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1.
Rev. Ciênc. Plur ; 10 (1) 2024;10(1): 31411, 2024 abr. 30. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1553424

ABSTRACT

Introdução:A internação representa um impacto considerável na vida de qualquer pessoa, podendo tomar proporções ainda maiores quando se trata de uma criança. A impossibilidade de realizar sua rotina, como brincar e ir à escola, faz com que a internação infantil assuma um contexto marcante.Dito isso, nota-se que grande parte dessas internações é evitável, sendo denominadasde Internações por Condições Sensíveis à Atenção Primária. Dessa forma, o atendimento ambulatorial de qualidade poderia resolver a maioria das enfermidades infantis, evitando esse desfecho.Objetivo:Elaborar um perfil epidemiológico de internações por doenças infecciosas e bacterianas mais prevalentes em menores de 5 anos, de 2017 a 2021, no Brasil. Metodologia:A pesquisa em questão se trata de um estudo ecológico de série temporal,elaborado através de informações coletadas por vias secundárias.Os dados foram coletados na plataforma DataSUS e no Sistema de Informação Hospitalar. Posteriormente, os dados foram processados e armazenados no aplicativo Microsoft Excel®, onde foram tratados e selecionados de acordo com sua relevância para a pesquisa. Resultados:Constata-se que a faixa etária situadaabaixo do primeiro ano de vidaapresenta um grau de hospitalização superior ao dascrianças que vãodo primeiro ao quarto ano completo.Quanto àfrequência relativa, depreende-se que diarreia e gastroenterite de origem infecciosa presumível apresentaram o maior índice de prevalência em relação às demais patologias, com o maior número chegando a 23,8% no ano de 2017 e o menor situando-se na faixa de 13,22% em 2020. Conclusões: Apesar do avanço na Atenção Primária à Saúde e da cobertura pré-natal, a assistência ainda é deficitária, sendo necessários mais investimentos na área e o fomento de políticas públicas que abranjam essa população (AU).


Introduction: Hospitalization represents a considerable impact on the life of any person, and can even take on even greater proportions when it comes to a child. The impossibility of realizing their routine, such as playing and going to school, means that hospitalization during childhood takes ona remarkable context. That said, it is noted that mostofthese hospitalizations are avoidable,and are called Ambulatory Care Sensitive Conditions. Thus, quality ambulatory care could solve most childhood illnesses, avoiding this outcome.Objective:To elaborate an epidemiological profile of hospitalizations for the most prevalent infectious and bacterial diseases in children under 5 years of age,from 2017 to 2021,in Brazil. Methodology: The research in question is an ecological study of time series, elaborated through information collected through secondary data sources. Data were collected from the DataSUS platform and the Hospital Information System. Subsequently, data were processed and stored in Microsoft Excel® application, where they were managedand selected according to their relevance to the research. Results:It is observed that the age group below the first year of life presents a higher degree of hospitalization thanthat of children ranging from the first to the fourth year. As for the relative frequency, it can be seen that diarrhea and gastroenteritis of presumable infectious origin had the highest prevalence rate compared to other pathologies, with the highest number reaching 23.8% in 2017 and the lowest being in the range of 13.22% in 2020. Conclusions: Despite the advances in Primary Health Care and prenatal coverage, assistance is still deficient, requiring more investments in the area and the promotion of public policies that cover this population (AU).


Introducción: La hospitalización representa un impacto considerable en la vida de cualquier persona, quepuede adquirir proporciones aún mayores cuando se trata de un niño. La imposibilidadde realizar su rutina, como jugar e ir al colegio, hace que la hospitalización infantiltengaun contexto notable. Dicho esto, cabe señalar que una gran parte de estas hospitalizaciones son evitables, denominándose Hospitalizaciones por Condiciones Sensibles a la Atención Ambulatoria. Así pues, una atención ambulatoria de calidad podría resolver la mayoría de las enfermedades infantiles, evitando este desenlace. Objetivo: Elaborar un perfil epidemiológico de las hospitalizaciones por enfermedades infecciosas y bacterianas más prevalentes en niños menores de 5 años, de 2017 a 2021, en Brasil. Metodología: La investigación en cuestión es un estudio ecológico de series temporales, elaborado a partir de información recogida por vías secundarias. Los datos se recogieron de la plataforma DataSUS y del Sistema de Información Hospitalaria. Posteriormente, los datos se procesaron y almacenaron en la aplicación Microsoft Excel®, donde se trataron y seleccionaron en función de su relevancia para la investigación. Resultados: Se observa que el grupo de edad inferior al primer año de vida presenta un mayor grado de hospitalización que los niños del primero al cuarto año completo. En cuanto a la frecuencia relativa, se puede inferirque la diarreay lagastroenteritis presumible origen infeccioso tuvieron la tasa de prevalencia más alta en relación con las demáspatologías, siendola cifra más alto el 23,8% en 2017 y lamás bajael rango del 13,22% en el 2020. Conclusiones: A pesar de los avances en la Atención Primariade Salud y en la cobertura prenatal, la asistencia aún es deficiente, por lo que se requieren mayoresinversiones en el área y la promoción de políticas públicas que cubran a esta población (AU).


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Child, Preschool , Bacterial Infections/pathology , Health Profile , Child Health , Communicable Diseases/pathology , Primary Health Care , Respiratory Tract Diseases , Morbidity , Ecological Studies , Hospitalization
2.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UNISALUD, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1560681

ABSTRACT

Las resistencias bacterianas a antimicrobianos representan uno de los principales problemas en la actualidad, encontrándose dentro de las principales causas de muerte en todo el mundo. Latinoamérica y Argentina, lejos de ser una excepción,presentan incidencias crecientes de infecciones por gérmenes resistentes. Cada día, se conocen mejor los mecanismos de resistencia que presentan los bacilos gram negativos y algunos cocos positivos. El problema no surge sólo por el sobreuso de antimicrobianos en la medicina clínica. Su sobreutilización para maximizar los beneficios productivos en la pesca, la ganadería y la agricultura contribuyen a esta situación. Desde la perspectiva de la atención primaria de la salud,consideramos fundamental conocer todos los aspectos que forman parte de esta problemática para intentar mitigar el daño que las resistencias bacterianas generan a nivel global. Argentina se transformó en el primer país de la región y del continente en contar con una ley para prevenir y controlar la resistencia a los Antimicrobianos. Consideramos de vital importancia que se fomenten más y mejores políticas sanitarias de orden público para enfrentar este creciente desafío. (AU)


Nowadays, bacterial resistance to antimicrobials is one of the main problems, being one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Latin America and Argentina, far from being an exception, have an increasing incidence of infections by resistant germs. Every day, the resistance mechanisms of gram-negative bacilli and some positive cocci are better known. The problem does not arise only because of the overuse of antimicrobials in clinical medicine. Its overuse to maximize productive benefits in fishing, livestock, and agriculture also contributes to this issue. From the perspective of primary health care,it is essential to know all the aspects of this problem to mitigate the damage that bacterial resistance generates at a global level. Argentina became the first country in the region and the continent to have a law to prevent and control antimicrobial resistance. We consider it vitally important that more and better public health policies are promoted to face this growing challenge. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Bacterial Infections/prevention & control , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Hand Disinfection , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Drug Therapy/methods , Prescription Drug Misuse , Anti-Infective Agents/history
3.
Afr. J. Clin. Exp. Microbiol ; 25(2): 120-123, 2024. figures, tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1555552

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 pandemic changed the face of global health and brought about new issues in global health security and economy. The World Health Organization published guidelines for clinical management of COVID-19 four months after declaration of COVID-19 as a pandemic. Scholarly reviews and studies from member states within WHO AFRO reveals significant deviation from the WHO published protocols on COVID-19. Assessment of national treatment protocols of 30 of 47 WHO AFRO member states showed widespread inappropriate use of antimicrobial agents for patients, which may worsen the global and concerning threat of antimicrobial resistance. There is need for adopting interventions that optimize antimicrobial use in the context of pre- and post-pandemic preparedness to ensure long-term effectiveness and sustainability for antimicrobials. Treatment guidelines are to be adopted or adapted depending on best clinical evidence available. Non-compliance with guidelines might lead to mismanagement of infectious diseases with attendant negative consequences including antimicrobial resistance and misdirection of critical resources and supplies amongst others.


La pandémie de COVID-19 a changé le visage de la santé mondiale et a soulevé de nouveaux problèmes en matière de sécurité sanitaire et d'économie mondiale. L'Organisation mondiale de la santé a publié des lignes directrices pour la gestion clinique du COVID-19 quatre mois après la déclaration du COVID-19 comme pandémie. Les revues scientifiques et les études des États membres de l'OMS AFRO révèlent un écart significatif par rapport aux protocoles publiés par l'OMS sur le COVID-19. L'évaluation des protocoles nationaux de traitement de 30 des 47 États membres de l'OMS AFRO a révélé une utilisation inappropriée et généralisée d'agents antimicrobiens chez les patients, ce qui pourrait aggraver la menace mondiale et préoccupante de résistance aux antimicrobiens. Il est nécessaire d'adopter des interventions qui optimisent l'utilisation des antimicrobiens dans le contexte de la préparation pré et post-pandémique afin de garantir l'efficacité et la durabilité à long terme des antimicrobiens. Les directives thérapeutiques doivent être adoptées ou adaptées en fonction des meilleures preuves cliniques disponibles. Le non-respect des directives pourrait conduire à une mauvaise gestion des maladies infectieuses avec des conséquences négatives qui en découlent, notamment la résistance aux antimicrobiens et une mauvaise orientation des ressources et fournitures essentielles, entre autres.


Subject(s)
Therapeutics , Clinical Protocols , COVID-19 , Bacterial Infections , Guideline Adherence , Pandemics
4.
Revista Digital de Postgrado ; 12(3): 375, dic. 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1532384

ABSTRACT

En la actualidad Venezuela se encuentra en una crisis social y económica sin precedentes. La mortalidad materna(MM) es un indicador en salud importante, debido a que permite tener idea de la atención médica de un país; se mide a través de dos indicadores: Razón de Mortalidad Materna (RMM) y Tasa de Mortalidad Materna (TMM). Objetivo: Revisar y compararla evolución de ambos indicadores de MM desde la década de 1930 hasta la década 2000. Métodos: Se realizó una revisión de la literatura y de informes técnicos de organismos gubernamentales y no gubernamentales para el análisis de la situación previa y reciente de esta situación en Venezuela. Los resultados señalan que existe una notable disminución de las cifras de MM como ha de esperarse con el mejoramiento de la tecnología desde la década de 1930 hasta el año 2000; posteriormente ocurre un retroceso de la sanidad pública con cifras comparables a la década de 1960. Concluimos que la MM ha sido desde tiempos pasados un problema constante en la salud pública; al pasar los años y gobiernos, se han implementado numerosas políticas públicas para mejorar esta situación, muchas de estas estrategias han sido fallidas debido a la falta de su continuidad y de su cumplimiento pleno.


Venezuela is currently in an unprecedented socialand economic crisis. Maternal mortality is an important health indicator because it provides an idea of a country's medical care. Maternal mortality is usually measured through two indicators: Maternal Mortality Ratio (MMR) and Maternal Mortality Rate. Objective: Review and compare the evolution of both healthindicators from the 1930s to 2016. Methods: A review of the literature and technical reports from governmental andnon-governmental organizations was carried out to analyze theprevious and recent situation. of this situation in Venezuela. Theresults indicate that there is a notable decrease in the figures ofmaternal mortality, as should be expected with the improvementof technology from the 1930s to the year 2000. Subsequently, there is a decline in public health with figures comparable to the1960s. We conclude that maternal mortality has been a constant problem in public health since ancient times. Over the years and governments, numerous public policies have been implementedto improve this situation. Many of these strategies have beenfailed due to lack of continuity and in the absence of its full compliance.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications/mortality , Pregnancy Complications/prevention & control , Public Policy , Maternal Mortality , Maternal Death , Prenatal Care , Bacterial Infections/complications , Hospital Mortality , Delivery of Health Care
5.
Prensa méd. argent ; 109(5): 182-192, 20230000.
Article in English | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1523555

ABSTRACT

Las biopsias en el campo de la ortopedia se utilizan para guiar las opciones de diagnóstico y tratamiento para el proceso de la enfermedad que puede estar ocurriendo. La preparación de la piel de estas biopsias sigue la preparación estándar para un procedimiento quirúrgico, con el objetivo de disminuir la cantidad de microbiota que podría conducir a la contaminación del tejido de la biopsia e incluso a una posible infección. El tejido obtenido de la biopsia a menudo se somete a un studio histopatológico y cultivo. La tasa de contaminación bacteriana informada es aproximadamente inferior al 4%. Esta revisión cuestiona si las muestras de las biopsias se contaminan con la microbiota que permanece en la piel y cómo puede afectar el manejo. Además, qué técnicas o pasos pueden disminuir la tasa de contaminación al realizar una biopsia. Nuestra revisión bibliográfica identificó pocos estudios sobre la contaminación bacteriana de las biopsias. Identificamos diferentes factores implicados en el conocimiento de la microbiota de la piel: técnicas y soluciones de preparación de la piel, variación de la microbiota típica que coloniza la piel según la región anatómica, retención preoperatoria versus administración profiláctica de antibióticos y uso de diferentes hojas de bisturí para la piel superficial y para tejidos profundos, entre otros. Aunque no pudimos identificar ningún dato que proporcionara respuestas a nuestra pregunta original y cuantificar cada factor individualmente, la mayoría de los estudios en diferentes campos ortopédicos proporcionaron hallazgos significativos hasta cierto punto. Describimos algunas recomendaciones prácticas basadas en el consenso y la efectividad teórica para disminuir la tasa de contaminación. Se necesitan más investigaciones en el campo de la ortopedia que impliquen la contaminación por microbiota de la piel de una biopsia


Biopsies in the field of orthopaedics are used to guide diagnostics and treatment options for the disease process that may be occurring such as a tumor or infection. Skin preparation of these biopsies follows the standard skin preparation for a surgical procedure, with the aim to decrease the amount of microbiota that could lead to contamination of the tissue biopsy and even possible infection. The tissue obtained from the biopsy often undergoes pathology and culture. The reported bacterial contamination rate is roughly below 4%. This review questions how samples from the biopsies are getting contaminated by microbiota that remains on the skin and how it affects infection management. In addition, which techniques or steps can decrease the rate of contamination when performing a biopsy. Our review identified little to no data on investigating bacterial contamination of biopsies. In doing this, the review identified different factors implicated in skin microbiota awareness: skin preparation techniques and solutions, variation of typical microbiota that colonize the skin based on the anatomical region, preoperative withholding versus administrating antibiotics prophylactically and using different scalpel blades for superficial and deep incisions, among others. Although we failed to identify any data that provided answers to our original question and quantify each factor individually, most studies in different orthopaedic fields provided significant findings to some extent. We outline some practical recommendations based on consensus and theoretical effectiveness in decreasing the contamination rate. Further research entailing skin microbiota contamination of a biopsy is needed in the field of orthopaedics.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Orthopedics , Bacterial Infections/prevention & control , Antisepsis/methods , Microbiota/immunology , Biopsy
6.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 40(5): 529-536, oct. 2023. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1521861

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: Las infecciones bacterianas en trasplante hepático (TH) son una de las principales causas de morbimortalidad. OBJETIVO: Caracterizar las complicaciones infecciosas bacterianas en el primer mes postrasplante. Pacientes y MÉTODOS: Estudio retrospectivo entre los años 2009-2020. RESULTADOS: 225 pacientes recibieron un TH. 80 (35,5%) desarrollaron al menos un episodio de infección bacteriana en el primer mes postrasplante hepático. Hubo 105 episodios de infección bacteriana con una incidencia de 46,6%. El foco más frecuente fue el abdominal (48,6%) y el microorganismo predominante fue Klebsiella spp. De los 104 aislamientos, el 57,6% presentaron un perfil MDR/XDR. Los pacientes que desarrollaron una complicación infecciosa presentaron menor sobrevida al alta hospitalaria en comparación con los que no la presentaron 87,5 versus 94,5% [OR 4,18 (IC 95%: 1,5-11,6)]. En el análisis multivariado la reintervención quirúrgica precoz [OR 4,286 (IC 95%: 1,911-9,61)], mostró un riesgo significativo de desarrollar una complicación infecciosa bacteriana en el primer mes postrasplante. CONCLUSIONES: Tres de cada 10 pacientes presentaron una infección bacteriana en el primer mes postrasplante con una alta incidencia de bacilos gramnegativos MDR/XDR. Los pacientes que desarrollaron una complicación infecciosa presentaron una menor sobrevida al alta. La reintervención quirúrgica precoz se identificó como un factor predisponente de infección temprana.


BACKGROUND: Bacterial infections are one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality in liver transplant recipients (LT). Aim: To characterize bacterial infectious complications in the first month an after a liver transplant. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of a cohort of liver transplant recipients who presented at least one bacterial infectious complication in the first month after transplant between 2009 and 2020. RESULTS: 225 patients were analyzed. 80 (35.5%) had a least one documented bacterial infection during the first month after transplant. 105 bacterial infections were documented, with an incidence of 46.6%. The most frequent origin was intra-abdominal (48.6%) and the predominant isolated microorganism was Klebsiella spp. Among 104 isolated microorganisms 57.6% showed MDR/XDR profile. Patients who developed a bacterial infectious complication had a shorter overall survival (OS) after discharge from hospital (87.5% vs 94.5%) [OR 4.18 (IC 95%: 1.5-11,6)]. When multivariate analysis of predisposing factors was performed early surgical reoperation was the only variable associated with an increased risk of developing a bacterial complication in the first month [OR 4.286 (IC 95%: 1.911-9.61)]. CONCLUSIONS: Three out of 10 patients developed a bacterial infectious complication during the first month after liver transplant with a high incidence of gram-negative bacillus MDR/XDR. Patients who presented infectious complications had a shorter OS after discharge, and early reoperation was identified as a predisposing factor of early infectious complications.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Bacterial Infections/mortality , Liver Transplantation/adverse effects , Prognosis , Bacteria/isolation & purification , Bacterial Infections/etiology , Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Uruguay/epidemiology , Multivariate Analysis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
7.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 40(3): 203-212., jun. 2023. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1515120

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN: El aumento de la resistencia y la escasez de nuevos antibacterianos ha requerido la reintroducción de antiguos antimicrobianos entre ellos colistín. OBJETIVO: Caracterizar la utilización de colistín durante el año 2017 en un hospital universitario, mediante la descripción de los pacientes, los tratamientos, la microbiología asociada y efectos adversos. PACIENTES Y MÉTODOS: Trabajo observacional retrospectivo. Se revisaron los datos de todos los pacientes que recibieron colistín intravenoso (IV) por al menos 48 horas, durante el año 2017. RESULTADOS: Se incluyeron 53 pacientes, equivalentes a 91 tratamientos. El foco respiratorio fue el principal (46,2%). El 68,1% de los tratamientos fue iniciado en la UCI. La mayoría de los pacientes tenía una hospitalización reciente (83,5%), y presentaban uso previo de antibacterianos (89%). Los dos patógenos mayoritariamente identificados fueron Pseudomonas aeruginosa y Klebsiella spp. El consumo promedio de colistín fue de 2,4 DDD/100 camas/día. El servicio que más consumió colistín fue la UCI, con 45,5 DDD/100 camas/día, usando generalmente la dosis de 3 MUI cada 8 horas IV y con una baja utilización de dosis de carga. CONCLUSIÓN: Colistín corresponde a un antimicrobiano de uso restringido a infecciones sospechadas o confirmadas por agentes bacterianos multi resistentes. En esta serie, su uso inicial fue principalmente empírico, en pacientes con factores de riesgo para resistencia antibacteriana; se usó en forma asociada a otros antimicrobianos, siendo el foco principal el respiratorio.


BACKGROUND: The increase in resistance and the shortage of new antibiotics has led to the reintroduction of old antimicrobials such as colistin. AIM: To evaluate the use of colistin during 2017 in a university hospital, through the characterization of patients and treatment, associated microbiology, response to treatment and adverse effects. METHODS: Retrospective observational design. The data of all patients who received colistin for at least 48 hours during the year 2017 were reviewed. RESULTS: 55 patients were included, equivalent to 144 treatments. The respiratory focus was the main one (57.9%). 64% of the treatments began in the ICU, while 7% in the ward. Most of the patients has a recent hospitalization (86.8%) and has previous use of antibiotics (90.4%). The two main pathogens identified were Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella spp. In 87.1% of the cases with microbiological justifications for the use of colistin, a favorable response was obtained. The average consumption of colistin was 2.4 DDD/100 beds/day. The department that consumed the most colistin was the ICU, with 45,5 DDD/100 beds/day, generally using a dose of 3 MIU every 8 hours IV and with low use of loading doses. CONCLUSION: Colistin corresponds to an antibiotic whose use is restricted to infections suspected or confirmed by multi-resistant bacterial agents. Its initial use in this serie was mainly empirical, in patients with risk factors for antibiotics resistance, it was used in association with other antimicrobials, being the respiratory the main infectious focus.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Colistin/administration & dosage , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/isolation & purification , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/drug effects , Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Colistin/adverse effects , Administration, Intravenous , Klebsiella/isolation & purification , Klebsiella/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/adverse effects
8.
Cambios rev. méd ; 22(1): 905, 30 Junio 2023. tabs., grafs.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1451755

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN. La paradoja de la obesidad propone que, en determinadas enfermedades, los enfermos con obesidad tienen menor mortalidad. OBJETIVO. Asociar el índice de masa corporal con la mortalidad a 30 días en adultos con choque séptico. MATERIALES Y MÉTODOS. Estudio observacional, analítico, retrospectivo, multicéntrico. Se analizaron 673 pacientes con choque séptico, ingresados en terapia intensiva de dos hospitales de la ciudad de la ciudad de Quito ­ Ecuador, durante enero 2017 - diciembre 2019. Criterios de inclusión: Mayores a 18 años, choque séptico, registro de peso, talla y condición vital al día 30. Criterios de exclusión: Orden de no reanimación, embarazadas, protocolo de donación de órganos, cuidados paliativos. Las variables se recolectaron a partir de las historias clínicas digitales y físicas de los centros participantes. Las estimaciones de riesgo calculadas se presentaron como OR (Odds Ratio) en el análisis bivariado y OR Adj (OR ajustado) para el análisis multivariado. Un valor de p <0.05 se consideró estadísticamente significativo. Todos los análisis estadísticos se realizaron usando el software estadístico R® (Versión 4.1.2). RESULTADOS. La edad promedio fue de 65 años, índice de masa corporal promedio 25,9 Kg/m2 (+4,9 Kg/m2). El 54,3% tuvo índice de masa corporal > 25 Kg/m2. La mortalidad general fue 49.2%. Sujetos con sobrepeso y obesidad tuvieron menor mortalidad, OR: 0,48 (IC 95%: 0.34, 0.68; p <0.0001) y OR 0.45 (IC 95 %: 0.28, 0.70; p =0.001) respectivamente, con similar tendencia en el análisis multivariado. Los sujetos con peso bajo tuvieron la mayor mortalidad (OR: 2.12. IC 95%: 0.91 - 5.54. p: 0.097). DISCUSIÓN. Los resultados obtenidos apoyan la teoría de paradoja de obesidad, sin embargo, no se realizó evaluación según los niveles de obesidad. CONCLUSIÓN. La mortalidad en choque séptico es menor en sujetos con sobrepeso y obesidad comparada con sujetos con peso normal o bajo peso.


The obesity paradox proposes that, in certain diseases, patients with obesity have lower mortality. OBJECTIVE. To associate body mass index with 30-day mortality in adults with septic shock. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Observational, analytical, retrospective, multicenter, retrospective study. We analyzed 673 patients with septic shock, admitted to intensive care in two hospitals in the city of Quito - Ecuador, during January 2017 - December 2019. Inclusion criteria: older than 18 years, septic shock, weight, height and vital condition at day 30. Exclusion criteria: Do not resuscitate order, pregnant women, organ donation protocol, palliative care. Variables were collected from the digital and physical medical records of the participating centers. Calculated risk estimates were presented as OR (Odds Ratio) in bivariate analysis and OR Adj (adjusted OR) for multivariate analysis. A p value <0.05 was considered statistically significant. All statistical analyses were performed using R® statistical software (Version 4.1.2). RESULTS. The mean age was 65 years, mean body mass index 25.9 kg/m2 (+4.9 kg/m2). Body mass index > 25 kg/m2 was 54.3%. Overall mortality was 49.2%. Overweight and obese subjects had lower mortality, OR: 0.48 (95% CI: 0.34, 0.68; p<0.0001) and OR 0.45 (95 % CI: 0.28, 0.70; p=0.001) respectively, with similar trend in multivariate analysis. Underweight subjects had the highest mortality (OR: 2.12. 95% CI: 0.91 - 5.54. p: 0.097). DISCUSSION. The results obtained support the obesity paradox theory, however, assessment according to obesity levels was not performed. CONCLUSIONS. Mortality in septic shock is lower in overweight and obese subjects compared to normal weight or underweight subjects.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Shock, Septic , Body Mass Index , Mortality , Critical Care , Focal Infection , Obesity , Bacterial Infections , Vasoconstrictor Agents , Tertiary Healthcare , APACHE , Ecuador , Overweight , Organ Dysfunction Scores , Protective Factors , Obesity Paradox , Intensive Care Units
9.
Rev. cienc. salud (Bogotá) ; 21(1): 1-14, ene.-abr. 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1427751

ABSTRACT

Staphylococcus aureus y Staphylococcus epidermidis son los principales agentes etiológicos de las conjuntivitis bacterianas, que al tratarse con antibióticos de manera empírica, incrementan la resistencia antimicrobiana después de exposiciones repetidas. Se están buscando alternativas naturales para el tratamiento de infecciones bacterianas autolimitadas de la conjuntiva. Objetivo: determinar la actividad antimicrobiana de ocho extractos de las plantas frente a bacterias aisladas de pacientes con conjuntivitis bacterianas. Materiales y métodos: se tomaron muestras de 15 pacientes con conjuntivitis bacterianas. Se cultivaron en agar sangre y chocolate durante 24 h a 37 °C y se identificaron mediante el sistema automatizado vitek y pruebas de susceptibilidad antimicrobiana por el método de Kirby-Bauer. A cada aislamiento identificado con el género Staphylococcus se le evaluó su susceptibilidad frente a siete extractos: Ocimum basilicum, Sambucus nigra L., Delphinium elatum, Calendula officinalis, Bixa ore-llana (parte aérea y fruto independiente), Clinopodium brownei y Laurus nobilis, con un uso tradicional reportado para el tratamiento de infecciones oculares. Resultados: las bacterias aisladas con más frecuencia fueron S. epidermidis, S. hominis y S. aureus, las cuales presentaron resistencia antimicrobiana a oxacilina, tetraciclinas y eritromicina. Todos los aislamientos fueron inhibidos por los extractos de O. basilicum (cmi: >0.9 mg/mL) y L. nobilis (cmi: hasta 15 mg/mL). Conclusión: los extractos de C. officinalis y D. elatum tuvieron actividad antimicrobiana solo frente a los aislados con mayor sensibilidad antimi-crobiana. Los extractos etanólicos de O. basilicum y L. nobilis pueden ser una alternativa de tratamiento de las infecciones de la conjuntiva.


Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis are the primary etiological agents of bacterial conjunctivitis which are empirically treated with antibiotics. This results in an increase in antimicrobial resistance due to repeated exposure. Currently, natural treatment alternatives are being sought for self-limited bacterial infections of the conjunctiva. Objective: To determine the antimicrobial activity of eight extracts from Colombian plants against bacteria isolated from patients with bacterial conjunctivitis. Materials and methods: Samples were taken from 15 patients with bacterial conjunctivitis which were grown on blood and chocolate agar for 24 h at 37 °C. These samples were identified by the vitek automated system and antimicrobial susceptibility tests by the Kirby Bauer method. Each isolate identified with the genus Staphylococcus was evaluated for susceptibility to the following eight plant extracts of seven plant: Ocimum basilicum (basil), Sambucus nigra L. (elderberry), Delphinium elatum(belladonna), Calendula officinalis (marigold), Bixa orellana (annatto) (aerial part and independent fruit), Clinopodium brownei (pennyroyal), and Laurus nobilis (laurel), with traditional use previously reported for treating eye infections. Results: The most frequently isolated bacteria were S. epidermidis, S. hominis, and S. aureus, which exhibited antimicrobial resistance mainly to oxacillin, tetracyclines, and erythromycin. All isolates were inhibited by O. basilicum extracts (mic > 0.9 mg/mL) and L. nobilis (mic < 15 mg/mL). Conclusion: The extracts of C. officinalis y D. elatum showed antimicrobial activity only against isolates with higher antimicrobial sensitivity. Ethanolic extracts of O. basilicum y L. nobilis can be used as an alternative treatment for infections of the anterior segment of the eye.


Staphylococcus aureus e Staphylococcus epidermidis são os principais agentes etiológicos da conjuntivite bacteriana, estes são tratados empiricamente com antibióticos, causando aumento da resistência antimicrobiana após repetidas exposições aos mesmos. Atualmente, estão sendo estudadas alternativas naturais para o tratamento de infecções bacterianas autolimitadas da conjuntiva. Objetivo: determinar a atividade antimicrobiana de oito extratos de sete vegetais contra bactérias isoladas de pacientes com conjuntivite bacteriana. Materiais e métodos: foram retiradas amostras de 15 pacientes com conjuntivite bacteriana. As amostras foram cultivadas em ágar sangue e ágar chocolate por 24 horas a 37°C e os isolados foram identificados pelo sistema automatizado vitek, além de testes de susce-tibilidade antimicrobiana pelo método Kirby Bauer. Cada isolado identificado como sendo pertencente ao gênero Staphylococcus foi avaliado quanto à suscetibilidade a oito extratos vegetais: Ocimum basili-cum (manjericão), Sambucus nigra L. (sabugueiro), Delphinium elatum (belladona), Calendula officinalis(calêndula), Bixa orellana (urucum; parte aérea e fruto independente), Clinopodium brownei (poejo) e Laurus nobilis (louro), anteriormente relatados como uso tradicional para o tratamento de infecções ocu-lares. Resultados: as bactérias mais frequentemente isoladas foram S. epidermidis, S. hominis e S. aureus, que apresentaram resistência antimicrobiana principalmente à oxacilina, tetraciclinas e eritromicina. Todos os isolados foram inibidos por extratos de O. basilicum (cim: >0,9 mg/mL) e L. nobilis (cim: até 15 mg/mL). Conclusão: os extratos de C. officinalis e D. elatum apresentaram atividade antimicrobiana apenas contra os isolados com maior sensibilidade antimicrobiana. Os extratos etanólicos de O. basilicum e L. nobilis podem ser uma alternativa de tratamento para infecções conjuntivais.


Subject(s)
Humans , Patients , Staphylococcus , Bacteria , Bacterial Infections , Plant Extracts , Eye Infections , Conjunctivitis, Bacterial , Conjunctivitis , Anti-Bacterial Agents
10.
Chinese Critical Care Medicine ; (12): 1327-1330, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010948

ABSTRACT

Bacterial infectious diseases are a class of diseases with specific pathogens. Current studies have shown the important application and signal transduction mechanism of exosomes in bacterial infectious diseases, but the studies are still limited. Therefore, the relationship between exosomes and bacterial infectious diseases should be further explored to provide new diagnosis and treatment ideas for clinicians. This paper reviews the mechanism and prospect of exosomes in bacterial infectious diseases caused by different pathogens. It summarizes the biological characteristics of exosomes. The mechanisms of bacterial infectious diseases, the primary pathways through which exosomes regulate various pathogens, and the modification of exosomes for anti-infection.


Subject(s)
Humans , Exosomes/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Bacterial Infections/metabolism , Communicable Diseases
11.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2867-2873, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007552

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Human neutrophil lipocalin (HNL) has been used extensively to differentiate acute bacterial infection from febrile diseases as a biomarker to reflect the activation of the neutrophil. The serum HNL levels in the adult-onset Still's disease (AOSD) patients with and without infection, as well as the healthy controls (HCs), were analyzed statistically in this study to evaluate the value of HNL for the diagnosis of AOSD.@*METHODS@#A total of 129 AOSD patients were enrolled, from whom blood samples were drawn and the AOSD diagnosis was confirmed through the review of the medical records, where the systemic score, demographic characteristics, clinical manifestations, and laboratory parameters were also collected for the patients; in addition, a total of 40 HCs were recruited among the blood donors from the healthcare center with the relevant information collected. The HNL test was done for the blood samples with the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and the analyses were done for the correlations of HNL with clinical manifestations and diagnostic effectiveness.@*RESULTS@#The serum HNL increased significantly in the patients with only AOSD as compared with that in the HCs (139.76 ± 8.99 ng/mL vs . 55.92 ± 6.12 ng/mL; P  < 0.001). The serum HNL level was correlated with the white blood cell (WBC) count ( r  = 0.335, P  < 0.001), neutrophil count ( r  = 0.334, P  < 0.001), erythrocyte sedimentation rate ( r  = 0.241, P  = 0.022), C-reactive protein ( r  = 0.442, P  < 0.0001), and systemic score ( r  = 0.343, P  < 0.0001) in the AOSD patients significantly. Patients with fever, leukocytosis ≥15,000/mm 3 , and myalgia in the HNL-positive group were observed relatively more than those in the HNL-negative group ( P  = 0.009, P  = 0.023, and P  = 0.007, respectively). HNL was a more sensitive indicator than ferritin and C-reactive protein (CRP) to differentiate the AOSD patients with bacterial infection from AOSD-only patients, and the Youden index was 0.6 for HNL and 0.29 for CRP.@*CONCLUSION@#Serum HNL can be used as a biomarker for the diagnosis of the AOSD, and HNL is also observed to be associated with the disease activity.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Still's Disease, Adult-Onset/diagnosis , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , Neutrophils/metabolism , Clinical Relevance , Biomarkers , Bacterial Infections
12.
Chinese Critical Care Medicine ; (12): 404-408, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982602

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To compare the ability of the step-by-step approach and the lab-score method in early identification of non-bacterial infection in febrile infants with less than 90 days old.@*METHODS@#A prospective study was conducted. The febrile infants with less than 90 days old hospitalized in the department of pediatrics of Xuzhou Central Hospital from August 2019 to November 2021 were enrolled. The basic data of the infants were recorded. The infants with high risk or low risk of bacterial infection was evaluated by the step-by-step approach and the lab-score method, respectively. The step-by-step approach was based on clinical manifestations, age, blood neutrophil absolute value or C-reactive protein (CRP), urine white blood cells, blood venous blood procalcitonin (PCT) or interleukin-6 (IL-6) to gradually assess the high risk or low risk of bacterial infection in infants with fever. The lab-score method was based on the levels of laboratory indicators such as blood PCT, CRP and urine white blood cells, which were assigned different scores to evaluate the high risk or low risk of bacterial infection in febrile infants according to the total score. Using clinical bacterial culture results as the "gold standard", the negative predictive value (NPV), positive predictive value (PPV), negative likelihood ratio, positive likelihood ratio, sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of the two methods were calculated. The consistency of the two evaluation methods was tested by Kappa.@*RESULTS@#A total of 246 patients were enrolled in the analysis, and ultimately confirmed by bacterial culture as non-bacterial infections in 173 cases (70.3%), bacterial infection in 72 cases (29.3%), and unclear in 1 case (0.4%). There were 105 cases with low risk evaluated by the step-by-step approach, and 98 cases (93.3%) were ultimately confirmed as non-bacterial infection; 181 cases with low risk evaluated by the lab-score method, and 140 cases (77.4%) were ultimately confirmed as non-bacterial infection. The consistency of the two evaluation methods was poor (Kappa value = 0.253, P < 0.001). The ability of the step-by-step approach in early identification of non-bacterial infection in febrile infants with less than 90 days old was superior to the lab-score method (NPV: 0.933 vs. 0.773, negative likelihood ratio: 5.835 vs. 1.421), but the sensitivity of the former was lower than that of the latter (0.566 vs. 0.809). The ability of the step-by-step approach in early identification of bacterial infection in febrile infants with less than 90 days old was similar to the lab-score method (PPV: 0.464 vs. 0.484, positive likelihood ratio: 0.481 vs. 0.443), but the specificity of the former was higher than that of the latter (0.903 vs. 0.431). The overall accuracy of the step-by-step approach and the lab-score method was similar (66.5% vs. 69.8%).@*CONCLUSIONS@#The ability of the step-by-step approach in early identification of non-bacterial infections in febrile infants with less than 90 days old is superior to the lab-score method.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Child , Prospective Studies , Bacterial Infections , C-Reactive Protein , Hospitals , Interleukin-6 , Procalcitonin
13.
Rev. venez. cir ; 76(1): 40-46, 2023. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1552951

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: caracterizar los microorganismos involucrados en las infecciones intraabdominales, y fenotipificar sus perfiles de resistencia al uso de los antibióticos en el Servicio de Cirugía General del Instituto Autónomo Hospital Universitario de Los Andes, entre los años 2014 al 2017. Metodología: enfoque cuantitativo; tipo descriptivo, diseño no experimental de estudio de casos y transversal, a través de toma de muestras de secreciones abdominales en quirófano a las cuales se les realizó cultivo en medios de agar sangre y McConkey, tinción Gram, contaje de leucocitos, y prueba Kirby-Bauer de sensibilidad antimicrobiana. Muestra de 211 pacientes mayores de 16 años que acudieron a la institución con el diagnóstico de abdomen agudo quirúrgico infeccioso. Resultados: el abdomen agudo quirúrgico infeccioso por apendicitis aguda fue la infección intraabdominal más común, grupo etario que acudió con más frecuencia: <26 años. Agentes etiológicos más frecuentemente aislados: bacilos Gram negativos, especies más frecuentes: E. col i (57,3%), K. pneumon iae (10,9%) y P. a e rug i nosa (6,16%). De todos los microorganismos aislados 57,6% expresaron al menos un fenotipo de resistencia. Fenotipo más común: betalactamasa de espectro extendido y bomba de eflujo de quinolonas (18,8%). Microorganismos con mayores porcentajes de resistencia: Staphylococcus sp. y Enterococcus sp (~100%). Los mejores porcentajes de sensibilidad de la E. col i , K . p neumon ia e y P . a e rug i nosa fueron hacia al colistin, carbapenémicos y amikacina (100%). Conclusión: Los carbapenémicos y los aminoglucósidos seguirán siendo los fármacos de elección en las infecciones intraabdominales del Instituto Autónomo Hospital Universitario de Los Andes(AU)


Objective: to characterize the microorganisms involved in intraabdominal infections, and to phenotype their resistance profiles to the use of antibiotics in the General Surgery Service of the Instituto Autónomo Hospital Universitario de Los Andes, from 2014 to 2017. Methodology: quantitative approach; descriptive type, nonexperimental design of case study and transversal, through sampling of abdominal secretions in the operating room which were cultured in blood agar and McConkey media, Gram stain, leukocyte count, and Kirby-Bauer test for antimicrobial sensitivity. Sample of 211 patients older than 16 years who attended the institution with the diagnosis of acute surgical infectious abdomen. Results: acute surgical infectious abdomen due to acute appendicitis was the most common intra-abdominal infection, most frequent age group: <26 years. Most frequently isolated etiologic agents: Gram-negative bacilli, most frequent species: E. co l i (57.3%), K. p neumon ia e (10.9%) and P . a e rug i nosa (6.16%). Of all the isolated microorganisms, 57.6% expressed at least one resistance phenotype. Most common phenotype: extended-spectrum beta-lactamase and quinolone efflux pump (18.8%). Microorganisms with the highest percentages of resistance: Staphylococcus sp. and Enterococcus sp (~100%). The best percentages of sensitivity of E. col i , K . pneumoniae and P . a e rug i nosa were to colistin, carbapenemics and amikacin (100%). Conclusion: Carbapenemics and aminoglycosides will remain the drugs of choice in intra-abdominal infections at Instituto Autónomo Hospital Universitario de Los Andes(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Bacterial Infections , Drug Resistance, Bacterial
14.
Rev. odontopediatr. latinoam ; 13: 422522, 2023. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1435323

ABSTRACT

Existen diversos diagnósticos clínicos diferenciales de lesiones infectocontagiosas peribucales en la infancia, siendo las más frecuentes: herpes labial, queilitis angular (queilocandidiasis) e impétigo, esta última es una infección bacteriana prevalente en población infantil, afectando la región labial y peribucal, cuyo diagnóstico está principalmente basado en los hallazgos clínicos y en el análisis minucioso de la anamnesis. Objetivo: Presentar dos casos clínicos de impétigo ampolloso en pacientes pediátricos, destacando sus características, comparándolas y contrastándolas con sus principales diagnósticos diferenciales. Reporte de casos. Se presentan dos casos de pacientes masculinos de 10 años (hermanos gemelos) con antecedentes de secuencia de Pierre Robin, los cuales acudieron a la clínica de Odontopediatría de la ENES, UNAM, unidad León, presentando múltiples lesiones ulcerativas, localizadas área peribucal, refiriendo dos semanas de evolución. Diagnóstico. Se estableció el diagnóstico clínico de: impétigo ampolloso, para ambos pacientes. Plan de tratamiento. Se indicaron medidas estrictas de higiene general y en las zonas afectadas, eliminando también cualquier objeto que actuara como fómite, evitando compartir productos de aseo personal, además, se indicó la aplicación de mupirocina en crema al 2%, llevándose a cabo el seguimiento a los 14 y 30 días hasta la curación completa. Conclusiones. El impétigo peribucal es frecuentemente confundido con otras infecciones presentes en esa localización con manifestaciones clínicas semejantes en algunos casos suele ser tratado erróneamente. Por lo que se destaca la importancia de realizar un adecuado interrogatorio, una exploración clínica concienzuda y realizar un análisis diferencial clínico en este tipo de lesiones.


Existem vários diagnósticos clínicos diferenciais de lesões periorais infecciosas na infância, sendo os mais frequentes: herpes labial, queilite angular (queilocandidíase) e impetigo, sendo este último uma infecção bacteriana prevalente em crianças, acometendo a região labial e perioral, cujo diagnóstico é principalmente baseado em achados clínicos e na análise cuidadosa da anamnese. Objetivo: Apresentar dois casos clínicos de impetigo bolhoso em pacientes pediátricos, destacando as características, comparando-os e contrastando-os com os principais diagnósticos diferenciais. Relato de caso. Apresentam-se dois casos de pacientes do sexo masculino (irmãos gêmeos) de 10 anos de idade com histórico de sequência de Pierre Robin, que compareceram à clínica de Odontopediatria da ENES, UNAM, unidade León, apresentando múltiplas lesões ulcerativas, localizadas na zona perioral, referindo duas semanas de evolução. Diagnóstico. Estabeleceu-se o diagnóstico clínico de: impetigo bolhoso para ambos os pacientes. Plano de tratamento. Foram indicadas medidas rigorosas de higiene geral e nas áreas afetadas, eliminando também qualquer objeto que atuasse como fômite, evitando o compartilhamento de produtos de higiene pessoal, além disso, foi indicada a aplicação de creme de mupirocina 2%, realizando o acompanhamento em 14 e 30 dias até a cura completa. Conclusões. Frequentemente, o impetigo perioral é confundido com outras infecções presentes nessa localização com manifestações clínicas semelhantes e, em alguns casos, geralmente é tratado erroneamente. Destaca-se, portanto, a importância de se realizar um interrogatório adequado, um exame clínico minucioso e uma análise clínica diferencial neste tipo de lesões


There are several differential clinical diagnoses of infectious perioral lesions in childhood, the most frequent being: herpes labialis, angular cheilitis (cheilocandidiasis) and impetigo, the latter being a bacterial infection prevalent in children, with rupture of the labial and perioral region, whose diagnosis is mainly based on clinical findings and careful analysis of the anamnesis. Objective: To present two clinical cases of bullous impetigo in pediatric patients, highlighting their characteristics, comparing, and contrasting them with their main differential diagnoses. Case report. We present two cases of 10-year-old male patients (twin brothers) with a history of Pierre Robin sequence, who attended the Pediatric Dentistry clinic of the ENES, UNAM, León unit, presenting multiple ulcerative lesions, located in the perioral area, referring two weeks of evolution. Diagnosis. The clinical diagnosis of: bullous impetigo is established for both patients. Treatment plan. Strict general hygiene measures were indicated and in the affected areas, also eliminating any object that acted as a fomite, preventing the sharing of personal hygiene products, in addition, the application of mupirocin cream at 2% was shown, carrying out the monitoring of the 14 and 30 days until complete healing. Conclusions. Perioral impetigo is frequently confused with other infections present in that location with similar clinical manifestations. In some cases, it is usually treated incorrectly. Therefore, the importance of carrying out an adequate interrogation, a thorough clinical examination and performing a clinical differential analysis in this type of injury is highlighted.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Child , Cheilitis , Impetigo , Bacterial Infections
15.
Rev. chil. cardiol ; 41(3): 180-185, dic. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1423690

ABSTRACT

La pericarditis purulenta es una patología poco frecuente pero que conlleva alta mortalidad. En la era pre antibióticos, se observaba en pacientes con neumonía complicada y las cocáceas gram positivas eran los gérmenes frecuentemente involucrados. Por otro lado, la pericarditis tuberculosa representa el 1% del total de casos de tuberculosis, aunque es frecuente zonas endémicas, principalmente asociada a la infección por el virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH). Presentamos el caso de un paciente de 19 años, en situación calle, infectado con VIH, con diagnóstico de pericarditis purulenta, donde se demostró la co-infección de Mycobacterium tuberculosis y Streptecoccus pneumoniae en el pericardio. La pericarditis purulenta polimicrobiana es poco frecuente y la co-infección por los gérmenes mencionados es anecdótica. A pesar del tratamiento antimicrobiano, el aseo quirúrgico, los esteroides y la fibrinolisis intrapericárdica, esta patología tiene un pronóstico ominoso, en parte, debido a la condición basal de los enfermos que la padecen.


Purulent pericarditis is a rare disease with a high mortality rate. In the pre-antibiotic era it was observed as a complication in patients with pneumonia. Gram-positive coccaceae were the most commonly implicated bacteria. Tuberculous pericarditis represents 1% of all tuberculosis (TBC) cases, although it is common in endemic areas, associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. We present the case of a 19-year-old homeless, admitted with HIV and malnutrition, diagnosed with purulent pericarditis. Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Streptococcus pneumoniae were found as a cause of purulent pericarditis. Polymicrobial purulent pericarditis is a rare condition and co-infection with the bacteria previously mentioned is merely anecdotal. Despite antimicrobial treatment, surgical management, steroids, and intrapericardial fibrinolysis, this pathology has an ominous prognosis, due in part to the pre-existing condition of these patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Young Adult , Pericarditis/diagnosis , Bacterial Infections/diagnosis , Pericarditis/microbiology , Pericarditis/therapy , Streptococcus pneumoniae , Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Bacterial Infections/therapy , HIV Infections/complications , Fatal Outcome , Mycobacterium tuberculosis
16.
Rev. ADM ; 79(6): 318-324, nov.-dic. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1434701

ABSTRACT

Los antiinflamatorios no esteroideos (AINE) son un grupo de fármacos que han sido comúnmente prescritos por sus propiedades antiinflamato- rias, antipiréticas y analgésicas, mismas que se deben a la inhibición de la formación de prostaglandinas. Este mecanismo ha sido ampliamente respaldado en la literatura; sin embargo, en la actualidad poco se co- noce sobre las propiedades adicionales de estos medicamentos como el efecto antirresortivo y antimicrobiano. La función antirresortiva se debe principalmente al bloqueo de la producción de prostaglandinas en específico la PGE2, que posee gran potencial osteoclastogénico, esencial para la aparición de lesiones periapicales; asimismo, la acción antimicrobiana de los AINE está relacionada con la afectación directa de la perpetuación de biopelícula, potencian la acción de los antibióticos, entre otros. Dichos efectos combinados podrían contribuir en la cura- ción de lesiones periapicales. El objetivo de este estudio es recopilar información actualizada sobre estas funciones agregadas de los AINE, con el fin de dar a conocer a los profesionales estos beneficios en la terapéutica de las lesiones periapicales (AU)


Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory (NSAIDs) are a group of drugs that have been commonly prescribed for their anti-inflammatory, antipyretic and analgesic properties, which are due to the inhibition of prostaglandin formation. This mechanism has been widely supported in the literature; however, currently little is known about the additional properties of these drugs such as the antiresorptive and antimicrobial effect. The antiresorptive function is mainly due to the blockage of prostaglandin production, specifically PGE2, which has great osteoclastogenic potential, and is essential for the appearance of periapical lesions; likewise, the antimicrobial action of NSAIDs is related to the fact that they directly affect the perpetuation of biofilms, enhance the action of antibiotics, among others. These combined effects could contribute to the healing of periapical lesions. The aim of this study is to gather updated information on these added functions of NSAIDs, in order to inform professionals about these benefits in the therapy of periapical lesion (AU)


Subject(s)
Periapical Diseases/drug therapy , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal , Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Tooth Resorption/drug therapy
17.
Arch. pediatr. Urug ; 93(2): e223, dic. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UY-BNMED, BNUY | ID: biblio-1411453

ABSTRACT

Introducción: la fiebre es un motivo muy frecuente de consulta y hasta en un 20% de los pacientes no se encuentra la causa. En el ámbito de la emergentología pediátrica clásicamente ha existido interés en homogeneizar la forma de evaluar los lactantes febriles menores de tres meses. Contar con un protocolo que permita detectar precozmente el niño que cursa una infección bacteriana invasiva (IBI) sin realizar conductas desproporcionadas es todo un desafío. Objetivo: evaluar y comparar la capacidad para identificar IBI en la pauta actual de fiebre sin foco (FSF) como en la estrategia step by step, en lactantes con FSF valorados en el DEP-CHPR. Material y métodos: estudio observacional, descriptivo, retrospectivo y de pruebas diagnósticas. Criterios de inclusión: lactantes menores de 90 días de vida que consultaron en 2017 y 2018 en DEP-CHPR con diagnóstico de FSF. Resultados: se incluyeron 261 lactantes evaluados con la pauta de FSF actual, en ellos se aplicó la estrategia step by step. El rango de edad fue de 84 días (4-88 días) con una media de 41 días. Sexo masculino 148 niños (56,7%). Se registraron 37 infecciones bacterianas (14,2%) de las cuales 3 fueron IBI (1,1%) y 34 fueron no-IBI (13,1%). La sensibilidad para step by step fue de 0,94% y de 0,89 para la pauta actual, con un VPN de 0,98 para ambas estrategias. Discusión: los lactantes menores de 3 meses son más susceptibles por características fisiológicas a infecciones bacterianas invasivas y cuanto más pequeño aumenta aún más la frecuencia. El step by step discrimina a menores de 1 mes en menores de 21 días y otro grupo de más de 21 días. Nuestra pauta no hace esta discriminación y realiza por igual laboratorio en sangre, orina y líquido cefalorraquídeo; realizando en ocasiones estudios cruentos no necesarios. Conclusiones: ambas estrategias aplicadas en esta población resultaron altamente sensibles para identificar infección bacteriana con un VPN elevado. La aplicación de step by step presenta como beneficio adicional evitar con seguridad la punción lumbar en recién nacidos entre los 21 y 28 días.


Introduction: fever is a very frequent reason for consultation and in up to 20% of patients the cause has not been found. In the field of pediatric emergentology, there has been a traditional interest in homogenizing the way of assessing febrile infants under three months of age. Having a protocol that enables early detection of children with IBIs without engaging in disproportionate procedures is a challenge. Objective: to evaluate and compare the ability to identify IBIs in the present FSF regimen as in the Step-by-Step strategy, in infants with FSF assessed at the Pereira Rossell Pediatric Hospital Center. Material and methods: observational, descriptive, retrospective study and diagnostic tests. Inclusion criteria: Infants under 90 days of age who consulted in 2017 and 2018 at the DEP-CHPR with a diagnosis of FSF. Results: 261 infants diagnosed with FSF regimen were included and they all received a Step-by-Step approach. The age range was 84 days (4 - 88) days with a mean of 41 days. Males 148 children (56.7%). There were 37 bacterial infections (14.2%), of which 3 were IBI (1.1%) and 34 were Non-IBI (13.1%). The sensitivity for the Step-by-Step approach was 0.94% and 0.89 for the current regimen, with a NPV of 0.98 for both strategies. Discussion: infants younger than 3 months-old are more susceptible due to physiological characteristics to invasive bacterial infections, and the younger they are, the higher the frequency. The Step-by-Step Approach splits children of under 1 month of age into those under or over 21 days of age. Our guideline does not make this discrimination and performs the same blood, urine and cerebrospinal fluid laboratory tests sometimes carrying out blood tests is not necessary. Conclusions: both approaches used in this population were highly sensitive to the identification of bacterial infections with a high NPV. The application of the "Step-by-Step" approach has the additional benefit of avoiding lumbar puncture to newborns of between 21 and 28 days of age.


Introdução: a febre é um motivo muito comum de consulta e em até 20% dos pacientes a causa não é encontrada. No campo da emergência pediátrica, tradicionalmente tem havido interesse em homogeneizar a forma de avaliação de lactentes febris menores de três meses de idade. Ter um protocolo que permita a detecção precoce de uma criança com IBI sem realizar procedimentos desproporcionais é um desafio. Objetivo: avaliar e comparar a capacidade de identificação de IBI na atual Diretriz da FSF e na estratégia Passo a Passo, em lactentes com FSF avaliados no DEP-CHPR. Material e métodos: estudo observacional, descritivo, retrospectivo e de testes diagnósticos. Critérios de inclusão: Lactentes com menos de 90 dias de idade que consultaram em 2017 e 2018 no Hospital Pediátrico Pereira Rossell do Uruguai com diagnóstico de FSF. Resultados: Foram incluídos 261 lactentes avaliados com a atual diretriz da FSF, nos quais foi aplicada a estratégia Passo a Passo. A faixa etária foi de 84 dias (4 - 88) dias com média de 41 dias. Sexo masculino 148 crianças (56,7%). Foram registradas 37 infecções bacterianas (14,2%), sendo 3 IBI (1,1%) e 34 Não IBI (13,1%). A sensibilidade para Passo a Passo foi de 0,94% e 0,89 para o esquema atual, com VPN de 0,98 para ambas estratégias. Discussão: crianças menores de 3 meses de idade são mais suscetíveis a infecções bacterianas invasivas devido às características fisiológicas e quanto menores, mais frequentes. O Passo a Passo separa crianças menores de 1 mês em dois grupos: menores de 21 dias e acima de 21 dias. Nossa diretriz não faz essa discriminação e realiza exames laboratoriais de sangue, urina e líquido cefalorraquidiano da mesma forma; às vezes realizando estudos de sangue que não são necessários. Conclusões: ambas as estratégias aplicadas nesta população foram altamente sensíveis para identificar infecção bacteriana com alto VPN. A aplicação do "Passo a Passo" apresenta como benefício adicional evitar a punção lombar em recém-nascidos entre 21 e 28 dias.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Bacterial Infections/diagnosis , Sensitivity and Specificity , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures/standards , Fever of Unknown Origin/etiology , Virus Diseases/diagnosis , Retrospective Studies , Evaluation Study
18.
Cambios rev med ; 21(2): 885, 30 Diciembre 2022. tabs, grafs.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1415670

ABSTRACT

La peritonitis es una inflamación aguda o crónica del peritoneo que generalmente tiene un origen infeccioso. Existen varios tipos, siendo la de tipo secundario la más frecuente. El término peritonitis secundaria se define como la inflamación localizada o generalizada de la membrana peritoneal causada por infección polimicrobiana posterior a la ruptura traumática o espontánea de una víscera o secundaria a la dehiscencia de anastomosis intestinales. Esta entidad se caracteriza por la presencia de pus en la cavidad peritoneal o de líquido; que, en el estudio microscópico directo, contiene leucocitos y bacterias. El tratamiento de esta patología constituye una urgencia y puede ser de tipo clínico y/o quirúrgico. El objetivo del manejo operatorio se basa en identificar y eliminar la causa de la infección, recoger muestras microbiológicas, realizar una limpieza peritoneal y prevenir la recidiva. El tratamiento clínico se ocupa de las consecuencias de la infección mediante la reanimación perioperatoria y el tratamiento antibiótico1. A pesar de los avances en diagnóstico, procedimientos quirúrgicos, terapia antimicrobiana y cuidados intensivos, la mortalidad asociada con la peritonitis secundaria grave es aún muy alta. El pronóstico y el manejo oportuno representan la clave para mejorar la sobrevida y reducir la mortalidad asociada a infecciones intraabdominales extensas2. Es importante establecer lineamientos en cuanto al diagnóstico, manejo antibiótico y pautas de tratamiento quirúrgico para disminuir la morbilidad y mortalidad asociada a esta enfermedad. Palabras clave: Peritonitis; Peritoneo; Cavidad Abdominal/cirugía; Cavidad Peritoneal; Líquido Ascítico/patología; Procedimientos Quirúrgicos Operativos.


Peritonitis is an acute or chronic inflammation of the peritoneum that generally has an infectious origin. There are several types, with secondary peritonitis being the most frequent. The term secondary peritonitis is defined as localized or generalized inflammation of the peritoneal membrane caused by polymicrobial infection following traumatic or spontaneous rupture of a viscus or secondary to dehiscence of intestinal anastomoses. This entity is characterized by the presence of pus in the peritoneal cavity or fluid which, on direct microscopic examination, contains leukocytes and bacteria. The treatment of this pathology constitutes an emergency and can be clinical and/or surgical. The aim of operative management is based on identifying and eliminating the cause of the infection, collecting microbiological samples, performing peritoneal cleansing and preventing recurrence. Clinical management deals with the consequences of the infection by perioperative resuscitation and antibiotic treatment1 . Despite advances in diagnosis, surgical procedures, antimicrobial therapy and intensive care, mortality associated with severe secondary peritonitis is still very high. Prognosis and timely management represent the key to improving survival and reducing mortality associated with extensive intra-abdominal infections2. It is important to establish guidelines for diagnosis, antibiotic management and surgical treatment guidelines to reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with this disease.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Peritoneal Cavity , Peritoneum , Peritonitis , Surgical Procedures, Operative , Ascitic Fluid/pathology , Abdominal Cavity/surgery , General Surgery , Bacterial Infections , Viscera , Clinical Protocols , Medication Therapy Management , Intraabdominal Infections , Abdomen/surgery
19.
Tegucigalpa; Secretaría de Salud; oct. 2022. 24p ilus, tab.. (LN45:2022).
Monography in Spanish | LILACS, BIMENA | ID: biblio-1553009

ABSTRACT

Es una zoonosis viral causada por el virus de la viruela símica, que pertenece al género Orthopoxvirus, este incluye al virus variola (causante de la viruela). Es la primera vez que se produce transmisión comunitaria sostenida de la enfermedad en regiones situadas fuera del África occidental o central. Actualmente se ha identificado la circulación del clado de África occidental, siendo esta la que produce la sintomatología más leve.1 Este documento aborda líneas generales para la vigilancia epidemiológica y el abordaje clínico de esta enfermedad. El mismo estará siendo actualizado según nuevas evidencias...(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Mpox (monkeypox) , Skin Diseases, Infectious , Bacterial Infections
20.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 39(5): 573-587, oct. 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1431703

ABSTRACT

El parto prematuro (PP) es la principal causa de morbilidad/mortalidad perinatal y frecuentemente es espontáneo, con membranas intactas (MI). La infección intrauterina es su causa más común en un hospital público de Chile. Existe evidencia que la infección bacteriana ascendente desde la vagina es responsable de la infección/inflamación intraamniótica, del PP y de los resultados adversos maternos y perinatales. Esta revisión narrativa incluye ensayos controlados aleatorizados (ECAs), publicados en PubMed, Cochrane, Embase, Scielo, Science Direct, Wiley Online Library, sobre los mecanismos que intervienen en el ascenso de la infección vaginal, los factores infecciosos que participan en el resultado adverso materno-perinatal y la eficacia de los antimicrobianos en estos casos. Estos trabajos no recomiendan usar antimicrobianos profilácticos porque producen daño a corto y largo plazo en los hijos. Pero este resultado tiene sesgo porque no se evaluó la presencia de infección/inflamación subclínica, lo que disminuye el grado de recomendación. También existen ECAs, que erradican la infección/inflamación intraamniótica, reducen la morbilidad/mortalidad neonatal, pero son trabajos aislados, obtenidos de subanálisis, con bajo nivel de evidencia. Se requieren revisiones sistemáticas y metaanális de ECAs con estudio de infección/inflamación subclínica para evaluar si son útiles los antimicrobianos en el PP espontáneo con MI.


Preterm labor (PL) is the leading cause of perinatal morbidity/ mortality and is frequently spontaneous with intact membranes (IM). Intrauterine infection is its most common cause in a public hospital in Chile. There is evidence that ascending bacterial infection from the vagina is responsible for intraamniotic infection/inflammation, PL, and adverse maternal and perinatal outcomes. This narrative review includes randomized controlled trials (RCTs), published in PubMed, Cochrane, Embase, Scielo, Science Direct, Wiley Online Library on the mechanisms involved in the rise of vaginal infection, the infectious factors involved in adverse maternal-perinatal outcomes, and the efficacy of antibiotics in these cases. They do not recommend the use of prophylactic antibiotics because they cause short and long-term damage to children. But this result is biased because the presence of subclinical infection/inflammation was not evaluated, which lowers the degree of recommendation. There are also RCTs that eradicate intra-amniotic infection/inflammation, reduce neonatal morbidity/ mortality, but they are isolated studies, obtained from subanalyses, with a low level of evidence. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses of RCTs with subclinical infection/inflammation study are required to assess whether antibiotics are useful in spontaneous PL with IM.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control , Obstetric Labor, Premature/microbiology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage , Placenta/microbiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/microbiology , Bacteria/isolation & purification , Bacterial Infections/prevention & control , Vagina/microbiology , Pregnancy Outcome , Cervix Uteri/microbiology , Chorioamnionitis , Amniotic Fluid/microbiology
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