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1.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-782477

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There has been no consensus regarding the discontinuation order of vasopressors in patients recovering from septic shock treated with concomitant norepinephrine (NE) and arginine vasopressin (AVP). The aim of this study was to compare the incidence of hypotension within 24 hours based on whether NE or AVP was discontinued first in order to determine the optimal sequence for discontinuation of vasopressors.METHODS: A systematic literature search was conducted in MEDLINE, Embase, and the Cochrane Central Register. The primary end-point was incidence of hypotension within 24 hours after discontinuation of the first vasopressor.RESULTS: We identified five studies comprising 930 patients, of whom 631 (67.8%) discontinued NE first and 299 (32.2%) discontinued AVP first. In pooled estimates, a random-effect model showed that discontinuation of NE first was associated with a significant reduction of the incidence of hypotension compared to discontinuing AVP first (31.8% vs. 54.8%; risk ratios, 0.35; 95% confidence interval, 0.16 to 0.76; P = 0.008; I² = 90.7%). Although a substantial degree of heterogeneity existed among the trials, we could not identify the significant source of bias. In addition, there were no significant differences in intensive care unit (ICU) mortality, in-hospital mortality, 28-day mortality, or ICU length of stay between the groups.CONCLUSION: Discontinuing NE prior to AVP was associated with a lower incidence of hypotension in patients recovering from septic shock. However, our results should be interpreted with caution, due to the considerable between-study heterogeneity.


Subject(s)
Arginine Vasopressin , Arginine , Bias , Consensus , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Hypotension , Incidence , Intensive Care Units , Length of Stay , Mortality , Norepinephrine , Odds Ratio , Population Characteristics , Sepsis , Shock, Septic , Treatment Outcome , Vasoconstrictor Agents
2.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 137-144, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-782198

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of a novel on-site virtual fractional flow reserve (vFFR) derived from coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA).MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed 100 vessels from 57 patients who had undergone CTA followed by invasive FFR during coronary angiography. Coronary lumen segmentation and three-dimensional reconstruction were conducted using a completely automated algorithm, and parallel computing based vFFR prediction was performed. Lesion-specific ischemia based on FFR was defined as significant at ≤0.8, as well as ≤0.75, and obstructive CTA stenosis was defined that ≥50%. The diagnostic performance of vFFR was compared to invasive FFR at both ≤0.8 and ≤0.75.RESULTS: The average computation time was 12 minutes per patient. The correlation coefficient (r) between vFFR and invasive FFR was 0.75 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.65 to 0.83], and Bland-Altman analysis showed a mean bias of 0.005 (95% CI −0.011 to 0.021) with 95% limits of agreement of −0.16 to 0.17 between vFFR and FFR. The accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value were 78.0%, 87.1%, 72.5%, 58.7%, and 92.6%, respectively, using the FFR cutoff of 0.80. They were 87.0%, 95.0%, 80.0%, 54.3%, and 98.5%, respectively, with the FFR cutoff of 0.75. The area under the receiver-operating characteristics curve of vFFR versus obstructive CTA stenosis was 0.88 versus 0.61 for the FFR cutoff of 0.80, respectively; it was 0.94 versus 0.62 for the FFR cutoff of 0.75.CONCLUSION: Our novel, fully automated, on-site vFFR technology showed excellent diagnostic performance for the detection of lesion-specific ischemia.


Subject(s)
Angiography , Bias , Constriction, Pathologic , Coronary Angiography , Fractional Flow Reserve, Myocardial , Humans , Ischemia , Patient-Specific Modeling , Sensitivity and Specificity
3.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-782097

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: An Asian Gynecologic Oncology Group phase III randomized trial was conducted to determine whether maintenance chemotherapy could improve progression-free survival (PFS) in stages III/IV ovarian cancer.METHODS: Between 2007 and 2014, 45 newly-diagnosed ovarian cancer patients were enrolled after complete remission and randomized (1:1) to arm A (4-weekly carboplatin area under the curve 4 and pegylated liposomal doxorubicin [PLD] 30 mg/m2, n=24) for 6 cycles or arm B (observation, n=21). The primary end-point was PFS. A post hoc translational study was conducted to deep sequence BRCA/homologous recombination deficiency (HRD) genes, because BRCA/HRD mutations (BRCA/HRDm) are known to be associated with better prognosis.RESULTS: Enrollment was slow, accrual was closed when 7+ years had passed. With a median follow-up of 88.9 months, the median PFS was significantly better in arm A (55.5 months) than arm B (9.2 months) (hazard ratio [HR]=0.40; 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.19–0.87; p=0.020), yet the median overall survival was not significantly different in arm A (not reached) than arm B (95.1 months) (p=0.148). Overall grade 3/4 adverse events were more frequent in arm A than arm B (60.9% vs 0.0%) (p<0.001). Quality of life was generally not significantly different. Distribution of BRCA1/2m or BRCA/HRDm was not significantly biased between the two arms. Wild-type BRCA/non-HRD subgroup seemed to fare better with maintenance therapy (HR=0.35; 95% CI=0.11–1.18; p=0.091).CONCLUSIONS: Despite limitations in small sample size, it suggests that maintenance carboplatin-PLD chemotherapy could improve PFS in advanced ovarian cancer.


Subject(s)
Arm , Asian Continental Ancestry Group , Bias , Carboplatin , Disease-Free Survival , Doxorubicin , Drug Therapy , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Maintenance Chemotherapy , Ovarian Neoplasms , Prognosis , Quality of Life , Recombination, Genetic , Sample Size
4.
Hip & Pelvis ; : 11-16, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-811159

ABSTRACT

The incidence of hip fractures is rapidly increasing with an aging population and is now one of the most important health concerns worldwide due to a high mortality rate. The effect of delayed surgery on postoperative outcomes has been widely discussed. Although various treatment guidelines for hip fractures in the elderly exist, most institutions recommend that operations are conducted as soon as possible to help achieve the most favorable outcomes. While opinions differ on the relationship between delayed surgery and postoperative mortality, a strong association between earlier surgery and improvement in postoperative outcomes (e.g., length of hospital stay, bedsore occurrence, return to an independent lifestyle), has been reported. Taken together, performing operations for hip fractures in the elderly within 48 hours of admission appears to be best practice. Importantly, however, existing evidence is based primarily on observational studies which are susceptible to inherent bias. Here, we share the results of a literature search to summarize data that helps inform the most appropriate surgical timing for hip fractures in the elderly and the effects of delayed surgery on postoperative outcome. In addition, we expect to be able to provide a more accurate basis for these correlations through a large-scale randomized controlled trial in the future and to present data supporting recommendations for appropriate surgical timing.


Subject(s)
Aged , Aging , Bias , Hip Fractures , Humans , Incidence , Length of Stay , Mortality , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Pressure Ulcer
5.
Psico (Porto Alegre) ; 51(1): e-32580, 2020.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1097660

ABSTRACT

Um desafio da avaliação psicológica via autorrelato são vieses de resposta, isto é, formas de responder que mascaram a verdadeira medida do traço latente do indivíduo. A desejabilidade social ocorre quando a pessoa fornece uma avaliação excessivamente positiva de si, baseado em valores sociais. Na literatura, destacam-se três modelos teóricos da desejabilidade social, em que são sugeridas estruturas de dois e três fatores, além de uma estrutura com dois fatores e quatro facetas (ou modelo de quatro fatores). Este trabalho se propõe a explorar diferentes modelos fatoriais para a Escala de Gerenciamento da Impressão e de Autoengano-IPIP. A amostra foi de 466 adultos (M = 25,22 anos, DP = 7,05, 60,27% mulheres). O modelo de quatro fatores apresentou o melhor ajuste aos dados, mas o modelo original de dois fatores produziu a solução fatorial mais simples e clara. Implicações dos achados do presente estudo quanto ao cômputo de escores e interpretação do instrumento são discutidas.


One challenge of self-report assessments is response styles, individual preferences for some of the options in a given response scale that might bias the true latent trait level of the respondent. Socially desirable responding consists of one individual making efforts to display oneself in a favorable manner given perceived social values. Three factor models of social desirability have received attention, with two and three factors, and the last one two factors and four facets (or four-factor model). In the present study, we explore the extent to which these three factor models represent the structure of the Impression Management and Self-Deception Scale-IPIP. Participants were 466 adults (M = 25.22 years, DP = 7.05, 60.27% females). The four-factor model yielded the best fit to the data, but the original two-factor structure resulted in the simpler and clearer factor solution. Implications of these findings as to the scoring and interpretation of the instrument are discussed.


Uno reto de la evaluación psicológica por el autoinforme, son los sesgos de respuesta, es decir, la manera de responder que enmascaran la verdadera medida del rasgo latente individual. La deseabilidad social ocurre cuando la persona proporciona una evaluación excesivamente positiva de sí basado en valores sociales. Tres modelos factoriales de la deseabilidad social se destacan en la literatura, con dos y tres factores y, lo último con dos factores y cuatro facetas (o modelo de cuatro fatores). En este estudio, exploramos lo cuanto cada modelo factorial representa la estructura de la Escala de Gestión de la Impresión y Autoengaño-IPIP. La muestra fue de 466 adultos (M= 25,22 años, DP = 7,05, 60,27% mujeres). El modelo de cuatro factores tuvo lo mejor ajuste a los datos, pero el modelo original de dos factores fue la solución mas simple y clara. Implicaciones de estos hallados para la puntuación e interpretación del instrumento son discutidos.


Subject(s)
Psychological Tests , Bias , Social Values
6.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-786229

ABSTRACT

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is considered a primary driver of global mortality and is estimated to be responsible for approximately 17.9 million deaths annually. Consequently, a substantial body of research related to CVD has developed, with an emphasis on identifying strategies for the prevention and effective treatment of CVD. In this review, we critically examine the existing CVD literature, and specifically highlight the contribution of Mendelian randomization analyses in CVD research. Throughout this review, we assess the extent to which research findings agree across a range of studies of differing design within a triangulation framework. If differing study designs are subject to non-overlapping sources of bias, consistent findings limit the extent to which results are merely an artefact of study design. Consequently, broad agreement across differing studies can be viewed as providing more robust causal evidence in contrast to limiting the scope of the review to a single specific study design. Utilising the triangulation approach, we highlight emerging patterns in research findings, and explore the potential of identified risk factors as targets for precision medicine and novel interventions.


Subject(s)
Artifacts , Bias , Cardiovascular Diseases , Mendelian Randomization Analysis , Mortality , Precision Medicine , Random Allocation , Risk Factors
7.
Rev. Hosp. Ital. B. Aires (2004) ; 39(4): 108-114, dic. 2019. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1099618

ABSTRACT

En la Argentina no existen datos epidemiológicos sobre displasia fibromuscular. La realización de un registro nacional puede aportar información que conduzca a una actualización de los consensos y recomendaciones para un correcto diagnóstico, evaluación y tratamiento. El Registro Argentino de Displasia Fibromuscular (SAHARA-DF) inició su actividad de recopilación de datos en octubre de 2015. Al año 2019 se confirmaron 49 pacientes (44 mujeres, 38 hipertensos, edad 45,3 ± 17,2 años, 12 con presentación neurológica). Veintidós pacientes tuvieron lesiones vasculares en más de un sitio, a pesar del sesgo diagnóstico por falta de estudios complementarios en casi la mitad de los casos. El sitio afectado más frecuente fue el renovascular, seguido por el carotídeo y el ilíaco, y las lesiones multifocales fueron más frecuentes que las unifocales (35 versus 14, respectivamente). Se constató la presencia de aneurismas asociados en 13 casos y disección arterial en 4 casos. De las 22 angioplastias renales realizadas, 14 fueron con colocación de stent (endoprótesis). En este estudio preliminar de una población argentina se evidencia el carácter sistémico de la enfermedad y se plantea un llamado a actuar en cuanto a la necesidad de debatir el algoritmo diagnóstico y el método de tratamiento. (AU)


In Argentina there are no epidemiological data regarding fibromuscular dysplasia. Building a National Registry may provide information leading to updated consensus and recommendations for a correct diagnosis, assessment and treatment. Data gathering for the Argentine Registry of Fibromuscular Dysplasia (SAHARA-DF) was initiated in October 2015. By 2019, 49 patients were confirmed (44 women, 38 hypertensives, age 45.3 ± 17.2 years, 12 with a neurological presentation). Twenty-two patients had multi-site vascular lesions, in spite of a diagnosis bias due to lack of supporting studies in almost half of the cases. The renovascular site was the most affected, followed by the carotid and iliac sites, and multifocal lesions were more frequent than unifocal (35 versus 14, respectively). Associated aneurysms were found in 13 cases, and arterial dissection in 4. Twenty-two renal angioplasties were performed, 14 with stent placement. In this preliminary study of an Argentinian population, the systemic nature of the disease is evidenced, and a call for action arises regarding the need for discussing the diagnostic algorithm and treatment method. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Records/statistics & numerical data , Fibromuscular Dysplasia/diagnosis , Argentina/epidemiology , Algorithms , Bias , Sex Factors , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Age Factors , Angioplasty/methods , Anthropological Factors , Vascular System Injuries/diagnostic imaging , Fibromuscular Dysplasia/classification , Fibromuscular Dysplasia/etiology , Fibromuscular Dysplasia/therapy , Fibromuscular Dysplasia/epidemiology , Hypertension/epidemiology , Aneurysm, Dissecting/diagnostic imaging
8.
Rev. bioét. (Impr.) ; 27(2): 196-203, abr.-jun. 2019.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1013401

ABSTRACT

Resumo O artigo objetiva explicitar o sentido e a presença da falácia dilemática na discussão bioética, quando a argumentação se reduz a duas posições antagônicas, não permitindo o debate ao eliminar soluções intermediárias. A falácia acontece na deliberação dos comitês de ética clínica ou investigativa quando os membros confundem a argumentação retórica com a demonstração lógica, desconsiderando que a solução é sempre contingente. Ela também está presente nos debates públicos da sociedade sobre desafios éticos quando os participantes não assumem perspectiva pragmática, mas defendem posição ideológica que dificulta o diálogo e a discussão de soluções consensuais, sempre passíveis de revisão. A falta de certeza e a possibilidade de rever as propostas, que dependem da referência ética necessária aos contextos, são condições hermenêuticas da racionalidade prática, retórica e pragmática, bases para uma bioética crítica.


Abstract The article aims to explain the meaning and the presence of the false dilemma in the bioethics discussion, when the argumentation is reduced to two antagonistic positions, not allowing the debate because it eliminates intermediary solutions. The fallacy occurs in the deliberation of clinical or investigative ethics committees when members confuse rhetorical argumentation with logical demonstration, not taking into account that the solution is always contingent. It is also present in society's public debates on current ethical challenges, when participants do not take a pragmatic perspective, but advocate an ideological position that hinders dialogue and discussion of consensual solutions, which can always be reviewed. The lack of absolute certainty to the contexts, with is the hermeneutical condition required by practical, rhetorical and pragmatic rationality and the basis for a critical bioethics.


Resumen El artículo tiene el objetivo de explicitar el sentido y la presencia de la falacia dilemática en la discusión bioética, cuando la argumentación se reduce a dos posiciones antagónicas, no permitiendo el debate, ya que elimina las soluciones intermedias. La falacia tiene lugar en la deliberación de los comités de ética clínica o investigativa, cuando los miembros confunden la argumentación retórica con la demostración lógica, sin tomar en consideración que la solución es siempre contingente. Ésta también está presente en los debates públicos de la sociedad sobre los desafíos éticos actuales, cuando los participantes no asumen una perspectiva pragmática, sino que defienden una posición ideológica que dificulta el diálogo y la discusión de soluciones consensuales, siempre pasibles de revisión. La falta de certeza absoluta y la posibilidad de revisión de las propuestas, que dependen de la necesaria referencia ética a los contextos, condición hermenéutica exigida por la racionalidad práctica, retórica y pragmática, bases para una bioética crítica.


Subject(s)
Bioethics , Bias , Deliberations , Wedge Argument , Hermeneutics , Proof of Concept Study
9.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 517-524, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-762084

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: In clinical studies, patients may experience several types of events during follow up under the competing risks (CR) framework. Patients are often classified into low- and high-risk groups based on prognostic factors. We propose a method to determine an optimal cutpoint value for prognostic factors on censored outcomes in the presence of CR. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We applied our method to data collected in a study of lung cancer patients. From September 1, 1991 to December 31, 2005, 758 lung cancer patients received tumor removal surgery at Samsung Medical Center in Korea. The proposed statistic converges in distribution to that of the supremum of a standardized Brownian bridge. To overcome the conservativeness of the test based on an approximation of the asymptotic distribution, we also propose a permutation test based on permuted samples. RESULTS: Most cases considered in our simulation studies showed that the permutation-based test satisfied a significance level of 0.05, while the approximation-based test was very conservative: the powers of the former were larger than those of the latter. The optimal cutpoint value for tumor size (unit: cm) prior to surgery for classifying patients into two groups (low and high risks for relapse) was found to be 1.8, with decent significance reflected as p values less than 0.001. CONCLUSION: The cutpoint estimator based on the maximally selected linear rank statistic was reasonable in terms of bias and standard deviation in the CR framework. The permutation-based test well satisfied type I error probability and provided higher power than the approximation-based test.


Subject(s)
Bias , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Korea , Lung Neoplasms , Lung , Methods
10.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 1203-1208, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-762063

ABSTRACT

Little is known about the benefits of statin use on liver cancer mortality among patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) considering hypercholesterolemia and obesity. A nationwide retrospective cohort study was conducted using data from a Health Examination Cohort of the National Health Insurance Service of Korea. Data on CHB patients with no other concurrent liver disease were acquired, and statin use was defined as a cumulative daily dose ≥28. A 3-year landmark analysis was performed to avoid immortal time bias. Patients who started statin therapy within the landmark date were considered statin users. A Cox regression analysis was applied to assess associations between statin use and liver cancer mortality considering hypercholesterolemia and obesity. Among 13063 patients, 193 (1.5%) died of liver cancer during the mean follow-up period of 10.6 years. After adjusting for demographic and metabolic factors, statin use [hazard ratio (HR), 0.17; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.04–0.70] and hypercholesterolemia (HR, 0.46; 95% CI, 0.24–0.88 for total cholesterol ≥240 mg/dL) were associated with a decreased risk of liver cancer mortality, whereas body mass index (BMI) ≥30 kg/m² was associated with an increased risk of liver cancer mortality (HR, 2.46; 95% CI, 1.20–5.06). This study showed that statin use was associated with decreased liver cancer mortality when adjusting for cholesterol levels and BMI. This study found that hypercholesterolemia was independently associated with decreased liver cancer mortality regardless of statin use.


Subject(s)
Bias , Body Mass Index , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Cholesterol , Cohort Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Hepatitis B, Chronic , Hepatitis, Chronic , Humans , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors , Hypercholesterolemia , Korea , Liver Diseases , Liver Neoplasms , Liver , Mortality , National Health Programs , Obesity , Retrospective Studies
11.
Article in Korean | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-760382

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to identify nursing interventions for the postpartum breast care of mothers and determine the effectiveness of interventions for breast pain and engorgement by systematic review. METHODS: Eight national and international databases were reviewed to retrieve and collect randomized controlled trial and controlled clinical trial literature published up to March 2015. Two reviewers independently selected the studies and performed data abstraction and validation. The risk of bias was assessed using Cochrane criteria. A meta-analysis of the studies was performed to analyze the data. RESULTS: The meta-analysis showed that breast massage, along with routine breast care, resulted in a 3.52-point reduction in pain on a 10-point visual analogue scale. Meta-analysis of therapy with cold cabbage leaves and routine breast care showed a pain reduction of 0.54 points. Meta-analysis of cold cabbage leaf application in the experimental group versus cold compress therapy in the comparison group showed a pain reduction of 0.44 points. Meta-analysis of cold cabbage leaf application and routine breast care showed an engorgement reduction of 0.67 points. CONCLUSION: The results of the analysis of 12 articles showed that hot and cold compresses, breast massage, and cabbage application were effective for postpartum breast pain and engorgement.


Subject(s)
Bias , Brassica , Breast , Humans , Massage , Mastodynia , Mothers , Nursing , Postpartum Period
12.
Article in Korean | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-760324

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To compare biopsy performance of 2 approaches for multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) guided biopsy and transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS)-guided biopsy with 2nd and 3rd repeat biopsy patients in prostate cancer detection. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective study reviewed 2,868 patients who was performed prostate biopsy between September 2013 to March 2017 at Samsung Medical Center, Seoul, Korea with TRUS-guided random biopsy and MRI fusion, MRI cognitive, and MRI-guided biopsy as 2nd and 3rd repeat biopsy and propensity matching was applied to reduce bias. Detection rate of each study was compared with 1:1 matching. RESULTS: Among 265 patients who performed TRUS 2nd biopsy, positivity rate for prostate cancer (PCa) was 18.49% (n=49/265) while 54.72% (n=145/265) for MRI-guided biopsy. In 3rd biopsy, positivity rate for PCa of TRUS biopsy was 17.74% (n=11/62) while 56.45% (n=35/62) for MRI guided biopsy. There was no significant difference in the detection rate for the patient with Gleason score 8 or more. CONCLUSIONS: MRI-guided biopsy was associated with a higher detection rate of prostate cancer with especially in patients with prior negative biopsy.


Subject(s)
Bias , Biopsy , Cohort Studies , Humans , Korea , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Neoplasm Grading , Passive Cutaneous Anaphylaxis , Propensity Score , Prostate , Prostatic Neoplasms , Retrospective Studies , Seoul , Ultrasonography
13.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-760272

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationships of T2 *-corrected 6-echo Dixon volumetric interpolated breath-hold examination (VIBE) imaging-based fat fraction (FF) and R2 * values with bone mineral density (BMD); determine their associations with sex, age, and menopause; and evaluate the diagnostic performance of the FF and R2 * for predicting osteopenia and osteoporosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study included 153 subjects who had undergone magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, including MR spectroscopy (MRS) and T2 *-corrected 6-echo Dixon VIBE imaging. The FF and R2 * were measured at the L4 vertebra. The male and female groups were divided into two subgroups according to age or menopause. Lin's concordance and Pearson's correlation coefficients, Bland-Altman 95% limits of agreement, and the area under the curve (AUC) were calculated. RESULTS: The correlation between the spectroscopic and 6-echo Dixon VIBE imaging-based FF values was statistically significant for both readers (pc = 0.940 [reader 1], 0.908 [reader 2]; both p < 0.001). A small measurement bias was observed for the MRS-based FF for both readers (mean difference = −0.3% [reader 1], 0.1% [reader 2]). We found a moderate negative correlation between BMD and the FF (r = −0.411 [reader 1], −0.436 [reader 2]; both p <0.001) with younger men and premenopausal women showing higher correlations. R2 * and BMD were more significantly correlated in women than in men, and the highest correlation was observed in postmenopausal women (r = 0.626 [reader 1], 0.644 [reader 2]; both p < 0.001). For predicting osteopenia and osteoporosis, the FF had a higher AUC in men and R2 * had a higher AUC in women. The AUC for predicting osteoporosis was highest with a combination of the FF and R2 * in postmenopausal women (AUC = 0.872 [reader 1], 0.867 [reader 2]; both p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: The FF and R2 * measured using T2 *-corrected 6-echo Dixon VIBE imaging can serve as predictors of osteopenia and osteoporosis. R2 * might be useful for predicting osteoporosis, especially in postmenopausal women.


Subject(s)
Area Under Curve , Bias , Bone Density , Bone Diseases, Metabolic , Bone Marrow , Female , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Male , Menopause , Osteoporosis , Spine
14.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-760239

ABSTRACT

Allergic diseases, including allergic rhinitis, asthma, and atopic dermatitis, are common heterogeneous diseases that encompass diverse phenotypes and different pathogeneses. Phenotype studies of allergic diseases can facilitate the identification of risk factors and their underlying pathophysiology, resulting in the application of more effective treatment, selection of better treatment responses, and prediction of prognosis for each phenotype. In the early phase of phenotype studies in allergic diseases, artificial classifications were usually performed based on clinical features, such as triggering factors or the presence of atopy, which can result in the biased classification of phenotypes and limit the characterization of heterogeneous allergic diseases. Subsequent phenotype studies have suggested more diverse phenotypes for each allergic disease using relatively unbiased statistical methods, such as cluster analysis or latent class analysis. The classifications of phenotypes in allergic diseases may overlap or be unstable over time due to their complex interactions with genetic and encountered environmental factors during the illness, which may affect the disease course and pathophysiology. In this review, diverse phenotype classifications of allergic diseases, including atopic dermatitis, asthma, and wheezing in children, allergic rhinitis, and atopy, are described. The review also discusses the applications of the results obtained from phenotype studies performed in other countries to Korean children. Consideration of changes in the characteristics of each phenotype over time in an individual’s lifespan is needed in future studies.


Subject(s)
Asthma , Bias , Child , Classification , Dermatitis, Atopic , Humans , Phenotype , Prognosis , Respiratory Sounds , Rhinitis, Allergic , Risk Factors
15.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-788806

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Functional outcomes have traditionally been evaluated and compared using subjective surveys, such as visual analog scores (VAS), the Oswestry disability index (ODI), and Short Form-36 (SF-36), to assess symptoms and quality of life. However, these surveys are limited by their subjective natures and inherent bias caused by differences in patient perceptions of symptoms. The Fitbit Charge® (Fitbit Inc., San Francisco, CA, USA) provides accurate and objective measures of physical activity. The use of this device in patients after laminectomy would provide objective physical measures that define ambulatory function, activity level, and degree of recovery. Therefore, the present study was conducted to identify relationships between the number of steps taken by patients per day and VAS pain scores, prognoses, and postoperative functional outcomes.METHODS: We prospectively investigated 22 consecutive patients that underwent laminectomy for spinal stenosis or a herniated lumbar disc between June 2015 and April 2016 by the same surgeon. When patients were admitted for surgery and first visited after surgery, preoperative and postoperative functional scores were recorded using VAS scores, ODI scores, and SF-36. The VAS scores and physical activities were recorded daily from postoperative day (POD) 1 to POD 7. The relationship between daily VAS scores and daily physical activities were investigated by simple correlation analysis and the relationship between mean number of steps taken and ODI scores after surgery was subjected to simple regression analysis. In addition, Wilcoxon’s signed-rank test was used to investigate the significance of pre-to-postoperative differences in VAS, ODI, and SF-36 scores.RESULTS: Pre-to-postoperative VAS (p<0.001), ODI (p<0.001), SF-36 mental composite scores (p=0.009), and SF-36 physical composite scores (p<0.001) scores were found to be significantly different. Numbers of steps taken from POD 1 to POD 7 were negatively correlated with daily VAS scores (r=-0.981, p<0.001). In addition, the mean number of steps from POD 3 to POD 7 and the decrease in ODI conducted one month after surgery were statistically significant (p=0.029).CONCLUSION: Wearable devices are not only being used increasingly by consumers as lifestyle devices, but are also progressively being used in the medical area. This is the first study to demonstrate the usefulness of a wearable device for checking patient physical activity and predicting pain and prognosis after laminectomy. Based on our experience, the wearable device used to provide measures of physical activity in the present study has the potential to provide objective information on pain severity and prognosis.


Subject(s)
Bias , Humans , Laminectomy , Life Style , Motor Activity , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Quality of Life , Spinal Stenosis , Visual Analog Scale
16.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-788795

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Mechanical thrombectomies with balloon-guide catheters (BGC) are thought to improve successful recanalization rates and to decrease the incidence of distal emboli compared to thrombectomies without BGC. We aimed to assess the effects of BGC on the outcomes of mechanical thrombectomy in acute ischemic strokes.METHODS: Studies from PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane library database from January 2010 to February 2018 were reviewed. Random effect model for meta-analysis was used. Analyses such as meta-regression and the “trim-and-fill” method were additionally carried out.RESULTS: A total of seven articles involving 2223 patients were analyzed. Mechanical thrombectomy with BGC was associated with higher rates of successful recanalization (odds ratio [OR], 1.632; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.293–2.059). BGC did not significantly decrease distal emboli, both before (OR, 0.404; 95% CI, 0.108–1.505) and after correcting for bias (adjusted OR, 1.165; 95% CI, 0.310–4.382). Good outcomes were observed more frequently in the BGC group (OR, 1.886; 95% CI, 1.564–2.273). Symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage and mortality did not differ significantly with BGC use.CONCLUSION: Our meta-analysis demonstrates that BGC enhance recanalization rates. However, BGC use did not decrease distal emboli after mechanical thrombectomies. This should be interpreted with caution due to possible publication bias and heterogeneity. Additional meta-analyses based on individual patient data are needed to clarify the role of BGC in mechanical thrombectomies.


Subject(s)
Bias , Catheters , Humans , Incidence , Intracranial Hemorrhages , Methods , Mortality , Population Characteristics , Publication Bias , Stroke , Thrombectomy
17.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-788747

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of osteoporosis (OP) and osteoporotic vertebral fracture (OVF) in people with Parkinson’s disease (PD) in Korea and its association with socioeconomic status.METHODS: Using Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service-National Inpatient Sample (HIRA-NIS) data from 2009 to 2013, we estimated the annual prevalence of PD, OP, and OVF and investigated its association with socioeconomic status using data from National Health Insurance (NHI) beneficiaries and Medical Aid (MA) recipients. This study was supported by research funding from Korean Society for Bone and Mineral Research 2015. There were no study-specific biases related to conflicts of interest.RESULTS: The number of PD patients in the HIRA-NIS increased each year from 2009 to 2013. Among patients with PD, the standardized prevalence rates of OP and OVF increased from 2009 to 2013; from 23.2 to 27.8 and from 2.8 to 4.2, respectively. Among patients with PD with OP, the prevalence of OVF were 12.2% and 15.1% in 2009 and 2013, respectively. The standardized prevalence rates of PD with OP and PD with OVF were significantly higher in MA recipients than in NHI beneficiaries.CONCLUSION: The prevalence of PD both with OP and with OVF increased and the prevalence was higher in MA recipients than in NHI beneficiaries. These findings may suggest that age over 65 years, female and low income may be a significant factor related to PD occurring with OP and OVF.


Subject(s)
Bias , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Financial Management , Fractures, Bone , Humans , Inpatients , Insurance, Health , Korea , Miners , National Health Programs , Osteoporosis , Parkinson Disease , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Social Class
18.
Asian Nursing Research ; : 20-29, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-739601

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the effects of smartphone-based mobile learning for nurses and nursing students. METHODS: Electronic literature search of PubMed, Cochrane Library, Embase, SCOPUS, Web of Science, ProQuest Central, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), and Educational Resource Information Center (ERIC) was conducted. Two authors independently reviewed empirical studies for inclusion and extracted the design, sample size, intervention method, outcome variables, and statistical values of them. Methodological quality was assessed using Cochrane collaboration risk of bias tool. To estimate the effect size, meta-analysis was performed using R meta program. RESULTS: Authors identified 11 randomized or nonrandomized controlled trials of a total of 3,419 studies. Overall effect sizes by random-effects model was large [Hedges'g (g) = 1.12, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.72−1.52], with learning attitude (g = 1.69), skills (g = 1.41), knowledge (g = 1.47), and confidence in performance (g = 1.54). For heterogeneity, subgroup analyses using meta-analysis of variance were performed, but no significant difference was found. Finally, a funnel plot and Egger's regression test along with trim-and-fill analysis and fail-safe N were conducted to check for publication bias, but no significant bias was detected. CONCLUSION: Smartphone-based mobile learning had significantly positive influence on nursing students' knowledge, skills, confidence in performance, and learning attitude. Smartphone-based mobile learning may be an alternative or supportive method for better education in nursing fields.


Subject(s)
Bias , Cooperative Behavior , Education , Education, Nursing , Humans , Information Centers , Learning , Methods , Nursing , Population Characteristics , Publication Bias , Sample Size , Smartphone , Students, Nursing
19.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-739134

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Accurate serum total thyroxine (TT4) measurement is important for thyroid disorder diagnosis and management. We compared the performance of six automated immunoassays with that of isotope-diluted liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (ID-LC-MS/MS) as the reference method. We also evaluated the correlation of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) with TT4 measured by ID-LC-MS/MS and immunoassays. METHODS: Serum was collected from 156 patients between October 2015 and January 2016. TT4 was measured by immunoassays from Abbott (Architect), Siemens (ADVIA Centaur XP), Roche (E601), Beckman-Coulter (Dxi800), Autobio (Autolumo A2000), and Mindray (CL-1000i), and by ID-LC-MS/MS. Results were analyzed using Passing-Bablok regression and Bland-Altman plots. Minimum requirements based on biological variation were as follows: a mean bias of ≤4.5% and total imprecision (CV) of ≤3.7%. RESULTS: All immunoassays showed a correlation >0.945 with ID-LC-MS/MS; however, the slope of the Passing-Bablok regression line varied from 0.886 (Mindray) to 1.23 (Siemens) and the intercept from −12.8 (Siemens) to 4.61 (Mindray). Only Autobio, Beckman-Coulter, and Roche included the value of one in the 95% confidence interval for slope. The mean bias ranged from −10.8% (Abbott) to 9.0% (Siemens), with the lowest value noted for Roche (3.5%) and the highest for Abbott (−10.8%). Only Abbott and Roche showed within-run and total CV ≤3.7%. CONCLUSIONS: Though all immunoassays correlated strongly with ID-LC-MS/MS, most did not meet the minimum clinical requirement. Laboratories and immunoassay manufacturers must be aware of these limitations.


Subject(s)
Bias , Diagnosis , Humans , Immunoassay , Mass Spectrometry , Methods , Thyroid Gland , Thyrotropin , Thyroxine
20.
Article in Korean | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-739042

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to propose directions for the development of Occupational Health Nursing Intervention by identifying the current status and quality of Occupational Health Nursing Intervention Research in domestic industries. METHODS: Between 2000 and August of 2018, total of 1,181 Occupational Health Nursing related published references were searched using 4 domestic databases, and of the total, 29 final theses that suited the requirements were analysed In this research, the quality assessment of literature that were selected as suitable was conducted using a tool for assessing the biasing risk of non-randomized studies, RoBANS(Risk of Biasing Assessment Tool for Non-randomized Study). RESULTS: For all research, nonequivalent control group pre-posttest design was the most used as quasi-experimental designs. The effectiveness of intervention was found both in terms of physical and psychological aspects, and the result of the risk of biasing assessment showed a high risk levels in both “confounding variables” and “detection bias”. CONCLUSION: Occupational Health Nursing Intervention have been steadily making improvements in terms of both quality and quantity, and as for more effective intervention developments that improves the physical and mental health of the workers, supplementation in strict research design and in ethical aspects deems necessary.


Subject(s)
Bias , Korea , Mental Health , Nursing , Occupational Health Nursing , Occupational Health , Research Design
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