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Braz. j. biol ; 83: e242830, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278540


Abstract Pesticide residues that contaminate the environment circulate within the hydrological cycle can accumulate within the food chain and cause problems to both environmental and human health. Microbes, however, are well known for their metabolic versatility and the ability to degrade chemically stable substances, including recalcitrant xenobiotics. The current study focused on bio-prospecting within Amazonian rainforest soils to find novel strains fungi capable of efficiently degrading the agriculturally and environmentally ubiquitous herbicide, glyphosate. Of 50 fungal strains isolated (using culture media supplemented with glyphosate as the sole carbon-substrate), the majority were Penicillium strains (60%) and the others were Aspergillus and Trichoderma strains (26 and 8%, respectively). All 50 fungal isolates could use glyphosate as a phosphorous source. Eight of these isolates grew better on glyphosate-supplemented media than on regular Czapek Dox medium. LC-MS revealed that glyphosate degradation by Penicillium 4A21 resulted in sarcosine and aminomethylphosphonic acid.

Resumo Resíduos de agrotóxicos que contaminam o meio ambiente circulam no ciclo hidrológico, podendo se acumular na cadeia alimentar e causar problemas tanto à saúde ambiental quanto humana. Por sua vez, microrganismos são bem conhecidos por sua versatilidade metabólica e capacidade de degradar substâncias quimicamente estáveis, incluindo xenobióticos recalcitrantes. O estudo atual se concentrou na bioprospecção nos solos da floresta amazônica para encontrar novas linhagens de fungos capazes de degradar com eficiência o herbicida onipresente na agricultura e no meio ambiente, o glifosato. Entre os 50 fungos isolados (usando meio de cultura suplementado com glifosato como única fonte de carbono), a maioria eram isolados do gênero Penicillium (60%) e os outros eram isolados de Aspergillus e Trichoderma (26 e 8%, respectivamente). Todos os 50 isolados de fungos foram capazes de usar glifosato como fonte de fósforo. Oito desses isolados cresceram melhor em meio suplementado com glifosato do que em meio Czapek Dox regular. LC-MS revelou que a degradação do glifosato por Penicillium 4A21 resultou nos metabólitos sarcosina e ácido aminometilfosfônico.

Humans , Penicillium , Trichoderma , Herbicides/toxicity , Aspergillus , Soil , Soil Microbiology , Biodegradation, Environmental , Organophosphonates , Fungi , Glycine/analogs & derivatives
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e242536, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339356


Abstract Chromium (VI) a highly toxic metal, a major constituent of industrial waste. It is continuously release in soil and water, causes environmental and health related issues, which is increasing public concern in developing countries like Pakistan. The basic aim of this study was isolation and screening of chromium resistant bacteria from industrial waste collected from Korangi and Lyari, Karachi (24˚52ʹ46.0ʺN 66˚59ʹ25.7ʺE and 24˚48ʹ37.5ʺN 67˚06ʹ52.6ʺE). Among total of 53 isolated strains, seven bacterial strains were selected through selective enrichment and identified on the basis of morphological and biochemical characteristics. These strains were designated as S11, S13, S17, S18, S30, S35 and S48, resistance was determined against varying concentrations of chromium (100-1500 mg/l). Two bacterial strains S35 and S48 showed maximum resistance to chromium (1600 mg/l). Bacterial strains S35 and S48 were identified through 16S rRNA sequence and showed 99% similarity to Bacillus paranthracis and Bacillus paramycoides. Furthermore, growth condition including temperature and pH were optimized for both bacterial strains, showed maximum growth at temperature 30ºC and at optimum pH 7.5 and 6.5 respectively. It is concluded that indigenous bacterial strains isolated from metal contaminated industrial effluent use their innate ability to transform toxic heavy metals to less or nontoxic form and can offer an effective tool for monitoring heavy metal contamination in the environment.

Resumo O cromo (VI), metal altamente tóxico, é um dos principais constituintes dos resíduos industriais. É liberado no solo e na água, causa problemas ambientais e de saúde de crescente preocupação pública em países em desenvolvimento como o Paquistão. O objetivo básico deste estudo foi o isolamento e a triagem de bactérias resistentes ao cromo de resíduos industriais coletados em Korangi e Lyari, Karachi (24˚52'46,0"N 66˚59'25,7"E e 24˚48'37,5"N 67˚06'52,6"E). Do total de 53 cepas isoladas, sete cepas bacterianas foram selecionadas por enriquecimento seletivo e identificadas com base em características morfológicas e bioquímicas. Essas cepas foram designadas como S11, S13, S17, S18, S30, S35 e S48, apresentaram alta resistência aos metais contra concentrações variáveis (100-1500 mg / l) de cromo. Já as cepas S35 e S48 foram identificadas por meio da sequência 16S rRNA e apresentaram 99% de similaridade com Bacillus paranthracis e Bacillus paramycoides. Além disso, as condições de crescimento incluindo temperatura e pH foram otimizadas e ambas as cepas bacterianas apresentaram crescimento máximo na temperatura de 30 ºC, enquanto seu pH ótimo foi observado em 7,5 e 6,5, respectivamente. Conclui-se que o potencial de resistência dessas bactérias resistentes ao cromo pode ser efetivamente utilizado na remoção de cromo de efluentes industriais contaminados. Técnicas de base biológica usando bactérias ajudarão a fornecer métodos mais baratos e ecológicos de remoção, recuperação e desintoxicação de cromo.

Chromium , Metals, Heavy , Bacillus , Bacteria/genetics , Biodegradation, Environmental , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , Industrial Waste/analysis
Int. j. high dilution res ; 21(2): 11-12, May 6, 2022.
Article in English | LILACS, HomeoIndex | ID: biblio-1396742


Cyanobacteria are microorganisms found in different parts of the world. Some genera are cyanotoxins producers a sodium channel blockingneurotoxin (saxitoxins). Some homeopathic preparations have been identified as remedial action on toxicity models in Artemia salina. This study aimed to observe whether homeopathic products influence the toxicity ofR.raciborskiiextract onA.salinaby inducing cyst hatching arrest, anembryo bioresiliencemodel previously developed in our laboratory (Pinto et al., 2021; Mohammad et al., 2022). Thus, previous toxicity testswere carried out on cysts in 96-well plates, using different concentrations of the extract obtained from regular cultivation of R. raciborskii in HCl 0.05M, whose strain, named T3, is kept in the laboratory of Cyanobacteria at FURGS, Brazil.The standardization of toxin concentration was based on an established scale developed at FURGS, in which the number of T3 filaments is associated withspecific saxitoxin concentrationsdefined by chromatography. The concentration of 2.6 µg/L was chosen since it reducedthe cysthatching rate by 30%, the ideal level to observe embryo bioresilience. Then, a screeningstudy with 22 homeopathic preparations was tested blind in three experimental series, in duplicate,against threecontrols (unchallenged, water,and succussed water)for possible toxicity attenuationon Artemia salinacysts hatching rate. Homeopathic medicines were prepared in pure,sterile water from a stock homeopathic solution, one potency below the working potency. After the 1:100 dilution, 100 succussions were made using a robotic arm (Denise, Autic). The medicines were inserted into the seawater on a 10% basis. Due to the high sensitivity of A. salinato the circalunar variations, all experiments were performed during the first quarter moon. Statistical analysis was performed by two-way ANOVA followed by Tukey, with α=0.05. The most significant results indicative of bioresilience improvement were seen after the treatment with Nitric acidum6 cH, Plumbum metallicum6 cH, isotherapic 200 cH, and hydrochloric acid 1 cH being the last one used as a vehicle of the extracts. Thus, these preparations were chosen to be used in further experiments. In conclusion, the Artemia salinamodel has also beenuseful to study bioresilienceimprovement by homeopathic medicines after intoxication with saxitoxin.

Artemia/virology , Biodegradation, Environmental , Homeopathic Vehicles , Cyanobacteria
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e237386, 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249227


Abstract Shewanella xiamenensis G5-03 was observed to decolorize the azo dye Congo red in synthetic wastewater. The influence of some factors on the dye decolorization efficiency was evaluated. The optimal decolorization conditions were temperature 30-35 °C, pH 10.0, incubation time 10 h, and static condition. The kinetic of Congo red decolorization fitted to the Michaelis-Menten model (Vmax = 111.11 mg L-1 h-1 and Km = 448.3 mg L-1). The bacterium was also able to degrade benzidine, a product of azo bond breakage of the Congo red, which contributed to reduce the phytotoxicity. The ability of S. xiamenensis G5-03 for simultaneous decolorization and degradation of Congo red shows its potential application for the biological treatment of wastewaters containing azo dyes.

Resumo Shewanella xiamenensis G5-03 foi capaz de descolorir o corante azo vermelho Congo em água residuária sintética. A influência de alguns fatores na eficiência da descoloração do corante foi avaliada. As condições ótimas de descoloração foram temperatura de 30-35 °C, pH 10,0 e condições estáticas. A cinética de descoloração do vermelho Congo se ajustou ao modelo de Michaelis-Menten (Vmax = 111,11 mg L-1 h-1 and Km = 448,3 mg L-1). A bactéria também foi capaz de degradar a benzidina, um produto da quebra da ligação azo do vermelho Congo, o que contribuiu para a redução da fitotoxicidade. A habilidade da S. xiamenensis G5-03 em simultaneamente descolorir e degradar o vermelho Congo demostra seu potencial de aplicação no tratamento de águas residuárias contendo corantes azo.

Azo Compounds , Congo Red , Benzidines , Biodegradation, Environmental , Shewanella , Coloring Agents
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e244703, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278506


Abstract In this study, oil degrading bacteria discovered from fish living near the oil ports at Karachi in Pakistan were characterized. The bacteria isolated from skin, gills, and gut in fish could consume crude oil as a source of carbon and energy. Total 36 isolates were tested using Nutrient Agar (NA) and MSA media with different crude oil concentrations (0.2%, 0.5%, 0.7%, 1%, 2%, and 5%) and 4 out of 36 isolates (two Gram positive and two Gram negative bacteria) were selected for further identification. 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed that the isolates are related to Bacillus velezensis, Bacillus flexus, Pseudomonas brenneri and Pseudomonas azotoforman. Oil degrading potential of these bacteria was characterized by GC-MS analysis of degradation of oil components in crude oil as well as engine oil. We found that one (2, 6, 10, 14-Tetramethylpentadecane) out of 42 components in the crude oil was fully eliminated and the other oil components were reduced. In addition, 26 out of 42 oil components in the engine oil, were fully eliminated and the rest were amended. Taken together, these studies identify that B. velezensis, B. flexus, P. brenneri and P. azotoforman have high oil degrading potential, which may be useful for degradation of oil pollutants and other commercial applications.

Resumo Neste estudo, bactérias degradadoras de óleo descobertas em peixes que vivem perto dos portos de petróleo em Karachi, no Paquistão, foram caracterizadas. As bactérias isoladas da pele, guelras e intestinos dos peixes podem consumir petróleo bruto como fonte de carbono e energia. No total, 36 isolados foram testados usando Agar Nutriente (NA) e meio MSA com diferentes concentrações de óleo bruto (0,2%, 0,5%, 0,7%, 1%, 2% e 5%) e 4 de 36 isolados (dois Gram positivos e duas bactérias Gram negativas) foram selecionadas para posterior identificação. O sequenciamento do gene 16S rRNA revelou que os isolados estão relacionados a Bacillus velezensis, Bacillus flexus, Pseudomonas brenneri e Pseudomonas azotoforman. O potencial de degradação do óleo dessas bactérias foi caracterizado pela análise de GC-MS da degradação dos componentes do óleo no óleo cru, bem como no óleo do motor. Descobrimos que um (2, 6, 10, 14-tetrametilpentadecano) de 42 componentes do óleo cru foi totalmente eliminado e os outros componentes do óleo foram reduzidos. Além disso, 26 dos 42 componentes do óleo do motor foram totalmente eliminados e o restante corrigido. Juntos, esses estudos identificam que B. velezensis, B. flexus, P. brenneri e P. azotoforman têm alto potencial de degradação de óleo, o que pode ser útil para a degradação de poluentes de óleo e outras aplicações comerciais.

Animals , Petroleum , Pakistan , Pseudomonas , Bacillus , Bacteria/genetics , Biodegradation, Environmental , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , Indian Ocean , Fishes
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1915-1928, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927827


In this study, the effects of two plant growth-promoting bacteria Klebsiella michiganensis TS8 and Lelliottia Jeotgali MR2 on the growth and cadmium (Cd) uptake of Arabidopsis thaliana under Cd stress were explored. A wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana was selected as the experimental plant and was planted at different Cd concentrations. MR2 and TS8 bacterial suspensions were sprayed onto the rhizospheric soil during the planting process. The initial Cd concentration of the bought soil was 14.17 mg/kg, which was used as the pot soil of the low-concentration Cd treatment group (LC). The concentration of soil Cd at high-concentration Cd treatment group (HC) were 200 mg/kg higher than that at LC group. Compared with the control group, MR2 suspension significantly promoted the growth of A. thaliana at both low and high concentrations, while TS8 strain and MR2_TS8 mixture only exhibited growth-promoting effect at high concentration. However, it was noteworthy that, TS8 suspension significantly reduced the Cd content in the underground parts of A. thaliana (60% and 59%), and significantly improved the Cd content in the aboveground parts of A. thaliana (234% and 35%) at both low and high concentrations. In addition, at low concentration, both single strain and mixed strains significantly improved the transformation from reducible Cd to acid-extractable Cd in soil, promoted Cd intake, and thereby reduced the total Cd content in soil. Therefore, the rational application of plant growth-promoting bacteria may improve crop yield and remediate Cd contamination in soil.

Arabidopsis , Bacteria , Biodegradation, Environmental , Cadmium/pharmacology , Enterobacteriaceae , Klebsiella , Plant Roots/chemistry , Soil , Soil Pollutants
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1874-1888, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927824


Landfill is one of the important sources of carbon tetrachloride (CT) pollution, and it is important to understand the degradation mechanism of CT in landfill cover for better control. In this study, a simulated landfill cover system was set up, and the biotransformation mechanism of CT and the associated micro-ecology were investigated. The results showed that three stable functional zones along the depth, i.e., aerobic zone (0-15 cm), anoxic zone (15-45 cm) and anaerobic zone (> 45 cm), were generated because of long-term biological oxidation in landfill cover. There were significant differences in redox condition and microbial community structure in each zone, which provided microbial resources and favorable conditions for CT degradation. The results of biodegradation indicated that dechlorination of CT produced chloroform (CF), dichloromethane (DCM) and Cl- in anaerobic and anoxic zones. The highest concentration of dechlorination products occurred at 30 cm, which were degraded rapidly in aerobic zone. In addition, CT degradation rate was 13.2-103.6 μg/(m2·d), which decreased with the increase of landfill gas flux. The analysis of diversity sequencing revealed that Mesorhizobium, Thiobacillus and Intrasporangium were potential CT-degraders in aerobic, anaerobic and anoxic zone, respectively. Moreover, six species of dechlorination bacteria and eighteen species of methanotrophs were also responsible for anaerobic transformation of CT and aerobic degradation of CF and DCM, respectively. Interestingly, anaerobic dechlorination and aerobic transformation occurred simultaneously in the anoxic zone in landfill cover. Furthermore, analysis of degradation mechanism suggested that generation of stable anaerobic-anoxic-aerobic zone by regulation was very important for the harmless removal of full halogenated hydrocarbon in vadose zone, and the increase of anoxic zone scale enhanced their removal. These results provide theoretical guidance for the removal of chlorinated pollutants in landfills.

Bacteria/metabolism , Biodegradation, Environmental , Carbon Tetrachloride/metabolism , Methane/metabolism , Waste Disposal Facilities
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1784-1808, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927818


With the continuously increasing demands of plastic products in the current society, the challenge of disposing plastic waste is constantly increasing, leading to the urgent need of mitigating plastic pollution. As a consequence, much attention has been paid to biodegradable plastics due to their degradability in a bio-active environment under certain conditions. Biodegradable plastics herald vast development potentials and considerable market prospects. The degradation of numerous types of biodegradable plastics will be affected by many factors. A thorough understanding of degradation mechanisms as well as functional microbial strains and enzymes is the key to comprehensive utilization and efficient treatment and disposal of biodegradable plastics. The article summarized the types, properties, advantages and disadvantages, and main applications of common biodegradable plastics. The degradation mechanisms, functional microbial strains and enzymes, as well as the degradation degree and duration under different environmental conditions, were also summarized. This review may help better understand the degradation of biodegradable plastics wastes.

Biodegradable Plastics , Biodegradation, Environmental
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927689


Manganese is an element essential for living organisms. Development of industrial technologies and exploitation of mineral resources have led to the release of large amount of Mn(Ⅱ) into the environment, posing a serious threat to human health. Bioremediation can remove the Mn(Ⅱ) from the environment rapidly and effectively without generating secondary pollution, thus received increasing attention. This review summarized the diversity and distribution of Mn(Ⅱ) removal microorganisms and the associated mechanisms, followed by discussing the effect of environmental factors on microbial Mn(Ⅱ) removal. Finally, the challenges and prospects for bioremediation of Mn(Ⅱ) polluted wastewater were proposed.

Biodegradation, Environmental , Humans , Manganese , Oxidation-Reduction , Wastewater
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 64: e21200198, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285559


HIGHLIGHTS P. ostreatus and P. sapidus are the most productive species under the evaluated conditions. Different growing systems are suitable for the production of P. ostreatus var. Florida. Temperature control level affects differently the P. ostreatus var. Florida isolates. Environmental and strain factors affect yield and production parameters of P. ostreatus var. Florida.

Abstract In Brazil, Pleurotus is the most important mushroom produced especially P. ostreatus var. Florida. In this country as in many others, the great potential for mushroom cultivation remains unexplored. Therefore, it is very important to develop new studies that allow optimizing its production. The aims of the manuscript were: i) to evaluate the productivity of six different species of Pleurotus (P. citrinopileatus; P. djamor; P. ostreatus; P. ostreatus var. Florida; P. pulmonarius; P. sapidus); ii) to measure the effect of three different environmental conditions during cultivation of three isolates of P. ostreatus var. Florida. As results, P. ostreatus and P. sapidus were the most productive isolates under the evaluated conditions. Different environments produced variable effects according to the P. ostreatus var. Florida isolates, being possible to observe a highly plastic strain (POF 02/18), a highly sensitive strain (POF 03/18) and a strain with variable responses (POF 01/18).

Biodegradation, Environmental , Food Production , Pleurotus/isolation & purification , Brazil , Agribusiness/methods
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 64: e21200132, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153298


HIGHLIGHTS Arsenic is considered as one of the highly hazardous elements in the environment and a serious carcinogen for the human health. An enzymatic method has been described by using arsenite oxidase for arsenic detection. Residual activity of the immobilized enzyme was 43% of the initial activity after being recycled 10 times.

Abstract Arsenic is considered as one of the highly hazardous elements in the environment and a serious carcinogen for the human health. More attention has taken towards the arsenic due to its presence in ground water in India, China, Bangladesh, Inner Mongolia and several other regions of the world. It's been a challenge to remove arsenic due to the lack of its efficient detection approach in the complicated environmental matrix. The proposed method describes an enzymatic method for arsenic determination using arsenite oxidase, which catalyzes the oxidation of arsenite to arsenate. Hence, a colorimetric PVC strip with immobilized arsenite oxidase has been developed to detect the arsenic concentration and also having potential for the field-testing. The influence of the optimal conditions i.e. pH, temperature, storage stability, and reusability of free and immobilized enzyme were evaluated and compared. The results have shown that the stabilities were significantly enhanced compared with free counterpart. Residual activity of the immobilized enzyme was 43% of the initial activity after being recycled 10 times. We approve that this novel low cost immobilized carrier presents a new approach in large scale applications and expected to act as a model for establishment of indigenous arsenic sensor in miniature form.

Humans , Arsenic/analysis , Polyvinyl Chloride/analysis , Water Pollutants, Chemical/analysis , Groundwater/analysis , Enzymes, Immobilized/analysis , Oxidoreductases , Biodegradation, Environmental
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 64: e21200401, 2021.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249212


Abstract The cyanobacterial exopolysaccharides (EPSs) are considered as one of the important group of biopolymers having significant ecological, industrial, and biotechnological importance. Cyanobacteria are regarded as a very abundant source of structurally diverse, high molecular weight polysaccharides having variable composition and roles according to the organisms and the environmental conditions in which they are produced. Due to their structural complexity, versatility and valuable biological properties, they are now emerging as high-value compounds. They are possessing exceptional properties and thus are being widely explored for various applications like in food and pharmaceutical industries, in bioremediation for removal of heavy metals, for soil conditioning, as biopolymers, bioadhesives, and bioflocculants. However, poor understanding of their complex structural properties, lack of concrete information regarding the genes encoding the proteins involved in the EPS biosynthetic pathways, their process of production and about the associated factors controlling their structural stability, strongly limits their commercialization and applications in the various fields of biotechnology. Owing to the above context, the present review is aimed to organize the available information on applications of cyanobacterial EPSs in the field of biotechnology and to identify the research gaps for improved industrial utilization and commercialization of these biomaterials.

Biodegradation, Environmental , Biotechnology/methods , Cyanobacteria , Polysaccharides
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 64: e21200002, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345484


Abstract Terephthalic acid is extensively used as an important raw material in polyester fibers, as well as the production of polyethylene terephthalate bottles and textile industries. Especially, in the petrochemical industry, toxic chemicals are released to the atmosphere during the production of polyethylene terephthalate, unless the wastewater treatment is carried out. It's a well-known fact that chemicals have serious side effects on human health, so manufacturing companies should not dispose of such harmful chemicals without treatment. Biodegradation is an effective option for eco-friendly degradation of hydrocarbons. Hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria are everywhere in environment and can utilize these chemicals as sources of carbon and energy. In the present study, aerobic bacterial strains T1, T4, T5, and TK were isolated from activated sludge and crude oil deposits of a petrochemical company in Turkey. The strains were identified to be Pseudomonas sp., Chryseobacterium sp., Burkholderia sp., and Arthrobacter sp. according to morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics. The strains were able to degrade about 100% of 100 mg/L terephthalic acid within, respectively, 8, 67, 52, 24 hour as sole carbon and energy source. Therefore, these isolates can be effectively used for degradation of terephthalic acid contaminated sites. In addition to this, a Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor (CSTR) was used to test the biodegradation capabilities of the isolates in the activated sludge system. Throughout the biodegradation, bacterial existence and numbers were monitored using designed primer-probe sets in real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR).

Biodegradation, Environmental , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Polyethylene Terephthalates/metabolism , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
Arq. Inst. Biol ; 88: e00622019, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1146670


Aristolochia plants are notable from an ethnopharmacological viewpoint, but the relevance of these species for medicinal purposes has been debated because of their inherent toxicity. The convergence of these contrasting realities can be readily achieved using bioconversion methods, which have been shown to be useful tools for numerous applications, including the detoxification of biomass. In this context, methanolic extracts of leaves from Aristolochia triangularis and Aristolochia gibertii, as well as the feces of Battus polydamas larvae fed with leaves from these plants, were prepared, and their cytotoxic activities were evaluated on a human fibroblast cell line (GM07492). The leaf extracts were found to be cytotoxic, leading to reductions of 42.1 and 33.8% on cell viability, respectively, while the fecal extracts were considered inactive. In addition to evidencing the cytotoxicity of A. triangularis and A. gibertii, these findings demonstrated a potential bioconversion strategy for obtaining aristolochiaceous extracts with reduced toxicity using the larvae of a specialist phytophagous insect, thus renewing expectations in relation to the pharmacological importance of Aristolochia spp. The results were also ecologically relevant, as B. polydamas larvae were found to be able to detoxify compounds from host plants.(AU)

Biodegradation, Environmental , Aristolochiaceae , Toxicity , Cell Line , Fibroblasts , Insecta , Larva
Neotrop. ichthyol ; 19(3): e210134, 2021. tab, graf, mapas, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1346608


Neotropical Ichthyology promotes the Special Issue (SI) "Human impacts and the loss of Neotropical freshwater fish diversity" with the purpose of publishing relevant scientific articles on the current biodiversity crisis and the loss of Neotropical freshwater fishes in the Anthropocene. The SI is composed of 22 publications, being two review articles and 20 original articles. A total of 107 researchers contributed to these papers, involving 44 institutions based in Brazil and six other countries. Published articles investigated main anthropic activities and their impacts on fish diversity, with special focus on river regulation, mining, land use changes, aquaculture, and fisheries. Studies provided evidence about the loss of fish diversity in the Neotropics, including fish kill events, demographic changes, contamination, changes in assemblage structure, loss of taxonomic and functional diversity, besides the degradation of ecosystem functions and services, and the lack of effective protection and conservation. Studies were conducted in rivers, streams, lakes, and reservoirs from different Neotropical systems. The studies published in this SI represent a relevant sample of the current worrisome situation of freshwater fishes in the Neotropical region and call for urgent revision in environmental policies, management and conservation initiatives, and socioeconomic priorities.(AU)

A revista Neotropical Ichthyology lança o Volume Especial (SI) "Human impacts and the loss of Neotropical freshwater fish diversity" com o objetivo de publicar artigos científicos relevantes sobre a atual crise da biodiversidade e a perda de diversidade de peixes de água doce Neotropicais no Antropoceno. O SI é composto por 22 publicações, sendo dois artigos de revisão e 20 artigos originais. Um total de 107 pesquisadores contribuíram com esses artigos, envolvendo 44 instituições sediadas no Brasil e em seis outros países. Os artigos publicados investigaram as principais atividades antrópicas e seus impactos sobre a diversidade de peixes, com foco especial na regulação dos rios, mineração, mudanças no uso do solo, aquicultura e pesca. Os estudos forneceram evidências sobre a perda de diversidade de peixes na região Neotropical, incluindo eventos de mortandade, alterações demográficas, contaminação, mudanças na estrutura das assembleias, perda de diversidade taxonômica e funcional, além da degradação de funções e serviços ecossistêmicos, e falta de ações efetivas de proteção e conservação. Os estudos foram conduzidos em rios, riachos, lagos e reservatórios de diferentes sistemas Neotropicais. Os estudos publicados neste SI representam uma amostra relevante da atual situação dos peixes de água doce na região Neotropical, reforçando a necessidade de revisão das políticas ambientais, ações de manejo e conservação, e prioridades socioeconômicas.(AU)

Animals , Biodegradation, Environmental , Water Reservoirs , Aquaculture , Biodiversity , Fishes , Environment , Fresh Water
Braz. j. biol ; 81(2): 398-405, 2021. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1153348


Continuous occurrence of heavy metals is a major cause of environmental pollution due to its toxic effects. At minimum concentrations, these metals are highly reactive and can gather in the food chains and food web, causing major dangers to public health concerns. Soil samples were collected from Paharang drain, Faisalabad. Cadmium tolerant bacteria were isolated and evaluated for their MIC against Cd. The isolated bacterial strain GCFSD01 showed MIC value upto 30 mM/L. The bacterial strain with the highest resistance against Cd was selected for further study. Molecular characterization of bacterial isolate GCFSD01 was performed by 16S rRNA which confirmed it as Bacillus cereus. Optimum growth conditions of bacterial strain were also evaluated. Strain GCFSD01 showed optimum growth at pH 7 and 37 °C temperature. Our result revealed that B. cereus strain GCFSD01 reduced 61.3% Cd after 48 hrs. Multiple metal tolerance and Cd reduction by B. cereus indicate its potential for further use for decontamination of polluted soil.

A ocorrência contínua de metais pesados é uma das principais causas de poluição ambiental devido aos seus efeitos tóxicos. A contaminação por metais pesados representa um grande risco para todas as formas de vida encontradas no meio ambiente. Em concentrações mínimas, esses metais são altamente reativos e podem se acumular nas cadeias alimentares e na cadeia alimentar, causando grandes perigos às preocupações com a saúde pública. Amostras de solo foram coletadas no esgoto de Paharang, Faisalabad. Bactérias tolerantes ao cádmio foram isoladas da amostra coletada pelo método da placa de ágar. As colônias separadas individuais selecionadas foram avaliadas quanto às suas concentrações inibitórias mínimas contra Cd. A cepa bacteriana isolada GCFSD01 apresentou valores de CIM de 30 mM/L. A colônia bacteriana que apresentou maior resistência contra o Cd foi selecionada para identificação. Após seleção da maior colônia bacteriana resistente ao Cd, coloração de Gram e diferentes testes bioquímicos foram realizados para a caracterização da bactéria isolada. A caracterização molecular do isolado bacteriano GCFSD01 foi realizada por PCR 16S rRNA confirmando a presença de Bacillus cereus. Após a identificação molecular, as condições ótimas de crescimento da cepa bacteriana também foram verificadas. A cepa GCFSD01 apresentou crescimento ótimo em pH 7 e temperatura de 37 °C. Nosso resultado revelou que a cepa de B. cereus GCFSD01 reduziu 61,3% de Cd após 48 horas. A tolerância a múltiplos metais e a redução de Cd por B. cereus indicam seu potencial para uso posterior na descontaminação do solo poluído.

Soil Pollutants/toxicity , Bacillus cereus/genetics , Cadmium/toxicity , Industrial Effluents/adverse effects , Metals, Heavy/analysis , Soil , Soil Microbiology , Biodegradation, Environmental , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 3696-3707, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921458


Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a class of common environmental pollutants that pose threats to human health. In this study, a mesophilic bacterial strain CFP312 (grown at 15-37 °C, optimal at 30 °C) was isolated from PAHs-contaminated soil samples. It was identified as Moraxella sp. by morphological observation, physiological and biochemical test, and 16S rRNA gene phylogeny analysis. This is the first reported PAHs degrading strains in Moraxella. Degradation analysis showed that 84% and 90% of the loaded phenanthrene (400 mg/L) were degraded within 48 h and 60 h, and the degradation rates reached 1.21 and 1.29 mg/(L·h), respectively. During the degradation of phenanthrene, phenanthrene-3,4-dihydrodiol was detected as an intermediate. Based on this, it was proposed that double oxygenation at the positions 3 and 4 of phenanthrene was the first step of biodegradation. Adaptability of strain CFP312 to different enhanced phenanthrene-degradation systems was tested in aqueous-organic system, micellar aqueous system, and cloud point system. Strain CFP312 showed good adaptability to different systems. In addition, the bacterium can rapidly degrade the phenanthrene in contaminated soil in slurry-aqueous system, indicating great potential in environmental remediation.

Biodegradation, Environmental , Humans , Phenanthrenes , Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , Soil Microbiology , Soil Pollutants
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 3675-3684, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921456


Biodegradation of polyurethane (PUR) pollutants by microorganisms has received widespread attention currently. Identification of microorganisms capable of efficiently degrading PUR plastics is a key point. In this study, a strain P10 capable of degrading PUR was isolated from the plastic wastes, and identified as a bacterium belonging to the genus of Brevibacillus based on colony morphology and 16S rDNA phylogenetic analysis. Brevibacillus sp. P10 was capable of degrading 71.4% of waterborne polyurethane (Impranil DLN) after 6 days growth in MSM medium with DLN as a sole carbon source. In addition, strain P10 can use commercial PUR foam as the sole carbon source for growth. Brevibacillus sp. P10 can degrade 50 mg PUR foam after 6 days growth in MSM medium supplemented with 5% (V/V) LB after optimization of degradation conditions. This indicates that Brevibacillus sp. P10 has potential to be used in biodegradation of PUR waste.

Bacteria , Biodegradation, Environmental , Phylogeny , Polyurethanes
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 3653-3662, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921454


Microorganisms are the dominant players driving the degradation and transformation of chloramphenicol (CAP) in the environment. However, little bacterial strains are able to efficiently degrade and mineralize CAP, and the CAP degrading pathways mediated by oxidative reactions remain unclear. In this study, a highly efficient CAP-degrading microbial consortium, which mainly consists of Rhodococcus (relative abundance >70%), was obtained through an enrichment process using CAP-contaminated activated sludge as the inoculum. A bacterial strain CAP-2 capable of efficiently degrading CAP was isolated from the consortium and identified as Rhodococcus sp. by 16S rRNA gene analysis. Strain CAP-2 can efficiently degrade CAP under different nutrient conditions. Based on the biotransformation characteristics of the detected metabolite p-nitrobenzoic acid and the reported metabolites p-nitrobenzaldehyde and protocatechuate by strain CAP-2, a new oxidative pathway for the degradation of CAP was proposed. The side chain of CAP was oxidized and broken to generate p-nitrobenzaldehyde, which was further oxidized to p-nitrobenzoic acid. Strain CAP-2 can be used to further study the molecular mechanism of CAP catabolism, and has the potential to be used in in situ bioremediation of CAP-contaminated environment.

Biodegradation, Environmental , Chloramphenicol , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , Rhodococcus/genetics , Sewage