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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246436, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339391

ABSTRACT

Abstract Application of different fertilizers to check the efficiency of expression of Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) gene in one of the leading commercialized crops (cotton) against Lepidopteran species is of great concern. The expression of Cry protein level can be controlled by the improvement of nutrients levels. Therefore, the myth of response of Cry toxin to different combinations of NP fertilizers was explored in three Bt cotton cultivars. Combinations include three levels of nitrogen and three levels of phosphorus fertilizers. Immunostrips and Cry gene(s) specific primer based PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) analysis were used for the presence of Bt gene that unveiled the presence of Cry1Ac gene only. Further, the ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) kit was used to quantify the expression of Cry1Ac protein. Under various NP fertilizers rates, the level of toxin protein exhibited highly significant differences. The highest toxin level mean was found to be 2.3740 and 2.1732 µg/g under the treatment of N150P75 kg ha-1 combination while the lowest toxin level mean was found to be 0.9158 and 0.7641 µg/g at the N50P25 kg ha-1 level at 80 and 120 DAS (Days After Sowing), respectively. It was concluded from the research that the usage of NP fertilizers has a positive relation with the expression of Cry1Ac toxin in Bt cotton. We recommend using the N150P50 kg ha-1 level as the most economical and practicable fertilizer instead of the standard dose N100P50 kg ha-1 to get the desired level of Cry1Ac level for long lasting plant resistance (<1.5). The revised dose of fertilizer may help farmers to avoid the cross-resistance development in contradiction of insect pests.


Resumo A aplicação de diferentes fertilizantes para verificar a eficiência da expressão do gene Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) em uma das principais culturas comercializadas (algodão) contra espécies de lepidópteros é uma grande preocupação. A expressão do nível de proteína Cry pode ser controlada pela melhoria dos níveis de nutrientes. Portanto, o mito da resposta da toxina Cry a diferentes combinações de fertilizantes NP foi explorado em três cultivares de algodão Bt. As combinações incluem três níveis de nitrogênio e três níveis de fertilizantes de fósforo. A análise de PCR (reação em cadeia da polimerase) específica para o gene (s) Immunostrips e Cry (s) foi usada para a presença do gene Bt que revelou a presença do gene Cry1Ac apenas. Além disso, o kit ELISA (ensaio de imunoabsorção enzimática) foi usado para quantificar a expressão da proteína Cry1Ac. Sob várias taxas de fertilizantes NP, o nível de proteína de toxina exibiu diferenças altamente significativas. A média do nível mais alto de toxina foi de 2,3740 e 2,1732 µg / g sob o tratamento da combinação N150P75 kg ha-1, enquanto a média do nível mais baixo de toxina foi de 0,9158 e 0,7641 µg / g no nível de N50P25 kg ha-1 em 80 e 120 DAS (dias após a semeadura), respectivamente. Concluiu-se com a pesquisa que o uso de fertilizantes NP tem relação positiva com a expressão da toxina Cry1Ac no algodão Bt. Recomendamos o uso do nível de N150P50 kg ha-1 como o fertilizante mais econômico e praticável em vez da dose padrão N100P50 kg ha-1 para obter o nível desejado de nível de Cry1Ac para resistência de planta de longa duração (<1,5). A dose revisada de fertilizante pode ajudar os agricultores a evitar o desenvolvimento de resistência cruzada em contradição com as pragas de insetos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Hemolysin Proteins/genetics , Moths , Phosphorus , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Insecticide Resistance , Plants, Genetically Modified/genetics , Endotoxins/genetics , Fertilizers , Bacillus thuringiensis Toxins , Larva , Nitrogen
2.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 39(2): 109-116, abr. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388342

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: Existe un incremento de las infecciones por Klebsiella pneumoniae resistente a carbapenémicos (KPRC) en la población pediátrica y los datos epidemiológicos son limitados. OBJETIVOS: Conocer la frecuencia de KPRC en pacientes pediátricos, determinar la actividad in vitro de colistina y detectar el gen mcr-1 en dichos aislados. MATERIALES Y MÉTODOS: Se estudiaron 220 aislados de K. pneumoniae en un hospital pediátrico durante los años 2018 y 2019. La susceptibilidad antimicrobiana se determinó por microdilución en caldo según CLSI y EUCAST. Los genes blaKPC, blaNDM, blaIMP, blaVIM, blaOXA-48 y mcr-1 se analizaron mediante reacción de polimerasa en cadena (RPC). RESULTADOS: El 9,5% (n: 21) de los aislados fueron caracterizados como KPRC, donde se observó una resistencia a colistina de 47,6% (10/21) con valores de CIM50 de 2 μg/mL y CIM90 de > 4 μg/mL. En todos los aislados de KPRC se caracterizó el gen blaKPC y no se detectó el gen mcr-1. El perfil de resistencia observado en otros antimicrobianos fue el siguiente: gentamicina 100% (n: 21), ciprofloxacina 100% (n: 21), cotrimoxazol 100% (n: 21) y amikacina 19% (n: 4). Se observó 100% de sensibilidad a tigeciclina y ceftazidima/avibactam. CONCLUSIÓN: Este estudio demuestra un valor significativo de la resistencia a colistina en comparación a ceftazidima/avibactam y tigeciclina.


BACKGROUND: There is an increase of carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP) infections in the pediatric population and epidemiological data are limited. Aim: To calculate the frequency of CRKP in pediatric patients, to determine the in vitro activity of colistin and to detect the presence of mcr-1 gene in said isolates. METHODS: 220 isolates of K. pneumoniae were studied in a pediatric hospital between January 2018 and December 2019. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined by microdilution in broth according to guidelines of CLSI and EUCAST. The genes blaKPC, blaNDM, blaIMP, blaVIM, blaOXA-48 and mcr-1 were detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). RESULTS: 9.5% (n: 21) of the isolates were characterized as CRKP, where was observed a resistance to colistin of 47.6% (10/21) with values of MIC50 of 2 μg/mL and MIC90 of ≥ 4 μg/mL. In 100% of CRKP strains the blaKPC gene was detected and the mcr-1 gene was not found. The resistance profile to other antimicrobials was as follow: gentamicin 100% (n: 21), trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole 100% (n: 21), ciprofloxacin 100% (n: 21), amikacin 19% (n: 4). All of the isolates were sensitive to ceftazidime/avibactam and tigecycline. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates a significant value of resistance to colistin in pediatric patients compared to other last line antimicrobial such as ceftazidime/avibactam and tigecycline.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Klebsiella Infections/drug therapy , Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae , Argentina , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , beta-Lactamases/genetics , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Carbapenems/pharmacology , Ceftazidime , Colistin/pharmacology , Tigecycline , Hospitals, Pediatric , Klebsiella pneumoniae/genetics , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
3.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 185-195, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927703

ABSTRACT

Clostridium difficile is an important zoonotic intestinal pathogen, which is widely present in humans and a variety of animals. The ST11 type C. difficile is one of the most widespread and harmful subtypes in the world. As a large country in pig farming, China lacks efficient methods for detecting C. difficile of porcine origin, leaving hidden dangers for the prevention and control of C. difficile. The aim of this study was to develop a specific and sensitive double-antibody sandwich ELISA for the epidemiological investigation of ST11 type C. difficile of porcine origin. Firstly, a 97 kDa receptor binding domain (RBD) was expressed in a prokaryotic host and purified. A hybridoma cell line AE2D3 capable of stably secreting monoclonal antibody targeting the RBD was screened, and the antibody subtype was determined to be IgG2b (κ). Secondly, a double antibody sandwich ELISA method was developed, where the monoclonal antibody targeting the RBD was used as a detection antibody, and the rabbit polyclonal antibody was used as a capture antibody. The chessboard method was used to determine the matching concentration of the capture antibody and the detection antibody, the antigen coating conditions, the blocking conditions, the incubation conditions for detection antibody and samples to be tested, as well as the reaction conditions of HRP-conjugated and reaction conditions of TMB chromogenic solution. The negative cutoff OD450 was 0.152, and no cross-reaction with 13 strains of non-ST11 type C. difficile was found. The minimum detection concentration of RBD was 8.83 ng/mL. This specific and sensitive double-antibody sandwich ELISA provides a reliable serological detection method for epidemiological investigation of the ST11 type C. difficile in pig industry.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Bacterial Toxins , Clostridioides difficile , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Hybridomas , Swine
4.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 148-159, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927700

ABSTRACT

The GapC protein of Streptococcus uberis located on the surface of bacteria is a protein with glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase activity. It participates in cellular processes and exhibits a variety of biological activities. In addition, it has good antigenicity. The aim of this study was to predict the possible B-cell epitopes of the GapC protein and verify the immunogenicity of candidate epitope peptides. The gapC gene of S. uberis isolate RF5-1 was cloned into a recombinant expression plasmid pET-28a-GapC and inducibly expressed. The purified protein was used to immunize experimental rabbits to produce anti-GapC polyclonal antibodies. The three-dimensional structure and three-dimensional location of the GapC B-cell epitopes and the homology comparison of the GapC protein and its B-cell epitopes were carried out using bioinformatics softwares. The results showed that the 44-kDa GapC protein had a good immunological reactivity. Six linear and 3 conformational dominant B-cell epitopes against the GapC protein were selected and synthesized. Three dimensional analysis indicated that the selected peptides have better antigen epitope formation potential. Rabbit anti-GapC polyclonal antibodies were generated after immunized with the purified GapC protein, and the polyclonal antibodies were used to identify the epitope peptide by an indirect ELISA. The ELISA results showed that all of the 9 epitope peptides could react with anti-GapC polyclonal antibodies with varying titers. Among them, the epitope polypeptide 266AANDSYGYTEDPIVSSD282 reacted with the polyclonal antibodies significantly stronger than with other epitope peptides. This study laid an experimental foundation for in-depth understanding of the immunological properties and utilizing effective epitopes of the GapC protein of S. uberis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antigens, Bacterial/genetics , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte/genetics , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Rabbits , Streptococcus
5.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e235927, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249226

ABSTRACT

Abstract Glutamine synthetase (GS), encoded by glnA, catalyzes the conversion of L-glutamate and ammonium to L-glutamine. This ATP hydrolysis driven process is the main nitrogen assimilation pathway in the nitrogen-fixing bacterium Azospirillum brasilense. The A. brasilense strain HM053 has poor GS activity and leaks ammonium into the medium under nitrogen fixing conditions. In this work, the glnA genes of the wild type and HM053 strains were cloned into pET28a, sequenced and overexpressed in E. coli. The GS enzyme was purified by affinity chromatography and characterized. The GS of HM053 strain carries a P347L substitution, which results in low enzyme activity and rendered the enzyme insensitive to adenylylation by the adenilyltransferase GlnE.


Resumo A glutamina sintetase (GS), codificada por glnA, catalisa a conversão de L-glutamato e amônio em L-glutamina. Este processo dependente da hidrólise de ATP é a principal via de assimilação de nitrogênio na bactéria fixadora de nitrogênio Azospirillum brasilense. A estirpe HM053 de A. brasilense possui baixa atividade GS e excreta amônio no meio sob condições de fixação de nitrogênio. Neste trabalho, os genes glnA das estirpes do tipo selvagem e HM053 foram clonados em pET28a, sequenciados e superexpressos em E. coli. A enzima GS foi purificada por cromatografia de afinidade e caracterizada. A GS da estirpe HM053 possui uma substituição P347L que resulta em baixa atividade enzimática e torna a enzima insensível à adenililação pela adenililtransferase GlnE.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Azospirillum brasilense/enzymology , Azospirillum brasilense/genetics , Ammonium Compounds , Glutamate-Ammonia Ligase/genetics , Escherichia coli/genetics
6.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 38(5): 720-723, oct. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388291

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: En las últimas décadas, se ha incrementado la prevalencia de infecciones por bacilos gramnegativos resistentes a carbapenémicos. OBJETIVO: Determinar los tipos y la frecuencia de las distintas carbapenemasas en aislados de Klebsiella spp. y Pseudomonas aeruginosa, en seis hospitales de alta complejidad de Bogotá-Colombia. MÉTODOS: Estudio observacional descriptivo en seis hospitales de la ciudad de Bogotá, en el período de enero de 2017 a agosto de 2018. Se realizaron RPC para genes de KPC, GES, VIM, NDM, IMP y OXA-48 en cepas de Klebsiella spp y P aeruginosa resistentes a carbapenémicos. RESULTADOS: 52 aislados de P aeruginosa amplificaron para una carbapenemasa, de los cuales 39 (75%) fueron positivos para KPC, 11 (21%) para VIM y 2 co-producciones de KPC y VIM. En cuanto a Klebsiella spp., 165 cepas amplificaron al menos para una carbapenemasa, 98% expresaron KPC y 4 aislados tuvieron co-producciones de metalo-beta-lactamasas y KPC. DISCUSIÓN: Este estudio aporta información valiosa, como el incremento de producción de KPC en P. aeruginosa y la co-producción de KPC y metalo-beta-lactamasas, locual tiene una implicancia tanto en la selección del tratamiento, las medidas de aislamiento de contacto y el pronóstico de los pacientes.


BACKGROUND: In the last decades, the prevalence of infections by carbapenem resistant gram-negative bacilli has been increased. OBJECTIVE: To determine types and frequency of the different carbapenemases in Klebsiella spp. and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, in six hospitals in Bogotá-Colombia. METHODS: Descriptive and observational study, in six hospitals in the city of Bogotá, in the period ftom January 2017 to August 2018. PCR were performed for KPC, GES, VIM, NDM, IMP and OXA-48 genes, in carbapenem resistant Klebsiella spp. and P aeruginosa. RESULTS: 52 P aeruginosa isolates amplified a carbapenemase gene, of which 39 (75%) were positive for KPC, 11 (21%) for VIM and two co-productions of KPC and VIM. Regarding Klebsiella spp. 165 strains amplified at least one carbapenemase gene, 98% expressed KPC and four isolates had co-productions of metallo-P-lactamases and KPC. DISCUSSION: This study provides valuable information, such as the increased production of KPC in P. aeruginosa información valiosa, como el incremento de producción de KPC en P. aeruginosa and the co-production of KPC plus metallobetalactamases, which has an implication both in treatment selection, isolation precautions and patient prognosisy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/genetics , Klebsiella , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , beta-Lactamases/genetics , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Carbapenems/pharmacology , Colombia/epidemiology , Hospitals , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
7.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 38(2): 197-203, abr. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388237

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: La producción de beta-lactamasas capaces de hidrolizar a los carbapenémicos es uno de los mecanismos de resistencia más preocupantes porque eliminan la última opción terapéutica frente a los microorganismos multi-resistentes. OBJETIVO: Determinar la producción de carbapenemasas tipo KPC y NDM-1, empleando métodos fenotípicos y genotípicos, en enterobacterias aisladas en un laboratorio clínico de la ciudad de Maracay, Venezuela. MÉTODOS: Se determinó la producción de carbapenemasas mediante métodos fenotípicos (según algoritmo de Malbrán) y genotípicos (amplificación de los genes blaNDM-1 y blaKPC por RPC) en enterobacterias aisladas en un laboratorio clínico durante el período marzo-agosto 2018. RESULTADOS: Se identificaron 605 enterobacterias de diferentes especies, siendo Escherichia coli la cepa con mayor porcentaje de aislamiento (61,3%), seguida por Klebsiella pneumoniae (14,9%). Diez y seis enterobacterias (2,64%) fueron positivas para la producción de carbapenemasas: 13 cepas de K. pneumoniae y tres del complejo Enterobacter cloacae. La RPC demostró que 14 cepas (87,5%) contienen el gen blaNDM-1 y dos (12,5%) el gen blaKPC; se observó 100% de concordancia entre la determinación fenotípica y la RPC para ambos grupos de enzimas. CONCLUSIONES: Los resultados mostraron mayor incidencia de la metalo-beta-lactamasa tipo NDM-1, reconocida como una alarma epidemiológica debido a que su rápida diseminación dificulta su control, por lo que la identificación del tipo de enzima permitiría establecer estrategias de manejo y control más certeras con la finalidad de erradicar a dichos patógenos.


BACKGROUND: The production of carbapenem-hydrolyzing beta-lactamases is one of the most concerning resistance mechanisms since it eliminates the last therapeutic option against multidrug resistant microorganisms. AIM: To determine the production of KPC and NDM-1 type carbapenemases, using phenotypic and genotypic methods, in isolated enterobacteria in a clinical laboratory in the city of Maracay, Venezuela. METHODS: The production of carbapenemases was determined by phenotypic (according to the Malbrán algorithm) and genotypic methods (amplification of the blaNDM-1 and blaKPC genes by PCR) in clinical isolates of Enterobacteriaceae during the period March-August 2018. RESULTS: 605 Enterobacteriaceae of different species were identified, being Escherichia coli the strain with the highest percentage of isolation (61.3%), followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae (14.9%). Sixteen strains (2.64%) were positive for carbapenemases production: 13 strains of K. pneumoniae and three of the Enterobacter cloacae complex. PCR showed that 14 strains (87.5%) carry the blaNDM-1 gene and two strains (12.5%) the blaKPC gene; 100% agreement was observed between phenotypic determination and PCR for both groups of enzymes. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study showed a higher incidence of metallo-beta-lactamase type NDM-1, which rapid dissemination and consequently difficult control has been cause of epidemiological alert. The identification of the type of enzyme would allow establishing more accurate management and control strategies in order to eradicate these pathogens.


Subject(s)
Humans , Enterobacteriaceae/genetics , Enterobacteriaceae Infections , Phenotype , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Venezuela , beta-Lactamases/genetics , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Genotype , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Laboratories , Anti-Bacterial Agents
8.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 54: e0728-2020, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1155535

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) is a causative agent of tuberculosis (TB) that causes death worldwide. METHODS: MTB was subjected to phenotypic drug-susceptibility tests (DST), and drug-resistant genes were sequenced. RESULTS: Previously treated patients were more likely to have positive smear results and exhibit drug resistance. New patients were more likely to be mono SM-resistant and less likely to be INH- and RIF-resistant. The most common mutations were katG (S315T), rpoB (S450L), rpsL (K43R), and embB (M306V). CONCLUSIONS: The proportion of mono-SM-resistant TB among new patients was higher.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genetics , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , China , Mutation , Antitubercular Agents/pharmacology
9.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 4363-4372, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921512

ABSTRACT

4,6-α-glucosyltransferases (4,6-α-GTs), which converts amylose into α(1-6) bonds-containing α-glucan, possesses great application potential in enzymatic synthesis of dietary fiber. Primers were designed according to the conserved motifs existing in the amino acid sequence of 4,6-α-GTs, and used to amplify a putative GTFB-Like 4,6-α-GTs gene (named as gtf16) from the genomic DNA of Lactobacillus. The gtf16 gene was cloned into the plasmid pET15b, expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3), followed by purification and characterization. The optimum pH and the optimum temperature of the purified enzyme were 5.0 and 40 °C, respectively. The biotransformation product of this enzyme was systematically characterized by thin-layer chromatography, NMR spectroscopy, and hydrolysis reaction. The Gtf16-catalyzed product shows a similar structure to that of the isomalto/malto-polysaccharide (IMMP), which is the amylose-derived product catalyzed by GtfB from Lactobacillus reuteri 121. Moreover, The Gtf16-catalyzed product contains up to 75% of α(1-6) bonds and has an average molecular weight of 23 793 Da. Furthermore, the content of the anti-digestive components was 88.22% upon hydrolysis with digestive enzymes.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Glucans , Glucosyltransferases/genetics , Lactobacillus fermentum/enzymology
10.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 3253-3267, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921422

ABSTRACT

Members of the ferric uptake regulator (Fur) protein family are bacterial transcriptional repressors that control iron uptake and storage in response to iron availability, thereby playing a crucial role in the maintenance of iron homeostasis. The fur null mutants of Pseudomonas aeruginosa could not be obtained because fur is an essential gene. In this study, We constructed a Fur inducibly expression strain Δfur/attB::PBAD-fur in order to study the effect of fur on the growth, biofilm formation, motilities and oxidative stress response of P. aeruginosa. The results showed that a low level of fur expression retarded the growth of P. aeruginosa at an iron-depleted condition, or under high concentration of iron, or in the presence of H2O2. Fur affected the biofilm formation and the motilities (swimming, twitching, and swarming) of strain PAO1. The production of pyoverdine is regulated by Fur. Interestingly, proteins from Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense MSR-1, which shares homology with Fur, can partially recover the pyoverdine production of strain Δfur/attB::PBAD-fur. This study provides new clues for the prevention and treatment of P. aeruginosa infections.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Hydrogen Peroxide , Magnetospirillum , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/genetics , Repressor Proteins/genetics
11.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2503-2512, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887816

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study is to provide a simple and reliable genetic typing approach for molecular drug susceptibility test of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, through the developing of fluorescence molecular marker of rifampicin resistance gene rpoB. Eleven fluorescent molecular markers of the rpoB gene were established by using the sequence difference between the amino acid positions 531, 526, 516, 511 and 513 of rpoB gene of rifampicin-resistant strains and the alleles of rifampicin-sensitive strains, combined with the PARMS technique (Penta-primer amplification refractory mutation system). We used 104 clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to validate this marker and it was verified by sequencing as 100% correct. These samples were also tested with proportional drug sensitivity test. The coincidence rate was 94.23%. The molecular markers had high reliability for genotyping of rpoB gene. It can also detect low-concentration drug-resistant samples (511/533 unit point mutations) whose phenotypic susceptibility cannot be detected. The eleven sets of fluorescent molecular markers could cover 92%-96% of rpoB gene mutation types of rifampicin-resistant strains, and provide new idea for rapid detection of rifampin-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Proteins/genetics , DNA-Directed RNA Polymerases/genetics , Drug Resistance, Bacterial/genetics , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Mutation , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genetics , Reproducibility of Results , Rifampin/pharmacology , Technology
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887737

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To evaluate multidrug resistant loop-mediated isothermal amplification (MDR-LAMP) assay for the early diagnosis of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis and to compare the mutation patterns associated with the @*Methods@#MDR-LAMP assay was evaluated using 100 @*Results@#The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of MDR-LAMP were 85.5%, 93.6%, 96.7%, and 74.4% for the detection of resistance to isoniazid and rifampicin, respectively, and 80.5%, 92.3%, 98.6%, and 41.4% for the detection of @*Conclusion@#MDR-LAMP is a rapid and accessible assay for the laboratory identification of rifampicin and isoniazid resistance of


Subject(s)
Antitubercular Agents , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Catalase/genetics , DNA, Bacterial/analysis , DNA-Directed RNA Polymerases/genetics , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial/genetics , Isoniazid , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/methods , Mutation , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolation & purification , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods , Oxidoreductases/genetics , Phenotype , Rifampin , Whole Genome Sequencing
13.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(2): 251-257, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1153347

ABSTRACT

Genetically modified plants are one of the tactics used in integrated pest management - IPM. There is great concern about the impact of these plants on non-target organisms. On the other hand, there is little information in the literature on the effects of transgenics (Bacillus thuringiensis) Bt on populations of phytophagous mites, and the physiological responses that this attack promotes on plants. The objective of this work was to evaluate the biology of the T. ludeni mite in Bt cotton, expressing the Cry1F and Cry1Ac proteins. To evaluate the behavior of food and oviposition preference of the T. ludeni with Bt cotton and isohybrid. Verify if the physiological stress caused by T. ludeni's attack is differentiated in Bt cotton. The mites were reared in Bt cotton and isohybrid, in a total of 40 replicates in the completely randomized design and the biological cycle was evaluated. The food preference and oviposition analysis were done with 10 replicates, with choice. The physiological stress was evaluated through chlorophyll fluorescence, under greenhouse conditions. The data of the T. ludeni biology were analyzed by Student's t-test, for food and oviposition preference the chi-square test was performed. Regression models were fitted for the fluorescence parameters. The model identity test was used to evaluate the differences between Bt and isohybrid treatments. Cry1F and Cry1Ac proteins have not affected the biology of T. ludeni. The photosynthetic parameters in Bt cotton plants were less influenced by T. ludeni infestation.


O uso de plantas geneticamente modificadas é uma das táticas utilizadas no manejo integrado de pragas - MIP. Observa-se grande preocupação com o impacto dessas plantas sobre organismos não alvos. Por outro lado, existe pouca informação na literatura sobre efeitos dos transgênicos (Bacillus thuringiensis) Bt em populações de ácaros fitófagos, e as respostas fisiológicas que esse ataque promove nas plantas. Objetivou-se com esse trabalho avaliar a biologia do ácaro T. ludeni em algodoeiro Bt, expressando as proteínas Cry1F e Cry1Ac. Avaliar se há comportamento de preferência alimentar e postura de T. ludeni em relação ao algodoeiro Bt e seu iso-híbrido. E verificar se o estresse fisiológico causado pelo ataque de T. ludeni é diferenciado em algodoeiro Bt. Os ácaros foram criados em algodoeiro Bt e iso-híbrido, em um total de 40 repetições no delineamento inteiramente casualizado, onde foi avaliado o ciclo biológico. A análise de preferência alimentar e de posturas foi feita com 10 repetições, com escolha. O estresse fisiológico foi avaliando através da fluorescência da clorofila, em casa de vegetação. Os dados da biologia de T. ludeni foram analisados pelo teste t Student, para preferência alimentar e postura foi realizado o teste qui-quadrado. Para os parâmetros da fluorescência, foram ajustados modelos de regressão. Para testar as diferenças entre Bt e iso-híbrido foi utilizado o teste de identidade de modelos. As proteínas Cry1F e Cry1Ac não afetaram a biologia de T. ludeni. Os parâmetros fotossintéticos em plantas de algodoeiro Bt foram menos influenciados pela infestação de T. ludeni.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Plants, Genetically Modified/genetics , Tetranychidae/genetics , Stress, Physiological , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Gossypium/genetics , Endotoxins , Bacillus thuringiensis Toxins , Hemolysin Proteins/genetics , Larva
14.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1619-1636, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878658

ABSTRACT

As a typical food safety industrial model strain, Bacillus subtilis has been widely used in the field of metabolic engineering due to its non-pathogenicity, strong ability of extracellular protein secretion and no obvious codon preference. In recent years, with the rapid development of molecular biology and genetic engineering technology, a variety of research strategies and tools have been used to construct B. subtilis chassis cells for efficient synthesis of biological products. This review introduces the research progress of B. subtilis from the aspects of promoter engineering, gene editing, genetic circuit, cofactor engineering and pathway enzyme assembly. Then, we also summarized the application of B. subtilis in the production of biological products. Finally, the future research directions of B. subtilis are prospected.


Subject(s)
Bacillus subtilis/genetics , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Gene Editing , Metabolic Engineering , Promoter Regions, Genetic
15.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 923-938, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878604

ABSTRACT

Bacillus subtilis is a model strain for studying the physiological and biochemical mechanisms of microorganism, and is also a good chassis cell for industrial application to produce biological agents such as small molecule compounds, bulk chemicals, industrial enzymes, precursors of drugs and health product. In recent years, studies on metabolic engineering methods and strategies of B. subtilis have been increasingly reported, providing good tools and theoretical references for using it as chassis cells to produce biological agents. This review provides information on systematically optimizing the Bacillus subtilis chassis cell by regulating global regulatory factors, simplifying and optimizing the genome, multi-site and multi-dimensional regulating, dynamic regulating through biosensors, membrane protein engineering. For producing the protein reagent, the strain is optimized by optimizing the promoters, signal peptides, secretion components and building the expression system without chemical inducers. In addition, this review also prospects the important issues and directions that need to be focused on in the further optimization of B. subtilis in industrial production.


Subject(s)
Bacillus subtilis/genetics , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Biotechnology , Metabolic Engineering , Promoter Regions, Genetic , Protein Sorting Signals/genetics
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878372

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To study the polymorphism in P66 and its human B-cell epitopes of @*Methods@#Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing were used to obtain the P66 sequences of 59 Chinese @*Results@#Results showed that genetic and amino acid diversity presented in the 66 kD protein of all 59 Chinese strains, especially in @*Conclusion@#In P66 of 59 Chinese strains, polymorphisms were widely distributed. More importantly, the P66 amino acid sequences of


Subject(s)
Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Borrelia burgdorferi/genetics , China , Cluster Analysis , Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte/genetics , Genetic Markers , Genotype , Humans , Mutation , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Polymorphism, Genetic , Porins/genetics
17.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 54: e20200087, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136920

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: In this study, we report a clonal dissemination of carbapenem resistant Acinetobacter baumannii isolates due to the acquisition of blaOXA-23 in a regional hospital located in Brazilian Amazon Region. METHODS: The isolates were identified by MALDI-TOF and the carbapenemase-encoding genes were detected by multiplex-PCR. The genetic similarity was investigated by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). RESULTS: Only 10 (55.6%) isolates harbored the gene bla OXA-23. PFGE analysis revealed that these isolates belong to a single clone. CONCLUSIONS: This dissemination strategy indicates the need for surveillance, adoption of control procedures defined in guidelines, and the careful administration of antimicrobials should be reinforced.


Subject(s)
Humans , Acinetobacter Infections/epidemiology , Acinetobacter baumannii/genetics , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , beta-Lactamases/genetics , Brazil/epidemiology , Drug Resistance , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field , Molecular Epidemiology , Hospitals , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
18.
Rev. argent. microbiol ; 52(3): 211-216, Sept. 2020. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS, BNUY, UY-BNMED | ID: biblio-1340906

ABSTRACT

Abstract Antimicrobial resistance due to carbapenemase production in Enterobacteriaceaeclinical isolates is a global threat. Klebsiella pneumoniae harboring the blaKPCgene is one ofthe major concerns in hospital settings in Latin America.The aim of this study was to characterize the antibiotic resistance mechanisms and to typifyfour carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae clinical isolates from the city of Manizales, Colombia.We identified blaKPC-3in all four isolates by polymerase chain reaction and subsequentsequencing. The plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes qnrB19-like and aac(6)Ib-cr;fosfomycin resistance gene fosA and an insertion sequence IS5-like in mgrB (colistin resistance)were also detected. Sequence types ST11 with capsular type wzi75, and ST258 with wzi154,were characterized. The blaKPC-3gene was mobilized in a 100-kb IncFIB conjugative plasmidwith vagCD toxin-antitoxin system.This work reports multiple resistance genes in blaKPC-producing K. pneumoniae and the firstoccurrence of ST11 clinical isolates harboring blaKPC-3in Latin America.


Resumen La resistencia a antibióticos mediada por la producción de carbapenemasas en aislamientos clínicos de Enterobacteriaceae es una amenaza mundial. Klebsiella pneumoniae portador de blaKPC es uno de los mayores problemas a nivel hospitalario en Latinoamérica. El objetivo de este estudio fue caracterizar los mecanismos de resistencia antibiótica y tipificar cuatro aislamientos clínicos de K. pneumoniae resistentes a carbapenems obtenidos en la ciudad de Manizales, Colombia. Se identificó blaKPC-3 en todos los aislamientos mediante reacción en cadena de polimerasa y secuenciación. También se detectaron los genes de resistencia transferible a quinolonas qnrB19-like y aac(6')Ib-cr y a fosfomicina fosA, y la secuencia de inserción /S5-like en mgrB (asociada a la resistencia a colistina). Se caracterizaron los secuenciotipos ST11 (cápsula wzi75) y ST258 (cápsula wzi154). Se comprobó que blaKPC-3 fue movilizado por un plásmido conjugativo IncFIB-vagCD de 100kb. En este trabajo se reportan múltiples genes de resistencia en K. pneumoniae productor de blaKPC y se describen por primera vez aislamientos clínicos ST11 productores de blaKPC-3 en Latinoamérica.


Subject(s)
Humans , Klebsiella Infections/microbiology , Klebsiella pneumoniae/isolation & purification , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , beta-Lactamases/genetics , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Klebsiella pneumoniae/genetics , Latin America/epidemiology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
19.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 37(4): 389-394, ago. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138563

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: Pseudomonas aeruginosa es relevante en infecciones asociadas a la atención de salud, principalmente cuando presenta resistencia a carbapenémicos. Objetivos: Estudiar la producción de carbapenemasas en P. aeruginosa, con susceptibilidad disminuida a carbapenémicos procesadas en el Laboratorio de Microbiología de la Red de Salud UC-CHRISTUS entre 2014-2015, y compararlas con las cepas estudiadas en 2004-2005. Métodos: Entre enero de 2014 y junio de 2015, se aislaron 459 cepas de P. aeruginosa provenientes de muestras clínicas. La susceptibilidad fue determinada por dilución en agar y a las cepas con susceptibilidad disminuida a carbapenémicos se les realizó test de carbaNP. Las cepas positivas fueron estudiadas por RPC para genes blaVIM, blaVIM-1, blaVIM-2, blaIMP, blaNDM, blaKPC, blaOXA y blaIMI. Se realizó en cepas seleccionadas electroforesis de campo pulsado. Resultados: De las 459 cepas estudiadas, 300 presentaban susceptibilidad disminuida a carbapenémicos (65,3%). De éstas, 183 fueron viables para estudio, correspondientes a 164 pacientes. El test de carbaNP fue positivo en 44 cepas de las 183 cepas (24%). Los genes de resistencia encontrados fueron: blaVIM-2 en 35 cepas, blaKPC-2+VIM-2 en 7 cepas y blaKPC-2 en 2 cepas. En las cepas blaKPC-2 se encontró relación clonal entre ellas. Conclusiones: Un 65,3% de P. aeruginosa presentó susceptibilidad disminuida a carbapenémicos, observándose que la presencia de carbapenemasas no es el principal mecanismo de resistencia. Además, se describe la emergencia en Chile de cepas de P. aeruginosa con carbapenemasas del tipo KPC-2 sola o en combinación con VIM-2.


Abstract Background: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a relevant infectious agent affecting patients within health care setting; this situation is worsening with the appearance of strains resistance to carbapenems. Aims: To study carbapenemase production in P. aeruginosa with decreased susceptibility to carbapenems processed in the microbiology laboratory of the Health Network UC-CHRISTUS in 2014-2015 and compare them with the strains studied in 2004-2005. Methods: Between January 2014 and June 2015, 459 strains of P. aeruginosa from clinical samples were isolated. Susceptibility was determined by dilution in agar and strains with reduced susceptibility to carbapenems were tested for carbaNP. Positive strains were studied by PCR for blaVIM, blaVIM-1, blaVIM-2, blaIMP, blaNDM, blaKPC, blaOXA and blaIMI genes. Pulsed field electrophoresis was performed on selected strains. Results: From 459 strains studied, 300 had reduced susceptibility to carbapenems (65.3%). Of these, 183 were viable for study, corresponding to 164 patients. The carbaNP test was positive in 44 strains of the 183 strains (24%). The resistance genes found were: blaVIM-2 in 35 strains, blaKPC-2+VIM-2 in 7 strains and blaKPC-2 in 2 strains. In the blaKPC-2 strains clonal relation between them was found. Conclusions: A 65.3% of P. aeruginosa presented decreased susceptibility to carbapenems being the presence of carbapenemases not the main resistance mechanism. In addition, the emergence in Chile of P. aeruginosa strains with bla of the KPC-2 type alone or in combination with VIM-2 is described.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/genetics , Carbapenems/pharmacology , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , beta-Lactamases , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Chile , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
20.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20190044, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057279

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Acinetobacter baumannii are opportunistic bacteria, highly capable of acquiring antimicrobial resistance through the production of carbapenemases and aminoglycoside modifying enzymes (AMEs). METHODS: Carbapenemase and AME genes were investigated in A. baumannii recovered from inpatients of a Brazilian hospital. RESULTS: The key genes found were bla OXA-51-like, the association ISAba1- bla OXA-23-like, and the AME genes aph(3´)-VI, aac(6´)-Ib, aac(3)-Ia, and aph(3´)-Ia. Different clusters spread through the institution wards. CONCLUSIONS: The dissemination of bla OXA-23-like and AME-carrying A. baumannii through the hospital highlights the need for improved preventive measures to reduce the spread of infection.


Subject(s)
Humans , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , beta-Lactamases/genetics , Acinetobacter Infections/microbiology , Acinetobacter baumannii/enzymology , Aminoglycosides/genetics , Brazil , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Acinetobacter baumannii/isolation & purification , Acinetobacter baumannii/drug effects , Tertiary Care Centers , Intensive Care Units , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
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