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1.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 949-953, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985618

ABSTRACT

Objective: To analyze the epidemic characteristics and drug resistance of pulmonary tuberculosis among the floating population in Beijing and to provide a scientific basis for formulating strategies for the prevention and control of tuberculosis among the floating population. Methods: Data of tuberculosis patients who were positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis culture was collected from 16 districts and one municipal institution of tuberculosis control and prevention in Beijing in 2019. The strain samples were tested for drug sensitivity by the proportional method. According to household registration location, patients were divided into the floating population and Beijing registration. SPSS 19.0 software analyzed tuberculosis patients' epidemic characteristics and drug resistance in the floating population. Results: In 2019, there were 1 171 culture-positive tuberculosis patients in Beijing, among the floating population, 593 (50.64%) patients were identified, with a male-to-female sex ratio of 2.2∶1 (409∶184). Compared to patients under household registration as Beijing residents, a higher proportion of young adults aged 20-39 years (65.09%,386/593) were noticed, with 55.65% (330/593) reported from the urban areas and 96.80% (574/593) were reported the first time. The differences were statistically significant (all P<0.05). After completing the drug sensitivity test, 37 cases were with multiple drug-resistant tuberculosis, accounting for 6.24% (37/593). The rates of isoniazid resistance (42.11%,8/19) and multidrug resistance (21.05%,4/19) in floating population patients after retreatment were significantly higher than those in newly treated patients (11.67%, 67/574 and 5.75%, 33/574), and the differences were statistically significant (all P<0.05). Conclusions: Most patients with tuberculosis in the floating population in Beijing in 2019 were young males aged 20-39 years. The reporting areas were urban areas and the newly treated patients mainly. The patients with tuberculosis in the re-treated floating population were more likely to suffer from multidrug and drug resistance, which should be taken as the key population for prevention and control.


Subject(s)
Young Adult , Humans , Female , Male , Beijing/epidemiology , Tuberculosis , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/epidemiology , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/epidemiology , Drug Resistance
2.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 924-930, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985614

ABSTRACT

Objective: To understand the relationship between secondhand smoke exposure and dyslipidemia among adults in Beijing and to provide a scientific basis for relevant intervention. Methods: Data were from Beijing Adult Non-communicable and Chronic Diseases and Risk Factors Surveillance Program in 2017. A total of 13 240 respondents were selected by multistage cluster stratified sampling method. The monitoring contents include a questionnaire survey, physical measurement, collection of fasting venous blood, and determination of related biochemical indicators. SPSS 20.0 software was used for the chi-square test and multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results: The prevalence of total dyslipidemia (39.27%), hypertriglyceridemia (22.61%), and high LDL-C (6.03%) were the highest among those exposed to daily secondhand smoke. Among the male respondents, the prevalence of total dyslipidemia (44.42%) and hypertriglyceridemia (26.12%) were the highest among those exposed to secondhand smoke daily. Multivariate logistic regression analysis after adjustment for confounding factors showed that compared with no exposure to secondhand smoke, the population with an average exposure frequency of 1-3 days per week had the highest risk of total dyslipidemia (OR=1.276, 95%CI: 1.023-1.591). Among the patients with hypertriglyceridemia, those exposed to secondhand smoke daily had the highest risk (OR=1.356, 95%CI: 1.107-1.661). Among the male respondents, those exposed to secondhand smoke for 1-3 days per week had a higher risk of total dyslipidemia (OR=1.366, 95%CI: 1.019-1.831), and the highest risk of hypertriglyceridemia (OR=1.377, 95%CI: 1.058-1.793). There was no significant correlation between the frequency of secondhand smoke exposure and the risk of dyslipidemia among female respondents. Conclusions: Secondhand smoke exposure in Beijing adults, especially men, will increase the risk of total dyslipidemia, especially hyperlipidemia. Improving personal health awareness and minimizing or avoiding exposure to secondhand smoke is necessary.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Female , Male , Tobacco Smoke Pollution/adverse effects , Beijing , Dyslipidemias/epidemiology , Hypertriglyceridemia/epidemiology , Fasting
3.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 765-771, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985559

ABSTRACT

Objective: To understand the influence of meteorological factors on the morbidity of influenza in northern cities of China and explore the differences in the influence of meteorological factors on the morbidity of influenza in 15 cities. Methods: The monthly reported morbidity of influenza and monthly meteorological data from 2008 to 2020 were collected in 15 provincial capital cities, including Xi 'an, Lanzhou, Xining, Yinchuan and Urumqi (5 northwestern cities), Beijing, Tianjin, Shijiazhuang, Taiyuan, Hohhot, Ji'nan, Zhengzhou (7 northern cities), Shenyang, Changchun and Harbin (3 northeastern cities). The panel data regression model was applied to conduct quantitative analyze on the influence of meteorological factors on influenza morbidity. Results: The univariate and multivariate panel regression analysis showed that after controlling the population density and other meteorological factors, for each 5 ℃ drop of monthly average temperature, the morbidity change percentage (MCP) of influenza was 11.35%, 34.04% and 25.04% in the 3 northeastern cities, 7 northern cities and 5 northwestern cities, respectively, and the best lag period months was 1, 0 and 1 month; When the monthly average relative humidity decreased by 10%, the MCP was 15.84% in 3 cities in northeastern China and 14.80% in 7 cities in northern China respectively, and the best lag period months was 2 and 1 months respectively; The MCP of 5 cities in northwestern China was 4.50% for each 10 mm reduction of monthly accumulated precipitation, and the best lag period months was 1 month; The MCPs of 3 cities in northeastern China and 5 cities in northwestern China were 4.19% and 5.97% respectively when the accumulated sunshine duration of each month decreased by 10 hours, the best lag period months was 1 month. Conclusions: In northern cities of China from 2008 to 2020, the temperature, relative humidity, precipitation and sunshine duration all had negatively impact on the morbidity of influenza, and temperature and relative humidity were the main sensitive meteorological factors. Temperature had a strong direct impact on the morbidity of influenza in 7 cities in northern China, and relative humidity had a strong lag effect on the morbidity of influenza in 3 cities in northeastern China. The duration of sunshine in 5 cities in northwestern China had a greater impact on the morbidity of influenza compared with 3 cities in northeastern China.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cities , Influenza, Human , China , Beijing , Meteorological Concepts
4.
Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine ; (12): 976-982, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985504

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the characteristics of viral infections in children with diarrhea in Beijing from 2018 to 2022. Methods: Real-time PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were used to detect viral nucleic acid of Norovirus (NoV), Sappovirus (SaV), Astrovirus (AstV), Enteric Adenovirus (AdV) or antigen of Rotavirus (RV) in 748 stool samples collected from Beijing Capital Institute of Pediatrics from January 2018 to December 2021. Subsequently, the reverse transcription PCR or PCR method was used to amplify the target gene of the positive samples after the initial screening, followed by sequencing, genotyping and evolution analysis, so as to obtain the characteristics of these viruses. Phylogenetic analysis was performed using Mega 6.0. Results: From 2018 to 2021, the overall detection rate of the above five common viruses was 37.6%(281/748)in children under 5 years old in Beijing. NoV, Enteric AdV and RV were still the top three diarrhea-related viruses, followed by AstV and SaV, accounting for 41.6%, 29.2%, 27.8%, 8.9% and 7.5%, respectively. The detection rate of co-infections with two or three diarrhea-related viruses was 4.7% (35/748). From the perspective of annual distribution, the detection rate of Enteric AdV was the highest in 2021, while NoV was predominant in the other 4 years. From the perspective of genetic characteristics, NoV was predominant by GⅡ.4, and after the first detection of GⅡ.4[P16] in 2020, it occupied the first two gene groups together with GⅡ.4[P31]. Although the predominant RV was G9P[8], the rare epidemic strain G8P[8] was first detected in 2021. The predominant genotypes of Enteric AdV and AstV were Ad41 and HAstV-1. SaV was sporadic spread with a low detection rate. Conclusion: Among the diarrhea-related viruses infected children under 5 years of age in Beijing, the predominant strains of NoV and RV have changed and new sub-genotypes have been detected for the first time, while the predominant strains of AstV and Enteric AdV are relatively stable.


Subject(s)
Child, Preschool , Humans , Infant , Beijing/epidemiology , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Feces , Norovirus/genetics , Phylogeny , Rotavirus/genetics , Virus Diseases/epidemiology , Viruses/genetics
5.
Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine ; (12): 674-678, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-984763

ABSTRACT

Objective: To estimate the consumption level of four drugs in Beijing using wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE). Methods: The primary sludge from one large wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) was collected in Beijing from July 2020 to February 2021. The concentrations of codeine, methadone, ketamine and morphine in the sludge were detected through solid-phase extraction-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The consumption, prevalence and number of users of four drugs were estimated by using the WBE approach. Results: Among 416 sludge samples, codeine had the highest detection rate (82.93%, n=345) with a concentration [M (Q1, Q3)] of 0.40 (0.22-0.8) ng·g-1, and morphine had the lowest detection rate (28.37%,n=118) with a concentration [M (Q1, Q3)] of 0.13 (0.09, 0.17) ng·g-1. There was no significant difference in the consumption of the four drugs on working days and weekends (all P values>0.05). Drug consumption was significantly higher in winter than that in summer and autumn (all P values <0.05). The consumption [M (Q1, Q3)] of codeine, methadone, ketamine and morphine in winter was 24.9 (15.58, 38.6), 9.39 (4.57, 26.72), 9.84 (5.18, 19.45) and 5.67 (3.57, 13.77) μg·inhabitant-1·day-1, respectively. For these drugs, there was an upward trend in the average drug consumption during summer, autumn and winter (the Z values of the trend test were 3.23, 3.16, 2.19, and 3.32, respectively and all P values<0.05). The prevalence [M (Q1, Q3)] of codeine, methadone, ketamine and morphine were 0.0056% (0.003 4%, 0.009 2%), 0.0148% (0.009 6%, 0.026 7%),0.0333% (0.0210%, 0.0710%) and 0.0072% (0.003 8%, 0.011 7%), respectively. The estimated number of drug users [M (Q1, Q3)] was 918 (549, 1 511), 2 429 (1 578, 4 383), 5 451 (3 444, 11 642) and 1 173 (626, 1 925),respectively. Conclusion: Codeine, methadone, ketamine and morphine have been detected in the sludge of WWTPs in Beijing, and the consumption level of these drugs varies in different seasons.


Subject(s)
Humans , Beijing , Wastewater-Based Epidemiological Monitoring , Sewage/analysis , Wastewater , Ketamine/analysis , Codeine/analysis , Methadone/analysis , Water Pollutants, Chemical/analysis
6.
Journal of Peking University(Health Sciences) ; (6): 1074-1081, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010171

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To study epidemiological characteristics and hospitalization costs of female inpatients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) in Beijing.@*METHODS@#A retrospective study was conducted to analyze electronic hospitalization summary reports of female inpatients with AECOPD in Beijing from 2013 to 2020. Clinical characteristics (age distribution and comorbidities), epidemiological characteristics (temporal and spatial distribution characteristics), hospi-talization times and costs of patients were described.@*RESULTS@#A total of 57 911 subjects in 166 hospitals were included in this study, with a mean age of (78.84±8.59) years and the highest number of patients aged 80-89 years (49.06%), followed by patients aged 70-79 years (31.08%), and the lowest number of patients under 50 years (0.41%). The proportions of patients with coronary heart disease, hypertension and heart failure were 30.60%, 30.52% and 26.54% respectively. The median number of daily hospitalizations during the study period was 18 (IQR: 16). The number of daily hospitalizations for AECOPD showed an overall growth trend over the eight years from 2013 to 2020, starting to increase significantly in 2015 and continuing to increase until 2019, then followed by a decline in 2020. The proportion of inpatient admissions was higher in winter and spring (54.09%) than that in summer and autumn (45.91%). The top three districts in terms of the proportion of total inpatient admissions were Xicheng district (14.18%), Chaoyang district (14.12%) and Fengtai district (13.47%). The density of inpatients was relatively high in the western regions, central urban areas and northeastern regions of the city, while the density of inpatients was relatively low in the near suburbs. The median number of hospital days for female patients with AECOPD was 12 days, and the median hospital costs was CNY 20 648.37. Patients from urban areas had longer hospitalization times and higher hospitalization costs than those from suburban areas (P < 0.001). Western medicine expenses accounted for the largest proportion of total hospital expenses (33.32%). During the study period, hospitalization costs exhibited an overall pattern of initial growth, followed by subsequent decline, eventually stabilizing. The differences in hospitalization costs among the patients with different comorbidities were significant.@*CONCLUSION@#Female hospitalized patients with AECOPD in Beijing were older than 70 years, often complicated by cardiovascular disease. AECOPD occurred mainly in winter and spring, with regional differences. The hospitalization costs were closely associated with the patients' age, comorbidities, and the geographicical region.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Inpatients , Beijing , Retrospective Studies , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Hospitalization
7.
Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases ; (12): 280-286, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986028

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the wearing of masks and the knowledge of masks among high-risk positions for overseas import and pollution transmission. Methods: From May 14 to 17, 2022, a convenient sampling method was used to conduct an online survey among 963 workers in high-risk positions for overseas import and pollution transmission in Beijing. The behaviors of individual use and wearing masks, the distribution and supervision of the unit, the knowledge of personal mask protection and the subjective feelings of wearing masks were analyzed. The χ(2) test and logistic regression model were used to analyze the influencing factors of the correct selection of masks. Results: The majority of the workers in high-risk positions for overseas import and pollution transmission were male (86.0%, 828/963), age concentration in 18-44 years old (68.2%, 657/963), and the majority of them had college or bachelor degrees (49.4%, 476/963). 79.4%(765/963) of the workers chose the right type of masks, female, 45-59 years old and high school education or above were the risk factors for correct selection of masks (P <0.05). Workers had good behaviors such as wearing/removing masks, but only 10.5% (101/963) could correctly rank the protective effect of different masks. 98.4% (948/963) of the workers believed that their work units had provided masks to their employees, and 99.1% (954/963) and 98.2%(946/963) of them had organized training and supervision on the use of masks, respectively. 47.4%(456/963) of the workers were uncomfortable while wearing masks. Conclusion: The overall selection and use of masks among occupational groups in high-risk positions for overseas import and pollution transmission in China need to be further standardized. It is necessary to strengthen supervision and inspection on the use of masks among occupational groups, and take improvement measures to improve the comfort of wearing masks.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Young Adult , Adult , Middle Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , Masks , China , Surveys and Questionnaires , Beijing
8.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 438-444, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969925

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the feasibility of moving epidemic method (MEM) in the assessment of seasonal influenza (influenza) activity intensity from the perspective of urban agglomeration, assess influenza activity intensity in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region from 2019 to 2021 and evaluate the reliability of surveillance data and the effectiveness of the MEM model application. Methods: The weekly reported incidence rate (IR) of influenza and the percentage of influenza-like illness (ILI%) from 2011-2021 in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region were collected to establish MEM models respectively. The model fitting effect and the reliability of the two data were evaluated for the purpose of establishing an optimal model to assess the influenza activity intensity in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region from 2019-2021. A cross-validation procedure was used to evaluate the performance of the models by calculating the Youden's index, sensitivity and specificity. Results: The MEM model fitted with weekly ILI% had a higher Youden's index compared with the model fitted with weekly IR at both Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region level and provincial level. The MEM model based on ILI% showed that the epidemic threshold in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region during 2019-2020 was 4.42%, the post-epidemic threshold was 4.66%, with medium, high and very high intensity thresholds as 5.38%, 7.22% and 7.84%, respectively. The influenza season during 2019-2020 had 10 weeks (week 50 of 2019 to week 7 of 2020). The influenza season started in week 50 of 2019, and the intensity fluctuated above and below medium epidemic level for six consecutive weeks. The high intensity was observed in week 4 of 2020, the threshold of very high intensity was excessed in week 5, and the intensity gradually declined and became lower than the threshold at the end of the influenza season in week 8. The epidemic threshold was 4.29% and the post-epidemic threshold was 4.35% during 2020-2021. Influenza activity level never excessed the epidemic threshold throughout the year, and no epidemic period emerged. Conclusions: The MEM model could be applied in the assessment of influenza activity intensity in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, and the use of ILI% to assess influenza activity intensity in this region was more reliable than IR data. Influenza activity intensity in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region was higher during 2019-2020 but significantly lower in 2020-2021.


Subject(s)
Humans , Beijing/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Seasons , Reproducibility of Results , Epidemics , China/epidemiology
9.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 373-378, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969916

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the infection sources and the transmission chains of three outbreaks caused by 2019-nCoV Omicron variant possibly spread through cross-border logistics in Beijing. Methods: Epidemiological investigation and big data were used to identify the exposure points of the cases. Close contacts were traced from the exposure points, and the cases' and environmental samples were collected for nucleic acid tests. Positive samples were analyzed by gene sequencing. Results: The Omicron variant causing 3 outbreaks in Beijing from January to April, 2022 belonged to BA.1, BA.1.1 and BA.2. The outbreaks lasted for 8, 12 and 8 days respectively, and 6, 42 and 32 cases infected with 2019-nCoV were reported respectively. International mail might be the infection source for 1 outbreak, and imported clothes might be the infection sources for another 2 outbreaks. The interval between the shipment start time of the imported goods and the infection time of the index case was 3-4 days. The mean incubation period (Q1, Q3) was 3 (2,4) days and the mean serial interval (Q1, Q3) was 3 (2,4)days. Conclusions: The 3 outbreaks highlighted the risk of infection by Omicron variant from international logistics-related imported goods at normal temperature. Omicron variant has stronger transmissibility, indicating that rapid epidemiological investigation and strict management are needed.


Subject(s)
Humans , Beijing , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 , Disease Outbreaks , China/epidemiology
10.
Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine ; (12): 400-405, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969902

ABSTRACT

Objective: To analyze the relationship and consistency between indexes of different abnormal weight and dyslipidemia in adults in Beijing City. Methods: From August to December of 2017, 4 975 residents aged 18 to 79 years old in 5 districts of Beijing were randomly selected as subjects by using a multi-stage stratified cluster sampling method. Questionnaire, physical examination and laboratory tests were conducted. The prevalence of overweight/obesity, high body fat rate, central obesity, and high waist-to-height ratio was calculated. Partial correlation was used to analyze the correlation of blood lipid with body mass index (BMI), body fat rate, waist circumference and waist-height ratio. Logistic regression analysis for complex sampling was used to analyze the relationship between indexes of different abnormal weight and dyslipidemia after controlling for relevant risk factors, including age, sex, smoking status, drinking, insufficiency intake of vegetable and fruit, physical inactivity. Kappa value was computed to analyze the consistency between indexes of different abnormal weight. Results: The weighted prevalence of dyslipidemia was 30.48%, and it was higher in men than that in women (40.16% vs. 20.52%, P<0.01). The weighted rate of overweight/obesity, high body fat rate, central obesity, and high waist-to-height ratio was 56.65%, 47.52%, 42.48% and 59.45%, respectively. BMI, body fat rate, waist circumference and waist-to-height ratio were positively correlated with the level of total cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and negatively correlated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Logistic regression analysis for complex sampling showed that the high body fat rate (OR=1.67, 95%CI: 1.35-2.07), overweight/obesity (OR=1.65, 95%CI: 1.26-2.14) and high waist-to-height ratio (OR=1.46, 95%CI: 1.09-1.96) were associated with dyslipidemias. Kappa values of high body fat rate with overweight/obesity, high waist-to-height ratio and central obesity were 0.65, 0.53 and 0.58, respectively (P<0.05). Conclusion: In 2017, the prevalence of dyslipidemia in adults in Beijing City is high, especially in men. Overweight/obesity, high body fat rate and high waist-to-height ratio are associated with dyslipidemia. The high body fat rate is most associated with dyslipidemia.


Subject(s)
Male , Adult , Humans , Female , Adolescent , Young Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Overweight/complications , Obesity, Abdominal/epidemiology , Beijing , Obesity/complications , Body Mass Index , Risk Factors , Cholesterol , Dyslipidemias/epidemiology , Waist Circumference
11.
Biomedical and Environmental Sciences ; (12): 406-417, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981069

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the genotyping characteristics of human fecal Escherichia coli( E. coli) and the relationships between antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and multidrug resistance (MDR) of E. coli in Miyun District, Beijing, an area with high incidence of infectious diarrheal cases but no related data.@*METHODS@#Over a period of 3 years, 94 E. coli strains were isolated from fecal samples collected from Miyun District Hospital, a surveillance hospital of the National Pathogen Identification Network. The antibiotic susceptibility of the isolates was determined by the broth microdilution method. ARGs, multilocus sequence typing (MLST), and polymorphism trees were analyzed using whole-genome sequencing data (WGS).@*RESULTS@#This study revealed that 68.09% of the isolates had MDR, prevalent and distributed in different clades, with a relatively high rate and low pathogenicity. There was no difference in MDR between the diarrheal (49/70) and healthy groups (15/24).@*CONCLUSION@#We developed a random forest (RF) prediction model of TEM.1 + baeR + mphA + mphB + QnrS1 + AAC.3-IId to identify MDR status, highlighting its potential for early resistance identification. The causes of MDR are likely mobile units transmitting the ARGs. In the future, we will continue to strengthen the monitoring of ARGs and MDR, and increase the number of strains to further verify the accuracy of the MDR markers.


Subject(s)
Humans , Escherichia coli/genetics , Escherichia coli Infections/epidemiology , Multilocus Sequence Typing , Genotype , Beijing , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial/genetics , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Diarrhea , Microbial Sensitivity Tests
12.
Journal of Zhejiang University. Medical sciences ; (6): 1-9, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928651

ABSTRACT

To compare the performance of generalized additive model (GAM) and long short-term memory recurrent neural network (LSTM-RNN) on the prediction of daily admissions of respiratory diseases with comorbid diabetes. Daily data on air pollutants, meteorological factors and hospital admissions for respiratory diseases from Jan 1st, 2014 to Dec 31st, 2019 in Beijing were collected. LSTM-RNN was used to predict the daily admissions of respiratory diseases with comorbid diabetes, and the results were compared with those of GAM. The evaluation indexes were calculated by five-fold cross validation. Compared with the GAM, the prediction errors of LSTM-RNN were significantly lower [root mean squared error (RMSE): 21.21±3.30 vs. 46.13±7.60, <0.01; mean absolute error (MAE): 14.64±1.99 vs. 36.08±6.20, <0.01], and the value was significantly higher (0.79±0.06 vs. 0.57±0.12, <0.01). In gender stratification, RMSE, MAE and values of LSTM-RNN were better than those of GAM in predicting female admission (all <0.05), but there were no significant difference in predicting male admission between two models (all >0.05). In seasonal stratification, RMSE and MAE of LSTM-RNN were lower than those of GAM in predicting warm season admission (all <0.05), but there was no significant difference in value (>0.05). There were no significant difference in RMSE, MAE and between the two models in predicting cold season admission (all >0.05). In the stratification of functional areas, the RMSE, MAE and values of LSTM-RNN were better than those of GAM in predicting core area admission (all <0.05). has lower prediction errors and better fitting than the GAM, which can provide scientific basis for precise allocation of medical resources in polluted weather in advance.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , Beijing/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Memory, Short-Term , Neural Networks, Computer
13.
Chinese Journal of Pediatrics ; (12): 30-35, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935635

ABSTRACT

Objective: To compare the clinical characteristics of different types of human adenovirus (HAdV) infection in hospitalized children with acute respiratory infection in Beijing, and to clarify the clinical necessity of adenovirus typing. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 9 022 respiratory tract specimens collected from hospitalized children with acute respiratory infection from November 2017 to October 2019 in Affiliated Children's Hospital, Capital Institute of Pediatrics were screened for HAdV by direct immunofluorescence (DFA) and (or) nucleic acid detection. Then the Penton base, Hexon and Fiber gene of HAdV were amplified from HAdV positive specimens to confirm their HAdV types by phylogenetic tree construction. Clinical data such as laboratory results and imaging data were analyzed for children with predominate type HAdV infection using t, U, or χ2 test. Results: There were 392 cases (4.34%) positive for HAdV among 9 022 specimens from hospitalized children with acute respiratory infection. Among those 205 cases who were successfully typed, 131 were male and 74 were female, age of 22.6 (6.7, 52.5) months,102 cases (49.76%) were positive for HAdV-3 and 86 cases (41.95%), HAdV-7, respectively, while 17 cases were confirmed as HAdV-1, 2, 4, 6, 14 or 21. In comparison of clinical characteristics between the predominate HAdV type 7 and 3 infection, significant differences were shown in proportions of children with wheezing (10 cases (11.63%) vs. 25 cases (24.51%)), white blood cell count >15 ×109/L (4 cases (4.65%) vs.14 cases (13.73%)), white blood cell count <5×109/L (26 cases (30.23%) vs.11 cases (10.78%)), procalcitonin level>0.5 mg/L (43 cases (50.00%) vs. 29 cases (28.43%)), multilobar infiltration (45 cases (52.33%) vs.38 cases (37.25%)), pleural effusion (23 cases (26.74%) vs. 10 cases (9.80%)), and severe adenovirus pneumonia (7 cases (8.14%) vs. 2 cases (1.96%)) with χ²=5.11, 4.44, 11.16, 9.19, 4.30, 9.25, 3.91 and P=0.024, 0.035, 0.001, 0.002, 0.038, 0.002, 0.048, respectively, and also in length of hospital stay (11 (8, 15) vs. 7 (5, 13) d, Z=3.73, P<0.001). Conclusions: HAdV-3 and 7 were the predominate types of HAdV infection in hospitalized children with acute respiratory tract infection in Beijing. Compared with HAdV-3 infection, HAdV-7 infection caused more obvious inflammatory reaction, more severe pulmonary symptoms, longer length of hospital stay, suggesting the clinical necessity of further typing of HAdVs.


Subject(s)
Child , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Adenovirus Infections, Human/epidemiology , Adenoviruses, Human/genetics , Beijing/epidemiology , Child, Hospitalized , Cross-Sectional Studies , Phylogeny , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology
14.
Journal of Forensic Medicine ; (6): 86-91, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-984101

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To establish a diatom database by analyzing the quatity, species distribution and differences of diatom in water samples of the whole navigable sections of the Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal, to provide a reference for the inference of the drowning site.@*METHODS@#Water samples were collected at 22 sites in the navigable sections of the Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal (Jining section to Yangzhou Section), and the diatoms at each site were qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed by using graphite digestion-scanning electron microscopy.@*RESULTS@#Sampling site T (Laohuaijiang River Line, Gaoyou City, Yangzhou City, Jiangsu Province) had the highest number of diatoms, while sampling site O (Siyang County, Suqian City, Jiangsu Province) had the lowest number of diatoms, with a large gap of 68 times. At sampling site Q (Jiangpu District, Huaian city, Jiangsu Province), there were 19 species of diatoms. The sampling site O had the least diatoms, with 7 species. There were no significant differences in species evenness and species diversity at each sampling site (P>0.05). Some sampling sites have characterized diatoms, such as Caloneis at station A (Taibai Lake, Weishan County, Shandong Province), Rhoicosphenia at station B (Nanyang Town, Weishan County, Shandong Province), Amphora at station I (Taierzhuang District, Zaozhuang City, Shandong Province) and Epithemia at station J (Pizhou 310 national highway, Xuzhou City, Jiangsu Province).@*CONCLUSIONS@#The species richness of diatoms gradually increased from north to south. Diatom species richness and species diversity might be higher in areas with complex environments and large population flow. Climate type has a certain influence on the distribution of diatoms.


Subject(s)
Humans , Beijing , Diatoms , Drowning , Rivers , Water
15.
Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B ; (12): 241-248, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929055

ABSTRACT

Due to the virtues of no stutter peaks, low rates of mutation, and short amplicon sizes, insertion/deletion (InDel) polymorphism is an indispensable tool for analyzing degraded DNA samples from crime scenes for human identifications (Wang et al., 2021). Herein, a self-developed panel of 43 InDel loci constructed previously by our group was utilized to evaluate the genetic diversities and explore the genetic background of the Han Chinese from Beijing (HCB) including 301 random healthy individuals. The lengths of amplicons at 43 InDel loci in this panel ranged from 87 to 199 bp, which indicated that the panel could be used as an effective tool to utilize highly degraded DNA samples for human identity testing. The loci in this panel were validated and performed well for forensic degraded DNA samples (Jin et al., 2021). The combined discrimination power (PD) and combined probability of exclusion (PE) values in this panel indicated that the 43 InDel loci could be used as the candidate markers in personal identification and parentage testing of HCB. In addition, population genetic relationships between the HCB and 26 reference populations from five continents based on 19 overlapped InDel loci were displayed by constructing a phylogenetic tree, principal component analysis (PCA), and population genetic structure analysis. The results illustrated that the HCB had closer genetic relationships with the Han populations from Chinese different regions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Beijing , China , Forensic Genetics/methods , Gene Frequency , Genetics, Population , INDEL Mutation , Phylogeny
16.
Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine ; : 13-13, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928831

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Although previous studies have shown that meteorological factors such as temperature are related to the incidence of bacillary dysentery (BD), researches about the non-linear and interaction effect among meteorological variables remain limited. The objective of this study was to analyze the effects of temperature and other meteorological variables on BD in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, which is a high-risk area for BD distribution.@*METHODS@#Our study was based on the daily-scale data of BD cases and meteorological variables from 2014 to 2019, using generalized additive model (GAM) to explore the relationship between meteorological variables and BD cases and distributed lag non-linear model (DLNM) to analyze the lag and cumulative effects. The interaction effects and stratified analysis were developed by the GAM.@*RESULTS@#A total of 147,001 cases were reported from 2014 to 2019. The relationship between temperature and BD was approximately liner above 0 °C, but the turning point of total temperature effect was 10 °C. Results of DLNM indicated that the effect of high temperature was significant on lag 5d and lag 6d, and the lag effect showed that each 5 °C rise caused a 3% [Relative risk (RR) = 1.03, 95% Confidence interval (CI): 1.02-1.05] increase in BD cases. The cumulative BD cases delayed by 7 days increased by 31% for each 5 °C rise in temperature above 10 °C (RR = 1.31, 95% CI: 1.30-1.33). The interaction effects and stratified analysis manifested that the incidence of BD was highest in hot and humid climates.@*CONCLUSIONS@#This study suggests that temperature can significantly affect the incidence of BD, and its effect can be enhanced by humidity and precipitation, which means that the hot and humid environment positively increases the incidence of BD.


Subject(s)
Humans , Beijing/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Dysentery, Bacillary/epidemiology , Humidity , Temperature
17.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 734-738, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935452

ABSTRACT

Objective: To analyze the etiological and epidemiological characteristics of Vibrio cholerae in Beijing during 2015-2021 and provide evidence for the prevention and control of cholera. Methods: The V. cholerae strains isolated in Beijing during 2015-2021 were analyzed by serotyping and virulence genes detection. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was performed for the molecular typing of the strains. Based on the collected epidemiological and clinical data of cholera cases,the epidemiological characteristics of cholera were analyzed by descriptive epidemiology method. Results: A total of 76 Vibrio cholerae O1 strains were isolated in Beijing during 2015-2021, including 61 strains from human, 10 strains from environment and 5 strains from seafood. The 76 strains consisted of 68 Ogawa strains and 8 Inaba strains. Six Ogawa strains isolated from sporadic cases carried ctxAB. After NotⅠ digestion, 76 strains were divided into 33 PFGE patterns. From 2015 to 2021, a total of 38 cholera epidemics were reported in Beijing, most of them were sporadic ones, accounting for 92.11% (35/38). A total of 45 cases were reported, and the cases occurred during June-September accounted for 97.78% (44/45). Cholera cases occurred in 9 districts of Beijing, and the cases reported in Chaoyang district accounted for 42.22% (19/45) and in Changping district accounted for 31.11% (14/45). The age of the cholera cases ranged from 19 to 63 years. Except for one case with unknown clinical symptoms, 44 cases had diarrhea symptoms with 84.09% (37/44) of the cases reporting diarrhea (3-9 times/day), followed by yellow watery stool (95.45%, 42/44), abdominal pain (68.18%, 30/44), nausea and vomiting (40.91%, 18/44) and fever (36.36%, 16/44). Conclusion: Vibrio cholerae strains isolated in Beijing during 2015-2021 were mainly O1 serotype Ogawa,most of which were non-toxigenic. The PFGE of the strains varied. Cholera epidemics occurred in 9 districts of Beijing, but most were sporadic ones with incidence peak during June-September.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Beijing/epidemiology , Cholera/epidemiology , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field , Vibrio cholerae O1/genetics
18.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 663-668, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935440

ABSTRACT

Objective: To develop a rapid risk assessment tool for imported COVID-19 cases and provide reference evidences for prevention and control of COVID-19 at ports. Methods: The information about COVID-19 pandemic and control strategies of 12 concerned countries was collected during July to August 2021, and 12 indexes were selected to assess the importation risk of COVID-19 by risk matrix. Results: The risk for imported COVID-19 cases from 12 countries to China was high or extremely high, and the risk from Russia and the USA was highest. Conclusions: The developed rapid risk assessment tool based on the risk matrix method can be used to determine the risk level of countries for imported COVID-19 cases to China at ports, and the risk of imported COVID-19 was high at Beijing port in August 2021.


Subject(s)
Humans , Beijing , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Pandemics , Risk Assessment
19.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 478-482, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935414

ABSTRACT

Objective: To analyze the epidemiological characteristics of imported COVID-19 cases and the effect of vaccination on virus load and disease severity of the cases in Beijing. Methods: The data of the imported COVID-19 cases in Beijing were collected from the National Notifiable Infectious Disease Reporting System of China Information for Disease Control and Prevention and Epidemiology investigation. The data were processed and analyzed by Excel 2010 and SPSS 22.0. Results: From June 1 to September 30, 2021, a total of 171 imported COVID-19 cases were reported in Beijing, of which 66.67% (114/171) were asymptomatic. The cases were mainly from the Philippines, the United Arab Emirates, the United Kingdom and the Russian Federation, accounting for 67.84% (116/171). The male to female ratio of the cases was 2∶1 (114∶57). The median age M (Q1, Q3) of the cases was 28 (23, 36) years. The cases of Chinese accounted for 80.12% (137/171). The sequencing of the whole genome of the virus in 47 imported COVID-19 cases showed that the proportion of Delta variant was 76.60% (36/47). The COVID-19 vaccination coverage rate in the cases was 60.82% (104/171), but the full vaccination coverage rate was 53.80% (92/171). In the imported COVID-19 cases, 13.53% (23/170) were screened to be SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid positive on the day when they arrived in Beijing, and all the cases were positive for 2019-nCoV nucleic acid within 28 days. The severity of the disease was higher in the unvaccinated group than in the partially vaccinated group and fully vaccinated group (P<0.001). In the unvaccinated group, there were 1 severe case and 1 critical case. The median Ct values M (Q1, Q3) of N gene and ORFlab gene in unvaccinated group were 32.51 (23.23, 36.06) and 32.78 (24.00, 36.38), respectively. There was no significant difference in the median of double-gene Ct value between the partially vaccinated group and the fully vaccinated group. Conclusions: During the study period, most of the imported COVID-19 cases in Beijing were asymptomatic. No matter vaccinated or not, the viral loads in the COVID-19 cases were similar, but the vaccination could reduce the severity of the disease.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , Beijing , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines , Nucleic Acids , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 373-379, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935398

ABSTRACT

Objective: To understand the regular exercise status and influencing factors in 18-64 year-old labor force population in Beijing, and provide evidences for behavioral intervention. Methods: Data were collected from Beijing Adult Non-communicable and Chronic Diseases and Risk Factors Surveillance Program from August to December, 2017. The stratified cluster sampling method was used to select 13 240 survey subjects throughout the city. The valid sample size included in this study were 11 604 persons aged 18 to 64 years. Questionnaire was used to collection the information about basic demographic characteristics, chronic disease history and physical activity prevalence of the study subjects. The body height and weight were measured by standard methods. Fasting venous blood samples were collected for the detection of fasting blood glucose, blood lipids and other biochemical indicators. Software SPSS 20.0 was used fort complex sampling sample weighting and data analysis. Results: The proportions of the study subjects who did regular exercise and never had leisure-time activity in 18-64 year-old labor force population in Beijing were 23.74% (95%CI: 21.51%-26.12%) and 64.34% (95%CI: 61.66%-66.94%) respectively; The average daily physical activity time was 23.44 min (95%CI: 21.16-25.71), and the total daily sedentary behavior time was 6.96 hours (95%CI: 6.80-7.13). With the increase of age, the proportions of the study subjects who did regular exercise and never had leisure-time activity increased (P=0.006, P<0.001). With the increase of educational level, the proportion of those who did regular exercise increased (P<0.001), and the proportion of those who never had leisure-time activity decreased (P<0.001); the higher the level of physical activity, the higher the regular exercise proportion (P<0.001); the proportions of employed people who did regular exercise was lower than those in unemployed people (P<0.001); the proportions of women never had leisure-time activity was higher than those in men (P=0.024). The results of multivariate analysis showed that older age and higher education level were positive factors for regular exercise (35- years old: OR=0.653, 95%CI: 0.530-0.804, P<0.001; 50-64 years old: OR=0.695, 95%CI: 0.560-0.864, P=0.001; high school/technical secondary school/technical School: OR=0.679, 95%CI: 0.593-0.777, P<0.001; college graduation: OR=0.478, 95%CI: 0.387-0.590, P<0.001; bachelor degree and above: OR=0.435, 95%CI: 0.347-0.546, P<0.001), while employment (OR=1.631, 95%CI: 1.330-2.000, P<0.001) and married/cohabitation (OR=1.340, 95%CI: 1.093-1.644, P=0.038) were negative factors for regular exercise. Conclusions: The rate of regular exercise in 18-64 year-old labor force population in Beijing needs to be improved. Older age and high educational level were positive factors for regular exercise, while being married and employed were negative factors for it.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Beijing , Employment , Exercise , Leisure Activities , Sedentary Behavior
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