e adequação dos materiais técnicos visando a apropriação de informações e recomendações por parte da população, uma vez que especialistas afirmam que os anúncios com um fraco apelo visual e de conteúdos técnicos não atingem bons resultados de apreensão da informação.


Subject(s)
Bacteria , Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever , Health Personnel
20.
Frontiers of Medicine ; (4): 11-32, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880942

ABSTRACT

The huge communities of microorganisms that symbiotically colonize humans are recognized as significant players in health and disease. The human microbiome may influence prostate cancer development. To date, several studies have focused on the effect of prostate infections as well as the composition of the human microbiome in relation to prostate cancer risk. Current studies suggest that the microbiota of men with prostate cancer significantly differs from that of healthy men, demonstrating that certain bacteria could be associated with cancer development as well as altered responses to treatment. In healthy individuals, the microbiome plays a crucial role in the maintenance of homeostasis of body metabolism. Dysbiosis may contribute to the emergence of health problems, including malignancy through affecting systemic immune responses and creating systemic inflammation, and changing serum hormone levels. In this review, we discuss recent data about how the microbes colonizing different parts of the human body including urinary tract, gastrointestinal tract, oral cavity, and skin might affect the risk of developing prostate cancer. Furthermore, we discuss strategies to target the microbiome for risk assessment, prevention, and treatment of prostate cancer.


Subject(s)
Bacteria , Dysbiosis , Humans , Male , Microbiota , Prostatic Neoplasms/prevention & control
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