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1.
Biomolecules & Therapeutics ; : 222-230, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739654

ABSTRACT

Intestinal barrier dysfunction always accompanies cirrhosis in patients with advanced liver disease and is an important contributor facilitating bacterial translocation (BT), which has been involved in the pathogenesis of cirrhosis and its complications. Several studies have demonstrated the protective effect of Vitamin D on intestinal barrier function. However, severe cholestasis leads to vitamin D depletion. This study was designed to test whether vitamin D therapy improves intestinal dysfunction in cirrhosis. Rats were subcutaneously injected with 50% sterile CCl₄ (a mixture of pure CCl₄ and olive oil, 0.3 mL/100 g) twice a week for 6 weeks. Next, 1,25(OH)₂D₃(0.5 µg/100 g) and the vehicle were administered simultaneously with CCl₄ to compare the extent of intestinal histologic damage, tight junction protein expression, intestinal barrier function, BT, intestinal proliferation, apoptosis, and enterocyte turnover. Intestinal heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression and oxidative stress were also assessed. We found that vitamin D could maintain intestinal epithelial proliferation and turnover, inhibit intestinal epithelial apoptosis, alleviate structural damage, and prevent BT and intestinal barrier dysfunction. These were achieved partly through restoration of HO-1 and inhibition of oxidative stress. Taken together, our results suggest that vitamin D ameliorated intestinal epithelial turnover and improved the integrity and function of intestinal barrier in CCl₄-induced liver cirrhotic rats. HO-1 signaling activation was involved in these above beneficial effects.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Rats , Apoptosis , Bacterial Translocation , Cholestasis , Enterocytes , Fibrosis , Heme Oxygenase-1 , Heme , Liver , Liver Diseases , Olive Oil , Oxidative Stress , Tight Junctions , Vitamin D , Vitamins
2.
Chinese Journal of Applied Physiology ; (6): 47-49, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776562

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the protective effects of shen-mai injection on intestinal barrier function in the early stage of 30% 3° scald, and to provide experimental basis for the prevention and control of enterogenic infection.@*METHODS@#A total of 60 Wistar rats were randomly divided into 6 groups: normal control group (without treatment), model control group (with 30% total body surface area (TBSA) fully thickness burn on the back), hexadecadrol (5 mg/kg) group, Shenmai injection (5, 10, 15 mg/kg) groups, with 10 rats in each group. After burned by scald apparatus, rats in each group were treated with drugs immediately by intraperitoneal injection once a day. At 72 hours after burned, the levels of plasma endotoxin, diamine oxidase (DAO), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukins-6(IL-6) in all rats were detected and the mesenteric lymph nodes, liver and spleen were homogenized to culture for bacteria. The change of secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) in intestinal mucosa was measured.@*RESULTS@#Compared with normal control group, bacterial translocation quantity in mesenteric lymph nodes(MLN), liver, and spleen, and the plasma levels of DAO, endotoxin, TNF-α, IL-6 and the level of sIgA in intestinal mucosa in model control group were increased significantly (P<0.01); compared with model control group, bacterial translocation quantity in MLN, liver, and spleen, and the plasma levels of DAO, endotoxin, TNF-α, IL-6 and the level of sIgA in intestinal mucosa in hexadecadrol (5 mg/kg) group and shen-mai injection (5, 10, 15 mg/kg) groups were decreased significantly (P<0.05 or P<0.01).@*CONCLUSION@#Shen-mai injection can alleviate intestinal mucosa injury caused by severe scald, and the effects are similar with those of dexamethasone, and the effect is better in the high-dose group.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Bacterial Translocation , Burns , Drug Combinations , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Pharmacology , Intestinal Mucosa , Pathology , Random Allocation , Rats, Wistar
3.
Clinics ; 72(10): 645-648, Oct. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039533

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Disruption of the intestinal barrier and bacterial translocation commonly occur when intestinal blood flow is compromised. The aim of this study was to determine whether liver resection induces intestinal damage. METHODS: We investigated intestinal fatty-acid binding protein and insulin-like growth factor binding protein levels in the plasma of patients who underwent liver resection. RESULTS: We show that liver resection is associated with significant intestinal barrier injury, even if the Pringle maneuver is not performed. CONCLUSION: We propose the use of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 as a novel biomarker of intestinal damage in such situations.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Venous Pressure/physiology , Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 1/blood , Hepatectomy/adverse effects , Intestinal Mucosa/blood supply , Intestinal Mucosa/injuries , Liver Neoplasms/surgery , Liver Neoplasms/secondary , Postoperative Complications , Biomarkers/blood , Treatment Outcome , Colonic Neoplasms/pathology , Bacterial Translocation , Fatty Acid-Binding Proteins/blood
4.
Acta cir. bras ; 32(8): 641-647, Aug. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886231

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose: To develop an experimental model of intestinal ischemia and obstruction followed by surgical resection of the damaged segment and reestablishment of intestinal transit, looking at bacterial translocation and survival. Methods: After anesthesia, Wistar rats was subject to laparotomy, intestinal ischemia and obstruction through an ileal ligature 1.5cm of ileum cecal valve; and the mesenteric vessels that irrigate upstream of the obstruction site to approximately 7 to 10 cm were ligated. Abdominal wall was closed. Three, six or twenty-four hours after, rats were subject to enterectomy followed by an end to end anastomosis. After 24h, mesenteric lymph nodes, liver, spleen and lung tissues were surgically removed. It was studied survival rate and bacterial translocation. GraphPadPrism statistical program was used. Results: Animals with intestinal ischemia and obstruction for 3 hours survived 24 hours after enterectomy; 6hx24h: survival was 70% at 24 hours; 24hx24h: survival was 70% and 40%, before and after enterectomy, respectively. Culture of tissues showed positivity on the 6hx24h and negativity on the 3hx24h. Conclusion: The model that best approached the clinic was the one of 6x24h of ischemia and intestinal obstruction, in which it was observed bacterial translocation and low mortality rate.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Bacterial Translocation/physiology , Disease Models, Animal , Mesenteric Ischemia/microbiology , Ileocecal Valve/blood supply , Ileocecal Valve/microbiology , Intestinal Obstruction/microbiology , Time Factors , Colony Count, Microbial , Survival Rate , Reproducibility of Results , Rats, Wistar , Mesenteric Ischemia/surgery , Mesenteric Ischemia/mortality , Gram-Negative Anaerobic Bacteria/isolation & purification , Gram-Negative Anaerobic Bacteria/physiology , Ileocecal Valve/surgery , Intestinal Obstruction/surgery , Intestinal Obstruction/mortality , Ligation
5.
Gut and Liver ; : 702-710, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-175159

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Non-selective beta blockers (NSBBs) are currently the only accepted regimen for preventing portal hypertension (PHT)-related complications. However, the effect of NSBBs is insufficient in many cases. Bacterial translocation (BT) is one of the aggravating factors of PHT in cirrhosis; therefore, selective intestinal decontamination by rifaximin is a possible therapeutic option for improving PHT. We investigated whether the addition of rifaximin to propranolol therapy can improve hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) response. METHODS: Sixty-four cirrhosis patients were randomly assigned to propranolol monotherapy (n=48) versus rifaximin and propranolol combination therapy (n=16). Baseline and post-treatment HVPG values, BT-related markers (lipopolysaccharide [LPS], LPS-binding protein [LBP], interleukin-6 [IL-6], and tumor necrosis factor α [TNF-α]), serological data, and adverse event data were collected. HVPG response rate was the primary endpoint. RESULTS: Combination therapy was associated with better HVPG response rates than monotherapy (56.2% vs 87.5%, p=0.034). In combination therapy, posttreatment BT-related markers were significantly decreased (LPS, p=0.005; LBP, p=0.005; IL-6, p=0.005; TNF-α, p=0.047). CONCLUSIONS: Rifaximin combination therapy showed an additive effect in improving PHT compared to propranolol monotherapy. These pilot data suggest that the addition of rifaximin to NSBBs could be a good therapeutic option for overcoming the limited effectiveness of NSBBs.


Subject(s)
Humans , Bacterial Translocation , Decontamination , Fibrosis , Hypertension, Portal , Interleukin-6 , Pilot Projects , Portal Pressure , Propranolol , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Venous Pressure
6.
Experimental & Molecular Medicine ; : e370-2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-174864

ABSTRACT

Chronic high-salt diet-associated renal injury is a key risk factor for the development of hypertension. However, the mechanism by which salt triggers kidney damage is poorly understood. Our study investigated how high salt (HS) intake triggers early renal injury by considering the ‘gut-kidney axis’. We fed mice 2% NaCl in drinking water continuously for 8 weeks to induce early renal injury. We found that the ‘quantitative’ and ‘qualitative’ levels of the intestinal microflora were significantly altered after chronic HS feeding, which indicated the occurrence of enteric dysbiosis. In addition, intestinal immunological gene expression was impaired in mice with HS intake. Gut permeability elevation and enteric bacterial translocation into the kidney were detected after chronic HS feeding. Gut bacteria depletion by non-absorbable antibiotic administration restored HS loading-induced gut leakiness, renal injury and systolic blood pressure elevation. The fecal microbiota from mice fed chronic HS could independently cause gut leakiness and renal injury. Our current work provides a novel insight into the mechanism of HS-induced renal injury by investigating the role of the intestine with enteric bacteria and gut permeability and clearly illustrates that chronic HS loading elicited renal injury and dysfunction that was dependent on the intestine.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Bacteria , Bacterial Translocation , Blood Pressure , Drinking Water , Dysbiosis , Enterobacteriaceae , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Gene Expression , Hypertension , Intestines , Kidney , Microbiota , Permeability , Risk Factors
7.
Acta cir. bras ; 31(3): 156-160, Mar. 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-777092

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of amifostine on bacterial translocation and overgrowth in colonic flora after acute radiation enteritis in a rat model. METHODS: Thirty-two female Wistar albino rats were divided into four groups: Group-1 (n=8): only normal saline was administered intraperitoneally. Group-2 (n=8): first serum saline was administered intraperitoneally and 30 minutes later 20 Gy radiation was applied to abdominopelvic region. Group-3 (n=8): only amifostine 200 ml/kg was administered intraperitoneally and radiation was not applied. Group-4 (n=8): first amifostine 200 ml/kg was administered intraperitoneally and 30 minutes later 20 Gy radiation was applied to abdominopelvic region. On the 5th day after radiation, samples of mesenteric lymph tissues and cecal contents were taken by laparotomy for microbiological culture. RESULTS: Intraperitoneal amifostine administration significantly decreased the bacterial overgrowth related to radiation in colon but did not significantly decrease the bacterial translocation. CONCLUSİON: Although not providing a full protection on the damaged mucosal barrier, amifostine significantly decreased the bacterial overgrowth in the cecal content after high dose radiation. There is a need to find out appropriate amifostine dose under different radiation applications avoiding bacterial translocation in gastrointestinal system.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Radiation Injuries, Experimental/microbiology , Radiation-Protective Agents/pharmacology , Amifostine/pharmacology , Bacterial Translocation/drug effects , Enteritis/chemically induced , Enterobacteriaceae/radiation effects , Radiation Dosage , Radiation Injuries, Experimental/prevention & control , Cecum/radiation effects , Cecum/microbiology , Rats, Wistar , Enteritis/microbiology , Enteritis/prevention & control , Enterobacteriaceae/physiology , Lymph/microbiology
8.
Korean Journal of Pancreas and Biliary Tract ; : 228-231, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-130337

ABSTRACT

Acute cholecystitis after colonoscopy is very rare, and has not been extensively studied. A 51-year-old male with history of acute cholecystitis caused by common bile duct stones 1 year ago underwent screening colonoscopy. Colonoscopy was performed without difficulty and showed normal findings. Two days after colonoscopy, right upper quadrant abdominal pain and fever were developed. Abdominal computed tomography showed an enlargement of gallbladder with diffuse wall thickening and gallstones in the neck of gallbladder. The findings were consistent with that of acute cholecystitis as post-colonoscopy complication. Although its pathophysiology is uncertain, possible causes including dehydration of patient, concentration of bile and bacterial translocation were suggested in previous reports. Due to its rarity, it is hard to suspect an acute cholecystitis as primary complication of colonoscopy. Thus acute cholecystitis should be considered in differential diagnosis of patients with abdominal pain and fever after colonoscopy, particularly those who with history of gallstones.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Abdominal Pain , Bacterial Translocation , Bile , Cholecystectomy , Cholecystitis , Cholecystitis, Acute , Colonoscopy , Common Bile Duct , Dehydration , Diagnosis, Differential , Fever , Gallbladder , Gallstones , Mass Screening , Neck
9.
Korean Journal of Pancreas and Biliary Tract ; : 228-231, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-130324

ABSTRACT

Acute cholecystitis after colonoscopy is very rare, and has not been extensively studied. A 51-year-old male with history of acute cholecystitis caused by common bile duct stones 1 year ago underwent screening colonoscopy. Colonoscopy was performed without difficulty and showed normal findings. Two days after colonoscopy, right upper quadrant abdominal pain and fever were developed. Abdominal computed tomography showed an enlargement of gallbladder with diffuse wall thickening and gallstones in the neck of gallbladder. The findings were consistent with that of acute cholecystitis as post-colonoscopy complication. Although its pathophysiology is uncertain, possible causes including dehydration of patient, concentration of bile and bacterial translocation were suggested in previous reports. Due to its rarity, it is hard to suspect an acute cholecystitis as primary complication of colonoscopy. Thus acute cholecystitis should be considered in differential diagnosis of patients with abdominal pain and fever after colonoscopy, particularly those who with history of gallstones.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Abdominal Pain , Bacterial Translocation , Bile , Cholecystectomy , Cholecystitis , Cholecystitis, Acute , Colonoscopy , Common Bile Duct , Dehydration , Diagnosis, Differential , Fever , Gallbladder , Gallstones , Mass Screening , Neck
10.
Rev. colomb. gastroenterol ; 30(3): 315-324, jul.-sep. 2015. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-765608

ABSTRACT

La peritonitis bacteriana espontánea (PBE) es una de las principales complicaciones de los pacientes cirróticos con ascitis y tiene gran importancia por las altas tasas de mortalidad y de recurrencia que presenta y que pueden mejorar considerablemente si se tiene un diagnóstico oportuno y se brinda el tratamiento óptimo. Es de tener en cuenta que, incluso en pacientes asintomáticos, se ha documentado una alta prevalencia de PBE. La profilaxis primaria y secundaria se constituye como una medida de gran relevancia al mejorar la sobrevida y disminuir las tasas de incidencia o recurrencia; sin embargo, deben ser aplicadas con mucha rigurosidad y con un buen seguimiento de los pacientes que van a ser sometidos a las mismas con el fin de prevenir la aparición de resistencia antibiótica. Algunos de los factores determinantes para someter a un paciente a profilaxis antibiótica son: episodio previo de PBE, pacientes con hemorragia de tracto digestivo y pacientes con evidencia de disfunción hepática dada por bajas concentraciones de proteínas en líquido ascítico e hiperbilirrubinemia. Con el uso de las principales bases de datos biomédicas (PubMed, ClinicalKey, EBSCO, Scielo, Scopus y OVID) se hizo una revisión de la literatura médica referente a la PBE, publicada tanto en español como en inglés, durante los últimos 5 años; dentro de esta se encontraron referencias bibliográficas muy valiosas, las cuales también fueron consultadas. Se evidenció cómo hay pocas publicaciones tanto a nivel latinoamericano como colombiano, dentro de las cuales se referencian algunas escritas por el mismo autor o por su grupo de trabajo.


Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) is a serious complication that occurs among cirrhotic patients with ascites. It is a major cause of the high rates of mortality among these patients and has high rates of recurrence. Early diagnosis and optimal treatment can result in considerable improvements. It is noteworthy that high rates of prevalence of SBP have even been documented in asymptomatic patients. Primary and secondary prophylaxis are of great significance for improving patients chances of survival and for decreasing the initial incidence and recurrence of SBP. Nevertheless, treatment must be applied with great rigor and patients must be monitored carefully to prevent the development of antibiotic resistance. Some of determinants for treatment with antibiotics are previous episode(s) of SBP, digestive tract, evidence of hepatic dysfunction, low concentrations of proteins in ascetic fluid and hyperbilirubinemia. This updates is based on a review of the medical literature about SBP published in both Spanish and English over the last five years and available in major biomedical databases (PubMed, ClinicalKey, EBSCO, Scielo, Scopus and OVID). Our review revealed that there are very few publications in Colombia and the rest of Latin America and Colombia, some of which were written by the authors and their workgroup.


Subject(s)
Humans , Ascites , Bacterial Translocation , Fibrosis , Peritonitis
11.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 48(3): 314-320, May-Jun/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-749879

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION : Bacterial translocation is the invasion of indigenous intestinal bacteria through the gut mucosa to normally sterile tissues and internal organs. Schistosomiasis may cause alterations in the immune system and damage to the intestines, portal system and mesenteric lymph nodes. This study investigated bacterial translocation and alterations in the intestinal microbiota and mucosa in schistosomiasis and splenectomized mice. METHODS : Forty female 35-day-old Swiss Webster mice were divided into the following four groups with 10 animals each: schistosomotic (ESF), splenectomized schistosomotic (ESEF), splenectomized (EF) and control (CF). Infection was achieved by introduction of 50 Schistosoma mansoni (SLM) cercariae through the skin. At 125 days after birth, half of the parasitized and unparasitized mice were subjected to splenectomy. Body weights were recorded for one week after splenectomy; then, the mice were euthanized to study bacterial translocation, microbiota composition and intestinal morphometry. RESULTS : We observed significant reductions in the weight increases in the EF, ESF and ESEF groups. There were increases of at least 1,000 CFU of intestinal microbiota bacteria in these groups compared with the CF. The EF, ESF and ESEF mice showed decreases in the heights and areas of villi and the total villus areas (perimeter). We observed frequent co-infections with various bacterial genera. CONCLUSIONS : The ESEF mice showed a higher degree of sepsis. This finding may be associated with a reduction in the immune response associated with the absence of the spleen and a reduction in nutritional absorption strengthened by both of these factors (Schistosoma infection and splenectomy). .


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Mice , Bacterial Translocation/physiology , Intestinal Mucosa/microbiology , Schistosoma mansoni , Schistosomiasis mansoni/microbiology , Chronic Disease , Disease Models, Animal , Parasite Egg Count , Parasite Load , Splenectomy , Schistosomiasis mansoni/physiopathology , Time Factors
12.
Chinese Journal of Integrated Traditional and Western Medicine ; (12): 1482-1489, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-286357

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To study the effect of Modified Dachengqi Decoction (MDD) as whole course therapy on mediators of inflammation in severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) model rats, and to compare interventional advantages over intestinal mucosal barrier (IMB) of SAP rats between whole course therapy of MDD and early stage therapy of MDD.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Totally 190 SD rats were divided into five groups according to random digit table, i.e., the sham-operation group, the model group, the octreotide (OT) group, the early stage MDD treatment group, the whole course MDD treatment group, 38 in each group. SAP models were established with retrograde injection of 5% sodium taurocholate into the pancreaticobiliary duct. Three hours after modeling normal saline (NS) was administered to rats in the sham-operation group and the model group by gastrogavage, once per 12 h.1.35 µg/100 g OT was subcutaneously injected to rats in the OT group, once every 8 h. 0.4 mL/100 g MDD was administered to rats in the early stage MDD treatment group, and 6 h later changed to NS (once per 12 h).0.4 mL/100 g MDD was administered to rats in the whole course MDD treatment group, once every 12 h. The accumulative survival rate and morphological manifestations of pancreas and small intestine were observed under microscope 48 h after modeling. Pathologic scores of the pancreas and small intestine were conducted at 4, 6, 24, and 48 h after modeling. Contents of serum amylase (AMY), alanine transaminase (ALT), and TNF-α were also detected. The expression of high mobility group box protein 1 (HMGB1) in the small intestine tissue was also detected by Western blot. The positive rate of bacterial translocation in mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs) was observed within 48 h. Correlations between serum TNF-α or HMGB1 in small intestinal tissue and pathological scores of the pancreas or the small intestine were analyzed.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The accumulative survival rate was 100. 0% in the sham-operation group, 79. 2% in the whole course MDD treatment group, 70. 8% in the OT group, 45. 8% in the early stage MDD treatment group, and 37.5% in the model group. At 6 h after modeling, pathological scores decreased more in the whole course MDD treatment group, the early stage MDD treatment group, the OT group than in the model group (P < 0.05). At 24 and 48 h after modeling, pathological scores of the pancreas and the small intestine decreased more in the whole course MDD treatment group and the OT group than in the early stage MDD treatment group (P <0. 05). At 6, 24, and 48 h after modeling, serum contents of AMY and ALT both decreased more in the whole course MDD treatment group, the early stage MDD treatment group, the OT group than in the model group (P < 0.05). At 48 h after modeling serum contents of AMY and ALT both decreased more in the whole course MDD treatment group and the OT group than in the early stage MDD treatment group (P < 0.05). At 6 h after modeling serum TNF-α levels decreased more in the whole course MDD treatment group, the early stage MDD treatment group, the OT group than in the model group (P < 0.05). At 6, 24, and 48 h after modeling the level of HMGB1 in the small intestinal tissue decreased more in the whole course MDD treatment group, the early stage MDD treatment group, the OT group than in the model group (P < 0.05). Of them, HMGB1 levels at 24 and 48 h were lower in the whole course MDD treatment group and the OT group than in the early stage MDD treatment group (P < 0.05). The number of MLNs bacterial translocation at 48 h after modeling was lower in the whole course MDD treatment group and the OT group than in the early stage MDD treatment group and the model group (P < 0.05). Serum TNF-α contents within 6 h were positively correlated with pathological scores of pancreas (r = 0.579, P < 0.01). ROC curve showed that serum TNF-α contents could predict the severity of SAP (ROC = 0.990, 95% Cl: 0.971 to 1.000). HMGB1 in the small intestine was positively correlated with pathological scores of the small intestine (r = 0.620, P < 0.01).</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>Early stage use of MDD could effectively reduce the release of TNF-α, while whole course use of MDD could effectively inhibit the expression of HMGB1. The latter could preferably attenuate injuries of the pancreas and the small intestine, lower MLNs bacterial translocation, and elevate the survival rate.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Bacterial Translocation , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , HMGB1 Protein , Intestinal Mucosa , Octreotide , Pancreas , Pancreatitis , Drug Therapy , Plant Extracts , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Taurocholic Acid , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
13.
Journal of Biomedical Engineering ; (6): 412-417, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-266663

ABSTRACT

This paper is to explore changes of intestinal mucosal barrier, intestinal flora, and bacterial translocation in rats with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). Twenty four male SD rats were randomly divided into the control group (n = 10) and the experimental group (n = 14). The model of severe acute pancreatitis of rats was induced by the method of injecting adversely 5% sodium taurocholate into the common biliary-pancreatic duct. All of the rats were killed after 24 hours and the level of the serum amylase and the plasma endotoxin was determined after that. The pathological changes of pancreas and small intestine were observed through hematoxylin-eosin staining (HE staining) and the abdominal viscera bacterial translocation rates were tested. With the method of real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) the quantity of the intestinal flora was analyzed. In the control group, the level of Escherichia coli, Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium were 2.08 ± 1.29, 11.04 ± 7.55 and 12.21 ± 4.95, respectively. On the contrast, the level of Escherichia coli in the cecum contents was much higher (9.72 ± 3.58, P < 0.01), while the Lactobacillus number was decreased significantly (0.67 ± 0.34, P < 0.01), and the Bifidobacterium number was also decreased (4.59 ± 3.42, P < 0.05) in the experimental group, so the ratio of Bifidobacterium/Escherichia coli was reversed. Besides, in the experimental group, the plasma endotoxin positive rates and the bacterial translocation rates were much higher (P < 0.01 or P < 0.05) and the pathology scores of pancreas and small intestines were also significantly higher (P < 0.01) than those in the control group. These results indicated that in severe acute pancreatitis rats, the intestinal mucosal barrier was severely damaged and the dysbacteriosis occurs in the intestinal canal. And these might relate to the occurrence and development of multiple organ infection.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Bacterial Translocation , Endotoxins , Intestinal Mucosa , Pathology , Intestines , Microbiology , Pancreas , Pathology , Pancreatitis , Microbiology , Pathology , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
14.
Chinese Journal of Applied Physiology ; (6): 561-566, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-254973

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To observe the ultrastructural change of the route of gut bacterial translocation in a rat with spinal cord injury (SCI).</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Forty Wistar rats were divided into the following groups: control group and 3 SCI groups (10 in each group). The rats in the SCI groups were established SCI model at 24 h, 48 h, and 72 h after SCI. Small intestine mucous membrane tissue was identified and assayed by transmission electron microscope, scanning electron microscope and immunofluorescence microscopy.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Small intestine mucous membrane tissue in control group was not damaged significantly, but those in SCI groups were damaged significantly. Proliferation bacteria in gut lumen attached on microvilli. The extracellular bacteria torn the intestinal barrier and perforated into the small intestinal mucosal epithelial cell. The bacteria and a lot of particles of the seriously damaged region penetrated into the lymphatic system and the blood system directly. Some bacteria were internalized into the goblet cell through the apical granule. Some bacteria and particles perforated into the submucosa of the M cell running the long axis of M cells through the tight junctions. In the microcirculation of mucosa, the bacteria that had already broken through the microvilli into blood circulation swim accompanying with erythrocytes.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The routes of bacterial translocation interact and format a vicious circle. At early step, the transcellular pathway of bacterial translocation is major. Following with the destroyed small intestine mucous, the routes of bacterial translocation through the lymphatic system and the blood system become direct pathways. The goblet cell-dendritic cell and M cell pathway also play an important role in the bacterial translocation.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Bacteria , Bacterial Translocation , Epithelial Cells , Microbiology , Goblet Cells , Microbiology , Intestinal Mucosa , Microbiology , Pathology , Intestine, Small , Microbiology , Pathology , Microvilli , Microbiology , Rats, Wistar , Spinal Cord Injuries , Microbiology
15.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 18(5): 561-564, Sep-Oct/2014. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-723074

ABSTRACT

Rothia aeria is an uncommon pathogen mainly associated with endocarditis in case reports. In previous reports, endocarditis by R. aeria was complicated by central nervous system embolization. In the case we report herein, endocarditis by R. aeria was diagnosed after acute self-limited diarrhea. In addition to the common translocation of R. aeria from the oral cavity, we hypothesize the possibility of intestinal translocation. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry and genetic sequencing are important tools that can contribute to early and more accurate etiologic diagnosis of severe infections caused by Gram-positive rods.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Male , Aortic Valve/abnormalities , Endocarditis, Bacterial/microbiology , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/diagnosis , Heart Valve Diseases/microbiology , Aortic Valve/microbiology , Bacterial Translocation , Endocarditis, Bacterial/diagnosis , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Heart Valve Diseases/diagnosis
16.
Acta cir. bras ; 29(6): 359-364, 06/2014. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-711592

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To determine the role of mesenteric lymph reperfusion (MLR) on endotoxin translocation in brain to discuss the mechanism of brain injury subjected to superior mesenteric artery occlusion (SMAO) shock. METHODS: Twenty-four rats were randomly assigned to MLR, SMAO, MLR+SMAO and sham groups. MLR was performed by clamping the mesenteric lymph duct (MLD) for 1 h and then allowing reperfusion for 2 h in the MLR group; SMAO involved clamping the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) for 1 h, followed by reperfusion for 2 h in the SMAO group; occlusion of both the SMA and MLD for 1 h was followed by reperfusion for 2 h in the MLR+SMAO group rats. RESULTS: SMAO shock induced severe increased levels of the endotoxin, lipopolysaccharide receptor, lipopolysaccharide-binding protein, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and tumor necrosis factor-α. Concurrently, MLR after SMAO shock further aggravates these deleterious effects. CONCLUSION: Mesenteric lymph reperfusion exacerbated the endotoxin translocation in brain; thereby increased inflammatory response occurred, suggesting that the intestinal lymph pathway plays an important role in the brain injury after superior mesenteric artery occlusion shock. .


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Bacterial Translocation/physiology , Brain Injuries/etiology , Endotoxins/physiology , Lymphatic Vessels/physiology , Mesentery , Mesenteric Vascular Occlusion/physiopathology , Reperfusion Injury/physiopathology , Acute-Phase Proteins/analysis , /analysis , Brain Injuries/metabolism , Carrier Proteins/analysis , Disease Models, Animal , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Endotoxins/analysis , Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1/analysis , Ligation , Lymphatic Vessels/surgery , Mesenteric Artery, Superior , Membrane Glycoproteins/analysis , Mesenteric Vascular Occlusion/complications , Random Allocation , Rats, Wistar , Reperfusion Injury/complications , Time Factors , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/analysis
17.
Gut and Liver ; : 237-241, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-31105

ABSTRACT

Alcoholic liver disease is a leading cause of morbidity and liver-related death worldwide. Intestinal bacterial overgrowth and dysbiosis induced by ethanol ingestion play an important role in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease. After exposure to alcohol in the lumen, enteric bacteria alter their metabolism and thereby disturb intestinal homeostasis. Disruption of the mucosal barrier results in the translocation of microbial products that contribute to liver disease by inducing hepatic inflammation. In this review, we will discuss the effects of alcohol on the intestinal microbiome, and in particular, its effects on bacterial metabolism, bacterial translocation and ecological balance. A better understanding of the interactions among alcohol, the host and the microbiome will reveal new targets for therapy and lead to new treatments.


Subject(s)
Humans , Bacterial Translocation/physiology , Central Nervous System Depressants/metabolism , Ethanol/metabolism , Intestines/microbiology , Lipopolysaccharides/physiology , Liver Diseases, Alcoholic/microbiology , Microbiota/physiology , Permeability
18.
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 932-937, 2014.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-337062

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To study the intestinal expression of defensin-5 (RD-5), soluble phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) and lysozyme in acute liver failure (ALF) using rat models, and to determine the relation of these expressions to intestinal bacterial translocation.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Forty-eight healthy male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into a control group (n=8) and a model group (n=40; intraperitoneal injection of 10% D-galactosamine). The model group was further divided into five subgroups according to the time lapse after model establishment (8, 16, 24, 48, and 72 hours). At the end of the experiments, homogenates of mesenteric lymph nodes, liver and spleen were cultured in agar for bacterial outgrowth.Hematoxylin-eosin stained sections of liver and terminal ileum were examined under an optical microscope to assess pathological changes. mRNA expression of RD-5, sPLA2 and lysozyme in the terminal ileum was determined by reverse transcription-polymerase reaction (RT-PCR), and protein expression of sPLA2 and lysozyme from the same anatomic location was determined by western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Means between groups were compared with one-way analysis of variance.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>ALF was successfully induced in the D-galactosamine injected rats. No bacteria grew in the organ cultures from the control group, while 8.3%, 37.5% and 58.3% of the rats in the 24-, 48-and 72-hour model groups showed positive cultures. Despite this, the structure of the terminal ileum from the rats in the 72-hour model group was nearly intact, without obvious necrosis of mucosal epithelial cells. Expression of RD-5 and sPLA2 mRNA in the model groups gradually increased at early time points and peaked at 16 hours after induction of ALF (1.291+/-0.153 and 1.131+/-0.128), which was significantly higher than that detected in the control group (0.725+/-0.116 and 0.722+/-0.112, t=69.25, 95.71, all P<0.01). After that, the expression of RD-5 and sPLA2 mRNA progressively decreased, and by 72 hours after the induction of ALF, the expression (0.415+/-0.104 and 0.425+/-0.076) was significantly lower than that of the control group (t=31.55 and 44.98, all P<0.01). Lysozyme mRNA expression in the model group peaked at 8 hours after ALF induction (1.211+/-0.107), which was higher than that of the control group at this time point (0.853+/-0.093), and by 72 hours after ALF induction it declined to 0.704+/-0.103, which was significantly lower than that of the control group (t=9.224; all P=0.009). In addition, at 72 hours after ALF induction the protein expression of both lysozyme and sPLA2 was significantly lower in the model group (0.327+/-0.086 and 0.382+/-0.057) than in the control group (0.583+/-0.121 and 0.650+/-0.093, t=12.28 and 15.83, P=0.004 and 0.001). Similar results were obtained with immunohistochemical staining.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The function of the ileal mucosal immune barrier in the rat model of acute liver failure decreased, along with decreases in expression of RD-5, sPLA2 and lysozyme in the Paneth cells.At the same time, the rate of organ bacterial translocation increased without obvious injury to the intestinal mucosa structure.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Bacterial Translocation , Defensins , Disease Models, Animal , Galactosamine , Injections, Intraperitoneal , Intestines , Liver Failure, Acute , Muramidase , Phospholipases A2 , Protein Precursors , RNA, Messenger , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
19.
Chinese Journal of Applied Physiology ; (6): 471-474, 2014.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-243456

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To study the protective effects of sacral nerve root electrostimulation on intestinal mechanical barrier in rats with spinal cord injury (SCI).</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Fifty six Wistar rats were divided into normal group, SCI control group and SCI group with sacral nerve root electrostimulation (8 rats in each subgroup at 24, 48, 72 h after spinal cord injury). The following experiments were performed respectively in rats from the 3 groups: bacteria culture from intestinal mesentery lymph nodes, liver, spleen, intestinal morphology observation and detection the protein expression level of ZO-1.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The intestinal mucosa appeared different degree of damage in SCI control group; cell-cell connections between intestinal epithelial cells were destroyed; Endotoxin levels in blood and the number of bacterial translocation increased obviously. Sacral nerve stimulation was found toimprove the intestinal mucosal, reduce the endotoxin content in the blood to normal level and the decrease the incidences of bacterial translocation of the gut origin. The expression of tight junction protein ZO-1 of rat intestinal tissue had no statistical differences among the 3 groups. On the other hand, the distribution of tight junction protein ZO-1 appeared different degrees of scattered and irregular in the control group while that in the experimental group appeared different degree of improvement as determined by the immunohistochemistry of rat intestinal tissue.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>sacral nerve root electrostimulation can rehabilitate the peristalsis of denervated colon, promote defeacation and decrease bacterial amount, protection of the intestinal mechanical barrier between intestinal epithelial cells and tight junction, reducing the endotoxin content in the blood and suppressing bacterial translocation from the gut.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Bacterial Translocation , Electric Stimulation Therapy , Endotoxins , Blood , Epithelial Cells , Cell Biology , Intestinal Mucosa , Physiology , Peristalsis , Rats, Wistar , Spinal Cord , Spinal Cord Injuries , Zonula Occludens-1 Protein , Metabolism
20.
Rev. Col. Bras. Cir ; 40(1): 55-59, jan.-fev. 2013. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-668850

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: avaliar os efeitos de diferentes tempos de pré-condicionamento isquêmico(PCI) intestinal sobre a translocação bacteriana (TB). MÉTODOS: Trinta ratos Wistar pesando 280±27g foram alocados em cinco grupos. No grupo IR (n=6), foi realizada laparotomia e a artéria mesentérica superior foi ocluída por microclampe atraumático por 30 minutos. Nos quatro grupos com pré-condicionamento (n=6 cada), antes dos 30 minutos de isquemia-reperfusão (I/R) os ratos foram submetidos a PCI de dois, cinco, dez e 15 minutos e, em seguida, ao mesmo tempo de reperfusão. Vinte e quatro horas após, para avaliar se os tempos de pré-condicionamento influenciam o aparecimento de translocação bacteriana, amostras de linfonodos mesentéricos, fígado e baço foram coletadas em condições estéreis, para quantificação de unidades formadoras de colônias bacterianas por grama de tecido (UFC/g). Sangue foi coletado para dosagem de citocinas. RESULTADOS: No grupo I/R, o total de UFC/g em linfonodos mesentéricos, baço, fígado, bem como, a dosagem sérica de TNF-a, IL-1b e IL-6 foram significativamente maiores do que nos demais grupos (p<0,05). Pré-condicionamento de 15 minutos atenuou significativamente a BT e as citocinas séricas, comparando com os outros tempos de pré-condicionamento (p<0,05). CONCLUSÃO: Nossos dados sugerem o pré-condicionamento como fator-chave para reduzir translocação bacteriana em I/R intestinal. Numa escala de dois a 15 minutos, o melhor tempo de pré-condicionamento isquêmico para a atenuação da translocação bacteriana foi 15 minutos.


OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of different times of ischemic preconditioning (IPC) on intestinal bacterial translocation (BT). METHODS: Thirty Wistar rats weighing 280 ± 27g were divided into five groups. In the IR group (n = 6), laparotomy was performed and the superior mesenteric artery was occluded by an atraumatic microclamp for 30 minutes. In the four preconditioning groups (n = 6 each) before the 30 minutes of ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) rats underwent IPC for two, five, ten and 15 minutes, followed by the same time of reperfusion. In order to assess whether the time of preconditioning influenced the onset of bacterial translocation, samples of mesenteric lymph nodes, liver and spleen were collected in sterile conditions twenty-four hours after the procedures for quantification of bacterial colony forming units per gram of tissue (CFU/g). Blood was collected for measurement of cytokines. RESULTS: In the I/R group, the total CFU/g in mesenteric lymph nodes, spleen, liver, as well as the serum TNF-á, IL-1â and IL-6 were significantly higher than in the other groups (p <0.05). Preconditioning for 15 minutes significantly attenuated BT and serum cytokines when compared to other periods of preconditioning (p <0.05). CONCLUSION: Our data suggest preconditioning as a key factor to reduce bacterial translocation in intestinal I/R. On a scale of two to 15 minutes, the best time of ischemic preconditioning for the attenuation of bacterial translocation was 15 minutes.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Bacterial Translocation , Intestines/blood supply , Ischemic Preconditioning/methods , Rats, Wistar , Time Factors
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