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1.
Rev. cir. (Impr.) ; 74(4): 400-409, ago. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1407927

ABSTRACT

Resumen Los resultados de diversos hallazgos de investigación han sido objeto de crítica, en especial en los últimos años, debido a presencia de errores sistemáticos (sesgos), los que ponen en duda la validez interna de los resultados obtenidos. Estos sesgos pueden ocurrir en cualquier etapa del curso de una investigación, es decir, desde la planificación del estudio hasta la presentación y publicación de sus resultados. Los sesgos se han clasificado de diferentes formas, intentado agruparlos bajo dimensiones conceptuales, objeto de organizar de mejor forma la información existente, que además es considerable. Los sesgos pueden ocurrir por diversos motivos, pero en general, los más frecuentes son aquellos originados por el observador (él o los que miden), por lo que es observado (sujeto en estudio); y aquello con lo que se observa (instrumento de medición). Por otra parte, varios de los múltiples sesgos existentes, se pueden agrupar en: sesgos de selección, de medición o información, y de confusión. El objetivo de este manuscrito fue comentar la importancia de los sesgos más comunes en la investigación quirúrgica, y su relación con algunos diseños de investigación; así como, conocer las estrategias existentes para minimizar su ocurrencia.


The results of many research findings have come under scrutiny in recent years due to the introduction of systematic errors (biases), which can occur at any stage during an investigation, from planning to presentation of results and their presentation and further publication. Biases have been classified in different ways, trying to group them under conceptual dimensions to better organize the existing information, which is considerable. Biases can occur for various reasons, but in general, the most frequent are those originated by the observer, what is observed; and what is observed with. I.e., the subject that is measured, who measures it and with what it measures it. On the other hand, several of the multiple biases can be grouped into selection, measurement or information, and confounding biases. The aim of this manuscript was to comment on the importance of the most common biases in surgical research, and their relationship with some research designs; as well as know the existing strategies to reduce its occurrence.


Subject(s)
Humans , Bias , Clinical Trials as Topic/standards , Biomedical Research/standards , Research Design/standards , Research Design/statistics & numerical data , General Surgery/standards , General Surgery/trends , Total Quality Management , Sample Size , Biomedical Research/statistics & numerical data
3.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 739-746, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935453

ABSTRACT

Objective: To introduce and compare four analysis methods of multiple parallel mediation model, including pure regression method, method based on inverse probability weighting, extended natural effect model method and weight-based imputation strategies. Methods: For the multiple parallel mediation model, the simulation experiments of three scenarios were carried out to compare the performance of different methods in estimating direct and indirect effects in different situations. Dataset from UK Biobank was then analyzed by using the four methods. Results: The estimation biases of the regression method and the inverse probability weighting method were relatively small, followed by the extended natural effect model method, and the estimation results of the weight-based imputation strategies were quite different from the other three methods. Conclusions: Different multiple parallel mediation analysis methods have different application situations and their own advantages and disadvantages. The regression method is more suitable for continuous mediator, and the inverse probability weighting method is more suitable for binary mediator. The extended natural effect model method has better performances when the residuals of two parallel mediators are positively correlated and the correlation degree is small. The weight-based imputation strategies might not be appropriate for parallel mediation analysis. Therefore, appropriate methods should be selected according to the specific situation in practice.


Subject(s)
Bias , Computer Simulation , Humans , Mediation Analysis , Models, Statistical , Probability , Regression Analysis , Research Design
4.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 98-104, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935356

ABSTRACT

This paper summaries the Risk of Bias in Non-randomized Studies-of Environmental Exposure (ROBINS-E), a tool for evaluating risk of bias about non-randomized studies of exposures (NRSE), and introduces the application of ROBINS-E in a published NRSE. According to the characteristics of NRSE, evaluation fields and signaling questions were designed in ROBINS-E to provide essential information about risk of bias for NRSE included in systematic reviews and GRADE. ROBINS-E is the tool in assessment of risk of bias in observational studies and quasi-randomized studies. Although the tool has been used in practice to some extent, but it still needs further improvement. Attention should be paid to its update and progress.


Subject(s)
Bias , Environmental Exposure , Humans , Systematic Reviews as Topic
5.
Psychol. av. discip ; 15(2): 13-31, jul.-dic. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1387056

ABSTRACT

Abstract Metacognition is an important higher-order thinking process for successful learning. The present study investigated the relation between students' (N = 65) expectations about their grade (expressed as difference scores between expected grade and actual grade) and their metacognitive monitoring accuracy and bias and the extent to which these difference scores in expected grade versus actual grade predicted accuracy and bias, employing an explanatory sequential quantitative(QUALITATIVE mixed method research design. The study also explored how students develop and refine metacognitive judgments and the types of strategies they employ during this process. Results revealed that there were significant relations between difference scores in expected grade versus actual grade and accuracy and bias (r = .02 to r = .89 in absolute value), and that difference scores significantly predicted both accuracy (R 2 = .52) and bias (R 2 = .69). Further, qualitative findings revealed that there were differences in how students developed and refined metacognitive judgments as a function of four aspects of learning: effort/preparation, strategy selection/implementation, planning, and evaluation. Educators should explicitly teach metacognitive monitoring skills to improve students' self-regulated learning.


Resumen La metacognición es un proceso importante de pensamiento de orden superior para un aprendizaje exitoso. El presente estudio investigó la relación entre las expectativas de los estudiantes sobre su nota (expresadas como puntuaciones de diferencia entre la nota esperada y la nota real) (N = 65) y su precisión y sesgo de monitoreo metacognitivo y el grado en que estas diferencias en la nota esperada versus la nota real predijeron la precisión y el sesgo, empleando un diseño de investigación secuencial explicativo cuantitativo-CUALITATIVO de método mixto. El estudio también exploró cómo los estudiantes desarrollan y refinan juicios metacognitivos y los tipos de estrategias que emplean durante este proceso. Los resultados revelaron que había relaciones significativas entre las diferencia de puntajes en la nota esperada versus la nota real y la precisión y el sesgo (r = .02 to r = .89, en valor absoluto), y que estas diferencia de puntajes predijo significativamente tanto la precisión (R 2 = .52) como el sesgo (R 2 = .69). Además, los hallazgos cualitativos revelaron que había diferencias en la forma en que los estudiantes desarrollaban y refinaban juicios metacognitivos en función de cuatro aspectos del aprendizaje: esfuerzo / preparación, selección / implementación de estrategias, planificación y evaluación. Los docentes deben enseñar explícitamente habilidades de monitoreo metacognitivo para mejorar el aprendizaje autorregulado de los estudiantes.


Subject(s)
Metacognition , Learning , Motivation , Students , Thinking , Bias , Comprehension
6.
Iatreia ; 34(4): 325-334, oct.-dic. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1350832

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN El entendimiento del razonamiento clínico es una necesidad para la investigación, la docencia y la práctica clínica. Los modelos teóricos subyacentes podrían agruparse en tres grandes ejes no excluyentes. El primero es denominado bayesiano informal según su estructura semejante al análisis de probabilidades condicionales. El segundo propone (desde las ciencias cognitivas) un razonamiento dual que es la suma de dos tipos de pensamientos: el tipo 1, rápido e intuitivo y, el tipo 2, hipotético-deductivo. El tercero, el conocimiento intersubjetivo que involucra la interacción del saber del paciente sobre su condición con el del médico, además, de hacer explícito el papel de la emoción. En esta segunda entrega se presenta una revisión narrativa de estas teorías para poder proponer una definición integradora, en la que se presenta al razonamiento clínico como un constructo complejo, iterativo y adaptativo.


SUMMARY Understanding clinical reasoning is a crucial for research, teaching, and daily clinical practice. Theoretical models could be grouped into three main non-exclusive axes. The first describes probability-based thinking, called informal Bayesian, because of its similarity to the conditional probability analysis structure. The second, from the cognitive sciences, describes reasoning as the sum of two types of thinking: type 1 (fast and intuitive) and type 2 (hypothetical-deductive). Finally, the third, intersubjective knowledge, which involves the interaction of the patient's knowledge about his condition with the doctor's knowledge and also makes explicit the role of emotion. In this second part, a narrative review of current theories is presented in order to propose an integrative definition, in which clinical reasoning is presented as a complex, iterative and adaptive construct.


Subject(s)
Humans , Clinical Reasoning , Mental Processes , Decision Theory , Bias , Medical Errors
7.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 34(5,supl.1): 114-120, Nov. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1346349

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background Self-reported hypertension is a useful method to estimate prevalence in the population. However, it is necessary to evaluate its accuracy, in relation to the gold-standard diagnostic methods of the disease. Objectives To estimate combined measures of sensitivity and specificity for self-reported hypertension, using Brazilian validation studies that included gold standard methods. Methods A systematic review and a meta-analysis were developed. Two independent examiners evaluated 1389 and read 113 potentially eligible articles. Since self-reported morbidity is influenced by the cultural and economic characteristics of a population, as well as by its accessibility to medical care, only studies from one country (Brazil) were included. First, a qualitative analysis was performed, evaluating the relationship between self-reported hypertension and its measurement through gold-standard methods. Subsequently, a meta-analysis estimated the combined sensitivity and specificity for the included studies. Due to a high heterogeneity among studies, the meta-analysis used a random effects model. Bias risks were evaluated by the QUADAS-2 protocol and the standard significance level of 10% was used in all modelling. Results Five studies were included in the qualitative analysis; and four had the necessary information for inclusion in the meta-analysis. Patient selection and Index Test (the question allowing for self-reporting) were the domains with the highest risk of bias. In the meta-analysis, combined sensitivity and specificity were 77%(95%CI:[74.5-79.0%]) and 88%(95%CI:[86.3-88.6%]), respectively. Conclusions The analysed studies allowed for the estimation of more reliable values for combined sensitivity and specificity. These values were higher than those usually found in studies with greater population heterogeneity.


Subject(s)
Humans , Self Report , Hypertension/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Bias , Sensitivity and Specificity , Hypertension/diagnosis
8.
Psico USF ; 26(4): 685-696, Oct.-Dec. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1365244

ABSTRACT

Metacognition is predominantly measured by the self-report and think-aloud methods. This is problematic since they produce considerable both respondent and confirmatory biases, which implies damage to the measurement. The Metacognitive Monitoring Test (MMT) was created to evaluate metacognition through performance and eliminate the aforementioned biases. There is evidence of MMT convergent, divergent, structural, predictive and incremental validity. This article expands the validity studies about the MMT by analyzing the configural, metric and scalar invariance of MMT across sex, nationality, and educational level variables. The sample is composed of Brazilian and Honduran subjects, as well as 6st to 12st grades and higher education students. Results indicate configural, metric and scalar invariance for the sex variable, as well as configural invariance and metric and scalar partial invariance for nationality and educational level. It is concluded that the MMT allows comparing means of the latent variable measured in the analyzed groups. (AU)


Há uma hegemonia dos métodos de autorrelato e thinkaloud para avaliar metacognição. Isso é problemático, pois eles geram substanciais vieses do respondente e confirmatório, trazendo prejuízo à medida. O Teste de Monitoramento Metacognitivo (TMC) foi criado para avaliar a metacognição mediante o desempenho e eliminar os vieses supramencionados. Há evidências de validade convergente, divergente, estrutural, preditiva e incremental do TMC. Este artigo amplia os estudos de validade e analisa a invariância configural, métrica e escalar do TMC, em relação ao sexo, nacionalidade, e nível educacional. A amostra do estudo é composta por brasileiros e hondurenhos, e estudantes da 6ª à 12ª séries da educação básicae ensino superior. Os resultados indicam invariância configural, métrica e escalar para a variável sexo, assim como invariância configural e invariância parcial métrica e escalar para nacionalidade e nível educacional. Conclui-se que o TMC permite comparar médias da variável latente mensurada nos grupos analisados. (AU)


Hay un predominio de métodos de auto-reporte e think aloud para evaluar la metacognición. Esto es problemático, ya que dichos métodos producen un considerable sesgo de respuesta y confirmación, lo que implica un perjuicio en la medición. La Prueba de Monitoreo Metacognitivo (PMM) fue diseñada para evaluar la metacognición por medio del desempeño y eliminar los sesgos mencionados anteriormente. Hay evidencia de validez convergente, divergente, estructural, predictiva e incremental de la PMM. Este artículo amplía los estudios de validez sobre la PMM, analizando la invarianza configural, métrica y escalar de la PMM con respecto a las variables sexo, nacionalidad y nivel educativo. La muestra del estudio está formada por brasileños y hondureños, y estudiantes de 6º a 12º grado de educación básica y educación superior. Los resultados indican invarianza configural, métrica y escalar para la variable sexo así como invarianza configural e invarianza parcial escalar y métrica para nacionalidad y nivel educativo. Se concluye que la PMM permite comparar medias de la variable latente medida en los grupos analizados. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Metacognition , Students , Brazil , Bias , Reproducibility of Results , Sex Distribution , Education, Primary and Secondary , Universities , Self Report , Latent Class Analysis , Honduras
9.
Rev. bras. ciênc. mov ; 28(4): 194-201, ago. 2021. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1343125

ABSTRACT

A utilização de procedimentos estatísticos é de fundamental importância para a interpretação apropriada de um conjunto de dados. Desta forma, a baixa aderência do teste aos dados selecionados pode levar a conclusões inadequadas. Portanto, a escolha do teste paramétrico e não paramétrico para dados pareados deve levar em conta a normalidade dos dados. Com isso, aplicar o coeficiente de correlação de Pearson (teste paramétrico) em dados não paramétricos aumenta as chances de associações espúrias (por acaso ou erro sistemático), as quais resultam em erro do Tipo I. Entendendo que as vezes o pensamento do jovem pesquisador e também de editores de periódicos científicos serão guiados por resultados positivos. É comum a possibilidade de editores selecionarem artigos para publicação tendo como base o valor de p <0,05. Contudo, também seria importante selecionar os artigos levando em consideração os cumprimentos dos pressupostos para a utilização de testes paramétricos e não-paramétricos. Com isso, objetivo do presente estudo foi abordar os dois testes de coeficiente de correlação de Pearson e Spearman e sugerir recomendações para praticantes de estatística na área de Ciências da Saúde para a utilização segura e adequada dos dados antes da publicação.(AU)


The use of statistical procedures is of fundamental importance for the proper interpretation of data analysis. In this way, the low adherence of the test to the selected data can lead to inadequate conclusions. Therefore, the choice of parametric and non-parametric tests for paired data should take into account the normality of the data. Therefore, applying the Pearson correlation coefficient (non-parametric test) in non-parametric data increases the chances of spurious associations (by chance or systematic error), which result in a Type I error. Knowing that young researcher and editors of scientific journals might be guided by positive results. It is common for editors to select articles for publication based on p < 0.05 value. However, it would also be important to select papers taking into account the fulfillment of the assumptions for the use of parametric and non-parametric tests. Thus, the aim of the present study was to address the two Pearson and Spearman correlation coefficient tests and to suggest recommendations for practitioners of statistics in the area of Health Sciences for the safe and adequate use of data prior publication.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Bias , Health , Data Interpretation, Statistical , Statistics , Correlation of Data , Publications , Statistics as Topic , Test Taking Skills , Dataset , Hypertension
11.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 84(3): 203-208, May-June 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1248956

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: To comparatively assess the macular sensitivity threshold of microperimetry and the fixation stability between the first (right) and second (left) tested eye of normal participants. Methods: Thirty healthy patients were randomly assigned to two groups. The participants underwent microperimetry in the fast mode and expert mode in groups I and II, respectively. Each participant underwent a single test and the right eye was tested first. Results: The mean macular sensitivity threshold (± standard deviation [SD]) was 24.5 ± 2.3 dB and 25.7 ± 1.1 dB in the first (right) and second (left) eyes of group I, respectively (p=0.0415) and 26.7 ± 4.5 dB and 27.3 ± 4.0 dB in the first (right) and second (left) eyes of group II, respectively (p=0.58). There was no statistically significant difference between eyes in either group (p=0.1512). Regarding fixation stability (evaluated in the microperimetry expert mode group), the mean ± SD percentage of fixation points within the 1-degree central macula (P1) was 87.9 ± 11.5% in the right eye and 93.8 ± 6.6% in the left eye. The paired t-test did not show a statistically significant difference between eyes (p=0.140). Mean ± SD P2 value was 95.5 ± 4.9% in the right eye and 98.5 ± 2.1% in the left eye. The analysis demonstrated an increase in the percentage of fixation points in the second tested eye compared with the first one (paired t-test= 2.364; p=0.034). There was a negative correlation between the macular sensitivity threshold of the right eye and the duration of the examination for both groups (microperimetry expert mode: r=-0.717; p=0.0026; microperimetry in the fast mode: r=-0.843; p<0.0001). Conclusion: Mean macular sensitivity threshold was higher in the second tested eye in the microperimetry in the fast mode group and was similar in both eyes in the expert mode. Our data suggest that comprehension of the examination by the individual may impact the results of the microperimetry test.(AU)


RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar comparativamente o limiar de sensibilidade macular da microperimetria e a estabilidade de fixação entre o primeiro (direito) e o segundo (esquerdo) olhos testados de indivíduos normais. Métodos: Trinta pacientes saudáveis foram divididos aleatoriamente em 2 grupos. Os participantes foram submetidos à microperimetria no "fast mode" e no "expert mode" no grupo I e II, respectivamente. Cada participante foi submetido a um único teste e o olho direito foi testado primeiro. Resultados: No grupo I, o limiar médio de sensibilidade macular (± DP) foi de 24,5 ± 2,3 dB e 25,7 ± 1,1 dB nos olhos direito e esquerdo, respectivamente (p=0,0415). No grupo II foi de 26,7 ± 4,5 dB e 27,3 ± 4,0 dB nos olhos direito e esquerdo, respectivamente (p=0,58). Não houve diferença estatisticamente significativa entre os olhos dos dois grupos (p=0,1512). Em relação à estabilidade de fixação (avaliada no grupo microperimetria no "expert mode"), a média das porcentagens dos pontos de fixação dentro do 1 grau central da mácula (P1) ± DP foi de 87,9 ± 11,5% no olho direito e de 93,8 ± 6,6% no olho esquerdo. O teste t pareado não mostrou diferença estatística entre os olhos (p=0,140). O valor médio de P2 ± DP foi de 95,5 ± 4,9% no olho direito e 98,5 ± 2,1% no olho esquerdo. Foi demonstrado um aumento na porcentagem de pontos de fixação no segundo olho testado quando comparado ao primeiro (teste t pareado= 2,364; p=0,034). Houve correlação negativa entre o limiar de sensibilidade macular do olho direito e a duração do exame nos dois grupos (microperimetria no "expert mode": r=-0,717; p=0,0026; microperimetria no "fast mode": r=-0,843; p <0,0001). Conclusão: O limiar médio de sensibilidade macular foi maior no segundo olho testado no grupo microperimetria no "fast mode" e foi semelhante nos dois olhos no "expert mode". Nossos dados sugerem que a compreensão do exame pelo indivíduo pode impactar nos resultados da microperimetria.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Visual Acuity , Fixation, Ocular , Macula Lutea/diagnostic imaging , Visual Fields , Bias
12.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 139(5): 511-513, May 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1290265

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Numerous systematic reviews on coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) treatment have been developed to provide syntheses of the large volume of primary studies. However, the methodological quality of most of these reviews is questionable and the results provided may therefore present bias. OBJECTIVE: To investigate how many systematic reviews on the therapeutic or preventive options for COVID-19 assessed the certainty of the evidence through the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. METHODS: We conducted a sensitive search in MEDLINE (via PubMed) and included all systematic reviews that assessed any intervention for COVID-19. The systematic reviews included were examined to identify any planned and/or actual assessment using the GRADE approach (or absence thereof) regarding the certainty of the evidence. RESULTS: We included 177 systematic reviews and found that only 37 (21%; 37/177) assessed and reported the certainty of the evidence using the GRADE approach. This number reduced to 27 (16.2%; 27/167) when Cochrane reviews (n = 10), in which an evaluation using GRADE is mandatory, were excluded. CONCLUSION: Most of the systematic reviews on interventions relating to COVID-19 omitted assessment of the certainty of the evidence. This is a critical methodological omission that must not be overlooked in further research, so as to improve the impact and usefulness of syntheses relating to COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Humans , COVID-19 , Bias , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 37(12): e00015920, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1350420

ABSTRACT

Abstract: This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of dental trauma in Brazilian children and adolescents. A systematic review was conducted considering eight databases: MEDLINE (via PubMed), LILACS, BBO, Scopus, Embase, Web of Science, Open Access Theses and Dissertations, and OpenThesis. Only prevalence studies that used a probabilistic sampling method were included, without restriction on year or language of publication. The JBI critical appraisal tools for prevalence studies were used to assess the individual risk of bias. The individual studies were combined in the meta-analysis using the random-effects model. The heterogeneity between the studies was analyzed by Cochran's Q and the I-square statistics. A meta-regression analysis was performed to evaluate the sources of heterogeneity. The GRADE approach assessed the certainty of evidence across included studies. The search resulted in 2,069 records, of which 36 were included in the study. The eligible studies were published from 2000 to 2021, with a total sample of 40,194 children and adolescents. Most studies (75%) had a low risk of bias. In permanent teeth, the prevalence of dental trauma was 21% (95%CI: 16.0; 26.0) and in deciduous teeth; 35% (95%CI: 26.0; 44.0). The prevalence of dental trauma among boys was higher than among girls for both dentitions. Based on a low certainty, the prevalence of traumatic dental injuries in Brazilian children and adolescents is higher than that found worldwide both in deciduous and permanent teeth. Also, the prevalence of dental trauma among boys is higher than among girls.


Resumo: O estudo buscou investigar a prevalência de trauma dentário em crianças e adolescentes brasileiros. Foi realizada uma revisão sistemática em oito bases de dados: MEDLINE (via PubMed), LILACS, BBO, Scopus, Embase, Web of Science, Open Access Theses and Dissertations e OpenThesis. Foram incluídos apenas estudos de prevalência que usavam métodos de amostragem probabilística, sem limitação de ano ou idioma de publicação. Para avaliar o risco individual de viés, foram utilizadas as ferramentas de avaliação crítica da JBI para estudos de prevalência. Os estudos individuais foram combinados na metanálise com o uso do modelo de efeitos aleatórios. A heterogeneidade entre os estudos foi analisada pelas estatísticas Q de Cochran e I-quadrado. A análise de metarregressão foi realizada para avaliar as fontes de heterogeneidade. A abordagem GRADE avaliou a certeza das evidências entre os estudos incluídos. A busca resultou em 2.069 registros, dos quais 36 foram incluídos no estudo. Os estudos elegíveis foram publicados entre 2000 e 2021, com uma amostra total de 40.194 crianças e adolescentes. A maioria dos estudos (75%) teve baixo risco de viés. Nos dentes permanentes, a prevalência de trauma dentário foi de 21% (IC95%: 16,0; 26,0) e nos dentes decíduos foi de 35% (IC95%: 26,0; 44,0). A prevalência de trauma dentário foi mais alta no sexo masculino que no feminino, para ambas as dentições. Com base na baixa certeza, a prevalência das lesões dentárias traumáticas em crianças e adolescentes brasileiros é mais alta que no resto do mundo, tanto nos dentes decíduos quanto nos permanentes. Além disso, a prevalência de trauma dentário é mais alta em meninos que em meninas.


Resumen: Este estudio tuvo como meta investigar la prevalencia de trauma dental en niños y adolescentes brasileños. Se realizó una revisión sistemática considerando ocho bases de datos: MEDLINE (via PubMed), LILACS, BBO, Scopus, Embase, Web of Science, Open Access Theses and Dissertations y OpenThesis. Solamente se incluyeron estudios de prevalencia que usaron un método de muestreo probabilístico, sin restricción sobre el año o lengua de publicación. Se usó las herramientas de evaluación crítica del JBI para estudios de prevalencia studies para evaluar el riesgo individual de sesgo. Los estudios individuales se combinaron en metaanálisis, usando un modelo de efectos aleatorios. La heterogeneidad entre los estudios se analizó mediante las estadísticas de Cochran Q e I-cuadrado. Se realizó un análisis de meta-regresión para evaluar las fuentes de heterogeneidad. El enfoque GRADE evaluó la certidumbre de evidencia a través de los estudios incluidos. La búsqueda resultó en 2.069 registros, de los cuales treinta y seis se incluyeron en el estudio. Los estudios elegibles se publicaron entre 2000 y 2021, con una muestra total de 40.194 niños y adolescentes. La mayoría de los estudios (75%) tenían un bajo riesgo de sesgo. En los dientes permanentes la prevalencia de trauma dental fue 21% (IC95%: 16,0; 26,0) y en los dientes deciduos la prevalencia de trauma dental fue 35% (IC95%: 26,0; 44,0). La prevalencia trauma dental entre niños fue más alta que entre niñas en ambas denticiones. Basado en una baja certidumbre, la prevalencia de lesiones traumáticas dentales en niños y adolescentes brasileños es más alta que la encontrada en el resto del mundo, tanto en dientes deciduos como en dientes permanentes. Asimismo, la prevalencia de trauma dental entre niños es más alta que entre niñas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Bibliometrics , Dentition, Permanent , Brazil/epidemiology , Bias , Prevalence
17.
Paidéia (Ribeirão Preto, Online) ; 31: e3129, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1351178

ABSTRACT

Abstract Response styles and non-linearity might reduce the validity of scores on depression inventories. To address both issues, we explored the latent class structure of the Baptista's Depression Scale (EBADEP), and the influence of extreme response bias. In total, 1,137 Brazilian college students (M = 26 years, SD = 7.3) participated in this study. Taxometric analysis yielded ambiguous results, without clear support for either a dimensional or a categorical representation of the data. We found three latent classes: one comprising participants with a tendency to endorse items about sadness, angst, pessimism, and low self-efficacy; another with individuals scoring low on all symptoms; and a third with intermediate scores. We found no relationship between the composition of latent classes and extreme response. Participants who reported having received a diagnostic of depression were more likely to belong to the first latent class. These findings validate the clinical usefulness of a latent class structure for the EBADEP.


Resumo Respostas extremas e ausência de linearidade podem reduzir a validade de escores de depressão. Para abordar esse problema, este estudo teve por objetivo explorar a estrutura de classes latentes da Escala Baptista de Depressão (EBADEP) e a influência do viés de respostas extremas. Participaram 1.137 estudantes universitários brasileiros (M = 26 anos, DP = 7,3). A análise taxométrica indicou resultados ambíguos, sem um ajuste explicitamente melhor para uma estrutura dimensional ou categórica. Foram identificadas três classes latentes: a primeira, composta de participantes que tenderam a endossar itens de tristeza, angústia, negativismo e baixa autoeficácia; a segunda, de indivíduos com níveis baixos de sintomas; a terceira, com escores intermediários nos itens. Não foram encontradas relação entre as classes latentes e o estilo de respostas extremas. Participantes que relataram um diagnóstico de depressão apresentaram maior probabilidade de pertencer à primeira classe latente. Os resultados evidenciam a utilidade clínica da estrutura de classes latentes para a EBADEP.


Resumen Las respuestas extremas y la falta de linealidad pueden reducir la validez de los escores de depresión. Al abordar este problema, este estudio pretende explorar la estructura de clases latentes de la Escala de Depresión Baptista (EBADEP) y la influencia del sesgo de respuesta extremo. Participaron 1.137 universitarios brasileños (M = 26 años, DE = 7,3). El análisis taxométrico indicó resultados ambiguos, sin un ajuste explícitamente mejor para una estructura dimensional o categórica. Se identificaron tres clases latentes: la primera, compuesta por participantes que tendían a obtener altas puntuaciones en los ítems tristeza, angustia, negativismo y baja autoeficacia; la segunda, de individuos con bajos niveles de síntomas; y la tercera, con puntuaciones intermedias en los ítems. No se encontró relación entre las clases latentes y el estilo de respuestas extremas. Los participantes que informaron estar con diagnóstico de depresión tenían más probabilidades de pertenecer a la primera clase latente. Los resultados muestran la utilidad clínica de la estructura de clases latente para EBADEP.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Anxiety , Psychological Tests , Students , Bias , Mood Disorders , Depression , Emotional Adjustment
19.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, ColecionaSUS, CONASS, SES-GO | ID: biblio-1357923

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Comparar a utilização de anti-hipertensivos à noite versus pela manhã, na ocorrência de desfechos cardiovasculares fatais ou não fatais. Métodos: Realizou-se uma revisão sistemática com as plataformas PUBMED / MEDLINE e EMBASE, sem restrições de data ou idioma. Foram incluídos ensaios clínicos randomizados com indivíduos adultos hipertensos que avaliaram o uso de anti-hipertensivos à noite versus pela manhã com desfecho primário de mortalidade e morbidade cardiovascular. A análise do risco de viés dos estudos seguiu as recomendações da colaboração Cochrane. Resultados: Foram encontrados 1219 artigos, sendo apenas 03 estudos incluídos após critérios de elegibilidade. O estudo CONVINCE não mostrou benefício cardiovascular com essa prática. Os estudos MAPEC e Hygia mostraram redução do desfecho primário em 61% e 45%, respectivamente. Considerações finais: Devido a inconsistências na validade interna e externa dos estudos, o benefício do uso de anti-hipertensivos à noite versus pela manhã até o momento é incerto, sendo necessários novos trabalhos para confirmar ou refutar essa prática


Objective: Comparison of the use of antihypertensive drugs at bedtime versus in the morning in the occurrence of fatal or non-fatal cardiovascular outcomes. Methods: We conducted a systematic review using the PUBMED / MEDLINE and EMBASE platforms without data or language restrictions. Only randomized clinical trials that evaluated the use of antihypertensive drugs at bedtime compared to the morning were included. The required primary outcome of the clinical trials was to assess cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. A risk-of-bias analysis of tue studies followed the recommendations of the Cochrane Collaboration. Results: 1219 articles were found, with only 03 studies included after eligibility criteria. The CONVINCE study showed no cardiovascular benefit with this practice. The MAPEC and Hygia studies reduced the primary outcome by 61% and 45%, respectively. Final considerations: due to inconsistencies in the internal and external validity of the studies, the benefit of antihypertensive drugs at bedtime versus the morning is uncertain so far, and further clinical trials are needed to confirm or refute this practice


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Periodicity , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use , Bias
20.
Estud. Interdiscip. Psicol ; 11(3,Supl 1): 146-162, dez.2020.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1343442

ABSTRACT

O presente artigo tem por objetivo investigar os efeitos de uma verdade impactante, qual seja, a de que o próprio pai é um pedófilo que abusa sexualmente de seus filhos. A partir do viés psicanalítico, tentaremos compreender as reverberações identificatórias quando essa sentença é proferida durante a adolescência do sujeito ­ o que, sem dúvida alguma, irá tornar caótico todo o processo de elaboração do luto pela perda dos pais idealizados na infância. Apesar de não ter sido a vítima direta do pai, saber que um irmão foi molestado provoca no adolescente uma decepção ímpar. Através de um caso clínico de uma adolescente, acompanhada por uma equipe multidisciplinar, em um hospital público de alta complexidade da cidade de Buenos Aires, especializado no atendimento de crianças e adolescentes vítimas de abuso sexual, tentaremos abrir questões acerca das fraturas psíquicas e suas sequelas no reordenamento identificatório que acompanha a adolescência (AU).


The object of this study is to investigate the effects of an impressive truth, wich is the allegation that a person's own father is a pedophile who sexually abuse their children. From the psychoanalytic bias, we will try to understand the identificatory reverberations generated when this fact is revealed during the adolescence of the individual, which will, undoubtedly, turn the grieving process for an idealised parental loss in childhood into a chaotic experience. Although this person was not the direct victim of his father, acknowing that his brother was molested cause adolescent an odd disappointment. Through a clinical case of a teenager, who was accompanied by a multidisciplinary team in a highly complex public hospital in the city of Buenos Aires, specialized in caring for children and adolescents who are victims of sexual abuse, we will try to present questions about psychological fractures and their sequelae in the identificatory rearrangement that accompanies (AU) adolescence.


Este artículo tiene como objetivo investigar los efectos de una verdad impactante, a saber, que el propio padre es un pedófilo que abusa sexualmente de sus hijos. A partir de la perspectiva psicoanalítica, intentaremos comprender las reverberaciones identificatórias cuando se pronuncia esta sentencia durante la adolescencia del sujeto, lo que, sin duda, hará que todo el proceso de duelo por la pérdida de los padres idealizados en la infancia sea caótico. Aunque no ha sido la víctima directa del padre, saber que un hermano ha sido molestado causa al adolescente una decepción impar. A través de un caso clínico de una adolescente, acompañada por un equipo multidisciplinario, en un hospital público de alta complejidad en la ciudad de Buenos Aires, especializado en el cuidado de niños y adolescentes víctimas de abuso sexual, intentaremos abrir preguntas respecto a las fracturas psíquicas y sus secuelas en el reordenamiento identificatorio que acompaña la adolescencia (AU).


Subject(s)
Humans , Psychoanalytic Therapy , Sex Offenses , Adolescent , Fathers , Bereavement , Bias , Anger
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