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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246436, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339391

ABSTRACT

Abstract Application of different fertilizers to check the efficiency of expression of Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) gene in one of the leading commercialized crops (cotton) against Lepidopteran species is of great concern. The expression of Cry protein level can be controlled by the improvement of nutrients levels. Therefore, the myth of response of Cry toxin to different combinations of NP fertilizers was explored in three Bt cotton cultivars. Combinations include three levels of nitrogen and three levels of phosphorus fertilizers. Immunostrips and Cry gene(s) specific primer based PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) analysis were used for the presence of Bt gene that unveiled the presence of Cry1Ac gene only. Further, the ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) kit was used to quantify the expression of Cry1Ac protein. Under various NP fertilizers rates, the level of toxin protein exhibited highly significant differences. The highest toxin level mean was found to be 2.3740 and 2.1732 µg/g under the treatment of N150P75 kg ha-1 combination while the lowest toxin level mean was found to be 0.9158 and 0.7641 µg/g at the N50P25 kg ha-1 level at 80 and 120 DAS (Days After Sowing), respectively. It was concluded from the research that the usage of NP fertilizers has a positive relation with the expression of Cry1Ac toxin in Bt cotton. We recommend using the N150P50 kg ha-1 level as the most economical and practicable fertilizer instead of the standard dose N100P50 kg ha-1 to get the desired level of Cry1Ac level for long lasting plant resistance (<1.5). The revised dose of fertilizer may help farmers to avoid the cross-resistance development in contradiction of insect pests.


Resumo A aplicação de diferentes fertilizantes para verificar a eficiência da expressão do gene Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) em uma das principais culturas comercializadas (algodão) contra espécies de lepidópteros é uma grande preocupação. A expressão do nível de proteína Cry pode ser controlada pela melhoria dos níveis de nutrientes. Portanto, o mito da resposta da toxina Cry a diferentes combinações de fertilizantes NP foi explorado em três cultivares de algodão Bt. As combinações incluem três níveis de nitrogênio e três níveis de fertilizantes de fósforo. A análise de PCR (reação em cadeia da polimerase) específica para o gene (s) Immunostrips e Cry (s) foi usada para a presença do gene Bt que revelou a presença do gene Cry1Ac apenas. Além disso, o kit ELISA (ensaio de imunoabsorção enzimática) foi usado para quantificar a expressão da proteína Cry1Ac. Sob várias taxas de fertilizantes NP, o nível de proteína de toxina exibiu diferenças altamente significativas. A média do nível mais alto de toxina foi de 2,3740 e 2,1732 µg / g sob o tratamento da combinação N150P75 kg ha-1, enquanto a média do nível mais baixo de toxina foi de 0,9158 e 0,7641 µg / g no nível de N50P25 kg ha-1 em 80 e 120 DAS (dias após a semeadura), respectivamente. Concluiu-se com a pesquisa que o uso de fertilizantes NP tem relação positiva com a expressão da toxina Cry1Ac no algodão Bt. Recomendamos o uso do nível de N150P50 kg ha-1 como o fertilizante mais econômico e praticável em vez da dose padrão N100P50 kg ha-1 para obter o nível desejado de nível de Cry1Ac para resistência de planta de longa duração (<1,5). A dose revisada de fertilizante pode ajudar os agricultores a evitar o desenvolvimento de resistência cruzada em contradição com as pragas de insetos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Hemolysin Proteins/genetics , Moths , Phosphorus , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Insecticide Resistance , Plants, Genetically Modified/genetics , Endotoxins/genetics , Fertilizers , Bacillus thuringiensis Toxins , Larva , Nitrogen
2.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 624-628, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985537

ABSTRACT

Objective: We analyze the characteristics of Clostridioides difficile (C. difficile) infection among diarrhea patients in Kunming from 2018 to 2020 and provide evidence for follow-up surveillance and prevention. Methods: A total of 388 fecal samples of diarrhea patients from four sentinel hospitals in Yunnan Province from 2018 to 2020 were collected. Real-time quantitative PCR was used to detect the fecal toxin genes of C. difficile. The positive fecal samples isolated the bacteria, and isolates were identified by mass spectrometry. The genomic DNA of the strains was extracted for multi-locus sequence typing (MLST). The fecal toxin, strain isolation, and clinical patient characteristics, including co-infection with other pathogens, were analyzed. Results: Among the 388 fecal samples, 47 samples with positive reference genes of C. difficile were positive, with a total positive rate of 12.11%. There were 4 (8.51%) non-toxigenic and 43 (91.49%) toxigenic ones. A total of 18 strains C. difficile were isolated from 47 positive specimens, and the isolation rate of positive specimens was 38.30%. Among them, 14 strains were positive for tcdA, tcdB, tcdC, tcdR, and tcdE. All 18 strains of C. difficile were negative for binary toxins. The MLST results showed 10 sequence types (ST), including 5 strains of ST37, accounting for 27.78%; 2 strains of ST129, ST3, ST54, and ST2, respectively; and 1 strain of ST35, ST532, ST48, ST27, and ST39, respectively. Fecal toxin gene positive (tcdB+) results were statistically associated with the patient's age group and with or without fever before the visit; positive isolates were only statistically associated with the patient's age group. In addition, some C. difficile patients have co-infection with other diarrhea-related viruses. Conclusions: The infection of C. difficile in diarrhea patients in Kunming is mostly toxigenic strains, and the high diversity of strains was identified using the MLST method. Therefore, the surveillance and prevention of C. difficile should be strengthened.


Subject(s)
Humans , Bacterial Toxins/genetics , Enterotoxins/genetics , Clostridioides difficile/genetics , Multilocus Sequence Typing , Coinfection , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , China/epidemiology , Clostridium Infections/epidemiology , Diarrhea/microbiology
3.
Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine ; (12): 416-421, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969904

ABSTRACT

To explore the clinical distribution and drug resistance characteristics of carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP), in order to provide reference for the prevention and treatment of CRKP infection. Retrospective analysis was performed on 510 clinical isolates of CRKP from January 2017 to December 2021, and strain identification and drug sensitivity tests were conducted by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometer and VITEK-2 Compact microbial drug sensitivity analyzer. The carbapenemase phenotype of CRKP strain was detected by carbapenemase inhibitor enhancement test. The CRKP strain was further categorized by immunochromogenic method and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used for gene detection. The results showed that 302 strains (59.2%) were derived from sputum, 127 strains (24.9%) from urine and 47 strains (9.2%) from blood. 231 (45.3%) were mainly distributed in intensive care, followed by 108 (21.2%) in respiratory medicine and 79 (15.5%) in neurosurgery. Drug susceptibility test result shows that the resistant rate of tigecycline increased from 1.0% in 2017 to 10.1% in 2021, the difference was statistically significant (χ2=14.444,P<0.05). The results of carbapenemase inhibitor enhancement test showed that 461 carbapenemase strains (90.4%) of 510 CRKP strains, including 450 serinase strains (88.2%), 9 metalloenzyme strains (1.8%), and 2 strains (0.4%) produced both serine and metalloenzyme. 49 strains (9.6%) did not produce enzymes. Further typing by immunochromogenic assay showed that 461 CRKP strains were KPC 450 (97.6%) and IMP 2 (0.4%). 7 NDM (1.5%); 2 strains of KPC+NDM (0.4%); PCR results were as follows: 450 strains of blaKPC (97.6%), 2 strains of blaIMP (0.4%), 7 strains of blaNDM (1.5%), and 2 strains of blaKPC+NDM (0.4%). In conclusion, CRKP strains mainly originated from sputum specimens and distributed in intensive care department, and the drug resistance characteristics were mainly KPC type in carbapenemase production. Clinical microbiology laboratory should strengthen the monitoring of CRKP strains, so as to provide reference for preventing CRKP infection and reducing the production of bacterial drug resistance.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Carbapenems/pharmacology , Klebsiella pneumoniae/genetics , Hospital Distribution Systems , Retrospective Studies , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , beta-Lactamases/genetics , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Drug Resistance, Bacterial/genetics
4.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 39(2): 109-116, abr. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388342

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: Existe un incremento de las infecciones por Klebsiella pneumoniae resistente a carbapenémicos (KPRC) en la población pediátrica y los datos epidemiológicos son limitados. OBJETIVOS: Conocer la frecuencia de KPRC en pacientes pediátricos, determinar la actividad in vitro de colistina y detectar el gen mcr-1 en dichos aislados. MATERIALES Y MÉTODOS: Se estudiaron 220 aislados de K. pneumoniae en un hospital pediátrico durante los años 2018 y 2019. La susceptibilidad antimicrobiana se determinó por microdilución en caldo según CLSI y EUCAST. Los genes blaKPC, blaNDM, blaIMP, blaVIM, blaOXA-48 y mcr-1 se analizaron mediante reacción de polimerasa en cadena (RPC). RESULTADOS: El 9,5% (n: 21) de los aislados fueron caracterizados como KPRC, donde se observó una resistencia a colistina de 47,6% (10/21) con valores de CIM50 de 2 μg/mL y CIM90 de > 4 μg/mL. En todos los aislados de KPRC se caracterizó el gen blaKPC y no se detectó el gen mcr-1. El perfil de resistencia observado en otros antimicrobianos fue el siguiente: gentamicina 100% (n: 21), ciprofloxacina 100% (n: 21), cotrimoxazol 100% (n: 21) y amikacina 19% (n: 4). Se observó 100% de sensibilidad a tigeciclina y ceftazidima/avibactam. CONCLUSIÓN: Este estudio demuestra un valor significativo de la resistencia a colistina en comparación a ceftazidima/avibactam y tigeciclina.


BACKGROUND: There is an increase of carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP) infections in the pediatric population and epidemiological data are limited. Aim: To calculate the frequency of CRKP in pediatric patients, to determine the in vitro activity of colistin and to detect the presence of mcr-1 gene in said isolates. METHODS: 220 isolates of K. pneumoniae were studied in a pediatric hospital between January 2018 and December 2019. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined by microdilution in broth according to guidelines of CLSI and EUCAST. The genes blaKPC, blaNDM, blaIMP, blaVIM, blaOXA-48 and mcr-1 were detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). RESULTS: 9.5% (n: 21) of the isolates were characterized as CRKP, where was observed a resistance to colistin of 47.6% (10/21) with values of MIC50 of 2 μg/mL and MIC90 of ≥ 4 μg/mL. In 100% of CRKP strains the blaKPC gene was detected and the mcr-1 gene was not found. The resistance profile to other antimicrobials was as follow: gentamicin 100% (n: 21), trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole 100% (n: 21), ciprofloxacin 100% (n: 21), amikacin 19% (n: 4). All of the isolates were sensitive to ceftazidime/avibactam and tigecycline. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates a significant value of resistance to colistin in pediatric patients compared to other last line antimicrobial such as ceftazidime/avibactam and tigecycline.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Klebsiella Infections/drug therapy , Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae , Argentina , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , beta-Lactamases/genetics , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Carbapenems/pharmacology , Ceftazidime , Colistin/pharmacology , Tigecycline , Hospitals, Pediatric , Klebsiella pneumoniae/genetics , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
5.
Biol. Res ; 55: 19-19, 2022. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1383921

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Acidophilic microorganisms like Leptospirillum sp. CF 1 thrive in environments with extremely low pH and high concentrations of dissolved heavy metals that can induce the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Several hypothetical genes and proteins from Leptospirillum sp. CF 1 are known to be up regulated under oxidative stress conditions. RESULTS: In the present work, the function of hypothetical gene ABH19_09590 from Leptospirillum sp. CF 1 was studied. Heterologous expression of this gene in Escherichia coli led to an increase in the ability to grow under oxidant conditions with 5 mM K2CrO4 or 5 mM H2O2. Similarly, a significant reduction in ROS production in E. coli transformed with a plasmid carrying ABH19_09590 was observed after exposure to these oxidative stress elicitors for 30 min, compared to a strain complemented with the empty vector. A co transcriptional study using RT PCR showed that ABH19_09590 is contained in an operon, here named the "och" operon, that also contains ABH19_09585, ABH19_09595 and ABH19_09600 genes. The expression of the och operon was significantly up regulated in Leptospirillum sp. CF 1 exposed to 5 mM K2CrO4 for 15 and 30 min. Genes of this operon potentially encode a NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase, a CXXC motif containing protein likely involved in thiol/disulfide exchange, a hypothetical protein, and a di hydroxy acid dehydratase. A comparative genomic analysis revealed that the och operon is a characteristic genetic determinant of the Leptospirillum genus that is not present in other acidophiles. CONCLUSIONS: Altogether, these results suggest that the och operon plays a protective role against chromate and hydrogen peroxide and is an important mechanism required to face polyextremophilic conditions in acid environments.


Subject(s)
Chromates/metabolism , Hydrogen Peroxide/metabolism , Hydrogen Peroxide/pharmacology , Operon , Bacteria/genetics , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Bacterial Proteins/metabolism , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Oxidative Stress/genetics , Escherichia coli
6.
Biol. Res ; 55: 9-9, 2022. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1383913

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen that causes listeriosis in humans. This pathogen activates multiple regulatory mechanisms in response to stress, and cobalamin biosynthesis might have a potential role in bacterial protection. Low temperature is a strategy used in the food industry to control bacteria proliferation; however, L. monocytogenes can grow in cold temperatures and overcome different stress conditions. In this study we selected L. monocytogenes List2-2, a strain with high tolerance to the combination of low temperature +copper, to understand whether the cobalamin biosynthesis pathway is part of the tolerance mechanism to this stress condition. For this, we characterized the transcription level of three cobalamin biosynthesis related genes ( cbiP , cbiB, and cysG ) and the eutV gene, a transcriptional regulator encoding gene involved in ethanolamine metabolism, in L. monocytogenes strain List2-2 growing simultaneously under two environmental stressors: low temperature (8 °C) +copper (0.5 mM of CuSO4 ×5H2O). In addition, the gene cbiP , which encodes an essential cobyric acid synthase required in the cobalamin pathway, was deleted by homologous recombination to evaluate the impact of this gene in L. monocytogenes tolerance to a low temperature (8 °C) +different copper concentrations. RESULTS: By analyzing the KEGG pathway database, twenty-two genes were involved in the cobalamin biosynthesis pathway in L. monocytogenes List2-2. The expression of genes cbiP , cbiB, and cysG, and eutV increased 6 h after the exposure to low temperature +copper. The cobalamin cbiP mutant strain List2-2Δ cbiP showed less tolerance to low temperature +copper (3 mM) than the wild type L. monocytogenes List2-2. The addition of cyanocobalamin (5 nM) to the medium reverted the phenotype observed in List2-2Δ cbiP . CONCLUSION: These results indicate that cobalamin biosynthesis is necessary for L. monocytogenes growth under stress and that the cbiP gene may play a role in the survival and growth of L. monocytogenes List2-2 at low temperature +copper.


Subject(s)
Humans , Listeria monocytogenes/genetics , Temperature , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Bacterial Proteins/metabolism , Vitamin B 12/genetics , Vitamin B 12/metabolism , Cold Temperature , Copper
7.
Biol. Res ; 55: 7-7, 2022. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1383911

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Aerobic metabolism generates reactive oxygen species that may cause critical harm to the cell. The aim of this study is the characterization of the stress responses in the model aromatic degrading bacterium Paraburkholderia xenovorans LB400 to the oxidizing agents paraquat and H 2 O2. METHODS: Antioxidant genes were identified by bioinformatic methods in the genome of P. xenovorans LB400, and the phylogeny of its OxyR and SoxR transcriptional regulators were studied. Functionality of the transcriptional regulators from strain LB400 was assessed by complementation with LB400 SoxR of null mutant P. aeruginosa ΔsoxR, and the construction of P. xenovorans pIZ oxyR that overexpresses OxyR. The effects of oxidizing agents on P. xenovorans were studied measuring bacterial susceptibility, survival and ROS formation after exposure to paraquat and H 2 O2. The effects of these oxidants on gene expression (qRT PCR) and the proteome (LC-MS/MS) were quantified. RESULTS: P. xenovorans LB400 possesses a wide repertoire of genes for the antioxidant defense including the oxyR , ahpC , ahpF , kat , trxB , dpsA and gorA genes, whose orthologous genes are regulated by the transcriptional regulator OxyR in E. coli . The LB400 genome also harbors the soxR, fumC , acnA , sodB , fpr and fldX genes, whose orthologous genes are regulated by the transcriptional regulator SoxR in E. coli . The functionality of the LB400 soxR gene was confirmed by complementation of null mutant P. aeruginosa Δ soxR . Growth, susceptibility, and ROS formation assays revealed that LB400 cells were more susceptible to paraquat than H2O2. Transcriptional analyses indicated the upregulation of the oxyR , ahpC1 , katE and ohrB genes in LB400 cells after exposure to H2O2, whereas the oxyR , fumC , ahpC1 , sodB1 and ohrB genes were induced in presence of paraquat. Proteome analysis revealed that paraquat induced the oxidative stress response proteins AhpCF and DpsA, the universal stress protein UspA and the RNA chaperone CspA. Both oxidizing agents induced the Ohr protein, which is involved in organic peroxide resistance. Notably, the overexpression of the LB400 oxyR gene in P. xenovorans significantly decreased the ROS formation and the susceptibility to paraquat, suggesting a broad OxyR regulated antioxidant response. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that P. xenovorans LB400 possess a broad range oxidative stress response, which explain the high resistance of this strain to the oxidizing compounds paraquat and H2O2.


Subject(s)
Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial , Escherichia coli Proteins/genetics , Escherichia coli Proteins/metabolism , Oxidation-Reduction , Repressor Proteins/genetics , Repressor Proteins/metabolism , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Bacterial Proteins/metabolism , Chromatography, Liquid , Oxidative Stress , Burkholderiaceae , Escherichia coli/genetics , Tandem Mass Spectrometry , Hydrogen Peroxide/pharmacology
8.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e235927, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1249226

ABSTRACT

Glutamine synthetase (GS), encoded by glnA, catalyzes the conversion of L-glutamate and ammonium to L-glutamine. This ATP hydrolysis driven process is the main nitrogen assimilation pathway in the nitrogen-fixing bacterium Azospirillum brasilense. The A. brasilense strain HM053 has poor GS activity and leaks ammonium into the medium under nitrogen fixing conditions. In this work, the glnA genes of the wild type and HM053 strains were cloned into pET28a, sequenced and overexpressed in E. coli. The GS enzyme was purified by affinity chromatography and characterized. The GS of HM053 strain carries a P347L substitution, which results in low enzyme activity and rendered the enzyme insensitive to adenylylation by the adenilyltransferase GlnE.


A glutamina sintetase (GS), codificada por glnA, catalisa a conversão de L-glutamato e amônio em L-glutamina. Este processo dependente da hidrólise de ATP é a principal via de assimilação de nitrogênio na bactéria fixadora de nitrogênio Azospirillum brasilense. A estirpe HM053 de A. brasilense possui baixa atividade GS e excreta amônio no meio sob condições de fixação de nitrogênio. Neste trabalho, os genes glnA das estirpes do tipo selvagem e HM053 foram clonados em pET28a, sequenciados e superexpressos em E. coli. A enzima GS foi purificada por cromatografia de afinidade e caracterizada. A GS da estirpe HM053 possui uma substituição P347L que resulta em baixa atividade enzimática e torna a enzima insensível à adenililação pela adenililtransferase GlnE.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Azospirillum brasilense/enzymology , Azospirillum brasilense/genetics , Ammonium Compounds , Glutamate-Ammonia Ligase/genetics , Escherichia coli/genetics
9.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 185-195, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927703

ABSTRACT

Clostridium difficile is an important zoonotic intestinal pathogen, which is widely present in humans and a variety of animals. The ST11 type C. difficile is one of the most widespread and harmful subtypes in the world. As a large country in pig farming, China lacks efficient methods for detecting C. difficile of porcine origin, leaving hidden dangers for the prevention and control of C. difficile. The aim of this study was to develop a specific and sensitive double-antibody sandwich ELISA for the epidemiological investigation of ST11 type C. difficile of porcine origin. Firstly, a 97 kDa receptor binding domain (RBD) was expressed in a prokaryotic host and purified. A hybridoma cell line AE2D3 capable of stably secreting monoclonal antibody targeting the RBD was screened, and the antibody subtype was determined to be IgG2b (κ). Secondly, a double antibody sandwich ELISA method was developed, where the monoclonal antibody targeting the RBD was used as a detection antibody, and the rabbit polyclonal antibody was used as a capture antibody. The chessboard method was used to determine the matching concentration of the capture antibody and the detection antibody, the antigen coating conditions, the blocking conditions, the incubation conditions for detection antibody and samples to be tested, as well as the reaction conditions of HRP-conjugated and reaction conditions of TMB chromogenic solution. The negative cutoff OD450 was 0.152, and no cross-reaction with 13 strains of non-ST11 type C. difficile was found. The minimum detection concentration of RBD was 8.83 ng/mL. This specific and sensitive double-antibody sandwich ELISA provides a reliable serological detection method for epidemiological investigation of the ST11 type C. difficile in pig industry.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Bacterial Toxins , Clostridioides difficile , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Hybridomas , Swine
10.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 148-159, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927700

ABSTRACT

The GapC protein of Streptococcus uberis located on the surface of bacteria is a protein with glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase activity. It participates in cellular processes and exhibits a variety of biological activities. In addition, it has good antigenicity. The aim of this study was to predict the possible B-cell epitopes of the GapC protein and verify the immunogenicity of candidate epitope peptides. The gapC gene of S. uberis isolate RF5-1 was cloned into a recombinant expression plasmid pET-28a-GapC and inducibly expressed. The purified protein was used to immunize experimental rabbits to produce anti-GapC polyclonal antibodies. The three-dimensional structure and three-dimensional location of the GapC B-cell epitopes and the homology comparison of the GapC protein and its B-cell epitopes were carried out using bioinformatics softwares. The results showed that the 44-kDa GapC protein had a good immunological reactivity. Six linear and 3 conformational dominant B-cell epitopes against the GapC protein were selected and synthesized. Three dimensional analysis indicated that the selected peptides have better antigen epitope formation potential. Rabbit anti-GapC polyclonal antibodies were generated after immunized with the purified GapC protein, and the polyclonal antibodies were used to identify the epitope peptide by an indirect ELISA. The ELISA results showed that all of the 9 epitope peptides could react with anti-GapC polyclonal antibodies with varying titers. Among them, the epitope polypeptide 266AANDSYGYTEDPIVSSD282 reacted with the polyclonal antibodies significantly stronger than with other epitope peptides. This study laid an experimental foundation for in-depth understanding of the immunological properties and utilizing effective epitopes of the GapC protein of S. uberis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Rabbits , Antigens, Bacterial/genetics , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte/genetics , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Streptococcus
11.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 38(5): 720-723, oct. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388291

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: En las últimas décadas, se ha incrementado la prevalencia de infecciones por bacilos gramnegativos resistentes a carbapenémicos. OBJETIVO: Determinar los tipos y la frecuencia de las distintas carbapenemasas en aislados de Klebsiella spp. y Pseudomonas aeruginosa, en seis hospitales de alta complejidad de Bogotá-Colombia. MÉTODOS: Estudio observacional descriptivo en seis hospitales de la ciudad de Bogotá, en el período de enero de 2017 a agosto de 2018. Se realizaron RPC para genes de KPC, GES, VIM, NDM, IMP y OXA-48 en cepas de Klebsiella spp y P aeruginosa resistentes a carbapenémicos. RESULTADOS: 52 aislados de P aeruginosa amplificaron para una carbapenemasa, de los cuales 39 (75%) fueron positivos para KPC, 11 (21%) para VIM y 2 co-producciones de KPC y VIM. En cuanto a Klebsiella spp., 165 cepas amplificaron al menos para una carbapenemasa, 98% expresaron KPC y 4 aislados tuvieron co-producciones de metalo-beta-lactamasas y KPC. DISCUSIÓN: Este estudio aporta información valiosa, como el incremento de producción de KPC en P. aeruginosa y la co-producción de KPC y metalo-beta-lactamasas, locual tiene una implicancia tanto en la selección del tratamiento, las medidas de aislamiento de contacto y el pronóstico de los pacientes.


BACKGROUND: In the last decades, the prevalence of infections by carbapenem resistant gram-negative bacilli has been increased. OBJECTIVE: To determine types and frequency of the different carbapenemases in Klebsiella spp. and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, in six hospitals in Bogotá-Colombia. METHODS: Descriptive and observational study, in six hospitals in the city of Bogotá, in the period ftom January 2017 to August 2018. PCR were performed for KPC, GES, VIM, NDM, IMP and OXA-48 genes, in carbapenem resistant Klebsiella spp. and P aeruginosa. RESULTS: 52 P aeruginosa isolates amplified a carbapenemase gene, of which 39 (75%) were positive for KPC, 11 (21%) for VIM and two co-productions of KPC and VIM. Regarding Klebsiella spp. 165 strains amplified at least one carbapenemase gene, 98% expressed KPC and four isolates had co-productions of metallo-P-lactamases and KPC. DISCUSSION: This study provides valuable information, such as the increased production of KPC in P. aeruginosa información valiosa, como el incremento de producción de KPC en P. aeruginosa and the co-production of KPC plus metallobetalactamases, which has an implication both in treatment selection, isolation precautions and patient prognosisy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/genetics , Klebsiella , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , beta-Lactamases/genetics , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Carbapenems/pharmacology , Colombia/epidemiology , Hospitals , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
12.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 38(2): 197-203, abr. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388237

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: La producción de beta-lactamasas capaces de hidrolizar a los carbapenémicos es uno de los mecanismos de resistencia más preocupantes porque eliminan la última opción terapéutica frente a los microorganismos multi-resistentes. OBJETIVO: Determinar la producción de carbapenemasas tipo KPC y NDM-1, empleando métodos fenotípicos y genotípicos, en enterobacterias aisladas en un laboratorio clínico de la ciudad de Maracay, Venezuela. MÉTODOS: Se determinó la producción de carbapenemasas mediante métodos fenotípicos (según algoritmo de Malbrán) y genotípicos (amplificación de los genes blaNDM-1 y blaKPC por RPC) en enterobacterias aisladas en un laboratorio clínico durante el período marzo-agosto 2018. RESULTADOS: Se identificaron 605 enterobacterias de diferentes especies, siendo Escherichia coli la cepa con mayor porcentaje de aislamiento (61,3%), seguida por Klebsiella pneumoniae (14,9%). Diez y seis enterobacterias (2,64%) fueron positivas para la producción de carbapenemasas: 13 cepas de K. pneumoniae y tres del complejo Enterobacter cloacae. La RPC demostró que 14 cepas (87,5%) contienen el gen blaNDM-1 y dos (12,5%) el gen blaKPC; se observó 100% de concordancia entre la determinación fenotípica y la RPC para ambos grupos de enzimas. CONCLUSIONES: Los resultados mostraron mayor incidencia de la metalo-beta-lactamasa tipo NDM-1, reconocida como una alarma epidemiológica debido a que su rápida diseminación dificulta su control, por lo que la identificación del tipo de enzima permitiría establecer estrategias de manejo y control más certeras con la finalidad de erradicar a dichos patógenos.


BACKGROUND: The production of carbapenem-hydrolyzing beta-lactamases is one of the most concerning resistance mechanisms since it eliminates the last therapeutic option against multidrug resistant microorganisms. AIM: To determine the production of KPC and NDM-1 type carbapenemases, using phenotypic and genotypic methods, in isolated enterobacteria in a clinical laboratory in the city of Maracay, Venezuela. METHODS: The production of carbapenemases was determined by phenotypic (according to the Malbrán algorithm) and genotypic methods (amplification of the blaNDM-1 and blaKPC genes by PCR) in clinical isolates of Enterobacteriaceae during the period March-August 2018. RESULTS: 605 Enterobacteriaceae of different species were identified, being Escherichia coli the strain with the highest percentage of isolation (61.3%), followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae (14.9%). Sixteen strains (2.64%) were positive for carbapenemases production: 13 strains of K. pneumoniae and three of the Enterobacter cloacae complex. PCR showed that 14 strains (87.5%) carry the blaNDM-1 gene and two strains (12.5%) the blaKPC gene; 100% agreement was observed between phenotypic determination and PCR for both groups of enzymes. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study showed a higher incidence of metallo-beta-lactamase type NDM-1, which rapid dissemination and consequently difficult control has been cause of epidemiological alert. The identification of the type of enzyme would allow establishing more accurate management and control strategies in order to eradicate these pathogens.


Subject(s)
Humans , Enterobacteriaceae/genetics , Enterobacteriaceae Infections , Phenotype , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Venezuela , beta-Lactamases/genetics , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Genotype , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Laboratories , Anti-Bacterial Agents
13.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 38(1)feb. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388210

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: La resistencia a carbapenémicos mediada por carbapenemasas en Pseudomonas aeruginosa es un mecanismo importante; sin embargo, la pérdida de la porina OprD continúa siendo el mecanismo más frecuente. Objetivo: Determinar la proporción de aislados de P. aeruginosa, resistentes a imipenem y/o meropenem, productores de carbapenemasas, el tipo de enzima producida y la relación genética entre los aislados. Material y Métodos: Se incluyó 113 aislados resistentes al menos a un carbapenémico, provenientes de 12 hospitales de 9 ciudades de Chile. Adicionalmente se determinó la susceptibilidad a ceftazidima, amikacina, gentamicina, piperacilina/tazobactam, ciprofloxacina y colistina. Se realizó Carba NP y en los aislados positivos (n: 61) se detectó genes de carbapenemasas por RPC. Los aislados fueron tipificados por restricción con SpeI y PFGE. Resultados: No todos los aislados presentan carbapenemasas, y sólo en 61/113 de ellos (54%) se amplificó blaKPC (32) o blaVIM (29). En ninguno de los aislados se encontró co-portación de ambos genes. Los pulsotipos indican que no hay diseminación clonal de los aislados, evidenciando una importante diversidad genética. Conclusiones: Los aislados de P. aeruginosa productores de carbapenemasas, obtenidos en hospitales de Chile, portan genes blaKPC y blaVIM y, en su mayoría, son policlonales. Estos resultados ponen énfasis en la importancia de realizar estudios epidemiológicos con mayor número de aislados que permitan conocer mejor la epidemiología de P. aeruginosa productoras de carbapenemasas en Chile.


Abstract Background: Carbapenem resistance mediated by carbapenemases in Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an important mechanism; however, loss of porin OprD remains as the most frequent. Aim: To determine the proportion of P. aeruginosa isolates, resistant to imipenem and/or meropenem, producing carbapenemases, the type of enzyme produced and the genetic relationship between the isolates. Methods: One hundred and thirteen resistant to at least one carbapenem isolates, obtained in 12 hospitals and 9 cities in Chile were studied. Additionally, susceptibility to ceftazidime, amikacin, gentamicin, piperacillin/tazobactam, ciprofloxacin and colistin was determined. Carba NP was performed and in the positive isolates carbapenemase genes were detected by PCR. The isolates were typified by restriction with SpeI and PFGE. Results: Not all isolates produce carbapenemases, and only in 61/113 of them (54%) the blaKPC (32) or blaVIM (29) was amplified. In none of the isolates was found the coharboring of both genes. The pulsotypes indicated no clonal dissemination of the isolates, evidencing an important genetic diversity. Conclusions: P. aeruginosa isolates producing carbapenemases, obtained in Chilean hospitals carry blaKPC and blaVIM genes and, mostly, are polyclonal. These results emphasize the importance of carrying out epidemiological studies with a greater number of isolates to allow a better understanding of the epidemiology of carbapenemase-producing P. aeruginosa in Chile.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Pseudomonas Infections , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/genetics , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , beta-Lactamases/genetics , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Carbapenems/pharmacology , Chile , Hospitals , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
14.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 54: e0728-2020, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1155535

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) is a causative agent of tuberculosis (TB) that causes death worldwide. METHODS: MTB was subjected to phenotypic drug-susceptibility tests (DST), and drug-resistant genes were sequenced. RESULTS: Previously treated patients were more likely to have positive smear results and exhibit drug resistance. New patients were more likely to be mono SM-resistant and less likely to be INH- and RIF-resistant. The most common mutations were katG (S315T), rpoB (S450L), rpsL (K43R), and embB (M306V). CONCLUSIONS: The proportion of mono-SM-resistant TB among new patients was higher.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genetics , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , China , Mutation , Antitubercular Agents/pharmacology
15.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 54: e20200087, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | SES-SP, ColecionaSUS, LILACS | ID: biblio-1136920

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: In this study, we report a clonal dissemination of carbapenem resistant Acinetobacter baumannii isolates due to the acquisition of blaOXA-23 in a regional hospital located in Brazilian Amazon Region. METHODS: The isolates were identified by MALDI-TOF and the carbapenemase-encoding genes were detected by multiplex-PCR. The genetic similarity was investigated by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). RESULTS: Only 10 (55.6%) isolates harbored the gene bla OXA-23. PFGE analysis revealed that these isolates belong to a single clone. CONCLUSIONS: This dissemination strategy indicates the need for surveillance, adoption of control procedures defined in guidelines, and the careful administration of antimicrobials should be reinforced.


Subject(s)
Humans , Acinetobacter Infections/epidemiology , Acinetobacter baumannii/genetics , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , beta-Lactamases/genetics , Brazil/epidemiology , Drug Resistance , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field , Molecular Epidemiology , Hospitals , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
16.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 4363-4372, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921512

ABSTRACT

4,6-α-glucosyltransferases (4,6-α-GTs), which converts amylose into α(1-6) bonds-containing α-glucan, possesses great application potential in enzymatic synthesis of dietary fiber. Primers were designed according to the conserved motifs existing in the amino acid sequence of 4,6-α-GTs, and used to amplify a putative GTFB-Like 4,6-α-GTs gene (named as gtf16) from the genomic DNA of Lactobacillus. The gtf16 gene was cloned into the plasmid pET15b, expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3), followed by purification and characterization. The optimum pH and the optimum temperature of the purified enzyme were 5.0 and 40 °C, respectively. The biotransformation product of this enzyme was systematically characterized by thin-layer chromatography, NMR spectroscopy, and hydrolysis reaction. The Gtf16-catalyzed product shows a similar structure to that of the isomalto/malto-polysaccharide (IMMP), which is the amylose-derived product catalyzed by GtfB from Lactobacillus reuteri 121. Moreover, The Gtf16-catalyzed product contains up to 75% of α(1-6) bonds and has an average molecular weight of 23 793 Da. Furthermore, the content of the anti-digestive components was 88.22% upon hydrolysis with digestive enzymes.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Glucans , Glucosyltransferases/genetics , Limosilactobacillus fermentum/enzymology
17.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 3253-3267, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921422

ABSTRACT

Members of the ferric uptake regulator (Fur) protein family are bacterial transcriptional repressors that control iron uptake and storage in response to iron availability, thereby playing a crucial role in the maintenance of iron homeostasis. The fur null mutants of Pseudomonas aeruginosa could not be obtained because fur is an essential gene. In this study, We constructed a Fur inducibly expression strain Δfur/attB::PBAD-fur in order to study the effect of fur on the growth, biofilm formation, motilities and oxidative stress response of P. aeruginosa. The results showed that a low level of fur expression retarded the growth of P. aeruginosa at an iron-depleted condition, or under high concentration of iron, or in the presence of H2O2. Fur affected the biofilm formation and the motilities (swimming, twitching, and swarming) of strain PAO1. The production of pyoverdine is regulated by Fur. Interestingly, proteins from Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense MSR-1, which shares homology with Fur, can partially recover the pyoverdine production of strain Δfur/attB::PBAD-fur. This study provides new clues for the prevention and treatment of P. aeruginosa infections.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Hydrogen Peroxide , Magnetospirillum , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/genetics , Repressor Proteins/genetics
18.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1619-1636, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878658

ABSTRACT

As a typical food safety industrial model strain, Bacillus subtilis has been widely used in the field of metabolic engineering due to its non-pathogenicity, strong ability of extracellular protein secretion and no obvious codon preference. In recent years, with the rapid development of molecular biology and genetic engineering technology, a variety of research strategies and tools have been used to construct B. subtilis chassis cells for efficient synthesis of biological products. This review introduces the research progress of B. subtilis from the aspects of promoter engineering, gene editing, genetic circuit, cofactor engineering and pathway enzyme assembly. Then, we also summarized the application of B. subtilis in the production of biological products. Finally, the future research directions of B. subtilis are prospected.


Subject(s)
Bacillus subtilis/genetics , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Gene Editing , Metabolic Engineering , Promoter Regions, Genetic
19.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 923-938, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878604

ABSTRACT

Bacillus subtilis is a model strain for studying the physiological and biochemical mechanisms of microorganism, and is also a good chassis cell for industrial application to produce biological agents such as small molecule compounds, bulk chemicals, industrial enzymes, precursors of drugs and health product. In recent years, studies on metabolic engineering methods and strategies of B. subtilis have been increasingly reported, providing good tools and theoretical references for using it as chassis cells to produce biological agents. This review provides information on systematically optimizing the Bacillus subtilis chassis cell by regulating global regulatory factors, simplifying and optimizing the genome, multi-site and multi-dimensional regulating, dynamic regulating through biosensors, membrane protein engineering. For producing the protein reagent, the strain is optimized by optimizing the promoters, signal peptides, secretion components and building the expression system without chemical inducers. In addition, this review also prospects the important issues and directions that need to be focused on in the further optimization of B. subtilis in industrial production.


Subject(s)
Bacillus subtilis/genetics , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Biotechnology , Metabolic Engineering , Promoter Regions, Genetic , Protein Sorting Signals/genetics
20.
Biomedical and Environmental Sciences ; (12): 364-371, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878372

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To study the polymorphism in P66 and its human B-cell epitopes of @*Methods@#Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing were used to obtain the P66 sequences of 59 Chinese @*Results@#Results showed that genetic and amino acid diversity presented in the 66 kD protein of all 59 Chinese strains, especially in @*Conclusion@#In P66 of 59 Chinese strains, polymorphisms were widely distributed. More importantly, the P66 amino acid sequences of


Subject(s)
Humans , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Borrelia burgdorferi/genetics , China , Cluster Analysis , Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte/genetics , Genetic Markers , Genotype , Mutation , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Polymorphism, Genetic , Porins/genetics
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