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1.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2081-2094, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981191

ABSTRACT

Plastics are one of the most important polymers with huge global demand. However, the downsides of this polymer are that it is difficult to degrade, which causes huge pollution. The environmental-friendly bio-degradable plastics therefore could be an alternative and eventually fulfill the ever-growing demand from every aspect of the society. One of the building blocks of bio-degradable plastics is dicarboxylic acids, which have excellent biodegradability and numerous industrial applications. More importantly, dicarboxylic acid can be biologically synthesized. Herein, this review discusses the recent advance on the biosynthesis routes and metabolic engineering strategies of some of the typical dicarboxylic acids, in hope that it will help to provide inspiration to further efforts on the biosynthesis of dicarboxylic acids.


Subject(s)
Biodegradable Plastics , Dicarboxylic Acids , Polymers/metabolism , Biodegradation, Environmental , Metabolic Engineering
2.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2040-2052, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981188

ABSTRACT

Petrochemical-derived polyester plastics such as polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and polybutylene adipate terephthalate (PBAT) have been widely used. However, the difficulty to be degraded in nature (PET) or the long biodegradation cycle (PBAT) resulted in serious environmental pollution. In this connection, treating these plastic wastes properly becomes one of the challenges of environment protection. From the perspective of circular economy, biologically depolymerizing the waste of polyester plastics and reusing the depolymerized products is one of the most promising directions. Recent years have seen many reports on polyester plastics degrading organisms and enzymes. Highly efficient degrading enzymes, especially those with better thermal stability, will be conducive to their application. The mesophilic plastic-degrading enzyme Ple629 from the marine microbial metagenome is capable of degrading PET and PBAT at room temperature, but it cannot tolerate high temperature, which hampers its potential application. On the basis of the three-dimensional structure of Ple629 obtained from our previous study, we identified some sites which might be important for its thermal stability by structural comparison and mutation energy analysis. We carried out transformation design, and performed expression, purification and thermal stability determination of the mutants. The melting temperature (Tm) values of mutants V80C and D226C/S281C were increased by 5.2 ℃ and 6.9 ℃, respectively, and the activity of mutant D226C/S281C was also increased by 1.5 times compared with that of the wild-type enzyme. These results provide useful information for future engineering and application of Ple629 in polyester plastic degradation.


Subject(s)
Plastics/metabolism , Polyethylene Terephthalates/metabolism , Biodegradation, Environmental , Metagenome
3.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1976-1986, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981183

ABSTRACT

Although polyurethane (PUR) plastics play important roles in daily life, its wastes bring serious environmental pollutions. Biological (enzymatic) degradation is considered as an environmentally friendly and low-cost method for PUR waste recycling, in which the efficient PUR-degrading strains or enzymes are crucial. In this work, a polyester PUR-degrading strain YX8-1 was isolated from the surface of PUR waste collected from a landfill. Based on colony morphology and micromorphology observation, phylogenetic analysis of 16S rDNA and gyrA gene, as well as genome sequence comparison, strain YX8-1 was identified as Bacillus altitudinis. The results of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) showed that strain YX8-1 was able to depolymerize self-synthesized polyester PUR oligomer (PBA-PU) to produce a monomeric compound 4, 4'-methylene diphenylamine. Furthermore, strain YX8-1 was able to degrade 32% of the commercialized polyester PUR sponges within 30 days. This study thus provides a strain capable of biodegradation of PUR waste, which may facilitate the mining of related degrading enzymes.


Subject(s)
Polyurethanes/chemistry , Polyesters/chemistry , Chromatography, Liquid , Phylogeny , Tandem Mass Spectrometry , Bacteria/metabolism , Biodegradation, Environmental
4.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1963-1975, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981182

ABSTRACT

Polyurethane (PUR) plastics is widely used because of its unique physical and chemical properties. However, unreasonable disposal of the vast amount of used PUR plastics has caused serious environmental pollution. The efficient degradation and utilization of used PUR plastics by means of microorganisms has become one of the current research hotspots, and efficient PUR degrading microbes are the key to the biological treatment of PUR plastics. In this study, an Impranil DLN-degrading bacteria G-11 was isolated from used PUR plastic samples collected from landfill, and its PUR-degrading characteristics were studied. Strain G-11 was identified as Amycolatopsis sp. through 16S rRNA gene sequence alignment. PUR degradation experiment showed that the weight loss rate of the commercial PUR plastics upon treatment of strain G-11 was 4.67%. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) showed that the surface structure of G-11-treated PUR plastics was destroyed with an eroded morphology. Contact angle and thermogravimetry analysis (TGA) showed that the hydrophilicity of PUR plastics increased along with decreased thermal stability upon treatment by strain G-11, which were consistent with the weight loss and morphological observation. These results indicated that strain G-11 isolated from landfill has potential application in biodegradation of waste PUR plastics.


Subject(s)
Plastics/metabolism , Polyurethanes/chemistry , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S , Bacteria/genetics , Biodegradation, Environmental
5.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1949-1962, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981181

ABSTRACT

Polyethylene (PE) is the most abundantly used synthetic resin and one of the most resistant to degradation, and its massive accumulation in the environment has caused serious pollution. Traditional landfill, composting and incineration technologies can hardly meet the requirements of environmental protection. Biodegradation is an eco-friendly, low-cost and promising method to solve the plastic pollution problem. This review summarizes the chemical structure of PE, the species of PE degrading microorganisms, degrading enzymes and metabolic pathways. Future research is suggested to focus on the screening of high-efficiency PE degrading strains, the construction of synthetic microbial consortia, the screening and modification of degrading enzymes, so as to provide selectable pathways and theoretical references for PE biodegradation research.


Subject(s)
Polyethylene/metabolism , Bacteria/metabolism , Plastics/metabolism , Biodegradation, Environmental , Microbial Consortia
6.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1930-1948, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981180

ABSTRACT

Polyolefin plastics are a group of polymers with C-C backbone that have been widely used in various areas of daily life. Due to their stable chemical properties and poor biodegradability, polyolefin plastic waste continues to accumulate worldwide, causing serious environmental pollution and ecological crises. In recent years, biological degradation of polyolefin plastics has attracted considerable attention. The abundant microbial resources in the nature offer the possibility of biodegradation of polyolefin plastic waste, and microorganisms capable of degrading polyolefin have been reported. This review summarizes the research progress on the biodegradation microbial resources and the biodegradation mechanisms of polyolefin plastics, presents the current challenges in the biodegradation of polyolefin plastics, and provides an outlook on future research directions.


Subject(s)
Plastics/metabolism , Polymers/metabolism , Polyenes , Biodegradation, Environmental
7.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1912-1929, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981179

ABSTRACT

With the escalation of plastic bans and restrictions, bio-based plastics, represented by polylactic acid (PLA), have become a major alternative to traditional plastics in the current market and are unanimously regarded as having potential for development. However, there are still several misconceptions about bio-based plastics, whose complete degradation requires specific composting conditions. Bio-based plastics might be slow to degrade when it is released into the natural environment. They might also be harmful to humans, biodiversity and ecosystem function as traditional petroleum-based plastics do. In recent years, with the increasing production capacity and market size of PLA plastics in China, there is an urgent need to investigate and further strengthen the management of the life cycle of PLA and other bio-based plastics. In particular, the in-situ biodegradability and recycling of hard-to-recycle bio-based plastics in the ecological environment should be focused. This review introduces the characteristics, synthesis and commercialization of PLA plastics, summarizes the current research progress of microbial and enzymatic degradation of PLA plastics, and discusses their biodegradation mechanisms. Moreover, two bio-disposal methods against PLA plastic waste, including microbial in-situ treatment and enzymatic closed-loop recycling, are proposed. At last, the prospects and trends for the development of PLA plastics are presented.


Subject(s)
Humans , Ecosystem , Biodegradable Plastics , Polyesters , Biodegradation, Environmental
8.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1889-1911, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981178

ABSTRACT

The pollution caused by improper handling of plastics has become a global challenge. In addition to recycling plastics and using biodegradable plastics, an alternative solution is to seek efficient methods for degrading plastics. Among them, the methods of using biodegradable enzymes or microorganisms to treat plastics have attracted increasing attention because of its advantages of mild conditions and no secondary environmental pollution. Developing highly efficient depolymerizing microorganisms/enzymes is the core for plastics biodegradation. However, the current analysis and detection methods cannot meet the requirements for screening efficient plastics biodegraders. It is thus of great significance to develop rapid and accurate analysis methods for screening biodegraders and evaluating biodegradation efficiency. This review summarizes the recent application of various commonly used analytical techniques in plastics biodegradation, including high performance liquid chromatography, infrared spectroscopy, gel permeation chromatography, and determination of zone of clearance, with fluorescence analysis techniques highlighted. This review may facilitate standardizing the characterization and analysis of plastics biodegradation process and developing more efficient methods for screening plastics biodegraders.


Subject(s)
Biodegradable Plastics/chemistry , Biodegradation, Environmental
9.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1861-1866, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981175

ABSTRACT

Synthetic plastics have been widely used in various fields of the national economy and are the pillar industry. However, irregular production, plastic product use, and plastic waste piling have caused long-term accumulation in the environment, contributing considerably to the global solid waste stream and environmental plastic pollution, which has become a global problem to be solved. Biodegradation has recently emerged as a viable disposal method for a circular plastic economy and has become a thriving research area. In recent years, important breakthroughs have been made in the screening, isolation, and identification of plastic-degrading microorganisms/enzyme resources and their further engineering, which provide new ideas and solutions for treating microplastics in the environment and the closed-loop bio-recycling of waste plastics. On the other hand, the use of microorganisms (pure cultures or consortia) to further transform different plastic degradants into biodegradable plastics and other compounds with high added value is of great significance, promoting the development of a plastic recycling economy and reducing the carbon emission of plastics in their life cycle. We edited a Special Issue on the topic of "Biotechnology of Plastic Waste Degradation and Valorization", focusing on the researches progress in three aspects: Mining microbial and enzyme resources for plastic biodegradation, Design and engineering of plastic depolymerase, and biological high-value transformation of plastic degradants. In total, 16 papers have been collected in this issue including reviews, comments, and research articles, which provide reference and guidance for further development of plastic waste degradation and valorization biotechnology.


Subject(s)
Biodegradable Plastics , Biodegradation, Environmental , Biotechnology
10.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e242830, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278540

ABSTRACT

Abstract Pesticide residues that contaminate the environment circulate within the hydrological cycle can accumulate within the food chain and cause problems to both environmental and human health. Microbes, however, are well known for their metabolic versatility and the ability to degrade chemically stable substances, including recalcitrant xenobiotics. The current study focused on bio-prospecting within Amazonian rainforest soils to find novel strains fungi capable of efficiently degrading the agriculturally and environmentally ubiquitous herbicide, glyphosate. Of 50 fungal strains isolated (using culture media supplemented with glyphosate as the sole carbon-substrate), the majority were Penicillium strains (60%) and the others were Aspergillus and Trichoderma strains (26 and 8%, respectively). All 50 fungal isolates could use glyphosate as a phosphorous source. Eight of these isolates grew better on glyphosate-supplemented media than on regular Czapek Dox medium. LC-MS revealed that glyphosate degradation by Penicillium 4A21 resulted in sarcosine and aminomethylphosphonic acid.


Resumo Resíduos de agrotóxicos que contaminam o meio ambiente circulam no ciclo hidrológico, podendo se acumular na cadeia alimentar e causar problemas tanto à saúde ambiental quanto humana. Por sua vez, microrganismos são bem conhecidos por sua versatilidade metabólica e capacidade de degradar substâncias quimicamente estáveis, incluindo xenobióticos recalcitrantes. O estudo atual se concentrou na bioprospecção nos solos da floresta amazônica para encontrar novas linhagens de fungos capazes de degradar com eficiência o herbicida onipresente na agricultura e no meio ambiente, o glifosato. Entre os 50 fungos isolados (usando meio de cultura suplementado com glifosato como única fonte de carbono), a maioria eram isolados do gênero Penicillium (60%) e os outros eram isolados de Aspergillus e Trichoderma (26 e 8%, respectivamente). Todos os 50 isolados de fungos foram capazes de usar glifosato como fonte de fósforo. Oito desses isolados cresceram melhor em meio suplementado com glifosato do que em meio Czapek Dox regular. LC-MS revelou que a degradação do glifosato por Penicillium 4A21 resultou nos metabólitos sarcosina e ácido aminometilfosfônico.


Subject(s)
Humans , Penicillium , Trichoderma , Herbicides/toxicity , Aspergillus , Soil , Soil Microbiology , Biodegradation, Environmental , Organophosphonates , Fungi , Glycine/analogs & derivatives
11.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e242536, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339356

ABSTRACT

Abstract Chromium (VI) a highly toxic metal, a major constituent of industrial waste. It is continuously release in soil and water, causes environmental and health related issues, which is increasing public concern in developing countries like Pakistan. The basic aim of this study was isolation and screening of chromium resistant bacteria from industrial waste collected from Korangi and Lyari, Karachi (24˚52ʹ46.0ʺN 66˚59ʹ25.7ʺE and 24˚48ʹ37.5ʺN 67˚06ʹ52.6ʺE). Among total of 53 isolated strains, seven bacterial strains were selected through selective enrichment and identified on the basis of morphological and biochemical characteristics. These strains were designated as S11, S13, S17, S18, S30, S35 and S48, resistance was determined against varying concentrations of chromium (100-1500 mg/l). Two bacterial strains S35 and S48 showed maximum resistance to chromium (1600 mg/l). Bacterial strains S35 and S48 were identified through 16S rRNA sequence and showed 99% similarity to Bacillus paranthracis and Bacillus paramycoides. Furthermore, growth condition including temperature and pH were optimized for both bacterial strains, showed maximum growth at temperature 30ºC and at optimum pH 7.5 and 6.5 respectively. It is concluded that indigenous bacterial strains isolated from metal contaminated industrial effluent use their innate ability to transform toxic heavy metals to less or nontoxic form and can offer an effective tool for monitoring heavy metal contamination in the environment.


Resumo O cromo (VI), metal altamente tóxico, é um dos principais constituintes dos resíduos industriais. É liberado no solo e na água, causa problemas ambientais e de saúde de crescente preocupação pública em países em desenvolvimento como o Paquistão. O objetivo básico deste estudo foi o isolamento e a triagem de bactérias resistentes ao cromo de resíduos industriais coletados em Korangi e Lyari, Karachi (24˚52'46,0"N 66˚59'25,7"E e 24˚48'37,5"N 67˚06'52,6"E). Do total de 53 cepas isoladas, sete cepas bacterianas foram selecionadas por enriquecimento seletivo e identificadas com base em características morfológicas e bioquímicas. Essas cepas foram designadas como S11, S13, S17, S18, S30, S35 e S48, apresentaram alta resistência aos metais contra concentrações variáveis (100-1500 mg / l) de cromo. Já as cepas S35 e S48 foram identificadas por meio da sequência 16S rRNA e apresentaram 99% de similaridade com Bacillus paranthracis e Bacillus paramycoides. Além disso, as condições de crescimento incluindo temperatura e pH foram otimizadas e ambas as cepas bacterianas apresentaram crescimento máximo na temperatura de 30 ºC, enquanto seu pH ótimo foi observado em 7,5 e 6,5, respectivamente. Conclui-se que o potencial de resistência dessas bactérias resistentes ao cromo pode ser efetivamente utilizado na remoção de cromo de efluentes industriais contaminados. Técnicas de base biológica usando bactérias ajudarão a fornecer métodos mais baratos e ecológicos de remoção, recuperação e desintoxicação de cromo.


Subject(s)
Chromium , Metals, Heavy , Bacillus , Bacteria/genetics , Biodegradation, Environmental , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , Industrial Waste/analysis
12.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1202-1216, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970433

ABSTRACT

Biodegradation of pyridine pollutant by microorganisms is one of the economical and effective methods to solve the environmental pollution of pyridine under high salinity conditions. To this end, screening of microorganisms with pyridine degradation capability and high salinity tolerance is an important prerequisite. In this paper, a salt-resistant pyridine degradation bacterium was isolated from the activated sludge of Shanxi coking wastewater treatment plant, and identified as a bacterium belonging to Rhodococcus on the basis of colony morphology and 16S rDNA gene phylogenetic analysis. Salt tolerance experiment showed that strain LV4 could grow and degrade pyridine with the initial concentration of 500 mg/L completely in 0%-6% saline environment. However, when the salinity was higher than 4%, strain LV4 grew slowly and the degradation time of pyridine by strain LV4 was significantly prolonged. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the cell division of strain LV4 became slower, and more granular extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) was induced to secrete in high salinity environment. When the salinity was not higher than 4%, strain LV4 responded to the high salinity environment mainly through increasing the protein content in EPS. The optimum conditions for pyridine degradation by strain LV4 at 4% salinity were 30 ℃, pH 7.0 and 120 r/min (DO 10.30 mg/L). Under these optimal conditions, strain LV4 could completely degrade pyridine with an initial concentration of 500 mg/L at a maximum rate of (29.10±0.18) mg/(L·h) after 12 h adaptation period, and the total organic carbon (TOC) removal efficiency reached 88.36%, indicating that stain LV4 has a good mineralization effect on pyridine. By analyzing the intermediate products in pyridine degradation process, it was speculated that strain LV4 achieved pyridine ring opening and degradation mainly through two metabolic pathways: pyridine-ring hydroxylation and pyridine-ring hydrogenation. The rapid degradation of pyridine by strain LV4 in high salinity environment indicates its application potential in the pollution control of high salinity pyridine environment.


Subject(s)
Rhodococcus/genetics , Phylogeny , Extracellular Polymeric Substance Matrix/metabolism , Sewage , Biodegradation, Environmental , Pyridines/metabolism
13.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 858-880, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970410

ABSTRACT

Synthetic electroactive microbial consortia, which include exoelectrogenic and electrotrophic communities, catalyze the exchange of chemical and electrical energy in cascade metabolic reactions among different microbial strains. In comparison to a single strain, a community-based organisation that assigns tasks to multiple strains enables a broader feedstock spectrum, faster bi-directional electron transfer, and greater robustness. Therefore, the electroactive microbial consortia held great promise for a variety of applications such as bioelectricity and biohydrogen production, wastewater treatment, bioremediation, carbon and nitrogen fixation, and synthesis of biofuels, inorganic nanomaterials, and polymers. This review firstly summarized the mechanisms of biotic-abiotic interfacial electron transfer as well as biotic-biotic interspecific electron transfer in synthetic electroactive microbial consortia. This was followed by introducing the network of substance and energy metabolism in a synthetic electroactive microbial consortia designed by using the "division-of-labor" principle. Then, the strategies for engineering synthetic electroactive microbial consortiums were explored, which included intercellular communications optimization and ecological niche optimization. We further discussed the specific applications of synthetic electroactive microbial consortia. For instance, the synthetic exoelectrogenic communities were applied to biomass generation power technology, biophotovoltaics for the generation of renewable energy and the fixation of CO2. Moreover, the synthetic electrotrophic communities were applied to light-driven N2 fixation. Finally, this review prospected future research of the synthetic electroactive microbial consortia.


Subject(s)
Microbial Consortia , Synthetic Biology , Electron Transport , Electricity , Biodegradation, Environmental
14.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 500-515, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970388

ABSTRACT

As a widespread pollutant in the environment, research on microplastics have attracted much attention. This review systematically analyzed the interaction between microplastics and soil microorganisms based on existing literatures. Microplastics can change the structure and diversity of soil microbial communities directly or indirectly. The magnitude of these effects depends on the type, dose and shape of microplastics. Meanwhile, soil microorganisms can adapt to the changes caused by microplastics through forming surface biofilm and selecting population. This review also summarized the biodegradation mechanism of microplastics, and explored the factors affecting this process. Microorganisms will firstly colonize the surface of microplastics, and then secrete a variety of extracellular enzymes to function at specific sites, converting polymers into lower polymers or monomers. Finally, the depolymerized small molecules enter the cell for further catabolism. The factors affecting this degradation process are not only the physical and chemical properties of the microplastics, such as molecular weight, density and crystallinity, but also some biological and abiotic factors that affect the growth and metabolism of related microorganisms and the enzymatic activities. Future studies should focus on the connection with the actual environment, and develop new technologies of microplastics biodegradation to solve the problem of microplastic pollution.


Subject(s)
Microplastics , Plastics , Soil , Polymers , Biodegradation, Environmental
15.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 425-445, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970383

ABSTRACT

Phenylpropanoid metabolic pathway is one of the most important secondary metabolic pathways in plants. It directly or indirectly plays an antioxidant role in plant resistance to heavy metal stress, and can improve the absorption and stress tolerance of plants to heavy metal ions. In this paper, the core reactions and key enzymes of the phenylpropanoid metabolic pathway were summarized, and the biosynthetic processes of key metabolites such as lignin, flavonoids and proanthocyanidins and relevant mechanisms were analyzed. Based on this, the mechanisms of key products of phenylpropanoid metabolic pathway in response to heavy metal stress were discussed. The perspectives on the involvement of phenylpropanoid metabolism in plant defense against heavy metal stress provides a theoretical basis for improving the phytoremediation efficiency of heavy metal polluted environment.


Subject(s)
Plants/metabolism , Metals, Heavy/metabolism , Flavonoids/metabolism , Biodegradation, Environmental , Antioxidants
16.
Int. j. high dilution res ; 21(2): 11-12, May 6, 2022.
Article in English | LILACS, HomeoIndex | ID: biblio-1396742

ABSTRACT

Cyanobacteria are microorganisms found in different parts of the world. Some genera are cyanotoxins producers a sodium channel blockingneurotoxin (saxitoxins). Some homeopathic preparations have been identified as remedial action on toxicity models in Artemia salina. This study aimed to observe whether homeopathic products influence the toxicity ofR.raciborskiiextract onA.salinaby inducing cyst hatching arrest, anembryo bioresiliencemodel previously developed in our laboratory (Pinto et al., 2021; Mohammad et al., 2022). Thus, previous toxicity testswere carried out on cysts in 96-well plates, using different concentrations of the extract obtained from regular cultivation of R. raciborskii in HCl 0.05M, whose strain, named T3, is kept in the laboratory of Cyanobacteria at FURGS, Brazil.The standardization of toxin concentration was based on an established scale developed at FURGS, in which the number of T3 filaments is associated withspecific saxitoxin concentrationsdefined by chromatography. The concentration of 2.6 µg/L was chosen since it reducedthe cysthatching rate by 30%, the ideal level to observe embryo bioresilience. Then, a screeningstudy with 22 homeopathic preparations was tested blind in three experimental series, in duplicate,against threecontrols (unchallenged, water,and succussed water)for possible toxicity attenuationon Artemia salinacysts hatching rate. Homeopathic medicines were prepared in pure,sterile water from a stock homeopathic solution, one potency below the working potency. After the 1:100 dilution, 100 succussions were made using a robotic arm (Denise, Autic). The medicines were inserted into the seawater on a 10% basis. Due to the high sensitivity of A. salinato the circalunar variations, all experiments were performed during the first quarter moon. Statistical analysis was performed by two-way ANOVA followed by Tukey, with α=0.05. The most significant results indicative of bioresilience improvement were seen after the treatment with Nitric acidum6 cH, Plumbum metallicum6 cH, isotherapic 200 cH, and hydrochloric acid 1 cH being the last one used as a vehicle of the extracts. Thus, these preparations were chosen to be used in further experiments. In conclusion, the Artemia salinamodel has also beenuseful to study bioresilienceimprovement by homeopathic medicines after intoxication with saxitoxin.


Subject(s)
Artemia/virology , Biodegradation, Environmental , Homeopathic Vehicles , Cyanobacteria
17.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 38: e38085, Jan.-Dec. 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1397168

ABSTRACT

The development of anthropogenic activities such as industry, mining, agriculture, urban waste discard has been, the main actions that result in increased contamination by heavy metals in soil, water and air. One of the most harmful metals made available by these activities is cadmium, and even at low concentrations it is very toxic mainly in plant structures. The objective of this work was to verify the biochemical behavior of nitrogen and carbon metabolism in young plants of paricá when submitted to increasing cadmium application. For this, a completely randomized experiment was carried out with five treatments (control, CdCl2 178 µM, CdCl2 356 µM, CdCl2 534 µM, CdCl2 712 µM), with seven replicates, totaling 35 experimental units. The sensitivity of this vegetable to the increasing concentrations of cadmium was evident. The root system it presents'' saw where the most toxic element accumulated, solutes such as carbohydrates, sucrose were affected in their concentrations, mainly in the leaves. The root system saw in its concentrations of glycine betaine a possibility of osmoprotection, but this did not reflect an increase in the concentration of nitrate in both leaf and roots. In the other hand, this fact not observed by the concentration of ammonium that increased in the root system. The results showed that the cadmium was transported to aerial part, however, concentrated mainly in the root system characterizing as a phytoextractor species.


Subject(s)
Biochemistry , Biodegradation, Environmental , Cadmium Chloride , Metals, Heavy
18.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: 1-8, 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1468530

ABSTRACT

In this study, we investigated the proline and protease production of different bacteria in several organic waste materials. Our aim was to produce proline and protease economically in waste that is abundantly available while reducing its environmental impact. 5 ml of different organic waste materials (OWW: Olive waste water; N.B: Nutrient Broth; EW: Eggshell; PBS: PBS buffer; PLW: Peach leaf wastes; TCW: Turkish coffee wastes; TWW: Tea waste water; WCW: Waste cheese whey; WFO: Waste frying oil) were placed in 10 ml grow tubes, inoculated and incubated for 24 h. Phosphate-buffered saline and 10% solutions of different organic wastes were added. These cultures were subsequently incubated at 37°C for 24 h. Cells were harvested at 24 h for L-proline assay. 1 ml of culture was transferred by pipette into an Eppendorf tube and centrifuged at 14,000 rpm for 20 min at room temperature. Cellular debris was removed by centrifuge and the supernatant was used for proline activity assays. Protease activity was determined using a modified method with casein as the substrate. We found that proline and protease can easily be produced economically using Turkish coffee wastes (TCW), Waste cheese whey (WCW) and Olive waste water (OWW) organic waste. We believe that this study will result in similar research leading to the economical use of these waste materials thus reducing their impact on the environment.


Neste estudo, investigamos a produção de prolina e protease de diferentes bactérias em diversos resíduos orgânicos. Nosso objetivo era produzir prolina e protease economicamente em resíduos que estão disponíveis em abundância, reduzindo seu impacto ambiental. Cinco ml de diferentes materiais de resíduos orgânicos (OWW: resíduos de azeitona; NB: caldo nutriente; EW: casca de ovo; PBS: tampão PBS; PLW: resíduos de folhas de pêssego; TCW: resíduos de café turco; TWW: resíduos de chá; WCW: resíduos de queijo soro de leite; WFO: óleo de fritura residual) foram colocados em tubos de cultivo de 10 ml, inoculados e incubados por 24 horas. Adicionaram-se solução salina tamponada com fosfato e soluções a 10% de diferentes resíduos orgânicos. Essas culturas foram subsequentemente incubadas a 37° C durante 24 h. As células foram colhidas às 24 h para o ensaio de L-prolina. Um ml de cultura foi transferido por pipeta para um tubo Eppendorf e centrifugado a 14.000 rpm, por 20 min, em temperatura ambiente. Os detritos celulares foram removidos por centrifugação e o sobrenadante foi usado para ensaios de atividade de prolina. A atividade da protease foi determinada usando um método modificado com caseína como substrato. Descobrimos que a prolina e a protease podem ser facilmente produzidas economicamente, usando resíduos de café turco (TCW), resíduos de soro de queijo (WCW) e resíduos orgânicos de água de oliva (OWW). Acreditamos que este estudo resultará em pesquisas semelhantes, levando ao uso econômico desses materiais residuais, reduzindo, assim, seu impacto no meio ambiente.


Subject(s)
Biodegradation, Environmental , Peptide Hydrolases/biosynthesis , Proline/biosynthesis , Garbage , Pseudomonas aeruginosa
19.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: 1-8, 2022. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1468558

ABSTRACT

In this study, oil degrading bacteria discovered from fish living near the oil ports at Karachi in Pakistan were characterized. The bacteria isolated from skin, gills, and gut in fish could consume crude oil as a source of carbon and energy. Total 36 isolates were tested using Nutrient Agar (NA) and MSA media with different crude oil concentrations (0.2%, 0.5%, 0.7%, 1%, 2%, and 5%) and 4 out of 36 isolates (two Gram positive and two Gram negative bacteria) were selected for further identification. 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed that the isolates are related to Bacillus velezensis, Bacillus flexus, Pseudomonas brenneri and Pseudomonas azotoforman. Oil degrading potential of these bacteria was characterized by GC-MS analysis of degradation of oil components in crude oil as well as engine oil. We found that one (2, 6, 10, 14-Tetramethylpentadecane) out of 42 components in the crude oil was fully eliminated and the other oil components were reduced. In addition, 26 out of 42 oil components in the engine oil, were fully eliminated and the rest were amended. Taken together, these studies identify that B. velezensis, B. flexus, P. brenneri and P. azotoforman have high oil degrading potential, which may be useful for degradation of oil pollutants and other commercial applications.


Neste estudo, bactérias degradadoras de óleo descobertas em peixes que vivem perto dos portos de petróleo em Karachi, no Paquistão, foram caracterizadas. As bactérias isoladas da pele, guelras e intestinos dos peixes podem consumir petróleo bruto como fonte de carbono e energia. No total, 36 isolados foram testados usando Agar Nutriente (NA) e meio MSA com diferentes concentrações de óleo bruto (0,2%, 0,5%, 0,7%, 1%, 2% e 5%) e 4 de 36 isolados (dois Gram positivos e duas bactérias Gram negativas) foram selecionadas para posterior identificação. O sequenciamento do gene 16S rRNA revelou que os isolados estão relacionados a Bacillus velezensis, Bacillus flexus, Pseudomonas brenneri e Pseudomonas azotoforman. O potencial de degradação do óleo dessas bactérias foi caracterizado pela análise de GC-MS da degradação dos componentes do óleo no óleo cru, bem como no óleo do motor. Descobrimos que um (2, 6, 10, 14-tetrametilpentadecano) de 42 componentes do óleo cru foi totalmente eliminado e os outros componentes do óleo foram reduzidos. Além disso, 26 dos 42 componentes do óleo do motor foram totalmente eliminados e o restante corrigido. Juntos, esses estudos identificam que B. velezensis, B. flexus, P. brenneri e P. azotoforman têm alto potencial de degradação de óleo, o que pode ser útil para a degradação de poluentes de óleo e outras aplicações comerciais.


Subject(s)
Bacillus/genetics , Bacillus/isolation & purification , Biodegradation, Environmental/methods , Petroleum Pollution/prevention & control , Pseudomonas/genetics , Pseudomonas/isolation & purification , Contaminant Removal/methods , Fishes
20.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e237386, 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1249227

ABSTRACT

Shewanella xiamenensis G5-03 was observed to decolorize the azo dye Congo red in synthetic wastewater. The influence of some factors on the dye decolorization efficiency was evaluated. The optimal decolorization conditions were temperature 30-35 °C, pH 10.0, incubation time 10 h, and static condition. The kinetic of Congo red decolorization fitted to the Michaelis­Menten model (Vmax = 111.11 mg L-1 h-1 and Km = 448.3 mg L-1). The bacterium was also able to degrade benzidine, a product of azo bond breakage of the Congo red, which contributed to reduce the phytotoxicity. The ability of S. xiamenensis G5-03 for simultaneous decolorization and degradation of Congo red shows its potential application for the biological treatment of wastewaters containing azo dyes.


Shewanella xiamenensis G5-03 foi capaz de descolorir o corante azo vermelho Congo em água residuária sintética. A influência de alguns fatores na eficiência da descoloração do corante foi avaliada. As condições ótimas de descoloração foram temperatura de 30-35 °C, pH 10,0 e condições estáticas. A cinética de descoloração do vermelho Congo se ajustou ao modelo de Michaelis­Menten (Vmax = 111,11 mg L-1 h-1 and Km = 448,3 mg L-1). A bactéria também foi capaz de degradar a benzidina, um produto da quebra da ligação azo do vermelho Congo, o que contribuiu para a redução da fitotoxicidade. A habilidade da S. xiamenensis G5-03 em simultaneamente descolorir e degradar o vermelho Congo demostra seu potencial de aplicação no tratamento de águas residuárias contendo corantes azo.


Subject(s)
Azo Compounds , Congo Red , Benzidines , Biodegradation, Environmental , Shewanella , Coloring Agents
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